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Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty and Industrial Security is one critical area, which calls for unrelenting attention being bestowed upon. The fundamental concept of ‘Security Systems’ or ‘Security Services’ denotes care or vigilance or constant watch, but its connotations, applications and dimensions have undergone perceptible changes with every succeeding ‘technological leap forward’. Several security experts reiterate that security both as a concept and as an activity is much more than mere ‘watch and ward’. Contemporary circumstances have necessitated a high degree of strategic and tactical operations in the area of security duties if they are to be truly effective. This is more because of the changes in the socio-economic and corporate-industrial environment in India and all over the globe.

The term ‘industry’ is generally used in a restrictive sense to mean ‘production organization’ (Lambert 1963). Etzioni (1969) also delimits the term to mean ‘economic organization’. The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 of India also defines the term ‘industry’ to mean any business, trade, undertaking, manufacture, or calling of employers and includes any calling, service, employment, handicraft, or industrial occupation or avocation of workmen. Such organizations engaged in the manufacture of goods and rendering of services may be either capital-intensive or labour-intensive or both. The growth of world into a work shop on account of industrialization highlights the need to take utmost precautions and care to safeguard men and material from all kinds of hazards, losses, and threats, either internal or external or both, without which the ‘functional pre-requisites’ (Parsons 1951) would remain without being met. This fundamental requirement is both biogenic as well as sociogenic because the principle ‘survival of the fittest’ applies to organizations as it applies to individuals. Industrial Security may

therefore be defined as the state of industrial undertakings being secure from real or potential dangers to which they are normally exposed. It aims at securing and protecting the industrial installations from damages, destruction, mischief, industrial espionage, industrial sabotage, subversion and all other risks and threats which are capable of endangering the lives and properties.

As Gough (1969) observes in a different context relating to entrepreneurs, a distinct class is called into being, in all industrially advanced communities to undertake the function of industrial security and safety. While security services could be brought under the classification (i) domestic, (ii) national, (iii) corporate and (iv)industrial , the industrial security is delimited as related to (i) preventive (ii) protective, (iii) detective and (iv) punitive aspects of industrial undertakings. Industrial security depends upon a large number of factors such as the actual location of the industry, nature and composition of the population, nature and characteristics of personnel employed in such an industry, influence of labour on various unions and above all the professional standards of the industrial security personnel and the types of equipments to press into service to guard against all ‘seen as well as unseen’ situations.

Industrial Security in its broader context includes industrial safety. When safety considerations are at a discount, the cost of negligence is enormous, calamitous and often immeasurable and long lasting, affecting even the future generations. The accident in Chernobyl in the erstwhile U.S.S.R, for example, rocked the entire world. The fire that broke out in the North Sea Oil Platform and nearer home, the Bhopal has disaster and large-scale fire accident in the Indian Petrochemicals Limited call for eternal vigilance. While wide ranging analyses and in-depth studies follow such mishaps at the national and international level, recurrence of such incidences is an indicator of how ill-prepared we are in combating or containing such events.

Administratively or economically it is not essential that every type of industry should be accorded the same type of security coverage. The threat to any industry needs to be identified and assessed in order to determine the degree and quantum of protection warranted. This will

help devise the security measures that may actually be required for the industry under consideration. While devising security measures, the twin principles of ‘need based security’ and ‘security in depth’ will have to be borne in mind.

Industrial security management comprises of two major areas, namely security services and intelligence services. The security services include uniformed personnel or guards who perform routine activities and whose services are nonetheless essential. The duties of such industrial security service personnel include physical checking of personnel and property within specified parameters in accordance with set procedures and organizational methods.

The Intelligence wing is vital and involves highly sensitive areas of operations. It deploys security personnel in civilian cloths (without prescribed uniform) and focuses on information gathering, intelligence activities, and uses subtle and covert methods involving flexible procedures. Investigation and intelligence activities are more information oriented, while security activities are situation oriented. The intelligence aspect of security management, however, is still in nascent stages in some organizations and in totally absent in many industrial undertakings in India. But this area constitutes the very foundation of any industrial security system.


Emile Durkheim (1933) considered to be one among the ‘sociological trinity’ and whose name is associated with functionalism was preoccupied with gaining an insight into social order. Functionalism is inextricably intertwined with the question of social order. It enquires as to how order is maintained in society?

