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Primary Years Programme

Developing a transdisciplinary
programme of inquiry
Primary Years Programme
Developing a transdisciplinary
programme of inquiry
Published February 2012
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Primary Years Programme
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
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PYP137
IB mission statement
The International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to
create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.
To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop
challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.
These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners
who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.
IB learner profile
The aim of all IB programmes is to develop internationally minded people who, recognizing their common
humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.
IB learners strive to be:
Inquirers They develop their natural curiosity. They acquire the skills necessary to conduct inquiry
and research and show independence in learning. They actively enjoy learning and this
love of learning will be sustained throughout their lives.
Knowledgeable They explore concepts, ideas and issues that have local and global significance. In so
doing, they acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding across a broad and
balanced range of disciplines.
Thinkers They exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognize
and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions.
Communicators They understand and express ideas and information confidently and creatively in more
than one language and in a variety of modes of communication. They work effectively
and willingly in collaboration with others.
Principled They act with integrity and honesty, with a strong sense of fairness, justice and respect
for the dignity of the individual, groups and communities. They take responsibility for
their own actions and the consequences that accompany them.
Open-minded They understand and appreciate their own cultures and personal histories, and are open
to the perspectives, values and traditions of other individuals and communities. They are
accustomed to seeking and evaluating a range of points of view, and are willing to grow
from the experience.
Caring They show empathy, compassion and respect towards the needs and feelings of others.
They have a personal commitment to service, and act to make a positive difference to the
lives of others and to the environment.
Risk-takers They approach unfamiliar situations and uncertainty with courage and forethought,
and have the independence of spirit to explore new roles, ideas and strategies. They are
brave and articulate in defending their beliefs.
Balanced They understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance to
achieve personal well-being for themselves and others.
Reflective They give thoughtful consideration to their own learning and experience. They are able
to assess and understand their strengths and limitations in order to support their learning
and personal development.
International Baccalaureate Organization 2007
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Contents
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 1
Introduction 1
What does a programme of inquiry include? 3
Developing a programme of inquiry forthefirsttime 7
Connections with the subject-specific scopeandsequences 8
Refining a programme of inquiry 9
Teaching using the programme of inquiry 11
Evaluating a programme of inquiry 12
How the PYP sample programme of inquiry (2012) was developed 14
Resources 18
Samples 19
Sample programme of inquiry (2012) 20
Sample programme of inquiry (2008) 24
Annex 27
PYP programme of inquiry rubric 28
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 1
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Introduction
This document aims to give guidance to schools developing a new transdisciplinary programme of inquiry,
or revising an existing one.
The curriculum in a Primary Years Programme (PYP) school includes all student activities, academic and
non-academic, for which the school takes responsibility. The curriculum is expressed as three interrelated
components: the written, the taught and the assessed curriculums. All have an impact on student learning.
At the heart of the curriculum is the learner constructing meaning.
Each school is required to document its written curriculum as specified in the International Baccalaureate
(IB) Programme standards and practices (IB 2010).
The written curriculum is comprehensive and aligns with the requirements of
the programme(s).
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.1 (IB 2010)
The written curriculum identifies what is worth knowing for students. When developing the written
curriculum in their schools, teachers and administrators need to consider the transdisciplinary themes
and the subject-specific knowledge, concepts and skills.
The knowledge component of the written curriculum is determined by the belief that there are areas of
knowledge that, while important for any student, are especially significant in schools that aim to promote
international-mindedness on the part of their students.
The work of Ernest Boyer (Boyer 1995) has been seminal to the development of the PYP. Boyer proposed
that students explore a set of themes that represents shared human experiences. He referred to these as
core commonalities. Debate and discussion, representing multiple perspectives, about this idea of human
commonalities have led to the selection of six transdisciplinary themes (see Figure1) that are considered
essential in the context of a programme of international education. These themes:
have global significancefor all students in all cultures
offer students the opportunity to explore the commonalities of human experience
are supported by knowledge, concepts and skills from the traditional subject areas but utilize them in
ways that transcend the confines of these subjects, thereby contributing to a transdisciplinary model
of teaching and learning
will be revisited throughout the students years of schooling, so that the end result is immersion in
broad-ranging, in-depth, articulated curriculum content
contribute to the common ground that unifies the curriculums in all PYP schools.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 2
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
PYP transdisciplinary themes
Who we are
An inquiry into the nature of the self; beliefs and values; personal, physical, mental, social and
spiritual health; human relationships including families, friends, communities, and cultures; rights
and responsibilities; what it means to be human.
Where we are in place and time
An inquiry into orientation in place and time; personal histories; homes and journeys; the
discoveries, explorations and migrations of humankind; the relationships between and the
interconnectedness of individuals and civilizations, from local and global perspectives.
How we express ourselves
An inquiry into the ways in which we discover and express ideas, feelings, nature, culture, beliefs
and values; the ways in which we reflect on, extend and enjoy our creativity; our appreciation of
the aesthetic.
How the world works
An inquiry into the natural world and its laws; the interaction between the natural world (physical
and biological) and human societies; how humans use their understanding of scientific principles;
the impact of scientific and technological advances on society and on the environment.
How we organize ourselves
An inquiry into the interconnectedness of human-made systems and communities; the structure
and function of organizations; societal decision-making; economic activities and their impact on
humankind and the environment.
Sharing the planet
An inquiry into rights and responsibilities in the struggle to share finite resources with other
people and with other living things; communities and the relationships within and between
them; access to equal opportunities; peace and conflict resolution.
Figure 1
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 3
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
The PYP requirements under standard C2 state that:
