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Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

ً‫حمَة‬ْ ‫َرّبَنا آِتَنا ِمن ّلُدنكَ َر‬

‫شًدا‬َ ‫ن َأْمِرَنا َر‬
[Al-Quran 18:10]
ْ ‫َوَهّيئْ َلَنا ِم‬

Our Lord!
Grant us mercy
from Thee, and
provide for us a
right course in our
Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

“Nature's inexorable law is 'the survival of the

fittest', with faith, discipline and selfless
devotion to duty
uty, there is nothing
ing worthwhile
that youcann ot achieve”.

Quaid -e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the officers and men in Malir , on 21st February, 1948

“No nation achieves anything

unless its women go side by
side with men even in battle
Department Of Commerce
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad
University Ali Jinnah
Of Karachi
ON 11 April, 1964 Dehli
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

Course Incharge: Miss roohi

Team Members:

Rufy Afshan
Hira Waris
Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

Tatheer Zehra

First of all we would thanks “Allah” who is always there to help us &
giving his blessing to us .Allah makes it possible for us to make this
project as required & without his blessing and help we would never
been able to make this project completed.
Secondly We really appreciate from our heart and soul to all who gave us
advice and support during completion of our assignment. We are
respectfully thankful to our Course Supervisor Madam Roohi, Department
of Commerce. His support, guidance and suggestions in solving problems
which we had faced during the project work. He supported us, provided help
and facilities in the department whenever required.
We also appreciate for friendly environment and help provided by our team
members Hira Waris, Rufy Afshan, Tatheer Zehra, M.Com (Final) 4th
Semester, Department of Commerce.
In the end, we are also thankful to our beloved parents for providing full
support during project work and study period. As well due to their
appreciation, we are able to bring this project work in the existing form.

Department Of Commerce
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Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

________________ ________________ ______________

Hira Waris Rufy Afshan Tatheer Zehra

These humble efforts are dedicated to our respected teachers who did their
best to uplift, encourage and supported to our team members and also to our
respected Chairman whose affection inspired us to love mankind during our
studies.Your lives keep faith with virtue taught me to see beneath the surface
of things. Your goodness, which encompassed you like a well – hammered
suit of armour, taught me to see the world with different eyes. Your love,
which is devoted to the world with different eyes. Your love, which is
devoted to the deliverance of the human soul from its mundane infelicities,
taught me to love others. Your favour which “ like the wind that kisses every
thing it meet’s taught me the lesson that parent most precious of all
possessions.The kindness of your hearts, which knows no bounds, directed
my mind to its own inner mysteries.

Please accept this little work as a slight thanks offering for your eminent

magnanimity. God bless you.

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Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

As the nature of man to explore, hunt the ways
and paths. To achieve his set of goals in
shortest and simple way to success. Wise
people do use their wits and techniques.
We present a state of the art view of the
activities of the human resource operation
manager functions. Operation is an exciting
area of management that has a profound
effect on the productivity of both
manufacturing and services. The goal of this
report is to present a broad introduction to the
field of human resource management
operations and Public Relation in a realistic,
practical manner. Having a solid
understanding of the Of
Department role of public relation in
University Of Karachi
an organization is of substantial benefit to you.
This report will help to understand the
relationship of organization and its public.
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

The abstract of this project is to understanding
of field of
Human Resource management as a public
relation Practionaer in most efficient and the
easiest way and it is also attractive, increase the
efficiency,and enjoyable style. Public Relation
Includes a blend of topics like definition,funtions
of PR,what PR Practioner do,qulities of PR
practioner It will also help to how people
organize themselves for productive eneterprise.
Public Relation tells the relationship between
public and its organization. It describe what
human resource manger should do.Human
Resource management provides a major
Department Of Commerce
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Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

opportunity for an organization to improve its

profitability and enhance its services to society.

Table of Contents

S. No TOPICS Page#
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Design of study 2
1.3 Objective behind the project 3
1.4 The scope of public relations 3
1.5 Limitation of the project 3
1.6 History of public relations 3
1.7 Meaning and introduction 4
1.8 What is public? 4
1.9 What is relations? 5
2.0 Definition of public relaions 5
Interpretation of definition 6
Public relations and corporations
Corporations reputation
Importance of public relaions
2.1 Why public relation is important? 7
How does public relation work? 8
2.2 Career opportunities in public relations 9
2.3 Public Relations for the Stars: Publicists 12
2.4 Working For Companies: Public Relations Firms 16

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2.5 Considering a Public Relations Career? 17

2.6 Element of public relations 20
2.7 Objectives of public relations 25
2.8 Important role of public relations 27
2.9 Key Tools for Public Relations Practitioners 31
3.0 The PR Brief - What It Should Include 33
3.0 Organizational and Societal Functions of PR 35
 What Does A Public Relations Person Do? 37-49
3.1 Functions Of Public Relations 38
3.2 Various Publics For Public Relations 39
3.3 Essential Qualities Of Good Public Relations 40
3.4 Need For Public Relations 41
3.5 Public Relations Tools 42
3.6 Pr In Pakistan Before Partition 44
3.7 Pr During & After Partition 45
3.8 Public Relation In Levi’s Company 46
3.9 Vision And Values….. 47
3.9 Sears And Levi's Present Christina Aguilera In Concert 48
4.0. Bibliography 49
4.1 Calender 2009 51

Assignment Title: Public Relation in Corporate Sectors

Team Organization: Democratic Decentralize (DD)

Started Date: 15th sep 2009

Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

Ended Date: 15th oct 2009

Member profile:
Our group consists of the following members:

Sl. # Members Name Seat No.

1. Hira Waris P0757042

2. Rufy Afshan P0757084

3. Tatheer Zehra P0757139

"In a truly democratic society,

everything depends upon the consent of
the public." - Thomas Jefferson

Design of study
In today’s modern and fast world Insurance is gaining a lot of importance. This
obviously means that the Insurance organizations are also prospering, yet they
practice PR. So to know what are the activities they perform I have taken the topic
of PR
Objectives behind the project:-
1) To get an insight through the concept of PR.
2) To know what are the activities performed by LIC.
3) To see whether what is being described in the theory
of PR whether it is exact or not

The Scope of Public Relations

• The ascendancy of reputation capital and the shift from product to value-focus
means that the demands on PR have significantly Increased.
• Traditionally within the communications mix,Public Relations focused on
changing or influencing stakeholder beliefs and attitudes towards
organisations and brands

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Limitations of the project:-

The project includes only those theory aspects which are very essential for
understanding the art of PR very well.Also it includes the PR campaign of only
one company because in the field if Insurance LIC is the one who has a very good
PR campaign.

