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48K Aufrufe31 SeitenFormal Homework Assignment 2
Mastering Physics

Oct 27, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

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Formal Homework Assignment 2
Mastering Physics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

48K Aufrufe

Formal Homework Assignment 2
Mastering Physics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

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Formal Homework Assignment 2

Due: 11:15am on Tuesday, October 7, 2014

To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment.

A message from your instructor...

1. For the "Analyzing Position versus Time Graphs: Conceptual Question", for part E, there is a choice you can select; it should not be "none" or "Cannot be

determined". 2. Problem 2.17 starts out as "A speed skater moving across frictionless ice at 8.20 m/s." Although a positive sign is not used, it is assumed

the object is moving in the +x direction. This is a good example for why drawing a picture and labeling an axis helps clarify a problem.

What x vs. t Graphs Can Tell You

To describe the motion of a particle along a straight line, it is often convenient to draw a graph representing the position of the particle at different times. This

type of graph is usually referred to as an x vs. t graph. To draw such a graph, choose an axis system in which time is plotted on the horizontal axis and

position on the vertical axis. Then, indicate the values of at various times . Mathematically, this corresponds to plotting the variable as a function of

. An example of a graph of position as a function of time for a particle traveling along a straight line is shown below. Note that an x vs. t graph like this does

not represent the path of the particle in space.

Now let's study the graph shown in the figure in more detail. Refer to this graph to answer Parts A,

B, and C.

Part A

What is the total distance traveled by the particle?

Express your answer in meters.

Hint 1. Total distance

The total distance traveled by the particle is given by the difference between the initial position at and the position at

. In symbols,

.

Hint 2. How to read an x vs. t graph

Remember that in an x vs. t graph, time is plotted on the horizontal axis and position on the vertical axis. For example, in the plot shown in

the figure, at .

ANSWER:

Correct

t

x x t x

t

x

x x

0

t = 0.0 s x

t = 50.0 s

x = x x

0

t x

x = 16.0 m t = 10.0 s

= 30 x m

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Part B

What is the average velocity of the particle over the time interval ?

Express your answer in meters per second.

Hint 1. Definition and graphical interpretation of average velocity

The average velocity of a particle that travels a distance along a straight line in a time interval is defined as

.

In an vs. graph, then, the average velocity equals the slope of the line connecting the initial and final positions.

Hint 2. Slope of a line

The slope of a line from point A, with coordinates , to point B, with coordinates , is equal to the "rise" over the "run," or

.

ANSWER:

Correct

The average velocity of a particle between two positions is equal to the slope of the line connecting the two corresponding points in an x vs. t

graph.

Part C

What is the instantaneous velocity of the particle at ?

Express your answer in meters per second.

Hint 1. Graphical interpretation of instantaneous velocity

The velocity of a particle at any given instant of time or at any point in its path is called instantaneous velocity. In an x vs. t graph of the particle's

motion, you can determine the instantaneous velocity of the particle at any point in the curve. The instantaneous velocity at any point is equal to

the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point.

ANSWER:

Correct

The instantaneous velocity of a particle at any point on its x vs. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point. Since in the case at

hand the curve is a straight line, the tangent line is the curve itself. Physically, this means that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is constant

over the entire time interval of motion. This is true for any motion where distance increases linearly with time.

Another common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. t graph, that is, the graph of (instantaneous) velocity as a function of

time. In this graph, time is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical axis. Note that by definition, velocity and acceleration are vector

quantities. In straight-line motion, however, these vectors have only one nonzero component in the direction of motion. Thus, in this problem, we will call

the velocity and the acceleration, even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of motion.

v

av

t = 50.0 s

v

av

x t

= v

av

x

t

x t

m ( , ) t

A

x

A

( , ) t

B

x

B

m =

x

B

x

A

t

B

t

A

= 0.600 v

av

m/s

v t = 10.0 s

= 0.600 v m/s

t v

v

a

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Part D

Which of the graphs shown is the correct v vs. t plot for the motion described in the previous parts?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Recall your results found in the previous parts, namely the fact that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is constant. Which graph represents

a variable that always has the same constant value at any time?

ANSWER:

Correct

Whenever a particle moves with constant nonzero velocity, its x vs. t graph is a straight line with a nonzero slope, and its v vs. t curve is a

horizontal line.

