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Chapter 6:

Recruitment, Selection, and Placement



Importance of a Well Organize Selection Program

The success of any enterprise, large or small, chiefly depends on the ability and efficiency
of the persons on its rolls. People are hired to do jobs to attain the objectives of the enterprise.
People make use of money, materials, and machines to produce goods and render services. People
with specialized knowledge and skills are needed to render services. Jobs differ and require a wide
variety of skills, knowledge, and ability. Workers also differ from one another in many ways. If a
person is assigned to a job to which his ability, character, and temperament are not suited, he is
likely to fail and thereby create a problem for management. The hiring practices and methods of
employees selection currently used in most companies are so haphazard that they may be the root
cause of a great many problems involving personnel. Undoubtedly there is considerable unnecessary
motion and failure in trying to get the worker best suited to a job in accordance with his capacities,
aptitudes, and potentialities.

It is, therefore, good personnel policy to attract the best candidates for every vacant job,
to develop them into efficient workers, and to make them loyal and satisfied employees.

In a three-year study of some 312,602 employees in about 600 companies in the United
States, Joseph E. King. Executive Director of Industrial Psychology, Inc., found out that power
selection and low morale were often the root cause of a great many employee problems. King also
realized that increased welfare activities were not always the answer to these problems. He wrote:
One answer is more scientific selection, placement, and training. The object is to build and maintain a
working force which will be stable, productive, and satisfied, and to insure union-management relationships which
will be free from conflicts. In short, sound personnel practice is designed to get the right kinds of employees,
place them properly, and handle them effectively.

Finding the right man for a job and finding the right job for a man who is available are
essential to some employee selection and placement procedures.

Need for Management Recognition. In developing a program for the recruitment, selection,
and hiring of employees, the first consideration is the recognition by management of the need for
sound policies and procedures on recruitment, selection, and hiring of desirable employees for the
organization. Management must be decide in advance what sort of employees should be hired. No
matter how small the company may be, it is important that its employees be well recruited and
chosen by train personnel. Good employee choices will help prevent personnel difficulties and
problems when the company later expands.

A company which must meet competition and maintain its leadership in the field cannot leave
the hiring and selection of its workers to chance. It needs people who can contribute to the
companys business people with progressive ideas for new products, services or methods.
Employees with the right qualifications for a job are more economical for the company in the long
run because they learn faster and are less costly to train and supervise than unqualified employees.
People who possess the right qualifications for their jobs also require less supervision, give better
work performance, get along better with fellow employees, and are happier at their jobs than those
who lack these qualifications. And they are far less likely to do damage to the companys equipment,
customers, publics, and corporates image.

Thus any extra effort and expense required to improve the process of selection will more
than pay for itself by having more efficient employees on the company rolls and less employee
dissatisfaction to deal with. Fortunately, through the use of improved recruitment techniques much
can be done to reduce, if not wholly eliminate, errors in the choice of employees.

Factors that Make a Good Employee. The selection of good employees is basic to effective
manpower management. But there is no full guarantee that the men selected will be efficient and
productive, since many other factors can influence the performance and efficiency of a man on his
job. A job applicant may be motivated by considerations other than income alone. Such factors, for
instance, as opportunities for demonstrating ones ability, security on the job, the chances for
advancement and professional growth, and desirable working conditions, often mean more to a man
in deciding whether or not to take the job than the wages he may get. The firm cannot expect top
production if the men who have been hired are unfit for their jobs. On the other hand, the men
assigned to jobs may be qualified and capable, but if they are not provided with the proper climate,
such as incentives and other motivations to do a good job, the company may not get the maximum
quality performance which they are capable of. The maintenance of an effective work force
requires sound personnel policies and programs involving job satisfaction, training, development,
satisfactory compensation and many other human considerations that affect the workers
efficiency.


REASONS FOR PROPER SELECTION OF EMPLOYEES

There are four main reasons why employees must be well selected:
1. An incompetent worker is a liability to the company.
2. Personnel requirements vary from job to job.
3. Labor laws protect employees, making it difficult to fire incompetents and problem
employees.
4. Individuals have different interests, goals, and objectives in life.


An Incompetent Worker is a Liability to the Company

When an incompetent worker is inadvertently hired due to poor selection, he becomes a
liability to the establishment. He is not only a direct loss to the company in terms of substandard
performance and low productivity but he is also a potential source of problems to management, his
co-workers, and customers.

The loss which a company may suffer because an incompetent worker was placed on its rolls
may take the following forms:
a. Longer job training and closer supervision required.
b. Wasted materials or damaged tools and machines because of negligence, carelessness,
or incompetence.
c. Longer time for completion of an assignment and poorer quality of finished product.
d. Wages and fringe benefits paid by the company as a result of accidents in line of duty
due to the employees carelessness, inattention to his work, or failure to follow safety
rules.
e. Customer dissatisfaction, due to low quality of work, unsatisfactory or unpleasant
associations with the incompetent worker resulting in loss of patronage.
f. Low employee morale and efficiency. The members of a work group expect everyone to
be punctual, efficient, and helpful. An incompetent worker seldom possesses these
qualities, and he therefore arouses the resentment of his co-workers who feel he is not
doing his own share of the job. His continued presence in the group can seriously
demoralize the latter.
g. Employee turnover, disciplining, possible lengthy grievance procedure and even court
litigation, and above all, the tension and consequent damage on the nerves of the
supervisor and of management who must deal with him.

On the other hand, briefly stated, scientific selection of workers results in:
a. Reduction of costs of training and supervision.
b. Utilization of every workers best skills.
c. Job satisfaction.
d. Greater production and higher earnings.


Personnel Requirements Vary from Job to Job

People and jobs differ. If neither people nor job differed, employee selection would be very
easy, perhaps even unnecessary.