Talcott Parsons (1951) evincing interest in the pattern of interaction and cooperation, believes that all social systems are confronted by two sets of problems. Parsons delimits the problem of the system as related to the external environment and to the internal interactions. For him,. Adaptation and goal attainment constitute the former and integration

and latency constitute the latter.

Smelter (1972) suggests that in reality certain sub-systems or institutions serve the homeostasis of a system better in the process of internal dynamics of organizations.

Selznick(1948) considers the concept of organizations as cooperative systems emanating from adaptive social structures made up of interacting individuals, sub-groups and informal plus formal relationships.

Merton (1958) applies the means-ends scheme to show the disjunction between cultural goals and institutionally acceptable means of attaining them. The discrepancy between ends and means is seen as a basic source of frustration and recalcitrance.

Social control is to be seen as a social process or mechanism that counteracts deviant tendencies. Though social order is thought of as conformity to norms, counteraction of deviance promotes social order. Parsons’ (1951) conception of social control toes the line of thinking of the old conception promoted by Ross (1896, 1901). Viewing professions as ‘mechanisms of social control’ in the sociological sense, Parsons considers that professions forestall deviance.

INDUSTRIAL SECURITY AND MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Scores of issues hinge upon the process of industrialization, management thought and socio-economic development. Scientific studies of those issues bring forth better and efficient knowledge, its application in various walks of life and thus help raise the living standards of the people. The West has taken to industrialization, and its concomitants, namely, modernization and urbanization unequivocally as a way of human progress over the two previous centuries. The West induces, and the developing world also volunteers to this industrialization process perhaps in an interactive way.

the course of industrialization of a country, there exist two differing perspectives. Some consider industrialization as an evolutionary process and others argue it to be an interventionist exercise without

which socio-economic advancement will come to a grinding halt. In whatever form industrialization takes place, it is a confluence of land, labour, capital and organization, according to Adam Smith. Necessarily these issues of industrialization constitute what may be called industry making. Once industry making is completed, industry-dynamics sets in and management thought squarely focuses on it. The classical theorists of management thought left the problem of industry making to the economists and assumed the existence of industries as a ‘given’ for them. Such an assumption of management process leads them to concentrate more on the human organization of the industry than on the material organization. Henry Fayol, the founder of management process school, after his wide ranging experiences in South African firms, espoused functionalism in his seminal book General and Industrial Management. His intentions expressed therein were to initiate a theoretical analysis appropriate to a wide range of

organizations, industrial or otherwise. Fayol’s (1957 , p vii)) ideas about managerial activity are presented in the context of his writings on industrial organizations. The totality of activities of an industrial organization, big, medium, or small, can be divided into the following


Technical activities: Fayol ascribed technical activities to production, manufacture, and adaptation. These are basic to progress of the organization and goal attainment. Commercial activities: Just an efficient production, management of an industry requires commercial activities pertaining to buying, selling and exchange. Fayol points to acumen and decision-making, a thorough knowledge of the market and of the competitors, foresight and law as necessary for ensuring the success of the organization. Financial activities: For Fayol, capital is a pre-requisite for personnel, plant, raw material, expansion of industries and so on. He wanted search for and optimum use of capital. Accounting activities: Fayol maintained that efficient accounting system, providing an accurate idea of the organization’s financial condition, is a powerful managerial instrument. Security activities: Fayol was insistent that it was necessary to safeguard the property and persons against theft, fire, flood and all social disturbances including strikes in industries.

Managerial activities: For Fayol, (1957, 19) Planning, organizations, command, coordination and control constituted the essentials of managerial functionalism.

It can be seen from Fayol’s enumeration that the first four activities pertained to material relations of production in industry-making and industry maintenance. The sixth activity, for Fayol, pertained to human relations of production in industry-making and industry maintenance. The linkage between material relations of production and human relations of production was sought to be achieved by Fayol (1957, 41) by ensuring the security activities of the organization.