Part E

Shown in the figure is the v vs. t curve selected in the previous part. What is the area of the shaded region under the curve?

Express your answer in meters.

Graph A

Graph B

Graph C

Graph D

A

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Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The shaded region under the v vs. t curve is a rectangle whose horizontal and vertical sides lie on the axis and the axis, respectively. Since

the area of a rectangle is the product of its sides, in this case the area of the shaded region is the product of a certain quantity expressed in

seconds and another quantity expressed in meters per second. The area itself, then, will be in meters.

ANSWER:

Correct

Compare this result with what you found in Part A. As you can see, the area of the region under the v vs. t curve equals the total distance traveled

by the particle. This is true for any velocity curve and any time interval: The area of the region that extends over a time interval under the v vs. t

curve is always equal to the distance traveled in .

Analyzing Position versus Time Graphs: Conceptual Question

Two cars travel on the parallel lanes of a two-lane road. The cars motions are represented by the

position versus time graph shown in the figure. Answer the questions using the times from the

graph indicated by letters.

Part A

At which of the times do the two cars pass each other?

Hint 1. Two cars passing

t v

= 30 A m

t

t

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Two objects can pass each other only if they have the same position at the same time.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Are the two cars traveling in the same direction when they pass each other?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

At which of the lettered times, if any, does car #1 momentarily stop?

Hint 1. Determining velocity from a position versus time graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the "rise" (change in position) over the "run" (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in

position over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being

graphed.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

A

B

C

D

E

None

Cannot be determined

yes

no

A

B

C

D

E

none

cannot be determined

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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At which of the lettered times, if any, does car #2 momentarily stop?

Hint 1. Determining velocity from a position versus time graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the "rise" (change in position) over the "run" (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in

position over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being

graphed.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

At which of the lettered times are the cars moving with nearly identical velocity?

Hint 1. Determining Velocity from a Position versus Time Graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the rise (change in position) over the run (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in

position over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being

graphed.

ANSWER:

Correct

Position versus Time Graphs Conceptual Question

The motions described in each of the questions take place at an intersection on a two-lane road with a stop sign in each direction. For each motion, select

the correct position versus time graph. For all of the motions, the stop sign is at the position , and east is the positive x direction.

A

B

C

D

E

none

cannot be determined

A

B

C

D

E

None

Cannot be determined

x = 0

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Part A

A driver ignores the stop sign and continues driving east at constant speed.

Hint 1. Determining velocity from a position versus time graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the rise (change in position) over the run (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in position

over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being graphed.

Hint 2. Driving east

Since east is defined as the positive x direction, a car traveling east must have a positive velocity. A positive velocity is represented as a positive

slope on a position versus time graph.

Hint 3. Constant speed

Since velocity is represented by the slope on a position versus time graph, a car moving at constant speed must be represented by a line of

constant slope.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

A driver ignores the stop sign and continues driving west at constant speed.

Hint 1. Determining velocity from a position versus time graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the rise (change in position) over the run (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in position

over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being graphed.

Hint 2. Driving west

A

B

C

D

E

F

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Since east is defined as the positive x direction, a car traveling west must have a negative velocity. A negative velocity is represented as a

negative slope on a position versus time graph.

Hint 3. Constant speed

Since velocity is represented by the slope on a position versus time graph, a car moving at constant speed must be represented by a line of

constant slope.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

A driver, traveling west, slows and stops at the stop sign.

Hint 1. Determining velocity from a position versus time graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the rise (change in position) over the run (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in position

over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being graphed.

Hint 2. Driving west

Since east is defined as the positive x direction, a car traveling west must have a negative velocity. A negative velocity is represented as a

negative slope on a position versus time graph.

Hint 3. Acceleration

Since velocity is represented by the slope on a position versus time graph, a car that accelerates must be represented as a curve with changing

slope. If a car slows, then the slope of the graph must approach zero. If a car's speed increases, the slope must become more positive or more

negative (depending upon which direction it is moving).

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

A driver, after stopping at the stop sign, accelerates to the east.

A

B

C

D

E

F

A

B

C

D

E

F

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Hint 1. Determining velocity from a position versus time graph

The slope on a position versus time graph is the rise (change in position) over the run (change in time). In physics, the ratio of change in position

over change in time is defined as the velocity. Thus, the slope on a position versus time graph is the velocity of the object being graphed.