The written curriculum incorporates relevant experiences for students.
a. The written curriculum provides opportunities for student learning
that is significant, relevant, engaging and challenging.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.6 (IB 2010)
The written curriculum promotes students awareness of individual, local,
national and world issues.
a. The programme of inquiry includes the study of host or home country,
the culture of individual students and the culture of others, including
their belief systems.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.7 (IB 2010)
The written curriculum provides opportunities for reflection on human
commonality, diversity and multiple perspectives.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.8 (IB 2010)
These requirements ensure that students inquire into, and learn about, globally significant issues in the
context of units of inquiry, each of which addresses a central idea relevant to a particular transdisciplinary
theme. These units collectively constitute the schools programme of inquiry, providing a scaffold for the
development of international-mindedness.
What does a programme of inquiry include?
The PYP requirements under practice C1.3 state that:
Collaborative planning and reflection addresses vertical and horizontal articulation.
a. There is a systematic approach to integration of the subject-specific
scope and sequences and the programme of inquiry.
b. The school ensures bal ance and ar ti cul ati on bet ween the
transdisciplinary programme of inquiry and any additional single-
subject teaching.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C1.3 (IB 2010)
In addition, the PYP requirements under practice C2.1 outline the content of a schools programme of inquiry.
The written curriculum is comprehensive and aligns with the requirements of
the programme(s).
a. The programme of inquiry consists of six units of inquiryone for
each transdisciplinary themeat each year/grade level, with the
exception of students who are 35 years, where the requirement is at
least four units at each year/grade level, two of which must be under
Who we are and How we express ourselves.
b. The school ensures that there is a coherent, horizontally and vertically
articulated programme of inquiry.
c. The Pri mar y Years Programme exhi bi ti on i s one of the si x
transdisciplinary units of inquiry in the final year of the programme.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.1 (IB 2010)
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 4
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Schools should be mindful of the fact that the transdisciplinary programme of inquiry is not merely a novel
way of repackaging subject-specific content. Rather, it is a way of students using a range of subject-specific
knowledge, concepts and skills in order to develop a deeper understanding of the transdisciplinary themes.
Transdisciplinary themes
The programme of inquiry is a matrix made up of the six transdisciplinary themes running vertically,
and the age groups running horizontally. Organizing the curriculum around the six transdisciplinary
themes contextualizes the learning for the students. It enables them to experience a balance of subject-
specific knowledge, concepts and skills in order to develop an understanding of the transdisciplinary
themes (see Figure1).
Each transdisciplinary theme is accompanied by a description that explains what students will be inquiring
into under this theme. This description should be referred to continually to ensure the relevance of the
central ideas beneath it. It should be used as a tool to ensure the balance of the units of inquiry under each
theme, rather than as a checklist.
All aspects of the descriptions of the transdisciplinary themes should be explored at some point in the
programme of inquiry. The exception to this is schools that have fewer than five grade/year levels. Schools
in this category should endeavour to address all aspects of the descriptions of the transdisciplinary themes
in a reasonable manner in the number of years available to them.
Units of inquiry
In each of the cells of the matrix, a unit of inquiry is documented that is age-appropriate. Each unit of inquiry
on the programme of inquiry should consist of a central idea, key concepts, related concepts, and lines of
inquiry, as described in Figure2.
Example of a unit on a programme of inquiry
An inquiry into:
How we organize ourselves
An inquiry into the interconnectedness of human-made systems and communities; the structure and function
of organizations; societal decision-making; economic activities and their impact on humankind and the
environment.
910 years
Central idea
New digital media changes the way in which people access information and connect to each other.
Key concepts: function, causation, connection
Related concepts: networks, access, ethics, platform
Lines of inquiry
How new digital media is used or organized
Evaluating information
Our responsibility in virtual environments
Figure 2
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 5
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Central idea
Each of the units of inquiry has a central idea. The central idea should be written in one sentence that
expresses concisely an enduring understanding. Each central idea will support students understanding of
the particular transdisciplinary theme it is connected to, and should challenge and extend students prior
knowledge. Central ideas should be globally significant and have relevance to students in all cultures and
contexts, offering students the opportunity to explore commonalities of human experience as framed by
the description of the transdisciplinary theme.
Central ideas should be written in a neutral voice that does not convey a specific or particular value of an
individual or group, eg teachers. In the development of central ideas, wording that is overly subjective,
suggests bias, or implies judgment, opinion or expected behaviours should be avoided. Central ideas
should be written in such a way to invite student inquiry, so that a range of responses is possible. This is so
that students are encouraged to uncover the complexity of a central idea, construct their own meaning and
assign their own value to the ideas being explored.
Each central idea should be written so as to promote conceptual development supported by the PYP key
concepts identified for the unit of inquiry. This does not mean that the name of a PYP key concept has to be
recorded in the central idea, but rather that the central idea has a conceptual underpinning that will help
students develop their ability to think conceptually.
Clear links between the transdisciplinary theme, the central idea and the associated lines of inquiry need
to be established and articulated. The summative assessment tasks (documented in the PYP planner that
accompanies the unit of inquiry) should also be articulated with the central idea: if there is no effective
way in which students can demonstrateor teachers assesstheir understanding of the central idea, the
central idea will need to be revised until such assessment is possible.
Development of central ideas requires time, careful thought and collaboration among staff. At times,
students may also be involved. The central idea should be engaging, relevant, challenging and significant,
and written as a concise statement. The central idea should be compelling to learners of all abilities. Learners
of various abilities and ages can study a well-formulated central idea to differing depths.
Central ideas do not have to be worded in a complex way, nor do they have to be written in language
appropriate to the age of the students. Words that students may not have come across before, but are
essential to the understanding of the central idea, should be included. This means that the central idea
may need to be unpacked by the teachers or students and discussed in language that the students can
understand. By the end of a unit of inquiry, it is reasonable to expect students to be articulate about the
central idea and to explain their understanding in their own words.
At the planning stage, it may hinder the development of the unit of inquiry to spend time trying to come
up with a catchy title in addition to the central idea. For this reason, the PYP sample programme of inquiry