History of Public Relations.

The history of public relations began in the early 1900s when promoters offered
information on live entertainment to the public. The science behind public
relations was developed by Edward Bernays. Learn how PR is part of the
integrated marketing communications mix with information from a public
relations and marketing professor in this free video on public relations.Public
relations began when people started communicating and needed to motivate
others. Early pre-historic drawings, and later, hieroglyphics and ancient
manuscripts were all used to persuade. In the 15th Century,

Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press, making it possible to mass-produce

written works. By the 17th Century, newspapers began to appear and ordinary
people gained greater access to information and ideas. In response, governments
and their leaders became more concerned with public opinion.

Meaning And Introduction:

Public Relations, commonly called as PR is an activity aimed at increasing

common & understanding between an organization or individual & one or more
groups called Publics”.

What Is Public?

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Public is a group of similar ideas, an assortment of persons having the same

interests, problems, circumstances & goals. They vary in their forms & sizes they
have a multitude of wants & desires. Each group has its own likes & dislikes.
Group can be classified as:- Employees form a group/public, employers form
another group, etc. Other members of the public can be dealers, wholesalers,
investors, etc. Each of these group is a public & everyone tries to attract a district
audience with its varied tools & techniques. A public may also be made up of a
no. of individual’s who are unorganized & hard to identify but who for widely
varied reasons have a common interest in the matter at issue.Today, however,
when modern means of common make vast number of people aware of
controversial issues & common interests, publics tend to be large & impersonal.
These publics involve people who are not known to each other & are widely
distributed over the country, or even among a number of countries. The members
of such public rarely meet each other face to face or have much direct
communication. The impersonal but powerful publics are numerous in today’s
high complex society.But finally the public is any group of people who share
common interest.


It is the outcome of mutual understanding derived from the process of sharing of

common interest where as relationship is the definite type of relation or
interaction taking place between two individuals, group or departments. To
understand any relationship, therefore

it is necessary that one understands the wants of those involved.The term PR is

also applied to the profession responsible for handling such assignments.
Corporations, govt. agencies, politicians & entertainers are among these who use
public relations. Their publics vary from employees & shareholders to an entire
community or members of the news media. The communication between an
organization & its public ranges a simple news release to a sophisticated
campaign featuring films, ad’s speeches & television appearances. Such
communication is aimed at gaining the goodwill of the public. The basis of any
effective PR campaign is public benefit. If an organization does not serve the
needs of public, the public will not support it. PR experts help an organization
learn what the public wants & then establish policies that reflect concern for
public’s interests.

PR generally is practiced through:-

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1. Corporate PR dept:- In a corporate department, specialists handle corporate

PR activities for only that company.
2. PR Agencies:- In agencies specialists carry out PR activities for several
3. Public Information Departments:- Non-profit organizations like colleges
and Government agencies have public information departments that work to
strengthen the image of the organization.

Definitions of 'public relations'

“The art or science of establishing and promoting a
favorable relationship with the public.”

“The methods and activities employed to establish and

promote a favorable relationship with the public”

“The degree of success obtained in achieving a favorable relationship with

the public”

“Public Relation is a form of communication primarily directed tiward

gaining public understanding and acceptance. Public relations usually deals
with issues rather than products or services, and is used to build goodwill
with public or employeess. Examples of public relations are employee
training, support of charitable events, or a news release about some positive
community participation”

“The actions of a corporation, store, government, individual, etc., in

promoting goodwill between itself and the public, the community, employees,
customers, etc”

“The art, technique, or profession of promoting such goodwill”

“Public relation involves policy making, formulation, programming,

communication, feed back and research”

“Public Relation works as advisors to the top management and as tecnique

produce and stimulate message”
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“The discipline which brings out the rewards in generating “mutual

understanding”and the risks involved in misunderstanding between individuals,
groups, governments and nations in this restless world the shape and content of
which tend to be rapidly changing.’ K.R.Balan:

“PR is the management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies

the policies & procedures, of an orgnisation or an individual with pubic
interests & plans & executes a program or action to earn public
understanding and acceptance.”(Editor of PR news)

“The discipline which looks after thereputation, with the aim of earning
understanding and support, and infl uencing opinion and behaviour .It is the
planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual
understanding between an organisation and its publics “. (The Institute of
Public Relations, London,UK)

Interpretation of the above definition-

1. It measures, evaluates & interprets the attitude of various related public.
2. It assists management in defining objectives for increasing public
understanding & acceptance of orgnisations products, plans, policies &
3. It equates these objectives with the interests, needs & goals of various related
4. It develops, executes & evaluates a program to earn public understanding &

Public Relations & Corporations

The value of PR within the communications mix has increased

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considerably since the 1980s. Today, corporations depend less on

mass media advertising and have adopted a more credible PR
approach based on third party endorsement and consumer

Corporate Reputation
Corporate reputation is the sum of the values that stakeholders attribute to a
company, based on their perception and interpretation of the image the company
communicates and its behaviour over time
Brands and brand management should now be considered part of the Public
Relations armoury, especially for corporate brands. The hub of the reputation
wheel is brand, as it is around this construct that most reputations are lost and

The Importance of Public Relations

Public relations professionals do more than draft press releases and build
relationships with key media representatives. They must also be familiar with the
attitudes and concerns of consumers, employees, public interest groups, and the
community in order to establish and maintain cooperative working
relationships.In addition to fulfilling their traditional role of getting a company's
message out to its audience, those who have completed their studies in
communications and public relations may also be responsible for developing and
running programs designed to keep the lines of communication open between
company and organization representatives and their various audiences. This might
include such activities as scheduling speaking engagements for key company staff
and speech writing.

Why is Public Relations Important?

At its core, public relations revolves around this universal truth: people act based
upon their perception of facts. By managing, controlling, or influencing people's
perceptions, public relations professionals hope to initiate a sequence of behaviors
that will lead to the achievement of an organization's objectives. When those in
public relations successfully create, change, or reinforce opinion through
persuasion, their primary objective is accomplished.

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How Does Public Relations Work?