Hint 2. Driving east

Since east is defined as the positive x direction, a car traveling east must have a positive velocity. A positive velocity is represented as a positive

slope on a position versus time graph.

Hint 3. Acceleration

Since velocity is represented by the slope on a position versus time graph, a car that accelerates must be represented as a curve with changing

slope. If a car slows, then the slope of the graph must approach zero. If a car's speed increases, the slope must become more positive or more

negative (depending upon which direction it is moving).

ANSWER:

Correct

The Graph of a Sports Car's Velocity

The graph in the figure shows the velocity of a sports car as a function of time . Use the graph to answer

the following questions.

Part A

Find the maximum velocity of the car during the ten-second interval depicted in the graph.

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Because the graph displays the car's velocity at each moment in time, the maximum velocity of the car can be found simply by locating the

maximum value of the velocity on the graph.

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

F

v t

v

max

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Correct

Part B

During which time interval is the acceleration positive?

Indicate the best answer.

Hint 1. Finding acceleration from the graph

Recall that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Therefore, on this graph of velocity vs. time, acceleration is the

slope of the graph. Recall that the slope is defined by for a graph of vs. , or in this case. If the graph is

increasing from left to right, then the slope is positive.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Find the maximum acceleration of the car.

Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The car's acceleration is the rate of change of the car's velocity with respect to time . In this problem, the car's velocity is given graphically, so

the car's acceleration at a given moment is found from the slope of the vs. curve at that moment. If the vs. curve over some time interval

is represented by a straight line, the instantaneous acceleration anywhere in that interval is equal to the slope of the line, that is, to the average

acceleration over that time interval.

To find the maximum acceleration, find the value of the curve's greatest positive slope.

Hint 2. Find the final velocity on the interval with greatest acceleration

The slope of the curve is greatest during the first second of motion. The slope of the graph on this interval is given by the change in velocity

divided by the change in time over the interval from to . At time , the car's velocity is zero. Find the velocity of the

car at time .

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

= 55 v

max

m/s

m m = y/x y x m = v/t

to

to

to

to

to

t = 0 s t = 6 s

t = 0 s t = 4 s

t = 0 s t = 10 s

t = 4 s t = 10 s

t = 2 s t = 6 s

a

max

v t

v t v t

t = 0 t = 1 t = 0 s v(0) v(1)

t = 1 s

= 30 v(1) m/s

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Correct

Part D

Find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration of the car.

Express your answer in meters per second per second to the nearest integer.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

To find the minimum magnitude of the acceleration of the car, you must find the point where the absolute value of the slope is smallest.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Find the distance traveled by the car between and .

Express your answer in meters to the nearest integer.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

In this problem, the car's velocity as a function of time is given graphically, so the distance traveled is represented by the area under the vs.

graph between and .

Hint 2. Find the distance traveled in the first second

What is the distance traveled between and ?

Express your answer in meters.

Hint 1. The area of a triangle

Observe that the region in question is a triangle , whose area is therefore one-

half the product of the base and the height.

= 30 a

max

m/s

2

a

min

= 0 a

min

m/s

2

d

0,2

t = 0 s t = 2 s

v t

t = 0 s t = 2 s

d

0,1

t = 0 s t = 1 s

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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ANSWER:

Hint 3. Find the distance traveled in the second second

What is the distance traveled between and ?

Express your answer in meters.

Hint 1. The shape of the region

The region under the graph between 1 and 2 seconds can be seen as consisting of a rectangle and a triangle.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

Velocity from Graphs of Position versus Time

An object moves along the x axis during four separate trials. Graphs of position versus time for each trial are shown in the figure.

d_0,1 = 15 m

d

1,2

t = 1 s t = 2 s

= 40 d

1,2

m

= 55 d m

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Part A

During which trial or trials is the object's velocity not constant?

Check all that apply.

Hint 1. Finding velocity from a position versus time graph

On a graph of coordinate x as a function of time , the instantaneous velocity at any point is equal to the slope of the curve at that point.

Hint 2. Equation for slope

The slope of a line is its rise divided by the run:

.

ANSWER:

Correct

The graph of the motion during Trial B has a changing slope and therefore is not constant. The other trials all have graphs with constant slope and

thus correspond to motion with constant velocity.

Part B

During which trial or trials is the magnitude of the average velocity the largest?