does not contain titles. There is evidence in some cases that, over time, the titles used to label the units may
obscure the articulation between the central idea and the transdisciplinary theme. However, in the context
of a school it may be convenient for teachers or students to add titles at a later stage in order to facilitate
discussion about the units of inquiry.
Concepts
A schools programme of inquiry should demonstrate the opportunity for deeper exploration of all eight
PYP key concepts. All eight key concepts must be represented on the programme of inquiry at each grade/
year level.
The central idea should be designed to promote conceptual development. The concepts are identified early
in the process and embedded in the central idea to help students to extend their critical thinking capacity.
Listing the concepts (key concepts and related concepts) on the programme of inquiry will help to focus the
direction of the inquiries. No more than three PYP key concepts should be selected to focus on in any one
unit of inquiry.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 6
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Related concepts derived from the key concepts and from the subject areas should also be listed. They
deepen an understanding of the subject areas while providing further opportunities to make connections
throughout the learning, from one subject to another, and between disciplinary and transdisciplinary
learning.
Alignment between the PYP key concepts, related concepts and lines of inquiry of a unit will provide
opportunities for students conceptual development, and deepen their understanding of the central idea.
There should be a balance of PYP key concepts used throughout each transdisciplinary theme. This does
not mean that each key concept must be represented under each transdisciplinary theme but rather that
schools are mindful of repetition or under-representation of concepts in order to ensure that there are
appropriate opportunities for students to revisit and develop their understanding of all concepts.
Lines of inquiry
The purpose of the lines of inquiry is to clarify and develop understanding of the central idea. Each unit of
inquiry will contain three or four lines of inquiry and these should be written as statements or phrases, not
as questions, topics or tasks. There should be evidence of a connection between the lines of inquiry and
aspects of the designated transdisciplinary theme.
Lines of inquiry should be written in such a manner as to develop conceptual understanding supported by
the identified PYP key concepts and related concepts. Lines of inquiry should be relevant to the experience
of the students within a particular developmental range. The lines of inquiry, as a set, should define the
scope of the inquiry and help to focus student research. However, they should be open enough to extend
student inquiries, and deepen understanding of the central idea.
In addition, lines of inquiry should be written in such a way as to provide opportunities for students to
develop their understanding through multiple perspectives. To support this development of understanding,
the lines of inquiry should be distinctive yet connected to one another, to provide a coherent context for
learning.
Number of units of inquiry in the matrix
There could be as many as 54 units of inquiry in a programme of inquiry if schools have students aged 3 to
12 years old. However, as students aged 3 to 5 years only have to complete a minimum of four units, schools
will generally have fewer units in the matrix.
Recording the exhibition on a programme of inquiry
In schools with three or more grade/year levels, it is a requirement that students participate in a PYP
exhibition in the final grade/year of the school. In the exhibition grade/year, it is advisable that the school
develops six units of inquiry (one for each of the transdisciplinary themes) and records these on the
programme of inquiry.
The practice of developing a unit of inquiry under each transdisciplinary theme leads to a balanced
programme of inquiry where understanding of each transdisciplinary theme is developed as fully as
possible across the school. Every year, the school (with student involvement) replaces one of the six units
with the PYP exhibition. The transdisciplinary theme under which the exhibition sits may differ from year
to year depending on the issue selected (the exhibition may strongly reflect one particular theme but it is
more likely that it will synthesize aspects of some or all of the transdisciplinary themes).
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 7
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Developing a programme of inquiry forthefirsttime
The PYP requirement under practice C1.1 states that:
Collaborative planning and reflection addresses the requirements of the
programme(s).
a. The programme of inquiry and all corresponding unit planners are the
product of sustained collaborative work involving all the appropriate
staff.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C1.1 (IB 2010)
The task of developing a programme of inquiry is one the whole staff, including classroom teachers and
single-subject teachers, takes responsibility for. It represents a sustained collaborative process involving all
the appropriate PYP staff, full-time or part-time, to the fullest possible extent.
It is the role and responsibility of the PYP coordinator to facilitate the process in a manner that he or she
believes will work best for the staff. This may involve a series of small-group meetings and/or whole-staff
meetings. Examples of how the process could work include the following.
A core group of teachers develops a skeleton programme of inquiry that is then shared and fully
developed with the rest of the staff.
Groups of teachers develop units, either by age range or under each of the transdisciplinary themes.
The whole staff then reviews the programme of inquiry to consider areas of redundancy or omissions.
A national, regional or state curriculum may require that certain content be included in a schools
programme of inquiry. The staff works to consider how this predetermined content might help to
promote an understanding of the transdisciplinary themes.
The whole staff works together all the way through the process to develop the complete programme
of inquiry.
Schools should be aware that whatever method is selected for the development of a programme of inquiry,
the process is a lengthy one, requiring many hours of collaboration and discussion. After a programme of
inquiry has been developed, there will be many further refinements.
All PYP teaching staff, whether full-time or part-time, classroom teacher or single-subject teacher, then have
the responsibility to develop accompanying planners that correspond to the units on the programme of
inquiry.
When a school begins the process of developing a programme of inquiry, it should make use of the PYP
subject-specific scope and sequences, the PYP sample programme of inquiry, and any other curriculum
documents that the school may consider essential. Any national, local or regional requirements will guide
the units of inquiry that a school chooses to develop and include in its programme of inquiry.
Providing high-quality resources for a new programme of inquiry may be expensive and time consuming.
The resources available in a school (artifacts, audio-visual materials, books, people, places and technology)
should all be carefully considered when a school develops a programme of inquiry in order to make the best
use of the resources it already has. Additionally, consideration should be given to the resources available in
the local community in order to provide a meaningful context for inquiry.
It is sometimes necessary to translate the programme of inquiry for those in the school community who
need to understand the central ideas in a different language. This must be undertaken very carefully so that
the concepts embedded in each central idea are not lost in the translation. For dual language schools that
have to communicate the programme of inquiry to the school community in two languages, it is of particular
importance to ensure consistency of conceptual understanding across both languages of instruction.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 8