Public relations professionals follow a set of principles in order to achieve
success. Most campaigns begin with the identification of the problem or
challenge, then move on to setting the public relations' goal. In order to achieve
the goal, the public relations specialist crafts persuasive messages and implements
key communication tactics while monitoring progress and fine tuning as

Career Opportunities in Public Relations

Those who have either earned their degree from an accredited communications
and public relations educational program, or obtained a public relations graduate
certificate, have a wide variety of career options. Jobs range from being employed
by an individual, such as celebrity publicists, to large firms, such as corporate
public relations managers and executives.

Public Relations for the Stars: Publicists

Publicists can turn a little known actor into a household word. In essence, they are
responsible for nurturing and shaping a star's career by creating an image though
various public relations activities. Sometimes known as publicity agents,
publicists work to get their clients the right kind of press coverage and help them
to restore or "reinvent" their public image if it's been damaged. One of the best
known publicists is Lois Smith. Over the course of her career she has worked with
stars and film directors including Marilyn Monroe, Meryl Streep, Rosie
O'Donnell, Dustin Hoffman, Anthony Hopkins, Martin Scorsese, Robert Redford,
and Steven Soderbergh.

Working For Companies: Public Relations Firms

While some companies keep the function of public relations entirely in house,
others opt to outsource all public relations functions. Others strike a balance in
which in-house public relations efforts are complemented by the work of an
outside agency. A good example of an agency campaign that has increased
product sales while raising awareness and establishing a company as a concerned
corporate citizen is Yoplait's "Save Lids to Save Lives" campaign. This unique
breast cancer awareness and fundraising campaign has Yoplait making a donation
for every pink yogurt container lid mailed back into the company. The campaign
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has not only raised awareness and funds (Yoplait has donated over $10 million for
breast cancer research), it has also given the brand added visibility and resulted in
increased sales.

Considering a Public Relations Career?

It's no secret that communication skills are important for those considering a
career in the public relations field. Pairing an English or Journalism degree with
courses in marketing, sales, public relations, and business can be an effective way
to prepare for a career in this industry. There are also many excellent online
communications and public relations degree programs and public relations
graduate certificate programs to choose from which can make learning about this
exciting industry convenient and rewarding
"Education is when you read the fine print. Experience is what you get if
you don't."
-- Pete Seeger
Elements of Public Relations:
1. Human relations:
It is getting along well with the word public both internally or externally. No person can
work independently & everyone who works in an organization directly or indirectly
depends on one another.

2. Empathy:

Empathy means feeling with the other person to analyse others point of view & is
regarded as primary pre-requisite for a satisfying experience in a relationship
where a certain degree of depth of understanding is expected.

3. Persuasion:
`There are 2 forms of interaction between individuals or groups
a)Force or compulsion b) persuasion.
If one party compels another to do something instead of persuing him this is
called Depotism. It is against the principle of proper conduct sanctioned by

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society. A sense of human interest on the person who is being persuaded will
understand & appreciate the cause & effect of this action.

4. Dialogue:

It is a conversation with purpose. It is not a bargain basement transaction but it is

a low form of negotiation. Dialogue is a reasonable exchange of ideas bringing
into view a new form of knowledge, the use of dialogue is for influencing
behaviour like selling goods or inspiring innovative ideas.


The main objective of public relations is to establish good understanding by
sharing a common problem or interest with the public. By public wehere mean
both an internal public and a public external to the organisation.Mutual
understanding can be established only by sharing a commoninterest,by
communication and relations.

However, the following are the broad objectives of public relations:

1. To promote mutual understanding.

2. To avoid the risk involved in misunderstanding.

3. To win friends.

4. To influence people.

5. To change the behaviour and attitude of the public.

6. To enhance the patronage from the various sections.

7. To help in fund raising.

8. To persuade individuals, groups etc.

9. To connect misconceptions and clarify on criticism of its policies

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and practices.

10. To promote goodwill.

11. To create and maintain the image or reputation about the company.

12. To forestall attack by the competitors or opponents.

13. To undertake a public relations education program.

14. To help the public to love life and work for better or for worse

without conditions.

15. To improve internal staff relations.

16. To liaise, counsel and advise.

17. To provide information about the activities of the company to the

press and writers.

18. To prepare and supply the public with information about the

organisation like price, quality, export, employment, and other

special features.

19. To ascertain public opinion, conduct opinion research, and understand public
attitudes on the organisation, profession and practice.

20. To sponsor dealer and distributor relations schemes.

21. To undertake programmes like sales training courses for retailers, wholesalers.

22. To establish press relations, publicity articles preparation, press release,


23. To communicate with the employees on their benefits, accident prevention

labour relations and collective bargaining.

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24. To undertake a campaign of public education about an industry or profession

and its contribution to the public.

25. To establish relations with federal and state legislators, agencies.

The Important Role Of Public Relations

Public relations is fundamentally the art and science of establishing relationships
between an organization and its key audiences. Public relations plays a key role in
helping business industries create strong relationships with customers.

Public relations involves supervising and assessing public attitudes, and

maintaining mutual relations and understanding between an organization and its
public. The function of public relations is to improve channels of communication
and to institute new ways of setting up a two-way flow of information and

Public relations is effective in helping:

* Corporations convey information about their products or services to potential


*Corporations reach local government and legislators

* Politicians attract votes and raise money, and craft their public image and legacy

* Non-profit organizations, including schools, hospitals, social service agencies

etc. boost support of their programs such as awareness programs, fund-raising
programs, and to increase patronage of their services

Public relations in present times employs diverse techniques such as opinion

polling and focus groups to evaluate public opinion, combined with a variety of
high-tech techniques for distributing information on behalf of their clients,
including the internet, satellite feeds, broadcast faxes, and database-driven phone

As public image is important to all organizations and prominent personalities the

role of public relations specialist becomes pertinent in crisis situations. Public
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relations agencies provide important and timely transmission of information that

helps save the face of the organization. In the words of the Public Relations
Society of America (PRSA), "Public relations helps an organization and its public
adopt mutually to one another."

Experienced public relations agencies have formulation press releases into which
they can plug the company news, as well as a targeted list of publications for their
industry. Truly good public relations agencies generally have a good working
relationship with key reporters, boosting their chances of getting coverage. Some
public relations agencies deal only with large, established clients, while smaller
boutique public relations agencies specialize in certain areas.

At present public relations as a career option exists in private companies or

government institutions that actively market their product, service and facilities.
Public relations training courses are widespread in educational institutions.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were 122,000 public
relations specialists in the United States in 1998 and approximately 485,000
advertising, marketing, and public relations managers working in all industries.