Of the person. People have varying degrees of intelligence, attitudes, aptitudes, and
abilities. They also differ in physical characteristics and in their goals. Good employee selection
aims to discover these differences and match people with jobs. Psychologists have shown that no
two persons can be wholly alike. Persons are influenced by heredity, educational and economic
background, ideologies, work experiences, habits, aptitudes, and learning. Some are fast, skillful,
and adept at certain kinds of work. Those who lack the necessary interest, aptitudes, and ability to
learn do not develop into skilled, competent workers. Some individuals have shortcomings in
personality and temperament which render them unfit to team up with other workers. Others may
be deficient in certain traits but excellent in others. These basic facts must be fully considered
for a more efficacious personnel selection procedure.

Of the job. Some jobs are simple but others are technical or complex. Certain jobs require
specialized training and skills of some kind. Others require relatively little training, experience, or
physical and mental effort. Still other jobs require much energy and drive, highly specialized
training, leadership qualities, or vast experience. The primary aim of personnel selection is to seek
out and hire the individual who possesses not only the qualifications that will match the
requirements of the vacancy but also the personal qualities that best fit the job.


Labor Laws Which Protect Employees Make It Difficult to Fire Incompetents and
Problem Employees

It has been stated that careless hiring is both costly and troublesome to a firm. The Labor
Code of the Philippines ad Amended and its Implementing Rules and Regulations give protection to
employees and therefore employers may not jus abolish a job or dismiss an employee as they please.
By hiring a worker, an employer establishes certain long-term relations with him something which
did not exist before because only recently has the law given adequate protection to the employees
right to job security.

In implementing Section 9, article II, of the New Constitution, the Labor Code of the
Philippines provides as follows:
Art. 3. Declaration of basic policy. The State shall afford protection to labor, promote full
employment, ensure equal work opportunities regardless of sex, race or creed, and regulate the relations between
workers and employers. The State shall ensure the rights of worker to self-organization, collective bargaining,
security of tenure and just and humane conditions of work.
Art. 4. Construction in favor of labor. All doubts in the implementation and interpretation of the
provisions of this Code, including its implementing rules and regulation, shall be resolved in favor of labor.

I n protecting labor, the New Civil Code, Art. 1700, also provides that neither capital nor
labor shall act oppressively against the other, or impair the interest or convenience of the public.

In addition to the rights conferred upon them by the Code of Agrarian Reforms of the
Philippines, agricultural workers are also protected by the Labor Code of the Philippines.

Court decisions have in fact often upheld the right of employees to security in their
employment. The Supreme Court of the Philippines stated in the case:
The right to labor is a constitutional as well as a statutory right. Every man has a natural right to the
fruits of his own industry. A man who has been employed to undertake certain labor and has but put into it his time
and effort is entitled to be protected. The right of a person to his labor is deemed to be property within the
meaning of constitutional guarantees. That is his means of livelihood. He cannot deprived of his labor or work
without due process of law.

In most collective bargaining agreements, employees are protected by job security and
seniority clauses, as in the following agreement between one company and a labor union:
The Union Shall have the right to take up any discharge, suspension, or disciplinary case as a grievance
not later than five (5) working days after the same takes place, and such case shall be subject to review under the
grievance procedure if submitted within the period hereinabove provided. Pending such proceedings, the personnel
concerned shall remain discharged, without prejudice to reinstatement, if in order, as hereinabove provided. At the
request of the union, the company shall furnish in writing the reasons for such discharge.

After a specified period of temporary or probationary employment and employee becomes
permanent or regular. This status establishes a long-term relationship between management and the
employee.

It is clear, then, that extreme care should be exercised in the selection of new employees
so that employee problems may be minimized.


Individuals Have Diversified Interests, Goals, and Objectives in Life

When an applicant has been hired to do a job that does not satisfy his need for growth and
development, he becomes dissatisfied. He either leaves the company or remains inefficient and
becomes a discipline-problem employee unless he is transferred to a more suitable or satisfying job.


Managements Right to Select its Employees

While the law protects the right of employees to security in their employment,
managements right to select its employees is also protected. The Supreme Court of the Philippines
in the case of Pampanga Bus Co., Inc. vs. Pambusco Employees Union, Inc. held:

The right of a laborer to sell his labor to such person as he may choose is, in its essence. The same as the
right of an employer to purchase labor from any person whom it chooses. The employer and the employee have thus
an equality of right guaranteed by the Constitution. If the employer can compel the employer to give him work
against the employers will, this is oppression.


RESPONSIBILITY FOR RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND HIRING OF
EMPLOYEES

The choice of workers in business and industry has long been based on some factors, such as
age, appearance, height, physical built, skill, education, confidence, race and religion. At first no
test were given the applicants. Even the interview, when conducted, was haphazard. In this informal
method of selection, the applicants appearance, outward qualities, and personal circumstances
formed the basis of selection.

Responsibility for the recruitment, selection, and hiring of employees differs among
companies. In small firms, this task is often lodged exclusively in the honor of the enterprise, the
superintendent, or the manager. Sometimes the supervisor or head of the department requiring the
services of a new employee does the hiring himself. He relies on impressions obtained during an
interview, particularly on the appearance of the applicant. Little weight is given to the applicants
actual aptitudes and capacity for the work.

This practice has been found defective because the supervisor tends to hire only people he
knows or those recommended by his close friends and relatives and gives little or no weight to the
relevant qualifications or competence of the applicant. The trend today, however, especially in the
larger firms, is to assign the job of selecting and hiring employees to an employment office or
personnel staff which then assists the line supervisor or department head in this task, following
well-established procedures of selection.

Other factors that may be considered in the selection and hiring of employees are the
willingness of the company to provide needed expert assistance, its personnel policies, and the
existing practices in the industry and community. In recent years, in the Philippines the
establishment by management of personnel department in business and industry has been gaining
grounds.


