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WORLD WAR I BEGINS

p. 372-380
Objectives
Identify the long-term causes and the
immediate circumstances that led to World
War I
Describe the first two years of the war
Summarize U.S. public opinion about the war
Explain why the United States entered the war
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
Nationalism
Leads to competition/rivalries
Intense pride in ones nation
A devotion to the interests and
culture of ones nation
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
Imperialism
Empire building
Economic/political
control
Industrialization leads
to want/need for
competition of raw
goods
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
Militarism
The development of an
army as a diplomatic tool
Alliance System
France
Britain
Russia Triple
Entente
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Italy
Ottoman Empire
Central Powers
AN ASSASSINATION LEADS TO WAR
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne
Visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia
Black Hand
Gavrilo Princip
July 28 Austria-
Hungary declares on
Serbia
Aug 1 Germany
declares on Russia*
Aug 3 Germany
declares on France
Britain declares on
Germany
THE FIGHTING STARTS
Schlieffen Plan
Quick defeat of France
Invade through Belgium
After the French fall, take care of the
Russians
Sept 1914
French halt the German advance
By 1915 both sides had dug in
Trenches Warfare
Fighting from a systems of fortified
diches rather than open battlefield
Frontline
Support
Reserve
No mans land
Barren expanse of mud pockmarked
with shell craters and filled with
barbed wire
THE FIGHTING STARTS
Trenches Warfare
Fighting from a systems of fortified diches rather than open
battlefield
Frontline
Support
Reserve
No mans land
Barren expanse of mud
pockmarked with shell craters and
filled with barbed wire
AMERICANS QUESTION NEUTRALITY
Divided Loyalties
3,000 miles away
Did not threaten American lives
or property
Socialist View
A capitalist and imperialist struggle to
control markets and colonies that the
proletariat would fight and die in
Pacifist View
War was evil
United States
should set an
example of
peace for the
world
Immigrants still
had ties to their
homelands
Germans
Irish
British
AMERICANS QUESTION NEUTRALITY
Divided Loyalties (cont.)
The Bully
of Europe
British propaganda
Economic
interests
Stronger with the Triple
Entente
Shipped
millions of
dollars of
war
supplies to
the allies
By 1915 U.S. experiences
labor shortages
THE WAR HITS HOME
The British Blockade
To prevent weapons and other military
supplies from getting through
Including food
Neutral ports
American ships did not challenge the
blockades
Germans start to go hungry
German U-Boat Response
Counter blockade by U-Boats
Any allied ship found in waters
around England would be sunk
Lusitania
May 7, 1915
1,198 killed
128 Americans
THE WAR HITS HOME
German U-Boat Response (cont.)
Wilson rules out military action
Aug 1915
Arabic sunk
2 Americans killed
Germany agreed not to sink anymore
passenger ships
Sussex
80 passengers killed or injured
THE UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR
German Provocation
Would sink any ships in
British waters on sight
Unrestricted
submarine
warfare
Telegram from the German
minister in Mexico
Promised Texas, New Mexico,
and Arizona in a proposed
alliance
Zimmerman
Note
Four American ships
sunk
36 Americans killed
Revolution in Russia
Democracy vs brutal
monarchies
What caused WWI?
What alliances divided Europe?
What diplomatic crises sparked the war?
What was Germanys Schlieffen Plan?
What characteristics describe trench warfare during
WWI?
What motivated those who opposed the war?
What factors increased American sympathy for the
allies?
What did the Zimmerman note reveal about
German plans?