Most public relations practitioners are recruited from the ranks of journalism.
Public relations officers are highly trained professionals with expertise and
knowledge in many areas, for example shareholder management during a crisis,
the evolving role of the in-house public relations professional, account
management skills for public relations, an introduction to financial public
relations, an introduction to consumer public relations, an introduction to public
relations software etc.

Key Tools for Public Relations Practitioners

• E-mail: press release
• Press briefings/ conferences
• Site, press and VIP visits
• Photography
• Video News Releases (VNRs): digital

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Key Tools for PR Practitioners

• Stunts
• Editorial coverage
• Hospitality events
• Viral campaigns
• Advertorials
• Features
• Webcasting
• Interviews
• Competitions
• Surveys and results of market research
• Case studies
• Corporate literature and publications
• Newsletters and e-zines

• Contract publishing
• Web sites and portals
• Published surveys and reports based on consumer, medical or scientific

The PR Brief - What It Should Include

One of my esteemed associates suggested that I focus on what a client brief
should include, given that I profess a robust brief to be the foundation to building
solid PR programs and to recruiting the right agency talent.

My thoughts may not be all-encompassing, and I recognize that a degree of

tailoring is always necessary. In essence, however, I have 3 guiding principles in
setting up a good brief:

1. CONFIDENTIALITY: No brief must ever be submitted to any

outside service provider without a legally endorsed NDA (non-disclosure
agreement). I am happy to provide an example of this.
2. INTEGRITY: Extreme care must be taken not to include material
of a financially sensitive nature (always worth running a brief past the IR
team). An equal amount of care must be taken not to 'spin' content. The
brief is not a PR document, but a frank and honest review of the
company's opportunities and issues to build robust PR response.

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3. RELEVANCE: The brief should be geared towards framing the

issues and opportunities that the agency can be expected realistically to
support. This demands that clients have given first thought to what their
marketing/agency expectations are and that they understand what
peripheral information is important in helping agencies better understand
the company and climate in which they'll be expected to operate.

For me, word count does not matter. Content does. And this, in my view, is what
a good agency brief should include:

1) The Corporate Story

This section must give as much flavor about the dimension, character, values and
principles of an organization to help PR agency familiarization but also to aid
external corporate positioning.

• What is the company provenance/history and track record?

• What have its milestone achievements been?
• What are its stated mission, vision, values?
• What are its key metrics (financial/geographic) and growth ambitions?
• Is it a market leader or challenger?...
• ... And how does it shape and execute that role?
• What characterizes the company's leadership and internal culture?
• What is its business model and structure?
• What are the company's issues and crisis alert procedures?

2) The Trading Environment

Here follows an analysis of the company's trading prospects and opportunities,

coupled with a realistic analysis of the marketplace threats/issues that the agency
may be required to take into account as it develops PR plans.

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• Who is the competition?

• What is driving their strategy against the company?
• Which media channels do they exploit?
• What is the company's relative performance?
• What is the company's market differential (eg. technology,
innovation, commercial)
• Where are the trading threats - and opportunities?
• What are the regulatory barriers? How are these being addressed?
• How does the company plan to raise future market entry
• ...Or exploit current market conditions?
• What is the company's product/service roadmap?
• What key sales and marketing initiatives are planned over the next
year to drive growth?

3) The Market Environment

This section begins to deal directly with the company's public outreach strategy
and begins to provide insight into the more direct role a PR agency can be
expected to play in support.

• Who is the company trying to reach?

• How are these audiences segmented?
• What is the current company proposition/message to these
• What motivates and characterizes the target
consumer/purchaser/specifier groups?
• Which (online and offline) media channels most influence these
• Which other organizations (NGOs etc) also influence purchase
• What impact have these media/groups had?
• What have been the company's past, public issues? Were they

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• Which marketing/corporate outreach initiatives have seen most

• Where has the company failed to reach/penetrate its markets?
• What are the company's key marketing objectives over the next 1-5

4) The Internal Community

This section recognizes the interdependencies between external and internal

communications planning and focuses on how the internal corporate culture can
impact or promote external PR success.

• How many employees are located across the company?

• What are current employee engagement strategies/dialogue
• ...How effective are they?
• What is the employee retention record?
• What are the outcomes of any employee surveys? What are the key
• Are any major corporate restructuring initiatives planned?
• How is internal and external communications structured?
• Who are the key spokespeople/external ambassadors?...
• ... How competent or well equipped are they?

5) PR Agency Objectives

This section deals with the very specific company requirements of the PR agency
and should relate clearly to the above company analysis. It should form the basis
of the final agency quote and be embedded within subsequent contractual
obligations. For example:

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• What credentials (skills, experience, specialism, contacts) must the

agency demonstrate?
• Which geographies will they serve?
• What will be their messaging and corporate positioning
• What strategic market/PR/media insight should the agency
• Which markets/audiences should the PR agency engage?
• What (online/offline) influencer programs should the agency
• How must the agency integrate with the business?
• How should the agency evolve its client PR skills?
• How will success be measured? What are the key performance
• What is the budget?
• How will the agency ensure transparency against spend?
• How will they report (to whom, by which method, with which

A good client brief is the precursor to any agency pitch and final selection; it sets
clear client-agency expectations and is integral to final contractual obligations; it
is the reference against which ongoing agency performance can be objectively
measured and reviewed.

A good agency, as I mentioned in my last post, will engage with this brief, may
challenge it and generate value-adding discussion to help move the company
forward in its thinking.

My passion for a good client brief stems from the conviction that, without a brief,
there is no performance. And without performance, the communications role will
never be viewed as a robust, commercially-minded and trusted entity within an
organization. It is ultimately, therefore, a tool of professional and personal

Organizational and Societal Functions of PR

An organization has a committed image and typically this image is dependent on
the degree of the support received by the organizational missions, goals, and
strategies. Therefore, the role of the public relations practitioner serves as a

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communicator between organizations and its internal and external publics. Public
relations also provide the message and informs the publics about events which the
organization requests to present. The function of public relations can be
categorized as organizational and societal in

nature. Dealing with the media is an important function especially concerning the
legitimate entities. To most individuals, the term public relations constitutes
relationships with the press and obtaining publicity

Media relations account for one of the many organizational functions of the public
relations processes. The mass media is an amazing feature of corporate America.
One of the public relations characteristics is the attempt to influence its publics.
Public relations activities assist the public in helping them to understand the
organizations and the products they have to offer (McNamara, C. 2007). Similar
to the results of advertising and promotions public relations depend on
implementing any designs of a public relations plan.