Selection by Individual Supervisors

In firms where employee selection is not performed by a personnel department, the choice
of employees is usually left to the line supervisor. There are obvious advantages and disadvantages
in assigning the job of hiring employees either to a personnel department or to supervisors or
department heads. While the supervisor generally knows better than anyone else in the company
the kind of worker he wants, in most cases, his hands are full with his essential duties, so much so
that he has very little time to screen and carefully process several applicants who appears to be
satisfactory. Furthermore, a supervisor who does his own recruiting and hiring often limits his field
of selection to applicants recommended to him are those who apply directly to him. Since it is
usually turn down a relative or a friend, particularly in the Philippines where the culture is
extended family orientedrelatives, town mates, political and religious associatesselection by
the supervisor himself often results in the hiring of mediocre workers. When a supervisor is not
sure of an applicants qualifications, he often relies only on the latters actual showing during his
trial or probationary period of employment to decide whether or not to put the man on the
permanent rolls. Experience has shown, however, that once an employee becomes associated with a
work group, he gains the latters sympathy and favor. He will often seek the backing of some
officials of the company or even the union in order to keep his job. If he has relatives in the
company, it will be especially hard to terminate his employment even if his performance is poor
because of the influence of his relatives, friends, and other backers. And once he is made
permanent, the company gets stuck with him. This substandard employee continues to be tolerated,
and the longer he is allowed to remain in the firm, the more difficult it becomes for management to
fire him. He continues to be a burden to the supervisor and his department; he undermines
employee morale. The best time to eliminate an incompetent worker is before he is hired by
screening him out in the process of selection. However, caution should be exercised to make sure
that talented applicants or technocrats are not overlooked.

In short, where foremen or supervisors have the role authority to hire employees, there is a
tendency to load the payroll with relatives and fellow townsmen who have neither the qualifications
nor the disposition to work. To avoid this, all vacancies should be communicated to the personnel
department which can then help choose the best qualified applicants to fill them. This method does
not deprive the supervisor of his right to choose the best man for the job, because he can always
send to the personnel department other qualified men who can be considered along with the other
hopefuls.


Centralization of Personnel Selection and Hiring

If the hiring policies of top management are to be consistently and efficiently carried out,
the screening and hiring process should be centralized through the personnel department which can
institute better hiring procedures and better selection of applicants. But this does not mean that
the personnel department alone decides who is to be hired. Selecting the right man for a job is a
joint responsibility of the personnel manager and the line supervisor thought the Rule of Three.
While the personnel department acts as the control center and the coordinator of action, the line
supervisor must assume his rightful share of responsibility in selecting the man for the job and in
developing and training him. The hiring is, however, done by the personnel department. The National
Industrial Conference Board of the United States reports the eight-nine percent of the companies
it studied had centralized hiring through the personnel department.

Some companies employ the services of consultants to whom they could refer the applicants
for screening, testing, and evaluation. This is the practice of more looking-forward firms in the
Philippines. In referring applicants, all that the company does in this case is to specify the job or
position to be filled and the desired qualifications of the worker as given in the job description and
job specification. The consultants then screen the applicants and submit the names of those
applicants who meet the specified qualifications. The client company then makes its final choices.
This arrangement reduces the tasks of the firms employment office. Other companies utilize the
services of psychological clinics for the testing and selection of the applicants referred to them by
their personnel department. This has gained widespread acceptance, since the services of industrial
psychologist trained in some of the best schools abroad are now available. The final choice,
however, is left with the company through the final interviews by the personnel manager, the
supervisor and the department head with whom the employee will work. Usually the supervisor with
the approval of the department manager makes the final decision to hire or not to hire, based on
the recommendations of the employment office.


Government Regulations on Employment*

The Labor Code of the Philippines and its Implementing Rules and Regulation provide the
objectives and procedures on recruitment and placement of workers for both domestic and foreign
firms including the employment of aliens.

It also provides for the establishment of public employment offices to register applicants
for employment, placement of workers, and to render vocational guidance and testing services. The
public employment offices require every employer with at least six (6) employees to submit monthly
report showing:

(a) list of existing job vacancies or openings;
(b) list of new employees, if any;
(c) terminations, lay-offs or retirements;
(d) total number of employed workers for the period; and
(e) request for assistance, of needed, to fill vacancies or openings.


Whose Concern is the Selection of Employees?

The employment office entrusted with the crucial task of selecting, hiring, and placing
employees has basic responsibilities to the management, the employees, and the customers, as well
as to the community. These responsibilities spring from its important task.

To the Management. The department heads and the line supervisors expect that the
candidates whom the employment office presents to them for final approval are the best among the
applicants for the job. This makes their own job of training and supervision considerably easier.

To the Employees. The employees of the company expect the newly hired employee to be
qualified for the job, for he was selected from among many applicants on the basis of his
capabilities and potentialities. The employees will resent the hiring of a new employee who is
incompetent. The newcomer is expected to be socially well-adjusted, to develop harmonious
relationships with the other employees and to cooperate with them. The employees would like to
have a new fellow-worker who has integrity, honesty, dependability, and good moral character.

To the Customers and the Community. The firms customers and the community expect the
newly-hired employee to be capable of dealing with them promptly, efficiently, and courteously.
Every employee is in effect the companys ambassador of goodwill and customers judge a company
by its personnel. The customers would like to deal with honest, responsible men and women who are
imbued with a sense of public relations. The impression which the employee leaves with the
customers and the public at large is an advertisement of the company for good or ill.