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Connections with the subject-specific
scopeandsequences
The PYP requirements under practice C1.3 state that:
Collaborative planning and reflection addresses vertical and horizontal articulation.
a. There is a systematic approach to integration of the subject-specific
scope and sequences and the programme of inquiry.
b. The school ensures bal ance and ar ti cul ati on bet ween the
transdisciplinary programme of inquiry and any additional single-
subject teaching.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C1.3 (IB 2010)
The schools programme of inquiry and subject-specific scope and sequence documents are key
components of the written curriculum.
The importance of the traditional subject areas is acknowledged. Indeed, the subject areas of language,
mathematics, science, social studies, arts, and personal, social and physical education (PSPE) are specified
as components of the PYP curriculum model. However, it is also recognized that educating students in a set
of isolated subject areas, while necessary, is not sufficient. Of equal importance is the need to acquire skills
in context, and to explore content that is relevant to students and that transcends the boundaries of the
traditional subjects.
To be truly educated, a student must also make connections across the
disciplines, discover ways to integrate the separate subjects, and ultimately
relate what they learn to life.
(Boyer 1995)
When planning a programme of inquiry, schools should be aware that all significant science and social
studies teaching should take place within the programme of inquiry. Moreover, knowledge, concepts and
skills from any of the other subject areas, ie language, mathematics, PSPE and arts, should be included
in the programme of inquiry whenever there is an authentic connection to the students learning and
understanding of the transdisciplinary theme. Aspects of PSPE are pervasive across the curriculum and are
the responsibility of all teachers. Therefore PSPE needs to be considered in all areas of the curriculum and
not just in the transdisciplinary programme of inquiry.
Relevant subject area tags have not been included in the PYP programme of inquiry samples included in this
publication in order to demonstrate that coverage of subject areas was not the driver in the collaborative
planning process. However, after the development of the programme of inquiry, it is appropriate to identify
when a unit has provided the opportunity for teaching about or through a particular subject area in order to
address the balance between transdisciplinary and disciplinary learning in the PYP. It is suggested that two
or three PYP subject areas that will support understanding of the central idea be identified and recorded for
each unit on the programme of inquiry. All PYP subject areas should be represented within the programme
of inquiry at each grade/year level. Additionally, there should be a balance of PYP subject areas identified to
support understanding of each transdisciplinary theme (this does not mean that each subject area must be
represented under each transdisciplinary theme).
The scope and sequence documents represent the planned learning within the subject areas. They inform
the order of the units of inquiry and the teaching of any further knowledge, concepts and skills within each
grade/year level. Depending on the circumstances of the individual school, these scope and sequence
documents may be those published by the IB or adaptations thereof; they may be required content as
specified by national, state or regional governing agencies; they may be developed entirely by the school;
or they may be a combination of these things.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 9
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
There should be a process of mapping the scope and sequence documents (whether they are mandated by
the state, region or nation or developed by the school) with the programme of inquiry. This cross-referencing
should continue between the documents throughout the ongoing development of the programme of
inquiry. The scope and sequence documents should also be cross-referenced with each other as well as with
the programme of inquiry.
The subject-specific strand descriptors in the annex of Making the PYP happen: A curriculum framework for
international primary education (IB 2009) and the PYP subject-specific scope and sequence documents may be
used as a tool to ensure that the balance of subject-specific knowledge and skills is purposefully integrated.
Note: The IB would encourage independent schools functioning with considerable autonomy to
use the PYP subject-specific scope and sequence documents and not spend unnecessary time
developing their own.
Refining a programme of inquiry
The PYP requirement under practice C2.9 states that:
The written curriculum is informed by current IB publications and is reviewed
regularly to incorporate developments in the programme(s).
a. There is a system for regular review and refinement of the programme
of inquiry, individual units of inquiry and the subject-specific scope
and sequences.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.9 (IB 2010)
The development of the schools programme of inquiry and the accompanying scope and sequence
documents will differ in each setting due to the nature of the school and any locally or regionally determined
subject requirements. The transdisciplinary themes provide the basis for much discussion and interpretation
within a school, and allow for both local and global perspectives to be explored in the units. Consequently,
it would be inappropriate for the PYP to attempt to produce a definitive programme of inquiry to be used
by all schools. However, two sample programmes of inquiry are included in this publication for schools to
use and adapt as they wish.
The PYP philosophy and practices have more of an impact on a schools culture when the individuals in
the school work collaboratively to develop a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry designed to meet the
schools needs and predetermined requirements. Schools should explore the possibilities for links between
the units taught at each year level, and also across the different age ranges, so that the programme of
inquiry is articulated both vertically and horizontally.
The units of inquiry that are chosen and developed should illuminate the transdisciplinary theme under
which they are placed. A rigorous central idea that is conceptually rich will be targeted specifically to a
particular transdisciplinary theme. The lines of inquiry will help to identify and clarify the direction the unit
will take and, consequently, make the choice of transdisciplinary theme clearer. The concepts that drive the
inquiry will also match the appropriate transdisciplinary theme for each grade/year level.
When schools have completed their first draft of a programme of inquiry, they should check for breadth and
balance both vertically (down each transdisciplinary theme) and horizontally (across the year or grade level).
This will ensure that a balance of subject-specific knowledge, concepts and skills has been included in the
programme of inquiry, allowing the learner to build conceptual understanding and explore the essence of
each transdisciplinary theme (see Figure3).
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 10
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Balance and articulation within a programme of inquiry
Age Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme
34
45
56
67
78
89
910
1011
1112
Ensure balance throughout the entire programme of inquiry by:
checking that all eight PYP key concepts are represented at each grade/
year level
making sure that a balance of PYP key concepts are used throughout each
transdisciplinary theme
cross-referencing between units to check for repetitions in central ideas
and lines of inquiry
mapping with subject-specific scope and sequence documents
checking that all PYP subject areas are represented at each grade/year
level
checking the balance of PYP subject areas identified to support
understanding of each transdisciplinary theme
checking that all aspects of the descriptions of the transdisciplinary
themes are explored at some point.