Check all that apply.

Hint 1. Definition of average velocity

Recall that

.

Then note that the question asks only about the magnitude of the velocity.

t

slope =

x

t

Trial A

Trial B

Trial C

Trial D

average velocity = =

(position)

(time)

x

t

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ANSWER:

Correct

While Trial B and Trial D do not have the same average velocity, the only difference is the direction! The magnitudes are the same. Neither one is

"larger" than the other, and it is only because of how we chose our axes that Trial B has a positive average velocity while Trial D has a negative

average velocity. In Trial C the object does not move, so it has an average velocity of zero. During Trial A the object has a positive average velocity

but its magnitude is less than that in Trial B and Trial D.

Reading Quiz 2.1

Part A

The slope at a point on a position-versus-time graph of an object is

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem 2.11

The figure shows the velocity graph of a particle moving along the x-axis. Its initial position is

at . At = 1 , what are the particle's (a) position, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration?

Part A

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Trial A

Trial B

Trial C

Trial D

the objects speed at that point.

the objects average velocity at that point.

the objects instantaneous velocity at that point.

the objects acceleration at that point.

the distance traveled by the object to that point.

x

0

= 2 m t

0

= 0 t s

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Correct

Part B

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem 2.12

The velocity-versus-time graph is shown for a particle moving along the x-axis. Its initial position is = 2.1 at .

Part A

What is the particle's position at

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

= 3.0 x m

= 2.0 v

x

m

s

= 2.0 a

x

m

s

2

x

0

m t

0

= 0 s

t = 1.0 s ?

= 6.1 x m

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Part B

What is the particle's velocity at

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

What is the particle's acceleration at

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part D

What is the particle's position at

Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

What is the particle's velocity at

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part F

What is the particle's acceleration at

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

t = 1.0 s ?

= 4.0 v

m

s

t = 1.0 s ?

= 0 a

m

s

2

t = 3.0 s ?

= 13.1 x m

t = 3.0 s ?

= 2.0 v

m

s

t = 3.0 s ?

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

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Correct

Problem 2.24

A particle moving along the x-axis has its velocity described by the function , where is in . Its initial position is = 2.1 at = 0 .

Part A

At 2.1 , what is the particle's position?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

At 2.1 , what is the particle's velocity?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

At 2.1 , what is the particle's acceleration?

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem 2.28

The figure shows the acceleration graph for a particle that starts from rest at = 0 .

= -2.0 a

m

s

2

v

x

= 2 m/s t

2

t s x

0

m t

0

s

s

= 8.3 x m

s

= 8.8 v

m

s

s

= 8.4 a

m

s

2

t s

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Part A

Determine the object's velocity at times 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 , and 8 .

Express your answer using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by commas.

ANSWER:

Correct

PSS 2.1 Kinematics with Constant Acceleration - Copy

Learning Goal:

To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 2.1 for constant acceleration problems.

A car is traveling at a constant velocity of magnitude when the driver notices a garbage can on the road in front of him. At that moment, the distance

between the garbage can and the front of the car is . A time after noticing the garbage can, the driver applies the brakes and slows down at a constant

rate before coming to a halt just before the garbage can. What is the magnitude of the car's acceleration after the brakes are applied?

PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 2.1 Kinematics with constant acceleration

MODEL: Use the particle model. Make simplifying assumptions.

VISUALIZE: Use different representations of the information in the problem.

Draw a pictorial representation. This helps you assess the information you are given and starts the process of translating the problem into

symbols.

Use a graphical representation if it is appropriate for the problem.

Go back and forth between these two representations as needed.

SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the three kinematic equations

,

, and

.

Use or , as appropriate to the problem, rather than the generic .

Replace and with numerical subscripts defined in the pictorial representation.

Uniform motion with constant velocity has .

t = s s s s s

= 0,5.0,20,30,30 v(0), v(2), v(4), v(6), v(8) m/s

v

0

d t

= + t v

fs

v

is

a

s

= + t + (t s

f

s

i

v

is

1

2

a

s

)

2

= +2 s v

2

fs

v

2

is

a

s

x y s

i f

= 0 a

s

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ASSESS: Is your result believable? Does it have proper units? Does it make sense?

Model

Start by making simplifying assumptions appropriate for the situation. In this problem, the object of interest, the car, should be modeled as a particle.