Typically, the plan consists of a description of what message should be displayed,

how you plan to display the message, who has responsibility for each entity of the
campaign, and by when and what costs are expected to incur for the sake of the
budget to fund the such activities or events. The media constitutes use of
newspaper, magazines, and television (2007). The organization does not have
very much control over the message in the media especially in regards to
advertising. The results of opinions to be expressed are generally left in the hands
of the reporters and writers.

Public relations functions as a wide range of activities that impacts the

organization on a different level. Selected public relations functions can be
regarded as organizational or societal functions, and there is a definite connection
between them. Whenever a public relations organization decides to ensure that its
company communicates their message to the employees, this ensures the support
they require. The employees will then communicate there perception to the
community. These functions both societal and organizational have a significant
amount of over-lap.

What Does A Public Relations Person Do?

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A public relations professional is responsible for creating a favourable brand

image and thereby enhancing the reputation of the client he is representing. A
company acquires a good reputation by offering good quality services, managing
its resources (both human and capital resources) efficiently, being stable and
consistent in its approach, being honest, committed, professional and conducting
its dealings with integrity. Fulfilling its social obligations and responsibilities by
giving back in return to the society or its business environment, which includes
different groups that are interdependent upon each other, what the society or
business environment has given to it is also very important.

A public relations firm must be equally honest and possess a great deal of honesty
and integrity in dealing with various groups of the society and choose its clients
with care, so

that it can avoid the mutual embarrassment of facing the tattered reputations of
two firms, namely itself and the company it is representing

In essence, "the public relations practitioner manages the flow of

information between an organization and its publics."

While it has been valued since humans first began congregating, the idea of public
relations as a profession is less than 100 years old.

Functions Of Public Relations

The functions that are to be performed by a public relations department maydiffer
from organisation to organisation depending upon the nature and activities of a
particular organisation. However, certain standard functions have emerged as
common in most balanced departments. They are discussed below:

1. Policy:

Public relations policy is required for every organisation.A policy is a

statement of guidelines to be followed in the company. The department has to
develop and recommend corporate public relations policies. It has to
contribute the public relations view point which helps in the formulation of
decision. Its function is not merely to provide the policy mainly to the top
management but also to other sections and divisions.

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2. Publicity:

Corporate publicity is necessary to interact with the public. The department

has to undertake the development and issuance of announcements of corporate
activities to external communications media. It has to handle inquiries from
the press. It is part of the functions of the department to develop and place
promotional publicity about the company as a whole or any of its units.

3. Product Publicity:

Corporate publicity is different from the product publicity. In this, focus is on

the products and how to popularise the product. This includes both new
products as well as existing ones. It includes the announcement of new
products through the editorial channels of the communications media. The
department has to develop and execute the promotional product publicity

4. Relations with Government :

Relations with government cannot be overlooked. In all spheres of activities

the government interferes, regulates, controls and supervises. It is necessary to
maintain liaison with appropriate governmental departments. This liaison
covers both the local level, state level and national level. Besides,
governmental relations includes
(i) advise action as

(ii) report trends in government affecting the company.

(iii) help in preparing and directing corporate appearances before investigating

bodies of legislative hearings.

(iv) direct programmes designed to promote the company's point of view in

legislative or regulatory matters.

5. Community Relations:

Community contacts should be planned. It is the performance and/or

coordination of corporate 'good neighbour' activities, including compliance

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with environmental protection standards, fostering equal employment

oppurtunity, cooperating in urban

improvement programmes, and developing community understanding of a

company's problems and needs.

6. Shareholders Relations ;

Relations with the corporate stockholders is more important to attract public

money. This takes the form of communication between the company and the
shareholders in particular.Also the investment community in general. It is
necessary for the development and acceptance of the company among
investors by broadening the exposure of the company's policies and financial
results in the investment community. This function includes preparation of
annual reports, quarterly reports, dividend cheque inserts etc. It has to plan
and stage the annual meetings of stockholders and appearances before
meetings of security analysts.

7. Promotion Programmes :

Public relations promotion programmes should be formulated and

implemented. This may broadly cover institutional promotion programmes
designed to build corporate acceptance of key policies, institutional
advertising, public relations literature and special events.

8. Donations:

A corporate donation policy should be developed for company contributions-

Various aspects involved in this function are processing requests for donations
administering company's foundation, and the conduct of employees'
solicitations for approved drives.

9. Employee Publications:

The public relations department has to prepare and publish employee

magazines, newspapers, bulletins, management communications etc.

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10. Guest Relations :

The department must undertake guest reception activities.


1. Stockholders Relations

The owners of the company are the shareholders with whom the company
always has to communicate about various matters. Most companies use
personal visits, telephone calls, mailing and supplementary reports to keep
shareholders informed, interested and satisfied. Communication with them
may include reports, matters on corporate meetings,dividend enclosures,
magazines, special mailing, notices, resolutions,minutes, periodic
correspondence, financial matters, press releases etc.

Communication with the shareholders may cover many subject matters such as :

1. Issue of share certificate;

2. Share transfer application and procedure;

3. Certificate of transfer;

4. To mobilise funds, pay dividend, interest on fixed deposits received;

5.To issue dividend warrant, proxy form, dividend coupon;

6. To issue notices, agenda of the various meetings;

7. To respond to correspondence received from them;

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8. Correspondence relating to calls, forfeiture, transmission;

9. Communication on matters relating to statutory requirements etc.

10. Describing organisational problems and objectives of the company in

terms of special current developments in the company' s folder and other
stockholder communication.

11. Drafting and circulating to all stockholders a transcript of highlights of

the annual progress at the company's annual meetings.

12. Giving reponse to each stockholder's inquiry which must be prompt to

create goodwill.

13. Informing by way of circulating or distributing to all shareholders

occasional reprints dealing with developments vital to them.

2. General Public Relations

It is with effective communication and through appropriate media that a

company maintains contacts with the public. It is the means to create and
build goodwill. It also helps as a driving force to reach the public, and
brings the company and the public together, linking with society in
general. Maintaining external communication facilities through several
media of verbal and written contacts with the public in general.It is not
possible to build a satisfactory public image for the company.