PROGRAM FOR RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND HIRING

Policies and Procedures

In planning a recruitment, selection, hiring, and placement program, management should
define its overall objectives and establish the necessary policies and procedures. The various forms
must also be designed in accordance with the needs of the company. Policies and procedures
regarding the following points must be formulated:

1. Responsibility for recruitment, selection, and hiring. Depending on the size of the firm,
the person responsible for this function could be the personnel manager, supervisor, department
head, or an employer clerk. As pointed out earlier, it is necessary to clearly define the roles of the
personnel department, the line supervisor, and the top management on the matter. This is especially
important because line managers and supervisors may be reluctant to surrender this function to the
personnel department. The procedure includes the sequence of the employment process, such as the
filling of the applications form, the personal interview, the testing, and the physical examination.

2. Labor Code of the Philippines. The policies and procedures of the company on employment
should also take into consideration the government rules and regulations on this matter.

3. Selection of employees from within or outside the company. This also involves the
company policy on transfers and promotions of employees to fill vacancies.

4. Job analysis, job description, and job specification.

5. Employment tests and interviews. This would cover tests for applicants for certain types
of jobs, who would conduct the tests, and how the tests would be given. Also included is who would
interview the applicant.

6. Checking of references, police records and clearances.

7. Prior registration with the Social Security System for S.S.S. number.

8. Pre-employment physical examinations.

9. Introducing, inducting and orienting the new employee to his job and the company.

10. Probationary period of new employees: length of probationary period and related
conditions.

11. Compensation and fringe benefits of the new employee during the probationary period
employment and when he assumes his permanent status.

12. Performance follow-up. This refers to the close follow-up on the employees performance
during his probationary period.
To determine whether or not the selection procedures has been effective is to check the
results of the tests, interviews, and other records of the employee when he was hired against his
performance on the job after a period of time, say 3 or 5 years.


Government Regulations on Recruitment

Art. 25 of Labor Code provide that no individual or entity may engage in the business of a
private fee-charging employment agency without first obtaining a license from the Department of
Labor.

Recruitment is defined by the Labor Code as any act of canvassing, enlisting, contracting,
transporting, utilizing, hiring or procuring workers, including referrals, contact services, promising
employment or advertising for employment locally or abroad, whether for profit or not: Provided,
That whenever two or more persons are in any manner promised or offered employment for a fee,
the individual or entity making such offer or promise shall be deemed engaged in recruitment.


PROCEDURES IN RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND HIRING

When a company has a personnel department to handle matters of employment, the
selection and hiring process tends to be more objective and satisfactory. The details of the
selection process as commonly practiced in more forward-looking firms are given in these pages.
These steps, cumbersome as they may seem, are needed as a safeguard against selection based on
irrelevant factors or influenced by favoritism and personal bias. However, depending upon the size
of the firm and its personnel requirements, some of these steps may be combined or eliminated. In
a very small firm, the owner-manager usually makes the final decision to hire or not to hire,
sometimes with the assistance of the office manager or the supervisor concerned. Success in
choosing the right man for the job can be attained by avoiding snap judgments.

The employment office should be given enough time to select the right man for a vacancy.
Hiring made in a hurry frequently results in poor selection and in most cases becomes the cause of
labor problems.

Rule II, Book I, of the Rules and Regulations and Implementing the Labor Code requires the
registration of all job applicants with the nearest public employment offices of the Department of
Labor.

All prospective employees are required to register with the SSS and secure their
perspective registration number. Sec. 24 (e) of the Social Security Law provides:

(e) Effective July 1, 1973, each employer shall require as a condition to employment the
presentation of a registration number secured by the prospective employee from SSS in accordance with such
procedure as the SSS may adopt: Provided, That in case of employees who have earlier been assigned
registration numbers by virtue of a previous employment, such numbers originally assigned to them should be
used for purposes of this section: Provided further, That the issuance of such registration numbers by SSS
shall not exempt the employer from complying with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section. (As
amended by Sec.13, Pres. Decree No. 24, S 1972)


Step OneStudying the Different Jobs in the Company and Writing the Job
Description and Specification

The first requirement of the selection process is knowledge of (1) the exact nature of the
work in the vacant position; (2) its duties and responsibilities; and (3) the requirements of the job,
such as mental effort, skill, and physical demands. These are contained in the job description and
job specification. The terms job description and job specification can be explained briefly as
follows:

A job description tells what is done on the job, how it is done, why it is done, and the skills
involved in doing it. A description of the duties and responsibilities attached to the job enables the
employment officer to determine the special qualifications which an individual must possess in order
to do the job successfully.

Job Specifications. In analyzing the job, it is likewise necessary to know the specific
qualifications of the man who is to do it, such as the following: amount and type of experience
needed to perform the job, special training on the job and on the jobs related to it, special abilities
and aptitudes, age, physical qualifications, and other requirements. These facts enable the
employment manager to determine the right kind of man needed for the job.


Step TwoRequisition for New Employee

To inform the employment office about the existence of a vacancy, the line supervisor or
the department head concerned should make a formal requisition to the personnel department. This
is done by filling out a requisition form in which he indicates the facts and information about the
vacancy to be filled, such as the date when the new employee will be needed, his rate of pay, the
needed qualifications of the employee, the job description and specifications, approval by the
responsible official of the firm, and other data.

Time for Selection. In making the selection, the employment officer must be given
sufficient time to evaluate the records of applicants and to arrive at a sound decision. As stated
earlier, snap judgments and hurried decisions frequently result in poor choices.


