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CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
The world is blessed by the abundance of energy. It comprises various
types of energy. One of this is electrical energy or electricity. Electricity is one
of the most powerful forces in our lives. This term makes us to remind of that
anything that an individual plug into the outlet, an electric current will flow to
the device. It is the key component for the modern society everyone has
today. Without this, our world is totally different.
People continue to prosper the knowledge of producing electricity. As
the result, inventions of electricity-producing products are made.
Since its invention, the battery has become the most common power
source for many household and industrial applications. A battery converts
chemical energy to electrical energy. Each cell contains positive terminal,
cathode and negative terminal, anode. There are many ways to construct a
battery, as well as ways to control its generated output.
Each component is highly needed to produce the expected outcome of
the endeavor. It shows that searching new ways of producing electricity is not
possible. Its also impressive to know how vinegar can produce electricity and
how it will help the environment. With this research, each individuals curiosity
will be captivated.


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Background of the Study

To widen our knowledge about generating new source of electrical
energy, the researchers come up with an idea to prove other alternative basis
of electricity. They arrived to ascertain the vinegar battery that can generate
electricity. The basic principles of positive and negative charges can be
demonstrated by making a simple battery like this. This experimental set-up
uses the positive and negative ions from the copper and zinc. When the
electrodes (copper and zinc) are immersed in vinegar, they draw ions from
the vinegar, and the movement of the ions creates an electrical current.
The researchers prioritize not only the discovery of the vinegar battery
as an alternative source but also as renewable source of energy. A vinegar
battery may not be as strong as other commercial batteries. However, this is
cheaper than other batteries. After all, vinegar is freely available anywhere. It
is also environmental friendly because it doesnt contain hazardous and toxic
elements. This is something that seems like magic to most people, but is
really simple science. This energy if guided correctly can power devices.











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Statement of the Problem

General Objective:
The main objective of this study is to show the effectiveness and
usefulness of the vinegar battery in producing electrical energy.

Specific Objective:
1. Determine if vinegar can conduct electricity.
2. Find out the relation of each component (vinegar, copper strip and
galvanized nails) in the production of electrical energy.
3. Discover the effectiveness of vinegar battery, in terms of:
a) Voltage production
b) Number of devices
c) Life span of materials used
Hypothesis
1. Vinegar does not conduct electricity.
2. Vinegar, copper strip and galvanized nails are not related to each other.
3. Overall, vinegar battery is not effective as an alternative source of electrical
energy.








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Significance of the Study

Nowadays, many scientists are doing several researches to overcome
the energy crisis. All of us will experience a great loss about that. People
used to be in the world of having electricity. As a result, it would be a dilemma
for everybody.
Electrical energy provides us the easiness in doing different things.
Everyone use this in everyday life. It is used throughout the world in giving
power for every appliance each have. It gives the amusement and swept out
the boredom. And also, comfort to an individual who is displeased of
something. Because of wanting to satisfy everything easily, people depend to
the things theyre used to. They forgot that they have capabilities to make
solutions to simple things. This study opens each mind that everyone can
make their own way in simplifying problems.
By this, people will have the knowledge on what to do if the time
comes. It is very important to obtain an idea for everything.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The concentration of the study is all about the usefulness and
effectiveness of the vinegar battery in forming electrical energy to devices
such as digital clock and calculator.





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Definition of Terms


Electrical energy
It is the energy carried by moving electrons in an electric conductor. It
cannot be seen, but it is one of our most useful forms of energy
because it is relatively easy to transmit and use. All matter consists of
atoms, and every atom contains one or more electrons, which are
always moving. When electrons are forced along a path in a
conducting substance such as a wire, the result is energy called
electricity.
Battery
Or a cell that converts chemical energy to electrical energy through
positive and negative terminal.
Vinegar
Produces free ions in solution.
Galvanized nails (Zinc)
Serves as negative terminal of the battery.
Copper
Serves as positive terminal of the battery.





