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RURAL COMMUNICATION

and

MEDIA
RURAL COMMUNICATION & MEDIA

Rural Communication has recently emerged as a


key concern for communicators of both profit-
oriented corporations exploring rural areas to
expand marketing their products, as also by those
in social service institutions trying to reach social
(especially) health related messages in rural, tribal
and far-flung areas in the countryside.
RURAL COMMUNICATION & MEDIA

There are a number of factors that make rural messages


effective.

Media is of two types :


 Mass Media
 Traditional (non-conventional) Media

The utility of mass-media in rural communication is


enormous. However, traditional media is often seen to be
more effective among the rural audience.
KEY CONCEPTS
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL

As can be clearly seen from the mode, a


sender sends (an encoded) message, using
a selected media, which the receiver
receives after having decoded it (so as to be
properly understood). The receiver (or the
target audience ‘responds’ back to sender
(of the messages), to whom this response
also works as a feedback on his
message/media.
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL

It is also apparent from the model that much of the


message could go waste as ‘noise’. This could
happen due to several reasons. The messages
having not been encoded properly; inappropriate
selection of media; improper messages; messages
not having been decoded properly. The net effect
is that the senders message do not reach, the
target audience, or having reached it may mean
nothing, or atleast not meaning what it is intended
to have been communicated.
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL

The rural environment has a lot of influence on the


receiver and therefore he or she may not receive
the intended message for any of the following
three reasons :
Selective Attention – where the consumer may not
notice the stimuli provided.
Selective Distortion – where the message is
twisted to hear what the consumer wants to
hear.
Selective Recall – where the consumer
permanently retains only a small fraction of the
messages that reach him/her.
EFFECTIVE MESSAGES
A major challenge for rural communicator is how to make the
communicated messages effective. The message must be
meaningful to the rural consumer. Message decisions need
to take into account the following aspects for their
effectiveness :
 Languages
 Pictorial Presentation
 Message Form – The effective communication to rural
consumer should be : utilitarian, & narrative
 Source of the message – Credibility of the source is critical
for rural markets.
 Context Association – Associations create interest, hold
attention and provide meaning.
INFLUENCE ON BEHAVIOUR

and

ITS IMPLICATION
Show
SOCIAL

and

BEHAVIOURAL INFLUENCES

Show
MEDIA

DECISIONS

Show
MEDIA
It is important to understand the media that is being
adopted by the rural marketers. The forms of
media used are of two types :

Mass Media (Conventional Media) – Including


television, radio, print, cinema/theatres, word of
mouth, video on wheels.

Traditional Media (Non-Conventional Media) –


Including puppetry, folk theatres, demonstrations,
Melas, wall paintings, post cards, posters, etc.
MEDIA VEHICLES AVAILABLE

MASS MEDIA

TELEVISION
RADIO - HIGH AUDIENCE
PRINT MEDIA
CINEMAS
WORD-OF-MOUTH
VIDEO-ON-WHEELS
MEDIA VEHICLES AVAILABLE

TRADITIONAL MEDIA

WALL PAINTINGS
DIRECT MAIL
FOLK THEATRE
BANNERS PLACED ON ELEPHANTS & CAMELS
PUPPETRY
CONTESTS TO PROMOTE THE PRODUCTS
AUDIO-VISUAL VANS
STALLS AT LOCAL FAIRS
COMMUNICATING

USING

NON-CONVENTIONAL MEDIA
Show
MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS

Effectiveness of the media to be used for rural


communication is important. Factors that affect media
effectiveness are :
 Audience Profile
 Media Preferences
 Channel and Programmes viewed
 Media Viewing & Listening Behaviour

Rural communication is best applied when it follows a


participatory approach, involving participation of rural
audience.
Show
MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS
AUDIENCE PROFILE
Rural audiences are exposed to mass media, and can be easily
reached, and young male members are majority viewers of
television.
MEDIA PREFERENCE
Traditional media can be more effective with rural audience.
Interpersonal communication (IPC) was ranked most
effective, followed by TV/VCR, print media, and then radio.
CHANNELS AND PROGRAMMES VIEWED
MEDIA VIEWING AND LISTENING BEHAVIOUR
Television programmes in rural areas like DD-1, etc is very
popular. Radio is a popular media in rural markets, especially
Vividh Bharti, etc. Household subscription to newspapers is
low. But newspaper is read at common gathering/meeting
place, tea shop.
RURAL COMMUNICATION - CHALLENGES

SPREAD AND DIVERSITY


The large number of consumers scattered across the country,
many of whom are not tuned to mass media. Rural markets
vary by geography, demography, etc.

LOW LITERACY LEVELS


Indicate that it would be unrealistic to use print media.

POR INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES


Such a lack of roads, telecom facilities, postal services, etc.
This undermines the utility of press and even TV viewership
is affected by low voltage and uncertain supplies
RURAL COMMUNICATION - CHALLENGES

UNIQUE MEDIA HABITS


All the readership is secondary.

LACK OF RESEARCH DATA


Decisions on message and media-mix are largely
dependent on feedback from sales networks.

LINGUISTIC & SOCIO-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

DIFFERENT LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES


For people in rural areas, as agricultural activities
have no fixed timings, and often requiring work during
nights and in odd hours. The difficulty is to find the time
slot for the ads, as the leisure times are situation based.
RURAL COMMUNICATION - STRATEGIES

MANAGING SPREAD AND DIVERSITY


• Languages : The message has to be understood.
• Identifying geographical locations with a larger
concentration of rural consumers.
• Locating potential consumers with a higher
propensity to spend.

USE OF AUDIO-VIDEO MEDIUM


Literacy rates being less in rural areas, and TV and
Radio having much more reach in rural masses
compared to print media, communication through
electronic media must be given priority over press.
RURAL COMMUNICATION - STRATEGIES

APPROPRIATE COMMUNICATION MIX


Needs to be used giving priority to local promotional
tools over advertising, as advertising in rural areas
is marked by selective attention and retention.
Usually 70:30 is recommended.
TAILOR-MADE COMMUNICATION
Ad messages should be modified to suit to regional
requirements, in order to counter linguistic, social
and cultural differences.
USE OF PUBLICITY VANS / ANIMALS
Especially in remote/tribal and hilly areas.
RURAL COMMUNICATION - STRATEGIES

USE OF STALLS & HAATS


Especially in village festivals to spread messages
and can also include brand trials.

USE OF CINEMA HALLS AND VIDEO PARLOURS


Especially in those states/regions having
maximum exposure to cinema.

USE OF LOGOS AND SYMBOLS

FOCUS ON OPINION LEADERS OR REFERENCE


GROUPS