Step ThreeRecruiting Qualified Applicants

Recruitment is the process by which prospective applicants are induced to apply to the
company in order that their qualifications for present and anticipated vacancies can be evaluated
through sound screening and selection procedures. To make the selection truly discriminating, there
must be several qualified applicants from whom the final choice can be made. The employment
officer must continually look for prospective applicants until he has a sufficient number from whom
he can pick the right man for the job. He should determine the most productive sources of qualified
applicants. Some companies develop a recruitment program by sending the personnel staff to
colleges and universities during commencement week to interview graduating students, especially
those finishing at the top of their classes. Other sources of applicants for employment are the
company file of unsolicited applications, direct contacts with applicants, newspaper advertisements,
placement offices in colleges and universities, recommendations from present and former
employees, the government employment offices, and professional and trade associations. The
employment officer devices an effective means of reaching qualified applicants and of encouraging
them to apply. Care should, however, be made to prevent over-recruitment of applicants or over-
emphasis of the companys interest in the applicants.


Step FourApplication Form

Screening is the process by which the applicants are interviewed and classified under two
categories those to be given examinations and further interviews and those who should not be
considered at all. The first interview is preliminary and its purpose is to eliminate those applicants
who are clearly unqualified.

Those chosen to be given examinations and further interview are asked to fill out an
application form for the purpose. The application form is an important tool in the selection and
hiring procedure as it will give vital information on the applicant and its relevance to the job for
which he has applied. It will become a basic source of useful information about the applicant, such
as his personal circumstances, educational attainment, work experience, and family background. The
application form is also useful to the employment officer:

1. As a guide when interviewing the applicant
2. As a basis for eliminating applicants which unfavorable personal data
3. For matching the qualifications of the applicant with the job requirements as indicate in
the job description and specifications
4. For checking on the applicants school records, references, and former employers
5. As part of the employees permanent record and for communicating with the employee
or his family

Ordinarily, when an applicant submits his application form, the employment officer gives him
a brief preliminary interview. This enables the employment officer to check the application form
for any missing information which he may want the applicant to furnish or amplify and to get a
personal impression of the applicant, especially the latters general appearance or personality, which
may be the basis for his outright elimination or for his further processing.

Application forms vary from an inexpensive mimeographed one-page sheet to an elaborate
multi-colored form printed on expensive paper. Application forms cover the personal background of
the applicant, his health data, his education, training, and experience on the job and in related
activities, and his previous employment. Some of these forms allow space for recording the
interviewers comments and the applicants test scores. The contents of application forms vary in
accordance with the needs of a particular company. Some large companies utilize different forms
for specific types of jobs, such as clerical, engineering, production and sales.


Step FiveReception of Applicants

Not all applicants should be processed through every step of the program. Some of them
will have to be eliminated by means of the preliminary screening or sight screening where by the
undesirable applicants could be quickly eliminated on the basis of a rapid appraisal of their more
apparent characteristics, such as age, height, years of experience, physical condition, educational
attainment, etc.

As the applicants go on from one step to another, some more may be eliminated in the
process.

The fine screen method is more thorough and comprehensive. It is usually based upon
more complex procedures, such as employment tests, more sophisticated interviews, referrals, etc.
this method is especially necessary in high-level jobs, such as applicants for supervisory, sales,
office or technical positions.


Step SixTesting

The employment officer goes over the application form. On the basis of the information it
contains and from the impression the officer gathered at the preliminary interview, he decides who
should be called to take the employment tests. These tests are given to applicants to supplement
the interviews and determine the applicants abilities which cannot be gauged through interviews.
They also help make an objective comparison among applicants. A careful study should be made to
see what tests are suitable for gauging the aptitudes and abilities required by the various jobs in
the firm.

Tests are needed to discover potentials, skills, knowledge, and weaknesses of an applicant.
They can predict failure better than success because success on the job depends not only on the
applicants specific aptitudes and abilities but also on such other factors as motivation and
incentives, personal problems, working conditions, and the like. These things cannot be measured by
tests.

The number and kinds of employment tests differ among companies. The degree of the
validity of the testing program may be determined by the relationship between test scores and job
success which can only be discovered after some years of use and practice. To be useful in
determining success on the job, tests must be validated for the job it is intended. A word of
caution is in order. Psychological tests should not be the only basis for employee selection. They are
just one of the tools used in selection. Tests have their own limitations. They are not, therefore, to
replace entirely all the other tools discussed in this chapter. For obvious reasons test scores must
not be shown or told to the applicants.

The so-called passing score may vary from one company to another depending upon the job
requirements or needs of the company. A high test score is not a guarantee that the scorer will be
successful on the job. His high score can sometimes be a liability. A very high I.Q. score
accompanied by a mediocre record of achievements, for example, may be a sign that the applicant
has some psychological handicaps, is lazy, has poor work habits or has personal problems that
interfere with his efficiency. Simple jobs involving routine tasks are best performed by individuals
of lower intelligence, but with appropriate personality traits and work attitudes.

Although tests are not a perfect measure of the capabilities of a man this should not be
taken to mean that they are to be discarded. They are useful tools in that they serve as an
extension of the interview technique.

Since no single test can measure all the aspects of an individuals ability and aptitude, it is
advisable to use a battery of validated tests. Moreover, one job may require different
specifications which can be evaluated by different tests each of which measure of different
quality. The test battery should be interview in its totality rather than on a particular test score.
Tests should be handled, interpreted, and analyzed by a competent and professionally trained
person. After evaluating the results of the tests, a further screening of the applicants is made.

Some companies who cannot afford to employ a full time industrial psychologist employ
management consulting firms or qualified individuals, either on part time or contractual basis, to
handle their testing program or to administer tests for them. An industrial firm who desires to
develop their own tests must seek the advice and guidance of good industrial psychologists. The
reliability and validity of the tests must be established. The easier and surer way is to purchase
tests whose reliability and validity has already been established; still must be administered by
highly competent experts who have had the necessary training and experience.