However, neither Taylor nor Weber, the other two classical theorists of management, looked into security activities seriously. It is not that they ignored, sidestepped or bypassed that question. It is possible to assume that despite the importance of security activities having been recognized by them, they would have bestowed more attention on the important issue of managerial functionalism. Similarly, later organizational schools of thought, human relations school, Decision Making School, Systems School, Socio-Psychological School-had all assumed the imperatives of security in industries and did not elaborate on it (Gager 1960, 72-80). In Motivation and Personality, Abraham Maslow (1954), hinted at the psychological dimension of security of an individual as an industrial worker, but not upon the security of the industry itself. Even the more recent advocates of development dynamics and policy dynamics had not spent their time on the theme of industrial security (George 1972).

In developing countries, the size, quantum, shape, complexity and problem of both industries and industrialization vary. It is necessary here not merely to look upon material relations of production and human relations of production as a whole or in individual industries, but also to deal at some length on physical security of the industrial system as a whole as well as in individual industries. However, an individual industrial making and industry maintenance in developing countries vary enormously, it is better to do case studies in a preliminary way in order to theories upon industrial security at macro level.

Industrial security system that is in its embryonic stage in India has the dual function of promoting order by repelling deviance emanating from the internal as well as external environment of the organization. The various theoretical issues and problems enumerated above, among others, are germane to the subject under consideration.


The major aim of the study is to have an understanding of industrial security pattern in India. The objectives of the study are as follows:

1. To trace the evolution of the industrial security system in the pre-independence period of India.

2. To narrate the problems of industrial security system in the post independence era.

3. To describe the industrial security systems brought about by the Central Industrial Security Force.

4. To identify the different types of security system in operation in industrial undertakings.

5. To evaluate the effectiveness of the industrial security system obtaining in India and to suggest measures for the improvement of the same.


In keeping with the objectives of the study, the primary data are generated through responses from the personnel in management and rank and file and from the personnel engaged in security duties in four industrial undertakings located in and around Chennai (Madras) to set structured questions from an interview schedule. The interview schedule consisted of fourteen parts dealing with several aspects of security arrangements available in those four industrial undertakings. Data with regard to the attitudes of the security personnel towards security management by the respective management of the undertakings are also collected by way of informal discussions. The data for the present study are also obtained from officially published reports touching upon industrial security aspects. In addition periodicals and records maintained by the

respective industrial undertakings are also consulted.


Insofar as the method of deployment of security personnel is concerned, it can be broadly categorized as under:

1. Proprietary system, by which it is meant that the security personnel deployed are on the pay rolls of the employing organization.

2. Contract System which refers to a scheme in which services of security personnel are lent for a consideration to an industrial organization by an outside agency specializing in all aspects of industrial security.

3. Mixed System, which refers to method of deployment of industrial security personnel partly on the direct pay rolls of the employing industrial organization and partly on the pay rolls of an outside security agency from whom services are borrowed for a consideration.

The findings are analyzed relying on relative frequencies. Out of four institutions selected for field investigation, three are in the private sector and the last one is in the public sector. While identifying the industrial undertakings, care is taken to ensure that there is no overlapping of the types of industrial security system in vogue in such industrial undertakings.


Sociological research with its various approaches has brought out certain methods such as descriptive, analytical and experimental. The present study is a combination of both historical and analytical account based on empirical facts. The study is carried out in historical perspective along with the study of a cross section of the respondents in the employ of the organization coming under its coverage. The historical perspective of industrial security system covers the pre-independence period of India as well as the post independence period.


The introductory chapter brings out the importance of the study of industrial security in the context of phenomenal industrial advancement after the advent of India’s independence. This chapter also includes a review of literature on industrial security, and a description of the overall research design.

Chapter two traces the evolution of the industrial security system in pre-independence period of India.

Chapter three restricts itself to consider the post independence industrial scenario in India leading to the establishment of Central Industrial Security Force.

Chapter four discusses the salient features of the Central Industrial Security Force and its association with the industrial organization under study. Critical evaluation of the main activities and achievements of Central Industrial Security Force are made in this chapter.

Chapter five is concerned with the proprietary, contract and mixed forms of industrial security system currently in vogue, especially in Tamilnadu.

Chapter six brings the curtain down by making a summary of the findings. Besides this, keeping the future in mind, the implications of the study are presented for the design and management of industrial security in India.


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*Synopsis of the thesis submitted to the University of Madras in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology under the Supervision of