The public should be informed about various products of the company and
their uses; comparative advantages, price differentials, product, after sale
services and changes must be communicated promptly. Qualitative
communication ensure the promotion of a positive favourable atmosphere,
develops friendly and confident feelings towards the company and its

Audio-visual, direct mail, sales promotion, advertisements, news bulletins,

annual reports, posters, hoardings and pamphlets are few of the many
media used to reach the public. Public information consists of:

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(a) Preparing and distributing new releases concerning the company to

create public interest.

(b) Public meetings, press conferences between the company and ~

representatives of the press, radio and television. '

(c) To have a regular and prompt press information service and to

answer enquiries from the press and radio.

(d) Releasing periodic advertisements in the mass media circulating

throughout the country, and also in respect of certain commodities

and information to customers directly.

(e) General public communication covers personalised mass mailings to

the editors of newspaper, magazines, radio and television directors,

educational institutions, religious institutions, public relations offices,

officials and other local opinion leaders.

(t) Motion pictures are other important media for public communication

which portrays the company's operations highlighting the economic

advantages of the company's area of operations.

Mass media are the gateway of the company for communication with

the public. The public relations department of the company is mainly

responsible for promoting goodwill among the outside public.

3. Customer Relations
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An effective system of communication should provide opportunities for

customer information. The customer is the ultimate object whose
satisfaction and goodwill are of the utmost importance for the success of
an organisation. In carrying out the sales function of planning, the
management must communicate with customers. There were times when
the customer was not the central figure. But today the customer is the
kingpin and sovereign of the market whose needs and satisfaction, and the
winning of whose goodwill, is of prime importance in these days of
competitive setup. These must be communicated promptly. It is the
communication which establishes the contacts with the customers.
Customercomn1unication helps to establish a relationship with customers
who buy and are the sources of products. The media used for
advertisements can also be used effectively to reach the customers. It is
the responsibility of communication:

1. To prepare welcome letters, personally addressed, signed by the chief

executive officer to all old as well as new customers.

2. Customer information should include helpful and desirable information

concerning prices, uses, after sale facilities etc.

3. Media like pamphlets and booklets printed in an attractive manner

summarising the company's product etc., are the purpose of

4. Enclosing handouts, progress reports to each bill or to each

correspondence mailed to customers. This acts as a repetitive reminder to
the customer about the company.

5. Prompt response to all enquiries made by the customer promotes and

builds confidence and goodwill. Effective written communication
promotes a friendly understanding of company policies.

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6. Preparing brochures and other informative folders directed to specific

customer groups like fanners, small business, women, and other special

4. Government Relations

Communication with the government and its departments is another

important dimension of external communication. Business communication
with the government covers several dealings touching many government
departments. A corporate enterprise has to communicate with the Registrar
of Companies, Controller of Capital Issues, finance department, industrial
department and labour department. The relations of a company with the
government are many sided. Correspondence with the government may
cover export-import matters, foreign exchange dealings, listening,
registration, taxation matters also. A company has to file a number of
documents to various departments of the goverment. Filing of annual
returns and tax returns are regular activities.Business houses have to
consider the national objectives as well as the national priorities of
economic development as indicated in Five Year Plans and other policy
statements and resolutions. There is always if routine communication
between the government and business on several other matters like wage
policy, foreign policy, industrial policy etc. Government communicates
national objectives, priorities,

achievements and programmes through the mass media like television,

radio, film and ; through the print media like newspapers, magazines, Five
Year Plans, budgets, annual reports, special economic survey reports,
statistical bulletins, handbooks etc. A firm has to deal with all
correspondence in which it is concerned and interested.

5.Dealer Relations

A communication network should not overlook the importance of dealer

communication. The dealer is a trader who carries on the business I of
buying and selling and other dealings. A dealer effects a substantial
turnover involved in buying, selling, supplying or distributing goods
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directly or indirectly for cash or deferred payment or on commission. A

dealer is an important party in external communications. The relation of
the company with its dealers, like those of other outsiders, is said to be
dealer communication. The quality of the product, the trading policy,
practice, procedure and the image the dealers to promote are the
fundamental factors which must be given major consideration in the
subject matter of communication. The method of communicating with the
dealer will vary depending upon the nature of the product, distribution
and media of communication.Communication with a dealer is quite
different when the distribution is made through agents.Conferences and
meetings with dealers are the usual media of oral communication. Written
communication through letters is often the common method. Another
medium of maintaining close contact with the dealers is by providing all
the dealers with regular copies of an external house journal or news sheet.
This carries relevant infonnation from the business house to the dealers,
wholesalers, stockists, agents etc. The journal generally contains messages
on display, promotions, uses, benefits, and comparative superiority of the
product. It also covers all such matters calculate to improve the dealer's
turnover, and as a consequence, mutual profits. Direct mail is also used to
maintain direct contact with the dealers.The public relations officer of the
company gives guidance and help to promote sales. He is a liaison
between external parties and the company.

5. Inter-organisation Relations

No business organisation can exist in isolation without connections and

dealings with other sister business organisations. Inter-corporate
communication implies a process of information exchange between
companies. A company of a particular industry may have links, direct or
indirect. Inter-corporate loans, inter-company investment, inter-locking
directorship, inter-corporate dividends, inter-corporate holdings and inter-
corporate transactions etc., are all examples of the existence of inter-

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corporate communications. Information exchange between companies

may take place on many matters like cost, process of production, methods
of production, new methods of production etc.

It has been observed that a firm simply cannot exist or survive unless it is
related with other firms in the industry. Inter-industry and intra-industry
information exchange is necessary to make comparison and to run on
smooth and competitive lines. Business houses undertake much inter-
company communication to bridge the communication gap between the
organisation and outside entities. Very often one notices that companies
resort to inter-corporate and inter-institutional communication. Companies
are also involved in information exchange to know the various
sophisticated techniques adopted, the handling of production, appraising
people about the organisation's march, social responsibilities discharged
and getting their employees informed about the movement of employees
in comparable organisations.

In present day competitive structures a firm is expected to catch up on the

efficiency attained by competitors, and make efforts to reach and exceed
them. Communication between the organisations on various functional
performances highlights the points of strength and weakness in individual
company performance.

Inter-firm information exchange facilitates inter-firm comparison, which

provides an objective and realistic measurement of comparable efficiency
of the firms inter se. The inter-firm messages on operating performance,
financial results, product cost structure, sales trend, market potential etc.,
in relation to firms of similar size, capacity, nature, industry or trade
present a vivid picture of comparative strong points and weak points. The
firms can improve their activities accordingly. Firms thus supply
information reports on their activities in the form of ratios, figures etc.