Among the employment tests most often used in choosing applicants are:

Mental alertness tests. These tests are known as intelligence tests, verbal reasoning tests,
and personal tests. They indicate a persons ability to quickly learn those jobs which involve
thinking, abstracting, analyzing problems, and reading comprehension. They also indicate the ability
to visualize relationships of objects or space, to think ahead, and to judge accurately, which are
manifestations of a persons intelligence or I.Q. Technical positions may require high I.Q. but this
may not be necessary for other positions.

Intelligence tests are not useful where the job involves simple repetitive or mechanical
types of manipulation. Simple routine tasks are best performed by individuals of lower intelligence,
but with appropriate personality traits, positive work attitudes, and/or manual dexterity.

Clerical aptitude tests. These tests measure the individuals speed and accuracy in dealing
with similarities and in spotting clerical relationships; e.g., numbers and the names of persons or
places. Such tests indicate the individuals ability to perform typical clerical tasks, such as checking
the accuracy of a copy, alphabetical filing, simple computations in arithmetic, and detecting
arithmetical errors.

Mechanical aptitude tests. These measure mechanical abilities or skills, either natural or
acquired. They also indicate the applicants potential for certain trades especially in factory or
maintenance work. The person who scores high in these characteristics finds it easy to learn the
principles of operation and repair of complex devices. Mechanical aptitudes are specific, not
general. This is because different industrial operations require different types of motor
coordination and dexterity. Some operations place more emphasis on speed, others on accuracy, still
others on coordination or a combination of these. Occupations such as those of the carpenter,
mechanic, maintenance man, assembler, and other similar jobs in plants and factories require the
kind of understanding these tests measure.

Space Relations Tests. These tests measure the ability to visualize a constructed object
from a picture of a pattern. It tests the ability to imagine how an object would appear if rotated in
various ways. There are many vocations in which one is required to imagine how an object would look
if made from a given pattern, or how a specified object would appear if rotated in a given way. This
ability to manipulate mentally to create a structure in ones mind from a plan is what the test is
designed to evaluate. It is an ability needed in such fields as architecture, drafting, die-making,
mechanical designing, dress designing, art, and decoration, or wherever there is need to visualize
objects.

Proficiency, trade, or achievement tests. These tests measure the individuals proficiency
on the job trade in which he has had prior experience or in which he is actually engaged at the
moment. These tests measure job skill through work-sample tests; e.g., typing, shorthand,
bookkeeping, machine operation, and drafting.

Vocational interest tests. Psychologists assert that all other qualifications being equal, an
employee who has a strong interest in a particular job are more likely to succeed at it than one who
lacks such interest. Interest tests are designed to discover the patterns of employee interest and
thus suggest what types of work may be satisfying to the individual. Interest should not be
confused with aptitudes or ability or what may consider their equivalent. Interest tests are more
useful in predicting job stability than in predicting level of success. These tests are widely used in
vocational guidance.

Dexterity and manipulation tests. These tests are given to applicants for job requiring
manual skills, especially the use of fingers.

Shop arithmetic tests. These tests show how well an individual can work out mathematical
problems that come up frequently in the shop. Most of the questions would require understanding of
drawings, reasoning out problems correctly, and doing accurate arithmetical computations. Skilled
mechanical jobs generally require the ability to handle problems of this kind easily and accurately.


Step SevenChecking the Applicants Work Experiences, School Records, and Personal
References

The application forms of those who pass the examination are separated and the varied
information in them checked of veracity. In spotting both the desirable and the undesirable trait of
an individual, one needs a careful and objective report concerning his background. Various checks on
the applicants background and references are used, such as making telephone calls, writing letters
of inquiry or sending information forms to the applicants former employers, teachers, or individual
references. Some firms wisely use the services of credit information bureaus, some of which are
now available in the Philippines, to secure confidential information about applicants. The telephone
is an expeditious means of checking the applicant's background or experience and his behavior in his
previous employments. With the organization of the Personnel Management Association of the
Philippines, it is no longer difficult to inquire from among personnel managers about applicants
previously employed in their respective companies.

The applicant's consent to being checked with respect to his references or previous
employers is usually obtained in the form of a question incorporated in the application form to be
answered in the affirmative or negative. If the applicant happens to be still working in another
firm, it is not usually advisable, unless the applicant agrees, to contact his present employer for
information, as this is liable to prejudice the applicant's current employment status.

This step determines the type of job formerly done by the applicant and how efficient he
was at it. His work experience and his educational background may indicate the applicant's "can do"
qualifications.

His school records will show his achievements and his conduct whlie at school, information
which may have a significant bearing on his future employment. His extra-curricular activities in
college may indicate his ability to get along with people and to get things done.


Step EightInterviews

The purposes of the interview are: (1) to find out how well the applicant is qualified for
vacancy; (2) to give him the information he needs in order to decide whether or not he will take the
job if offered to him; (3) to create goodwill for the company.

No company hires an applicant without making an employment interview of some kind. It is
universally used. Some companies give more emphasis to the impressions created in the interview;
others do not use any other tool in employee selection but the interview. This shows the importance
of the interview as a major selection and placement tool.

The interviewer must be an expert in asking questions; sizing up people; alert, keen and free
from prejudice or bias; ever tempered; and most important; he must have a thorough knowledge of
the jobs for which he is interviewing applicants.

Directive Interview. Common types of interview are the directive and the non-directive. The
directive questions ask specific information. Non-directive questions are broad, open-ended, and
they require a narrative answer. They permit the applicant to narrate his experiences and to
express his interests with minimum guidance from interviewer. Illustrative of this method are: "Tell
me about..." "How did you like..." "Why did you..."

Patterned Interview. Another variety is the patterned interview. The interviewer here uses
a printed form to record the answers to specific questions about the background of the applicant.
The form provides a standard for evaluating the applicant's responses by printing red questions
that interpret answers to the questions (printed in black) directed to the applicant.