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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the related literature and studies from foreign or
local. Through this, additional information to widen researchers idea is
observed. Also, it leads as the basis of the study, The Effectiveness of
vinegar as a battery.
Related Literature
Invention of Battery
The making of battery was such a phenomenal success after all the
different scientists been through. Voltas experiment and study brought us
today the battery. As time goes by, different kinds were made and improved.
It all started in 1780 when Luigi Galvani was dissecting a frog affixed to
a brass hook. When he touched its leg with his iron scalpel, the leg twitched.
He believed the energy that drove this contraction came from the leg itself,
and called it "animal electricity".
However, Alessandro Volta, his friend and fellow scientist, disagreed,
believing this phenomenon was caused by two different metals joined
together by a moist intermediary. He verified this hypothesis through
experiment, and published the results in 1791. In 1800, Volta invented the
first true battery, which came to be known as the voltaic pile. The voltaic
pile consisted of pairs of copper and zinc discs piled on top of each other,


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separated by a layer of cloth or cardboard soaked in brine (i.e.,
the electrolyte). Unlike the Leyden jar, the voltaic pile produced a continuous
and stable current, and lost little charge over time when not in use, though his
early models could not produce a voltage strong enough to produce
sparks. He experimented with various metals and found that zinc and silver
gave the best results.
Volta believed the current was the result of two different materials
simply touching each otheran obsolete scientific theory known as contact
tensionand not the result of chemical reactions. As a consequence, he
regarded the corrosion of the zinc plates as an unrelated flaw that could
perhaps be fixed by changing the materials somehow. However, no scientist
ever succeeded in preventing this corrosion. In fact, it was observed that the
corrosion was faster when a higher current was drawn. This suggested that
the corrosion was actually integral to the battery's ability to produce a current.
This, in part, led to the rejection of Volta's contact tension theory in favor of
electrochemical theory. Volta's illustrations of his Crown of Cups and voltaic
pile have extra metal disks, now known to be unnecessary, on both the top
and bottom. The figure associated with this section, of the zinc-copper voltaic
pile, has the modern design; an indication that contacts tension" is not the
source of electromotive force for the voltaic pile.
Volta's original pile models had some technical flaws, one of them
involving the electrolyte leaking and causing short-circuits due to the weight of


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the discs compressing the brine-soaked cloth. A Scotsman named William
Cruickshank solved this problem by laying the elements in a box instead of
piling them in a stack. This was known as the trough battery. Volta himself
invented a variant that consisted of a chain of cups filled with a salt solution,
linked together by metallic arcs dipped into the liquid. This was known as the
Crown of Cups. These arcs were made of two different metals (e.g., zinc and
copper) soldered together. This model also proved to be more efficient than
his original piles, though it did not prove as popular.
Another problem with Volta's batteries was short battery life (an hour's
worth at best), which was caused by two phenomena. The first was that the
current produced electrolyzed the electrolyte solution, resulting in a film
of hydrogen bubbles forming on the copper, which steadily increased the
internal resistance of the battery (This effect, called polarization, is
counteracted in modern cells by additional measures). The other was a
phenomenon called local action, wherein minute short-circuits would form
around impurities in the zinc, causing the zinc to degrade. The latter problem
was solved in 1835 by William Sturgeon, who found that amalgamated zinc,
whose surface had been treated with some mercury, didn't suffer from local
action.
Despite its flaws, Volta's batteries provided a steadier current than
Leyden jars, and made possible many new experiments and discoveries,


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such as the first electrolysis of water by Anthony Carlisle and William
Nicholson.
*Source: Wikipedia
Related Studies
Saltwater Battery
Salt molecules are made of sodium ions and chlorine ions. (An ion is an
atom that has an electrical charge because it has either gained or lost an
electron.) When you put salt in water, the water molecules pull the sodium
and chlorine ions apart so they are floating freely. These ions are what carry
electricity through water.
*Source: Home Science Tools
A. Copper, zinc, and salt
A different chemistry happens when salt is used instead of acid in the
water. Salt breaks up in water to make positive sodium ions and negative
chloride ions. These ions reduce the energy needed for water to split into
hydroxide ions (OH
-
) and hydrogen ions H
+
(the hydrogen ions quickly find
another water molecule and create hydronium ions, H
3
O
+
).
At the zinc strip, the zinc ion combines with four hydroxide ions to form
one ion of zincates (Zn(OH)
4
2-
), leaving two electrons behind on the zinc strip.
The chlorine ions from the salt then combine with the hydronium ions left over
when the hydroxide ions were taken away by the zinc, and form hydrochloric
acid.