7. Complaints

Public relations firmly believe in openness and honest communication.

Public complaints, suggestions and response constitute a complaint
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communication system. The public is any group of people which shares a

common interest. An organisation with its effective communication talent
has to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an
organisation and its public. Complaints made by the public are to be
attended to, and suggestions offered should be considered. A complaintis
really a favour done to the company.

Correspondence with the company is a good means of communication, in

particular, face-to-face conversation is still effective. Acknowledging a
complaint and giving a decision without delay promotes goodwill. It is
social responsibility of business as a form of activity to entertain and be
responsive to complaints and suggestions. The social responsibility of a
business entails obligations which a business owes to society.
Communication sets in all spheres of enquiries, complaints and

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Without reaching for the moon, tentative analysis of experience with a

large number of public relations managers has indicated, in a general
sense, the following as the basic qualities required in successful managers:

1. Mental ability:A combination of planning sense, foresight,

orderliness of mind and judgement, which will result in willingness to
think straight, and in a thoroughness and promptness of decision.

2. Ability to see the other person's point of view, and to be as critical of

oneself as of others; this is the basis of the ability to work with other

3. Integrity, in the sense of mental honesty.

4. A restrained self-confidence, coupled with initiative and


5. A balanced temperament particularly the absence of such traits as

emotional stability, a sense of marked inferiority, forcefulness and self-
centred outlook.


The need for public relations is clearly explained n the points
below –

1. Communication :

The means for communication have reached , technically ,almost a stage

of perfection .It is today financially possible for practically everybody –at
least in the advanced nations- to receive information. The level of
education of a wide circle of the population is rising rapidly and this
ensures a steady increase in the capacity for receiving information which

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is guaranteed by the ‘constitution.’ Adequate information is, therefore,

theoretically possible although it is by no means guaranteed in each
individual case.

2. New Information Order:

Whether we are correctly informed is far more difficult to answer. Many

books, many discussions in academies in radio and television in India and
abroad, and countless lectures, not excluding those in ‘Information
Society’ and ‘New Information Order’, as far as we are aware, a correct
reply is yet to be received. The only answer, according to the philosopher
Karl Jaspers given in 1963, is

“we in the Free World have the chance to share the responsibility and find

ways of receiving the best possible information.”

3. Information Load:

Also called message load or quantity, The sceptic will, of course, draw our
attention to the flood of information to which we are all exposed today.
The proper reply to this is that this flood is largely without direction and
that it is incomplete or inaccurate. Information must be prepared. Essential
information must be separated from trivial matter, and the interest of the
receiver must be aroused in the right direction. In the organization that
ignorance, the inability to appreciate or organization , superficial
knowledge is extremely likely to result in dislikes, dissatisfaction and
outright rejection with all their disastrous concequences. What we require
is a fair means of information which eliminates existing or awakened
suspicions, which builds up understanding, and creates confidence. This
is what we call Public Relations.

4. Mutuality and Understanding:

Going by the definition of public relations, the mutuality is based on interaction

between consideration for public opinion, and the need of the communicator or
organization to inform or establish contact. Understanding is created by providing
insight into, and reporting on all essential matters. Confidence is cultivated by

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bringing the aim of the organization into harmony with the public interest, thus
winning and maintaining goodwill among the general public. From all these facts,
it is clear what the purpose of this ‘Activity in, for, and with. The public' is : To
act and not to react; to create anatmosphere of confidence by an active
information policy, the passive part of which consists in answering queries ; to
inform the public and exert influence towards the inside as a form of corporate
and social counter control to establish direct or indirect connections with the
public, to fulfill a kind of interpreters’s function towards the public and to control
communicative reaction.



Advertising is publicity but not all publicity is advertising. It is the business of

selling goods, services and ideas by inducing people to want them. It is drawing
attention of public by big public announcement t o a commodity or service with
the aim of selling it.Advertising may also be defined as the purchase of space in
the press, or time over the radio and television to promote the sale of products or
ideas, and to build up the corporate image of an institution. Advertising is one of
the forces of modernisation and cuts across Ideologies.

Any advertising campaign should contain in it the broad ingredent of public

interest. The specific categories of public interest advertising are:

1. Corporate Advertising

It explains the continuing research, engineering and management efforts a

company makes to improve its products or services. It can be called the voice of
management speaking not only to customers, but also to investors, suppliers,
distributors, employees -present and potential – and leaders of public opinion.

2. Public Relations Advertising

It discusses the problems, policies, social philosophy, or economic goals of a

company or industry, illuminates some aspect of the Nation's scene; discusses the
basic principles of its enterprise, notably with respect to foreign collaboration for
the reader to shed light on the economy or the society in which he lives.

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3. Public Service Advertising

It is designed to promote voluntary individual actions to solve national problems

such as better roads, prevention of floods, better health care, family planning and
rehabilitation of the handicapped. Also encouraging cultural activities, tourism,
secularism, buying of Unit Trust Certificates, voting in national elections,
reducing prejudices, and other worthwhile causes.


Publicity is the technique of 'telling the story' of any organisation or cause. It is

the umbrella term which in its meaning covers all the techniques employed to get
a story across to the public. It is weapon of war, an instrument of sales, a tool of
politics. Basically publicity is news. It has to be news, that is, be of interest to be
carried. Publicity includes advertising because advertising, like publicity, tells the
story. But in general usage, publicity is used to describe those expressions where
the medium is not paid for; whereas advertising consists of paying for the medium
to get the story told.

Advertising vis-a-vis Publicity

If public relations may be broadly considered, as it is by many, as the act of right

living, or 'being a good citizen', publicity is the act of telling the world about right
living or good citizenship. The role of public relations is to make a light worth
projecting. The art of publicity is the act of projecting the light.


In pre-partition era, PR tools like spi doctors & a desk visit were used to establish
a favourable image an environment between the rulers and the common man It
was a deliberate effort to win & retain the public confidence sympathy and

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During partition, leaders like Mohammad Ali Johar, Allama Iqbal, Sir syed
khan, Quaid-e-Azam & etc used ethical communication techniques to reach the
audience.Other than the leaders, newspapers like Nation, Dawn & Pakistan times
played a pivotal role in shaping the public opinion.