The questions give more emhpasis to the habits and character traits of the person. The
basis for this concept is that a person's behavior is determined to a large degree by his habits or
character traits which have been developed early in life and because they are so deeply rooted they
are hard or almost impossible to change.

The interviewer will have to give special attention to an individual's habits by reviewing in
detail what he has done in the past what patterns of behavior are to be found during his
schooling, his home background, work record, recreational activities, handling of his finances,
and domestic situation. It is believed that a comprehensive knowledge of the individual's habits will
permit a prediction of his performance on the job.

This method has the advantages of providing a uniform procedure for all interviewers, is
time-saving for the interviewer, and it reduces the interviewer's bias by the use of the printed
questions.

Its disadvantages, however are the constant note-taking which may disturb the applicant
and make him very cautious in responding to the questions. The questioning is stereotyped so it
loses flexibility and spontaneity; the interviewer pays more attention to the question rather than to
the interviewee.

Applicants for highly technical or specialized jobs are better handled by people who have
successful experience in those skills.

Group Interview. The group interview is still another method used by some companies. This
interview is conducted by a panel or committee. There is little or no note-taking during the
interview. Instead, a written report of data and observations is made after the interview.

The interviewer takes note of the following in the interviewee:

Emotional maturity which could be dtermined from the applicant's claim regarding his
accomplishments and abilities, his concern and interest in his activities, and his reaction to
criticisms from his superior as well as from other persons.

Dependability as shown by his achievements in school or in his employment, punctuality in his
commitments, and faithfulness to his family responsibilities.

Self-confidence which may be manifested by how he expresses himself, his ability to adapt
or adjust himself to the situation.

Attitude towards jobs which may be determined from his attitude towards his superiors,
co-workers, teachers, and his duties and responsibilities.

Initiative which is the ability ti anticipate needs, work out improvements by trying new
methods, and by being a self-starter, without any prompting from superiors.

Attitude towards other persons as manifested by his friendly and realistic appraisal of
other people, his ability to get along with others, and the way he talks about other people.

Value system as shown by his desire for security and progress and by his ambition, whether
he wants a job to accomplish something worthwhile or merely a job without responsibilities.

Critical attitude which may determine whether or not he is a griper, i.e. critical of things
around him, blaming others for his misfortune or failure, suspicious of others. However, this
attitude should be differentiated from constructive thinking, a searching or analytical mind, which
is desirable trait to bring about change, new ideas, and progress into the company.

After records and references are verified, the applicant is interviewed to evaluate the
factors not revealed by testing and to determined his ability in relation to the job opening. Special
emphasis should be placed on what he can do which cannot be adequently evaluated through pencil-
and-papaer tests. The interviewer checks the qualifications and the individual traits of the
applicant which can forecast probable success in a specific job.

In the interview, the general personality of the applicant in terms of his prospective job is
considered, such as his facility of expression, ability to grasp ideas, grooming, and deportment.

Informing the applicant about the job and working conditions. The applicant is given
information about the requirements of the job; e.g., the duties, responsibilities, and traits which
the job requires. The interviewer observes the applicant's traits and his reactions to the
disagreeable aspects of the job, if any.

Creating goodwill for the company. The interviewer, on the other hand, gives the applicant
the chance to learn the basic facts about the job and the company, and this will help him decide
whether or not, it is the job he really wants. He can assess the type of work assigned to him and
whether or not it is the job he wants. Since the interview is probably the first personal contact
between him and the company, it has a vital role in developing mutual understanding, confidence, and
goodwill. Well handled, the interview helps create in the applicant a favorable attitude toward the
job and the organization.

Some firms interview applicants several times. As earlier stated, the first interview is
called preliminary screening, during which the interviewer may quickly eliminate the obviously
undesirable applicants on the basis of a rapid appraisal of their more apparent characteristics, such
as age, physical condition, educational attaintment, etc.

The second interview evaluates the applicant, considering his "can do" and "will do" traits,
his potential abilities, the results of the tests, and the "danger signals." The last interview is called
hiring and placement and is preparatory to his acceptance and introduction to the job.

These interviews are usually conducted by the employment officer. The supervisor under
whom the employee will directly work, or the members of the screening committee, if any, may also
conduct the interview, either individually or as a group.


Step NineMatching the Applicant with the Job

The employment officer now has before him the names of the applicants from which he will
makes his final choice. The application forms are there school records, past employment, and
references have been carefully checked; the results of the various tests, corrected and
evaluated, and the impressions gathered during the personal interview, analyze and
recorded in the interview form. It is the information showing how an applicant may
perform on the job, based on his "can do" and "will do" traits, that the employment officer
must give the closest attention to. The applicant, as a total individual personality, and his
records, are then matched against the requirements of the job for which he is being
considered.

With thes procedures there is a great possibilty that the employment officer can
get the right man for the job. For as it must be said again and again, the principal
objective of any selection and placement program is to put the right man to the right job,
fitting him into the working environment and introducing him to the personality of the
supervisor with whom he will work. This means the elimination not only of those applicants
whose qualifications fail below the needs of the job but also of those who are
overqualified for the job. Where, for instance, the job to be filled is routinary or
repetitive in nature, an applicant whose abilities or qualifications are above the
requirements of the job should not be considered. Otherwise, he is likely to find the work
without challenge and uninteresting and will soon tire of it.

In the selection of the right employee for a job, the following are some useful tips:

Age. The applicant's age must be within the range prescribed by the job description. Some
firms have rules specifying the minimum and maximum ages of applicants who may ne taken. The
Labor Code of the Philippines provides that business and industrial firms may employ minors from
fourteen to eighteen years old without the necessity of securing any permit from the Department
of Labor.