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Over on the copper strip, four electrons combine with oxygen dissolved
in the water and two molecules of water to form four hydroxide ions. The
sodium ions from the salt combine with these hydroxide ions to make sodium
hydroxide.
The hydrochloric acid and the sodium hydroxide combine back into
salt. So the salt is merely in the picture as a way to move charges through the
water. It is not used up.
We can summarize what happens at the zinc strip (called
the anode this way:
Zn + 4OH
-
Zn(OH)
4
2-
+ 2e
-

4Cl
-
+ 4H
2
O 4HCl + 4OH
-

Zn(OH)
4
2-
ZnO + H
2
O + 2OH
-

At the copper strip (called the cathode) we have:
O
2
+ 2H
2
O + 4e
-
4OH
-
.
4Na
+
+ 4OH
-
4NaOH
Now it shows why it is called a zinc-air battery. The oxygen from the air
is combining with the zinc. The copper electrode is just there to conduct the
electrons, and does not participate in the chemistry. It can be replaced with a
carbon rod.


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You may notice that after a short while, the oxygen in the battery is
used up, and the current (and thus the brightness of the LED) begins to drop.
Stirring the salt water helps to put more oxygen in the water, and the LED
gets bright again.
*Source: Sci-Toys
In this experiment, it proves that solution like Saltwater can carries ions
that produce electricity.
Lemon Battery
The citric acid in the lemon provided the electrolyte component. A
galvanized nail provided the zinc anode (negative terminal), and a copper
penny provided the cathode (positive terminal).
*Source: Home School and Things
B. Copper, zinc, and acid
In the case of the copper and zinc strips, the copper holds onto its
atoms more strongly than the zinc does. The zinc strip is therefore more
negative than the copper strip, and the electrons flow from the zinc to the
copper.
When the forces are eventually balanced, the copper strip ends up
with more electrons than the zinc strip. The zinc strip now has fewer
electrons, and it cannot attract the zinc ions back to the strip.
If the battery just had water in it, not much more would happen. But the
Coca-Cola battery has water plus phosphoric acid. The vinegar battery has


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water plus acetic acid. An acid is something that has an easily detached
hydrogen ion. Hydrogen ions are positive, and the remaining part of the acid
becomes negative when it loses the hydrogen ion. In our two batteries, the
remaining parts are the phosphate ion and the acetate ion, respectively.
So what happens when those entire positively charged zinc ions
bumps into those negatively charged phosphate ions? They phosphate ion is
more strongly attracted to the zinc ion than to the hydrogen ion. The positively
charged hydrogen ion is attracted to the copper strip, because the copper
strip has the extra electrons, and is thus negative (opposite charges attract).
The hydrogen ions attract the electrons from the copper, and become
neutral hydrogen atoms. These join up in pairs to become hydrogen
molecules, and form bubbles on the copper strip. Eventually the bubbles
become big enough to float up to the surface and leave the system entirely.
Now the copper strip no longer has the extra electrons. It attracts more
from the zinc strip through the connecting wire, as it did when it first
connected the wire.
The copper ions next to the copper strip are not as attracted to the strip
as they were before. The hydrogen ions keep taking the electrons that
attracted the copper ions. So those ions are free to move through the liquid.


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At the zinc strip, zinc ions are being removed, leaving extra electrons.
Some of those electrons travel through the wire to the copper strip. But some
of them encounter the copper ions that happen to bump into the zinc strip.
Those ions grab the electrons, and become copper atoms. We can see those
atoms build up on the zinc strip. They look like a black film, because the
oxygen in the water combines with the copper to form black copper oxide.
Eventually, all of the zinc is eaten up, and the copper and copper oxide
falls into a pile beneath where the zinc strip used to be. The battery is now
dead, and no more electrons flow through the wire. If there was not a lot of
acid in the water, it may be the first thing to be used up, and the battery may
die while there is still some zinc left on the zinc strip.
*Source: Sci-Toys

The study about lemon battery as the researchers compares it to
vinegar battery are almost the same in terms of its components and its
capability to produce ions.