Visualize

Part A

Below is a sketch of the situation described in this problem, along with four different motion diagrams. Which of these diagrams is the correct pictorial

representation of the problem?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

As an alternative to the pictorial representation shown above, you could consider using a graphical representation instead. Below are four velocity-

versus-time graphs. Which graph correctly represents the situation described in this problem?

ANSWER:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

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Correct

Now that you have assessed the information given in the problem, you need to translate it into symbols. You know that when the driver hits the

brakes at time after seeing the obstacle, the magnitude of the car's acceleration changes from zero to a constant (unknown) value. Therefore,

you will need to consider the two time intervals (before and after the brakes are pressed) separately, since they have different accelerations. Align

the x axis with the direction of motion, and let be the moment when the driver sees the garbage can, be the car's position at that moment,

and be the car's velocity at that moment. Let , , and be the time, position, and velocity, respectively, when the driver hits the brakes,

and let , , and be the time, position, and velocity, respectively, when the car finally comes to rest. Note that it is most convenient to take

the origin of the coordinate axis to be at . At this point, your pictorial representation should look like this:

Now, decide which quantities are known and which need to be found.

Solve

Assess

Problem 2.17

A speed skater moving across frictionless ice at 8.40 hits a 4.80-m-wide patch of rough ice. She slows steadily, then continues on at 5.70 .

Part A

What is her acceleration on the rough ice?

ANSWER:

Correct

Conceptual Question 2.6

Part A

The figure shows the position-versus-time graph for a moving object. At which lettered point or points: Is the object moving the slowest? Is the object

moving the fastest? Is the object at rest?

A

B

C

D

t

t

0

x

0

v

0x

t

1

x

1

v

1x

t

2

x

2

v

2x

x

0

m/s m/s

-3.97 m/s

2

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 21 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

At which lettered point or points is the object moving to the negative direction?

ANSWER:

A

B

C

D

E

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 22 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Correct

Average Velocity from a Position vs. Time Graph

Learning Goal:

To learn to read a graph of position versus time and to calculate average velocity.

In this problem you will determine the average velocity of a moving object from the graph of its

position as a function of time . A traveling object might move at different speeds and in

different directions during an interval of time, but if we ask at what constant velocity the object

would have to travel to achieve the same displacement over the given time interval, that is what

we call the object's average velocity. We will use the notation to indicate average

velocity over the time interval from to . For instance, is the average velocity over

the time interval from to .

Part A

Consulting the graph shown in the figure, find the object's average velocity over the time interval from 0 to 1 second.

Answer to the nearest integer.

Hint 1. Definition of average velocity

Average velocity is defined as the constant velocity at which an object would have to travel to achieve a given displacement (difference between

final and initial positions, which can be negative) over a given time interval, from the initial time to the final time . The average velocity is

therefore equal to the displacement divided by the given time interval. In symbolic form, average velocity is given by

.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Find the average velocity over the time interval from 1 to 3 seconds.

Express your answer in meters per second to the nearest integer.

Hint 1. Find the change in position

The final and initial positions can be read off the y axis of the graph. What is the displacement during the time interval from 1 to 3 seconds?

Express your answer numerically, in meters

x(t) t

[ , ] v

ave

t

1

t

2

t

1

t

2

[1, 3] v

ave

t = 1 t = 3

t

i

t

f

[ , ] = v

ave

t

i

t

f

x( )x( ) t

f

t

i

t

f

t

i

= 0 [0, 1] v

ave

m/s

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 23 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

ANSWER:

Hint 2. Definition of average velocity

Average velocity is defined as the constant velocity at which an object would have to travel to achieve a given displacement (difference between

final and initial positions, which can be negative) over a given time interval, from the initial time to the final time . The average velocity is

therefore equal to the displacement divided by the given time interval. In symbolic form, average velocity is given by

.

ANSWER:

Correct

A note about instantaneous velocity. The instantaneous velocity at a certain moment in time is represented by the slope of the graph at that

moment. For straight-line graphs, the (instantaneous) velocity remains constant over the interval, so the instantaneous velocity at any time during

an interval is the same as the average velocity over that interval. For instance, in this case, the instantaneous velocity at any time from 1 to 3

seconds is the same as the average velocity of .

Part C

Now find .

Give your answer to three significant figures.