Figure 3
Look for a balance of essential
elements across the units of
inquiry at each year level
horizontal alignment
Look for clear developmental
progression under each theme,
and check for repetitions or
omissionsvertical alignment
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 11
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Teaching using the programme of inquiry
The PYP requirement under practice B2.10 states that:
The student schedule or timetable allows for the requirements of the
programme(s) to be met.
a. The schedule or timetable allows for in-depth inquiry into the
transdisciplinary and disciplinary dimensions of the curriculum.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice B2.10 (IB 2010)
All teachers, including single-subject teachers whenever appropriate, have a responsibility for developing
planners to accompany the units of inquiry documented on the programme of inquiry. Sample planners are
available in other PYP publications on the online curriculum centre (OCC).
The central ideas indicate the concepts and knowledge that will be documented on the planners. It is then
the responsibility of the teachers to define the learning experiences and assessments they feel will allow
students to come to an understanding of the central idea. Summative assessment tasks and the evidence
of understanding that students will need to produce also need to be documented on the accompanying
planners. Schools should bear this in mind when developing central ideas.
Teachers of 35 year olds (early childhood) must plan and teach a minimum of four units of inquiry, which
include a unit under the transdisciplinary theme Who we are, and another under the theme How we express
ourselves. These two themes, in particular, are considered fundamentally relevant to all young students.
In the early childhood years, a substantial degree of flexibility is offered in terms of the length of the
required four units of inquiry. Due to the nature of development and learning during early childhood (35
years), it is acknowledged that some units may be year-long and, consequently, more than one unit may
be addressed at the same time. The same degree of flexibility regarding the length of the units for 35
year olds is considered appropriate for 56 year olds. However, for students aged 5 years and older, all six
transdisciplinary themes need to be addressed during the year. This flexibility is outlined in Making the PYP
happen: A curriculum framework for international primary education (IB 2009).
Teaching and learning, whenever possible and appropriate, should be within the schools programme of
inquiry. However, there are occasions when this is not practical. During these times, teachers may use a
number of the following models to teach subject-specific knowledge, concepts and skills.
Subject-specific inquiry: There are times when teachers will teach subject-specific knowledge,
concepts and skills, outside the programme of inquiry, using purposeful inquiry. They should use
the PYP planner to structure their planning for this type of inquiry. Teachers should still ensure that
authentic connections are made with the essential elements of the programme while maintaining the
integrity of the subject area.
Preparing for or following on from a unit within the programme of inquiry: The direct teaching
of subject-specific knowledge, concepts and skills in a unit of inquiry may not always be feasible but,
where appropriate, introductory or follow-up learning experiences may be useful to help students
make connections across the curriculum. Teachers plan and teach learning experiences that prepare
the students to participate in a unit of inquiry. Following on from a unit, students may demonstrate
their understanding of the central idea in a subject-specific activity.
Skills-based teaching: This refers to the teaching of subject-specific skills not directly related to a unit
of inquiry but to support mastery and increase students skills base in areas such as literacy, numeracy,
arts and PSPE. Nevertheless, teachers should be mindful that it is appropriate to develop and use
subject-specific skills in the context of units of inquiry. In fact, it could be argued, that this authentic,
contextualized learning is preferable.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 12
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Evaluating a programme of inquiry
The PYP requirement under practice C2.9 states that:
The written curriculum is informed by current IB publications and is reviewed
regularly to incorporate developments in the programme(s).
a. There is a system for regular review and refinement of the programme
of inquiry, individual units of inquiry and the subject-specific scope
and sequences.
IB Programme standards and practices: Practice C2.9 (IB 2010)
Schools should review and refine their programme of inquiry and scope and sequence documents regularly.
As they continue to develop and refine their programme of inquiry, there should be continual cross-
referencing with the scope and sequence documents.
Many schools choose to have a large printout of their programme of inquiry in a communal area that allows
teachers (and often parents and students) to make comments about the units of inquiry and the overall programme
of inquiry. The reflection on the relative success of the units of inquiry and the integration of the units throughout
the programme of inquiry are important aspects of evaluating how well the programme of inquiry is working.
After teachers have spent some time teaching the programme of inquiry, there are likely to be changes
that they wish to make to the units of inquiry. The school should determine the process it wishes to use
for incorporating these changes. For example, in some schools a request to change the units of inquiry
is made at the end of the year and the whole staff reviews the requests in order to identify any possible
redundancies or omissions these changes may cause in the schools programme of inquiry.
It is a useful habit to revisit regularly the theme descriptions under the transdisciplinary theme as a prompt
for expanding the scope of the central idea and making it more substantial.
The criteria in Figure 4 have been developed by the IB as a result of piloting a review service to provide
schools with feedback on their programme of inquiry. Schools will find these criteria useful in helping them
self-assess their programme of inquiry. A rubric that includes these criteria has been developed by the IB
to support the self-assessment process in schools. The rubric can be found in the annex of this publication.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 13
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Criteria for reviewing a schools programme of inquiry
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There are six central ideas for all grade/year levels (other than 35 year olds).
There are at least four central ideas at each grade/year level for 35 year olds including Who we are
and How we express ourselves.
Each central idea is written as one sentence.
The PYP key concepts have been identified (no more than three) for each unit of inquiry.
Central ideas are written in a neutral voice that does not convey a specific or particular value of an individual.
Central ideas are written in such a way to invite student inquiry, so that a range of responses is possible.
Central ideas are relevant to the transdisciplinary themes under which they have been placed.
Central ideas are written in such a manner as to develop conceptual understanding supported by
the identified PYP key concepts.
Central ideas are globally significant addressing the commonalities of human experience.
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Three or four lines of inquiry have been identified for each unit.
The lines of inquiry are written as statements or phrases, not questions, topics or tasks.
The lines of inquiry develop understanding of the central idea.
The lines of inquiry offer opportunities to develop understanding through multiple perspectives.
The lines of inquiry develop understanding of aspects of the designated transdisciplinary theme.
The lines of inquiry are relevant to the experience of the students within a particular developmental range.