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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study developed by the researchers entitled Vinegar Battery, in
accordance to all the related studies, was conducted by knowing the definition
of research methodology itself. Research methodology is the systematic,
theoretical analysis of the methods applied in studying a given phenomenon.
These are planned, scientific and designed to test the accuracy of the
outcome.
This chapter includes the research design, subject of the study,
materials and procedures and sources of data.
Research design
This study used experimental method of research. This method shows
the cause-effect nature of relationship between vinegar, copper and zinc. It
shows the steps and flow of the process on how the study acquired. It is used
to prove if this kind of battery is efficient in producing electricity. And also, the
guide of the researchers in preparation of the product had taken.





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Fig.3.1 Flowchart of Experimentation
IDENTIFYING THE
SOURCES
Vinegar
Copper
Strip
Galvanize
d Nail
(Zinc)
FORMULATION OF DESIGN
OUTPUT
TESTING THE DEVICE
OBSERVATION
CONSTRUCTION OF DEVICE


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In identifying the sources, the researchers chose variables that are
consisted of elements that are likely to conduct electrical energy. Vinegar,
copper and zinc in galvanized metals are the major components of the
device.
The formulation of the design output serves as a direction to guide the
researchers on their visualized outcome. Vinegar serves as the source of
electrically charged ions. Copper strip and galvanized metal serve as the
electrodes. The copper strip or copper acts as the positive terminal and the
zinc in galvanized nail will be the positive terminal of the vinegar battery.
The construction of the device is the application of the formulated
design output.
Testing the device will prove if the construction is at good structure.
By means of observing the device, the researchers will be able to know
the modifications and the developments to be conducted to make the device
get better.
Subject of the study
Vinegar is the subject of the study because of its components. It is the
solution of acetic acid and water whereas it produces ions which are
electrically charged atoms.


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Materials and procedures
Here are the lists of materials used in doing the vinegar battery:
Container/s (P 15)
Vinegar- 4.5% acetic acid
(P 18)
Copper strip/s ( P 30)
Connecting wires
LED bulb
Galvanized nail/s ( P 24)
Alligator clips ( P 24)
Voltmeter
These are the following procedures in order to make it:
For Solo
Prepare all the materials stated above.
Get the container and fill it with vinegar.
Connect one ends of copper strip and galvanized nail to the LED bulb
using connecting wires.
Put the copper strip and galvanized nail on the different side of container.
Finally, observe what happens to the LED bulb. To test how much
electricity is produced, used the voltmeter by replacing the position of the
bulb.


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For Series
Prepare all the materials stated above.
Take the two container and fill them with vinegar.
Get the zinc and a copper strip and connect one of the ends of both the
strips using a connecting wire.
Put the connected zinc strip in one of the glasses and copper strip in
another glass.
. Connect the remaining copper and zinc strip to the LED using two
connecting wires.
Then put the copper strip which is connected to the LED in the glass
which has zinc strip and LED connected zinc strip in copper containing glass.
Finally, observe what happens to the LED bulb. To test how much
electricity is produced, used the voltmeter by replacing the position of the
bulb.
Sources of data
The main sources of data in this study came from experiments and
observations, related studies and in the worldwide websites.



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CHAPTER IV
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
This chapter imparts the arrangement of data gathered and the
methods used, followed by the discussion of the attempts taken. The findings
were related to the research study together with the layout of the product that
was described, synthesized and modified.
Voltage Reading


Table1.Voltage production
The Researchers got 1V in each vinegar battery. In a series vinegar
battery, there were 6 batteries for a total of 6V (1V X 6)
Presentation of Findings
Table2. Presentation of first attempt

1 Volt per Battery
Total volts = 6 V
(for the constructed series battery)

Device

Number of
Volts

Number of
Vinegar Battery

Results

1. White LED Bulb
(From Flash Light)

3.8V

1

No
Effect


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The Table 2 illustrates the first trial of the solo vinegar battery. The
above results determine the effects of the vinegar battery to the device, if its
effective or not in generating electricity. The finished experiment to the device
brought the No Effect result.