Hint 1. A note on the displacement

Since the object's position remains constant from time 0 to time 1, the object's displacement from 0 to 3 is the same as in Part B. However, the

time interval has changed.

ANSWER:

Correct

Note that is not equal to the simple arithmetic average of and , i.e., , because they are averages

for time intervals of different lengths.

Part D

Find the average velocity over the time interval from 3 to 6 seconds.

Express your answer to three significant figures.

Hint 1. Determine the displacement

What is the displacement?

Answer to the nearest integer.

= 40 x

f

x

i

m

t

i

t

f

[ , ] = v

ave

t

i

t

f

x( )x( ) t

f

t

i

t

f

t

i

= 20 [1, 3] v

ave

m/s

20 m/s

[0, 3] v

ave

= 13.3 [0, 3] v

ave

m/s

[0, 3] v

ave

[0, 1] v

ave

[1, 3] v

ave

[0,1]+ [1,3] v

ave

v

ave

2

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 24 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

ANSWER:

Hint 2. Determine the time interval

What is the time interval?

Answer to two significant figures.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

Part E

Finally, find the average velocity over the whole time interval shown in the graph.

Express your answer to three significant figures.

Hint 1. Determine the displacement

What is the displacement?

Answer to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

Note that though the average velocity is zero for this time interval, the instantaneous velocity (i.e., the slope of the graph) has several different

values (positive, negative, zero) during this time interval.

Note as well that since average velocity over a time interval is defined as the change in position (displacement) in the given interval divided by the

time, the object can travel a great distance (here 80 meters) and still have zero average velocity, since it ended up exactly where it started.

Therefore, zero average velocity does not necessarily mean that the object was standing still the entire time!

Problem 2.4

The figure is the position-versus-time graph of a jogger.

= -40 x(6.0) x(3.0) m

= 3.0 t

f

t

i

s

= -13.3 [3.0, 6.0] v

ave

m/s

= 0 x(6.0) x(0.0) m

= 0 [0.0, 6.0] v

ave

m/s

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 25 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Part A

What is the joggers velocity at = 10 ?

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

What is the joggers velocity at = 25 ?

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

What is the joggers velocity at = 35 ?

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem 2.6

A particle starts from 13 at = 0 and moves with the velocity graph shown in the figure.

t s

= 1.3 v

m

s

t s

= 0 v

m

s

t s

= -5.0 v

m

s

m t

0

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 26 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Part A

Does this particle have a turning point?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

If so, at what time?

Express your answer using two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

What is the object's position at = 2, 3, 4 ?

Express your answers using two significant figures separated by commas.

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem 2.13

A jet plane is cruising at 330 when suddenly the pilot turns the engines up to full throttle. After traveling 4.1 , the jet is moving with a speed of 400

0

Yes

No

= 1.0 t s

t s

= 13,19,29 , , x

2

x

3

x

4

m

m/s km

m/s

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 27 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

.

Part A

What is the jet's acceleration, assuming it to be a constant acceleration?

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem 2.16

A Porsche challenges a Honda to a 100- race. Because the Porsche's acceleration of is larger than the Honda's , the Honda gets a

1.0 head start.

Part A

Who wins?

ANSWER:

Correct

Enhanced EOC: Problem 2.23

A particle moving along the x-axis has its position described by the function 4.00 4.00 4.00 , where is in s. At = 4.00, what are the

particle's (a) position, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration?

You may want to review ( pages 38 - 42) .

For help with math skills, you may want to review:

Differentiation of Polynomial Functions

Part A

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Evaluate the position at time = 4.00 .

ANSWER:

m/s

= 6.2 a

m

s

2

m 3.5 m/s

2

3.0 m/s

2

s

Honda

Porsche

x = ( t

3

t + ) m t t

t s

244 m

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 28 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Correct

Part B

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

How do you determine the velocity as a function of time, , from the position, ? What calculus operation do you have to perform?

Once you have , how do you determine at a particular time?

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

How do you determine the acceleration as a function of time, , from the velocity, ? What calculus operation do you have to perform?

Once you have , how do you determine the acceleration at a particular time?

ANSWER:

Correct

Clear the Runway

To take off from the ground, an airplane must reach a sufficiently high speed. The velocity required for the takeoff, the takeoff velocity, depends on several

factors, including the weight of the aircraft and the wind velocity.