Within the unit, the lines of inquiry are distinctive yet connected to one another.
The lines of inquiry are written in such a manner as to develop conceptual understanding supported
by the identified PYP key concepts and related concepts.
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All eight PYP key concepts are represented at each grade/year level.
There is a balance of PYP key concepts used throughout each transdisciplinary theme.
The related concepts are derived from the subject areas and connect to the PYP key concepts.
All the planned science and social studies content is incorporated into the programme of inquiry.
The school has mapped its subject-specific scope and sequences with its programme of inquiry.
Two or three PYP subject area focuses are recorded for each unit.
All PYP subject areas are represented within the programme of inquiry at each grade/year level.
There is a balance of PYP subject areas identified to support understanding of each transdisciplinary theme.
All aspects of the descriptions of the transdisciplinary themes are explored at some point in the
programme of inquiry.
The PYP subject areas identified will support students understanding of the central idea.
The units throughout the programme of inquiry challenge and extend students understanding.
Figure 4
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 14
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
How the PYP sample programme of inquiry (2012)
was developed
The development of a programme of inquiry within a school is an ongoing process. Teachers understanding
of concept-based, transdisciplinary inquiry is being strengthened through discussions with colleagues as
part of a schools professional development activities and through regular collaborative planning sessions.
Therefore each time a unit of inquiry is planned, taught and reflected upon, ways to improve the unit are
identified and this in turn informs the development of the entire programme of inquiry.
In order to support teachers in understanding the changes that have been incorporated into the PYP sample
programme of inquiry, a number of examples have been described here in more detail. Examples1 and 2 are
examples of units of inquiry where central ideas have been revised. Examples3 and 4 are examples of units of
inquiry where issues pertaining to lines of inquiry have been addressed. Examples5 and 6 illustrate how units
have been revised to strengthen balance and articulation across and within the programme of inquiry.
Each example includes an explanation of the changes that were made utilizing the criteria listed in Figure4, as
well as the units from both the 2008 sample (on the left-hand side) and the 2012 sample (on the right-hand side).
Example 1
The central idea in the 2008 sample is value-laden, in that it conveys the idea that our lives are enriched
by friendships. The central idea was broadened to incorporate other types of relationships that may be
significant to the students, eg classmates and neighbours. The new central idea does not convey a specific
value and is also more open to student inquiry, ensuring a range of responses is possible. The related
concepts and lines of inquiry were revised in light of the changes to the central idea.
2008 2012
Who we are
45 years
Central idea: Friendships enrich our lives and
require nurturing in order to develop.
Key concepts: causation, responsibility
Related concepts: conflict or cooperation,
interdependence
Lines of inquiry
How friends are made and kept
Why friends are needed
Characteristics that develop healthy
friendships
Who we are
45 years
Central idea: Peoples relationships with each
other can have an impact on well-being.
Key concepts: function, connection,
responsibility
Related concepts: cooperation, friendship,
balance
Lines of inquiry
How we develop relationships
How relationships affect us
Roles and behaviours within
relationships
Example 1
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 15
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Example 2
The central idea in the 2008 sample was not written in such a way as to be open to student inquiry, ensuring
a range of responses was possible. Limiting the focus to a workplace didnt allow for students to transfer the
understanding embedded in the central idea to other contexts. The lines of inquiry were also narrow in focus
and did not offer opportunities to explore multiple perspectives. When revising this unit, it became clear that the
aspect in the transdisciplinary theme that needed focusing on was the structure and function of organizations.
2008 2012
How we organize ourselves
78 years
Central idea: In a workplace people share
responsibility towards a common purpose.
Key concepts: function, causation connection
Related concepts: cooperation, employment
Lines of inquiry
Purpose of a workplace
Interconnectedness of people in a
workplace
Importance of a shared vision or
common purpose
How we organize ourselves
78 years
Central idea: People create organizations to
solve problems and support human endeavour
and enterprise.
Key concepts: function, connection, responsibility
Related concepts: work, collaboration,
entrepreneurship, service
Lines of inquiry
Purpose of organizations
Why people join organizations
Strategies for problem solving within an
organization
What makes an organization successful
Example 2
Example 3
The lines of inquiry in the 2008 sample were not written in such a way as to develop conceptual
understanding supported by the identified key and related concepts. In addition, the second line of inquiry
was too narrow in focus and would not allow for the exploration of multiple perspectives: not all places on
Earth experience seasonal changes. As a result of the discussion about the global significance of the lines of
inquiry, the central idea was revised to encompass other living things.
2008 2012
How the world works
34 years
Central idea: Our activity is usually connected
to the Earths natural cycles.
Key concepts: change, connection
Related concepts: cycles, interaction
Lines of inquiry
Night and day cycles (dark and light)
Seasonal changes
Health and safety as related to climate
and seasonal changes
How the world works
34 years
Central idea: The Earths natural cycles
influence the activity of living things.
Key concepts: causation, change, connection
Related concepts: cycles, interaction, pattern
Lines of inquiry
Natural cycles (eg night and day, weather
patterns, seasons)
The actions people take in response to
Earths natural cycles
Patterns of behaviour in living things
related to Earths natural cycles
Example 3
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 16
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Example 4
In the 2008 sample, the first two lines of inquiry were not written in such a way as to develop conceptual
understanding supported by the identified key and related concepts. For example, an inquiry into Types of
governance could result in students developing a list rather than a deeper understanding of How government
systems function. In order to ensure that the unit was inquiring more directly into aspects of the transdisciplinary
theme description of How we organize ourselves, the central idea and lines of inquiry were revised.
2008 2012
How we organize ourselves
1011 years
Central idea: Governmental systems
and decisions can promote or deny equal
opportunities and social justice.
Key concepts: function, responsibility
Related concepts: equality, government or
governance
Lines of inquiry
Types of governance
Principles of human rights and social justice
The effect of institutional behaviours and
attitudes on social justice
How we organize ourselves
1112 years
Central idea: Government systems influence
the lives of citizens.
Key concepts: function, perspective, responsibility
Related concepts: equality, citizenship,
governance, law, politics
Lines of inquiry
How government systems function
How decision-making practices reflect
human rights
Impact of government on citizens
The rights and responsibilities of citizenship
Example 4
Example 5
This unit of inquiry was not thought rigorous enough to challenge learners at the 910 year level. In addition,
it was decided that the central idea would be more appropriately placed under the transdisciplinary theme
Who we are. The central idea was revised to better reflect its new position under the transdisciplinary