Device

Number of
Volts

Number of
Vinegar
Battery

Results
1. White LED Bulb
(From Flash Light)

3.8V

3
6

Dim Light
Bright
Table3. Presentation of second attempt
The table 3 illustrates the second attempt of the researchers to see the
capability of the constructed series of vinegar battery. The first 3-Vinegar
Battery produced an adequate amount of light. To witness more potential of
the vinegar battery, another 3-Vinegar Battery was added, for total of 6-
Vinegar Battery. The series vinegar battery produced maximum light that the
whit LED bulb could produce.





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CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the review and summarize of the study
that was conducted. The review of purpose of the study, restatement of
research questions and the research design or methodology is all included in
summary. The conclusion specified below is based on the result of research.
Furthermore, the recommendation is made for other related studies.
Summary
The purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness and usefulness
of the vinegar battery in producing electrical energy. This requires the
following questions to be answer:
1. Determine the purpose of vinegar in producing electricity.
2. Find out the connection of each component in the production of electrical
energy.
3. Discover the effectiveness of vinegar battery, in terms of:
a) Voltage production
b) Number of devices
c) Life span of materials used
The researchers used experimental method of research to gather data
needed in the study. It helps to manipulate the variables used and able to
explain how a certain thing happens.


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After the experimentation, researchers examine and evaluate carefully
all the findings gathered. Those results are stated below:
The researchers got 1V in each vinegar battery. In a series vinegar
battery, there were 6 batteries for a total of 6V (1V X 6).
The first trial of the solo vinegar battery results to the device brought
the No Effect result.
For the second attempt, the researchers used the first 3-Vinegar
Battery that produced an adequate amount of light. Another 3-Vinegar
Battery was added, for total of 6-Vinegar Battery. The series vinegar
battery produced maximum light that the whit LED bulb could produce.
Conclusion
Base on the findings obtained by the researchers, the following
conclusions were drawn:
Vinegar is an effective alternative source of electricity.
The copper strips and galvanized nails are important materials in the
study. For these contribute in helping vinegar to create electrical
energy. When those two immersed in vinegar, they draw ions from the
vinegar, and the movement of the ions creates an electrical current.
The life span of the materials (copper strip and galvanized nail)
depends on its thickness.



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Recommendation
After gathering data and having assumptions, some recommendations
were proposed:
Make at least 3 or more constructed batteries to produce enough
electrical energy.
Use thicker materials (copper strip and galvanized nail) in order to use
vinegar battery for a longer time.
Try to check first the voltage produced by the vinegar battery to be
aware of what device to be used.




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APPENDICES
Documentation




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Researchers Data


Name: Ika Clarish M. Balaoro
Address: Blk. 43 Lot 8 Ph.6 Mabuhay, Mamatid, Cabuyao, Laguna
Birth Date: October 14, 1997
Age: 17 years old
Sex: Female

Name: Kimberly Marie C. De Lemos
Address: Blk. 1 Lot 162 SouthVille, Banay-banay, Cabuyao, Laguna
Birth Date: February 17, 1997
Age: 17 years old
Sex: Female

Name: Jennifer Elep
Address: Blk. 122 Lot 30 Ph.2 Mabuhay, Mamatid, Cabuyao, Laguna
Birth Date: October 14, 1996
Age: 18 years old
Sex: Female





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Name: Alexandra E. Ibale
Address: Blk. 34 Lot 16 Ph.5 Mabuhay, Mamatid, Cabuyao, Laguna
Birth Date: June 22, 1996
Age: 18 years old
Sex: Female

Name: Janine S. Izar
Address: Blk. 222 Lot 1 Ph2 Mabuhay, Mamatid, Cabuyao, Laguna
Birth Date: March 13, 1997
Age: 17 years old
Sex: Female





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Financial Statement

Item

Quantity

Price/Piece

Total
Alligator Clip 2Pairs 12.00PHP 24.00PHP
Copper Wire 2yds. 14.50PHP 29.00PHP
Plastic Cups 10pcs. 1.50PHP 15.00PHP
Galvanized Gi 2pcs. 10.75PHP 21.50PHP
Galvanized Nail 12pcs. 2.00PHP 24.00PHP.
Printing Expense 1.00PHP 30.00PHP
Vinegar 1pack 6.00PHP 6.00PHP
Wood 2pcs. 25.00PHP 50.00PHP
1pc. 50.00PHP 50.00PHP
TOTAL 249.50PHP