Part A

A plane accelerates from rest at a constant rate of 5.00 along a runway that is 1800 long. Assume that the plane reaches the required takeoff

velocity at the end of the runway. What is the time needed to take off?

Express your answer in seconds using three significant figures.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

As the plane travels along the runway, it has constant acceleration. To solve the problem, you'll need to use the kinematics equations for such

motion. In particular, you need to use the equation relating the distance traveled and time.

v(t) x(t)

v(t) v

188

m

s

a(t) v(t)

a(t)

96.0

m

s

2

m/s

2

m

t

TO

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 29 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Hint 2. Find the equation for the distance traveled by the plane

Which expression best describes the distance traveled by the plane during a certain interval of time ? Let and be, respectively, the

initial position and speed of the plane, and use for the acceleration of the plane. Remember that the plane accelerates from rest.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

Correct

If using this answer in subsequent parts, please retain full precision and only round as a final step before submitting your answer.

Part B

What is the speed of the plane as it takes off?

Express your answer numerically in meters per second.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Since you are given the constant acceleration of the plane, and you have also found the time it takes to take off, you can calculate the speed of

the plane as it ascends into the air using the equation for the velocity of an object in motion at constant acceleration.

Hint 2. Find the equation for the velocity of the plane

Which expression best describes the velocity of the plane after a certain interval of time ? Let be the initial velocity of the plane, and use

for the acceleration of the plane. Remember that the plane starts from rest.

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

d t s

0

v

0

a

= d

+ a v

0

1

2

t

2

+ t + a s

0

v

0

1

2

t

2

a

1

2

t

2

+ + a s

0

v

0

1

2

t

2

+ a s

0

1

2

t

2

= 26.8 t

TO

s

v

TO

v t v

0

a

= v

t v

0

+at v

0

t + a v

0

1

2

t

2

at

= 134 v

TO

m/s

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 30 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Correct

If using this answer in subsequent parts, please retain full precision and only round as a final step before submitting your answer.

Part C

What is the distance traveled by the plane in the first second of its run?

Express your answer numerically in meters.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Apply the same equation that you used to solve Part A.

ANSWER:

Correct

If using this answer in subsequent parts, please retain full precision and only round as a final step before submitting your answer.

Part D

What is the distance traveled by the plane in the last second before taking off?

Express your answer numerically in meters.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

Use the equation that gives the distance traveled as a function of time. Note that you are looking for the distance traveled in the last second

before the plane takes off, which can be expressed as the length of the runway minus the distance traveled by the plane up to that last second.

ANSWER:

Correct

Since the plane is accelerating, the average speed of the plane during the last second of its run is greater than its average speed during the first

second of the run. Not surprisingly, so is the distance traveled.

If using this answer in subsequent parts, please retain full precision and only round as a final step before submitting your answer.

Part E

What percentage of the takeoff velocity did the plane gain when it reached the midpoint of the runway?

Express your answer numerically to the nearest percent.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

You need to find the velocity of the plane by the time it covers half the length of the runway and compare it with the takeoff velocity. Apply the

same method that you used to determine the takeoff velocity.

ANSWER:

d

first

= 2.50 d

first

m

d

last

= 132 d

last

m

10/26/14 10:37 PM Formal Homework Assignment 2

Page 31 of 31 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=3179124

Correct

This is a "rule of thumb" generally used by pilots. Since the takeoff velocity for a particular aircraft can be computed before the flight, a pilot can

determine whether the plane will successfully take off before the end of the runway by verifying that the plane has gained 70% of the takeoff

velocity by the time it reaches half the length of the runway. If the plane hasn't reached that velocity, the pilot knows that there isn't enough time to

reach the needed takeoff velocity before the plane reaches the end of the runaway. At that point, applying the brakes and aborting the takeoff is

the safest course of action.

Problem 2.58

A toy train is pushed forward and released at with a speed of 2.0 . It rolls at a steady speed for 2.0 , then one wheel begins to stick. The

train comes to a stop 6.0 from the point at which it was released.

Part A

What is the magnitude of the trains acceleration after its wheel begins to stick? Assume acceleration is constant after wheel begins to stick.

Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

Correct

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 99.5%.

You received 41.78 out of a possible total of 42 points.

70 %

= 2.0 m x

0

m/s s

m

= 1.0 a

m

s

2

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