theme Who we are. The lines of inquiry were reworked in order to ensure that they provided opportunities
for developing understanding of the revised central idea.
2008 2012
How we express ourselves
910 years
Central idea: Choices of role models
reflect the characteristics that societies and
individuals value.
Key concepts: causation, perspective, reflection
Related concepts: self-fulfillment, influence
Lines of inquiry
Role models and why we value them
Why we should develop our own gifts,
talents and interests
How personal strengths can be applied
to help others
Who we are
78 years
Central idea: Choices of role models reflect
the beliefs and values of individuals and
societies.
Key concepts: causation, perspective, reflection
Related concepts: identity, peer pressure,
opinion
Lines of inquiry
What determines our beliefs and values
How and why role models are chosen
Influence of role models on our choices
and actions
Example 5
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 17
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Example 6
The final example is the analysis of balance and articulation within and across transdisciplinary themes.
As part of the vertical analysis of the 2008 sample programme of inquiry, it was recognized that
not all aspects of all transdisciplinary theme descriptions were explored. For example, in the units
of inquiry under Sharing the planet, there was repeated exploration of living things and limited
prospects for exploring access to equal opportunities. In the units of inquiry under How we
organize ourselves, there were overlapping inquiries into human-made systems and communities
and fewer opportunities for inquiry into economic activities and their impact on humankind and
the environment. In response to this, several units were revised, and some were removed with new
units introduced in their place.
It was also decided that several units of inquiry would be better placed under different
transdisciplinary themes. For example, in the 2008 sample the 89 year unit of inquiry under How
we express ourselves with the central idea A variety of signs and symbols facilitates local and
global communication was really felt to be exploring systems of communication and therefore
belonged under How we organize ourselves.
Finally, there were a few units of inquiry that did not challenge and extend students understanding.
In some instances these units were improved or moved to a different age level. In other instances,
they were replaced with a completely new unit. For example, under the transdisciplinary theme
Where we are in place and time, the 34 year unit with the central idea Documenting personal
histories allows us to reflect on and celebrate who we are and where weve come from was not
deemed appropriate to the experience of this young age group and was replaced by a new unit
with the central idea Spaces and facilities in and around buildings determine how people use
them. Under the transdisciplinary theme Sharing the planet, the 89 year unit with the central
idea Water is essential to life, and is a limited resource for many people was removed. It was felt
that water as a resource could be explored in several other units under this transdisciplinary theme.
Example 6
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 18
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Resources
Boyer, EL. 1995. The Basic School: A Community for Learning. Princeton, NJ. Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching.
Bredekamp, S and Copple, C (eds). 1997. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs.
Washington, DC. National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Erickson, HL. 2001. Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul: Redefining Curriculum and Instruction. Thousand Oaks,
California. Corwin Press.
Erickson, HL. 2007. Concept-based Curriculum and Instruction for the Thinking Classroom. Thousand Oaks,
California. Corwin Press.
IB Programme standards and practices. October 2010. Cardiff, UK. International Baccalaureate.
Making the PYP happen: A curriculum framework for international primary education. December 2009. Cardiff,
UK. International Baccalaureate.
Pink, DH. 2005. A Whole New Mind: Moving from the Information Age to the Conceptual Age. New York.
Riverhead Books.
Science scope and sequence. July 2008. Cardiff, UK. International Baccalaureate.
Social studies scope and sequence. July 2008. Cardiff, UK. International Baccalaureate.
The PYP as a model for transdisciplinary learning. February 2010. Cardiff, UK. International Baccalaureate.
Tomlinson, CA. 2005. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Alexandria, Virginia.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Wells Lindfor, J. 1999. Childrens Inquiry: Using Language to Make Sense of the World. New York. Teachers
College Press.
Wiggins, G and McTighe, J. 1998. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, Virginia. Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development.
Zhao, Y. 2009. Catching Up or Leading the Way: American Education in the Age of Globalization. Alexandria,
Virginia. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 19
Samples
There are two sample programmes of inquiry included in this publication, one published in 2008 and one
developed for this publication in 2012.
The 2012 sample provides a starting point for schools when developing their own programmes of inquiry.
Schools are required to address the transdisciplinary themes, maintain both a vertical and horizontal
balance, and be able to defend the rationale for the inclusion of units in their programme of inquiry. The
specific units of inquiry in this sample programme of inquiry are not mandated and schools are free to make
use of them in any way that suits their particular needs. It is highly unlikely that this sample programme
of inquiry will fully meet the needs of any individual school. For many reasons, including availability of
resources, some units in the sample may not be appropriate for some schools.
The 2008 sample is included in this publication as it contains content that articulates with the Science scope
and sequence (IB 2008) and Social studies scope and sequence (IB 2008). Because of the changes incorporated
into the 2012 sample, it is not as closely aligned with these scope and sequences.
In addition to the information included in this publication, further support for understanding all aspects
of a programme of inquiry can be found in Making the PYP happen: A curriculum framework for international
primary education (IB 2009) and The PYP as a model for transdisciplinary learning (IB 2010).
The IB has attempted to make this sample programme of inquiry as balanced, complete and user-friendly
as possible. The PYP curriculum development team would appreciate your feedback on the 2012 sample.
Schools are invited to send programmes of inquiry to the IB to inform future curriculum development:
pypcurriculum@ibo.org.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 20
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Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 23
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry
Recording the exhibition on a programme of inquiry
In schools with three or more grade/year levels, it is a requirement that students participate in a PYP
exhibition in the final grade/year of the school. In the exhibition grade/year, it is advisable that the school
develops six units of inquiry (one for each of the transdisciplinary themes) and records these on the
programme of inquiry.
The practice of developing a unit of inquiry under each transdisciplinary theme leads to a balanced
programme of inquiry where understanding of each transdisciplinary theme is developed as fully as
possible across the school. Every year, the school (with student involvement) replaces one of the six units
with the PYP exhibition. The transdisciplinary theme under which the exhibition sits may differ from year
to year depending on the issue selected (the exhibition may strongly reflect one particular theme but it is
more likely that it will synthesize aspects of some or all of the transdisciplinary themes).
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 24
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.


Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 27
Annex
This PYP programme of inquiry rubric has been developed as a tool for schools to use to self-assess their
programme of inquiry. The rubric contains criteria to assess central ideas, lines of inquiry, and the balance
and articulation of knowledge and concepts within the programme of inquiry.
Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 28
Annex
P
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Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 29
Annex


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l
o
p

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
u
a
l

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

P
Y
P

k
e
y

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
s
.

M
a
n
y

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

i
n

s
u
c
h

a

m
a
n
n
e
r

a
s

t
o

d
e
v
e
l
o
p

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
u
a
l

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

P
Y
P

k
e
y

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
s
.

S
o
m
e

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

i
n

s
u
c
h

a

m
a
n
n
e
r

a
s

t
o

d
e
v
e
l
o
p

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
u
a
l

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

P
Y
P

k
e
y

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
s
.

A

f
e
w

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

i
n

s
u
c
h

a

m
a
n
n
e
r

a
s

t
o

d
e
v
e
l
o
p

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
u
a
l

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

P
Y
P

k
e
y

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
s
.

6

A
l
l
,

o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

g
l
o
b
a
l
l
y

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t

a
d
d
r
e
s
s
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
o
m
m
o
n
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

o
f

h
u
m
a
n

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
.

M
a
n
y

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

g
l
o
b
a
l
l
y

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t

a
d
d
r
e
s
s
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
o
m
m
o
n
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

o
f

h
u
m
a
n

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
.

S
o
m
e

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

g
l
o
b
a
l
l
y

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t

a
d
d
r
e
s
s
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
o
m
m
o
n
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

o
f

h
u
m
a
n

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
.

A

f
e
w

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s

a
r
e

g
l
o
b
a
l
l
y

s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
t

a
d
d
r
e
s
s
i
n
g

t
h
e

c
o
m
m
o
n
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

o
f

h
u
m
a
n

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
.

Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 30
Annex


L
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

7

a
.

T
h
r
e
e

o
r

f
o
u
r

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

h
a
v
e

b
e
e
n

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

f
o
r

e
a
c
h

u
n
i
t
.

Y
e
s

N
o

b
.

T
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

a
r
e

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

a
s

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
r

p
h
r
a
s
e
s
,

n
o
t

q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
s
,

t
o
p
i
c
s

o
r

t
a
s
k
s
.

Y
e
s

N
o

8

I
n

a
l
l
,

o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

d
e
v
e
l
o
p

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s
.

I
n

m
a
n
y

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

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n
q
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r
y

d
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v
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p

u
n
d
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r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

c
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n
t
r
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l

i
d
e
a
s
.

I
n

s
o
m
e

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
u
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r
y

d
e
v
e
l
o
p

u
n
d
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r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s
.

I
n

a

f
e
w

u
n
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t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

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n
q
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d
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v
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p

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d
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s
t
a
n
d
i
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g

o
f

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

i
d
e
a
s
.

9

I
n

a
l
l
,

o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

o
f
f
e
r

o
p
p
o
r
t
u
n
i
t
i
e
s

t
o

d
e
v
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l
o
p

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

m
u
l
t
i
p
l
e

p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
.

I
n

m
a
n
y

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
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r
y

o
f
f
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r

o
p
p
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n
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t
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s

t
o

d
e
v
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l
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p

u
n
d
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r
s
t
a
n
d
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g

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

m
u
l
t
i
p
l
e

p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
.

I
n

s
o
m
e

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

i
n
q
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y

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f
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r

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p
p
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s

t
o

d
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v
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d
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t
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n
d
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g

t
h
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o
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m
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l
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p
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e

p
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s
p
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c
t
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v
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s
.

I
n

a

f
e
w

u
n
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t
s

t
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e

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i
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s

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f

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n
q
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r

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o

d
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d
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d
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m
u
l
t
i
p
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e

p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
.

1
0

I
n

a
l
l
,

o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

u
n
i
t
s

t
h
e

l
i
n
e
s

o
f

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n
q
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r
y

d
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v
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p

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n
d
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r
s
t
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n
d
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g

o
f

a
s
p
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c
t
s

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f

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d
e
s
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n
a
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e
d

t
r
a
n
s
d
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s
c
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p
l
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n
a
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y

t
h
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m
e
.

I
n

m
a
n
y

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n
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t
s

t
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s

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f

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d
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m
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.

I
n

s
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e

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n
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s

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.

I
n

a

f
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.

1
1

I
n

a
l
l
,

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r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

u
n
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t
s

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s

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f

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n
q
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r
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a
r
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e
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v
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n
t

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o

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e

e
x
p
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e

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f

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s
t
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d
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n
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s

w
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t
h
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n

a

p
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c
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r

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.

I
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m
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y

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n
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t
s

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s

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f

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o

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n

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p
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.

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s
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s

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p
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.

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a

f
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n
t
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a
n
g
e
.

1
2

I
n

a
l
l
,

o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

u
n
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t
s

t
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s

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f

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q
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a
r
e

d
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s
t
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n
c
t
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v
e

y
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t

c
o
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n
e
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d

t
o

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a
n
o
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r
.

I
n

m
a
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y

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n
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t
s

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e

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s

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o

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a
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r
.

I
n

s
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m
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n
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t
s

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e

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s

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o

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r
.

I
n

a

f
e
w

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n
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t
s

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c
o
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d

t
o

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n
e

a
n
o
t
h
e
r
.

1
3

I
n

a
l
l
,

o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

a
l
l
,

u
n
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t
s

t
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e

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s

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f

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q
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y

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r
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c
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c
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p
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s
.

Developing a transdisciplinary programme of inquiry 31
Annex

B
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1
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