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Levi Strauss & Co. (LS&CO) is a privately held clothing company

known worldwide for its Levi's brand of denim jeans. It was founded in 1853
when Levi Strauss came from Buttenheim, Franconia, (Kingdom of Bavaria) to
San Francisco, California to open a west coast branch of his brothers' New York
dry goods business. Although the company began producing denim overalls in the
1870s, modern jeans were not produced until the 1920s. The company briefly
experimented (in the 1970s) with employee ownership and a public stock listing,
but remains owned and controlled by descendants and relatives of Levi Strauss'.


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The story of Levi Strauss & Co. and our brands is filled with examples of the key
role our values have played in meeting consumer needs. Likewise, our brands
embody many of the core values that our consumers live by. This is why our
brands have stood the test of time.It is this special relationship between our
values, our consumers and our brands that is the basis of our success and drives
our core purpose. It is the foundation of who we are and what we want to become:

People love our clothes and trust our company.

We will market and distribute the most appealing and widely worn apparel brands.

Our products define quality, style and function.

We will clothe the world.

Our values are fundamental to our success. They are the foundation of our
company, define who we are and set us apart from the competition. They underlie
our vision of the future, our business strategies and our decisions, actions and
behaviors. We live by them. They endure. Four core values are at the heart of
Levi Strauss & Co.: Empathy, Originality, Integrity and Courage success.


In April 2000, Sears and Levi’s announced a co-sponsorship of Christina
Aguilera’s first headlining tour. Aguilera, one of the top female singers in the
world, had just been honored with the Grammy for Best New Artist. Through the
Sears and Levi’s Present Christina Aguilera in Concert tour, Sears and Levi’s
captured the attention of teens across America.

Situation Analysis:

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The greatest challenge posed by the sponsorship was developing national and
local programs The PR team researched teen views, trends and interests to design
programs that appealed to them, while creating synergy between Sears, Levi’s and
Christina. In addition, the PR team determined the best way to reach this young
audience¾through television, teen-specific magazines, Hispanic publications,
newspapers and pop radio stations¾and concentrated media efforts to target these

PR Planning Process & Objectives

The public relations program was designed to create widespread consumer
awareness of Sears and Levi’s sponsorship of the tour through fun, interactive
activities for fans and consumers, and through extensive national and local media
coverage. By reaching the target audience – teens – Sears aimed to enhance the
company’s image as a contemporary and compelling place to shop, and to
increase teen store traffic – most importantly among Levi’s displays – during the
key back-to-school selling period.

Strategic Approach
To keep Sears and Levi’s in the news prior to and throughout the tour, the PR
team developed a two-tiered public relations program to support both national
activities and local events in the 35 tour markets. In addition to working with the
Sears and Levi’s advertising, event marketing and promotions groups to promote
the integrated marketing campaign, the PR team developed national and local
public relations-driven events to fully leverage and maximize awareness of the
Sears and Levi’s Present Christina Aguilera in Concert tour.

Execution Elements
Tour Launch: In April 2000, Sears, Levi’s and Christina announced the details of
the sponsorship during a radio media tour in New York City. The PR team also
secured placements in USA Today and on the television entertainment program
Access Hollywood. Sears and Levi’s PR then partnered with Access Hollywood to
make the show the “official program” of Christina’s tour.

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Following the tour launch, the PR team continued to build excitement with the
distribution of tour media kits. The kits were distributed nationally to business,
entertainment, teen, Hispanic and consumer media, and locally to business,
entertainment and youth/teen reporters in the 35 U.S. tour cities. Extensive
follow-up ensured vast media coverage of both the consumer and business angles
of the sponsorship. Sears and Levi’s also teamed with teen magazines, including
Teen and Seventeen, to create exclusive “Sears, Levi’s and Christina” sweepstakes
for prizes including the chance to meet Christina backstage before a show.

National Promotion:
The Sears and Levi’s PR team provided support for the Sears and Levi’s Present
Christina Aguilera In Concert tour national sweepstakes, focusing on the
sweepstakes announcement and the promotion fulfillment. To kick off the
promotion, Sears announced the shopping spree sweepstakes through a national
media campaign

Flexibility and creativity allowed the Sears PR team to continue achieving goals
throughout the course of the sponsorship in light of several obstacles. Last year’s
SAG/AFTRA strike prevented publicity surrounding the filming and launch of the
advertising campaign, a key component of the PR plan. However, the PR team
shifted the focus to a “marketing campaign” launch, pushing the business angle
and resulting in numerous national hits. Though Christina’s participation in the
Sears and Levi’s PR program was limited by her schedule, Sears and Levi’s
maximized the media and consumer exposure of her involvement through
soundbites obtained during/for satellite media tours, video news releases and a
public service announcement.

Media And Branding Results

The public relations efforts surrounding the Sears and Levi’s Present Christina
Aguilera in Concert tour generated the results that teens were significantly more
likely to shop at Sears and purchase Levi’s as a results of the Christina Aguilera
tour sponsorship

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Karachi University
Thank You

Public Relation is the communication function
organization and its publics.Public Relations is
related to ethical questions and ensuring that
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Practitioners or Human resource Manager

operate ethically
Is fundamental to the professionalism and
credibility of the
I observed that the main functions of PR
practitioners is
marketing and promotional publicity,verbal
communication and
financial and community relation.An effective
Human Resource
manager write reports,publicity material and
establish contacts
with press,radio and TV networks.
As a public relations professional, we are
obligated to
support our colleagues. We are obligated to be
to your peers. To produce unprofessional work
is unethical.
Allowing others to produce unprofessional work
borders on
being unethical. Ask sourself, "Is what I'm
about to do
professional? Is it what my role models would
Finally, society is the key component to
ethical public
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relations decisions. We must serve the public

interest. I
believe that this particular master takes
precedence over all
the others, including self.

♦ Gray Dessler,Human Resource Management,11th edition
♦ Bernays, Edward L. Biography of an Idea. Simon and Shuster, New
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♦ Cohen, Paula M. A Public Relations Primer. Prentice-Hall,
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♦ Cutlip, Scott M. Public Relations History: From the 17th to the
20th Century, The Antecedents. Lawerence Erlbaulm Publishers,
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♦ Grunig, James E. and Hunt Todd, Managing Public
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♦ Matzer, Rose, "Public Relations Industry Timeline," Public Relations
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♦ Encyclopedia, Infonautics, Facts on
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♦ Google,
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Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi
Public Relation In Corporate Sectors______________________________

♦ Previous projects by internet
♦ Well known software and tools
♦ Bureau of Labor Statistics (

Department Of Commerce
University Of Karachi