Education. Consider the formal schooling required to satisfactorily do the job. Also consider
his eagerness to continue improving his qualifications. What does he do to upgrade his education?
Does he read books, magazines, professional journals? But as stated above, while the minimum
educational requirements given in the specifications for the job must be met, the applicant's
education qualifications must not be so high as to make him over-qualified for the job.

Experience. What kin of experience does the applicant have? Consider the minimum amount
of previous experience he has had at jobs related to that for which he is being considered. What
special courses has he taken? Is he the rolling-stone type who can not keep a job? What is his
outlook in life? Is he rally interested in learning? What does he do to improve himself?

Appearance. Consider the total effect of the applicant's appearance. How does his
appearance strike you? Is he a likeable person? Is he antagonistic? Is he tactless or irritable in his
dealings with people?

Health. The applicant must be in good health. How energetic is he? Does he have a good
energy output? Is he full of pep? Or is he lethargic, weak, or sickly? Companies are generally strict
in requiring that applicants should go through a pre-employment physical check-up. A thorough
physical and medical examination lessens the risk of employing sickly applicants and reduces the
cost and trouble resulting from absenteeism and poor performance, prevent possible compensation
claims for sickness aggravated by the job and also to protect their other employees from
contamination by a sick newcomer.


Final Evaluation of the Applicant

After competing the round of interviews, tests, and other fact-finding procedures, the
employment officer is ready to make his final evaluation of the applicant, the total man, who will for
the company. He should keep uppermost in his mind that he is trying to find, from among the
candidates, the man who can do the job, and do it best. The employment officer considers the
following in his final evaluation:

"Can do" traits. The applicant's ability to do the job as shown by his:

a. Work experience: his past performance. What has he done?
b. Education and training which may indicate his aptitude for the particular job.
c. Skills, knowledge, and experience along the lines of or related to the particular job.
d. Physical and personal conditions that may be required by the job; e.g., the
appearance, speech, mannerisms, habits, general impression, energy.
e. Does he appearslow in movements?

"Will do" traits. How good will he do in the job? What are his work interests and goals?
These traits include the following:

a. Motivation to do a good job. What motivates him in seeking a job?
b. Stability of employment with the company; i.e., likelihood of remaining in the job,
which may be shown by his interest and ambition and his previous transfer from
other firms.
c. Outside factors and external pressures; e.g., family problems, residence, off-the-
job environment.
d. Attitude towards employment. Is he willing to accept duties other than those
regularly assigned to him?

Potential abilities. What are his potential abilities for development? The applicants potential
ability for development has to be determined because while the employment officer's immediate
interest is in finding a man for a particular vacancy, he should also determine the prospect of the
applicant's development to enable him to move a higher position in the company. Potential ability is
the important factor that enables people, without any experience, to be considered for the job.

Danger signals. The personnel officer should watch out for the following in applicants:

a. Stepping stone. Does the applicant intend to remain long in the company? Does he
have plans of moving out after some time?
b. Job-hopping or frequent changing of jobs. An emotionaly disturbed or maladjusted
person has the tendency to be a "rolling stone". However, caution should be
exercised regarding this matter. Studies on modern man and the fast changing
conditions of the time show that urbanization , industrialisation, and great thrusts in
science and technology have made man mobile. It is a scientific projection that men,
specifically in management or executive positions, will change their jobs once or
twice in the next decade.
c. Bad habits. Does he gamble, drink liquor excessively? Does he frequent nightclubs,
horse races?
d. His associates or "barkada". Who are the people he goes with?
e. Personal indebtedness. Does he live beyond his means or financial capability?
f. Environmental factors and external pressures; e.g., family or personal problems,
relationship with other women or in-laws or some other family problems.
g. Absenteeism prone; accident prone. These affect certain individuals only.
h. Tardiness prone. Is he of the habit of not waking up early to be at his work on time.
i. Physical handicaps that may directly affect his performance on the job, although
some people with physical handicaps have been found to be efficient and loyal
provided that the physical defects do not directly affect their performance on the
job.


Step TenFinal Selection by Immediate Supervisor or Department Head

Employment involves two decisions:
1. Mangement's decision as to which of the applicants would best fit the job and therefore
should be hired.
2. The applicant's decision as to whether the job is the right one for him and whether he
wants to work for the company.

The supevisor or head of the unit making the request for a new employee makes the final
choice from among the applicants who have passed screening by the employmenT office. To
consistently and efficiently implement the hiring policies of a firm, the function of employing
personnel must be centralized through the personnel department.

But this does not mean that the personnel department or employment office is solely
responsible for the choice of new men. That is a joint responsibility of the personnel director and
the line manager. The line manager is responsible for the success of his department and so he
should be given a free hand in the selection of the men assigned to his department. Vacancies
should be communicated to the personnel department whose responsibility is to look for the men
best qualified for the positions. This practice does not deprive the supervisor of his prerogative of
choosing the man he wants, because it is he who makes the final choice. Furthermore, he is free to
send to the personnel department the men he thinks are qualified so that they can be screened
along with other applicants.

The "Rule of Three". Some firms use the "Rule of Three" in the final choice of applicants.
This means that after a careful consideration of all applicants for a job, the three best qualified,
as determined by the employment officer, are referred to the supervisor who needs the new
employee. The supervisor then interviews the three and makes his final choice from among them
himself. This method gives the line supervisor, who will have direct responsibility for the
prospective appointee, the final choice from among the applicants certified by the personnel office.
The supervisor or the department head looks over the applicant's folder containing his application
form, test scores, and other information about him. Then he talks with the applicant about the job
in greater detail. This interview gives the applicant a chance to meet his prospective supervisor and
to see the office or shop where he will work.

The "rule of three" strengthens the centralization of the hiring process through the
personnel department in the sense that centralized hiring procedures do not deprive the line
supervisor of his responsibility for the final choice of the men under him. It makes personnel
selection a joint responsibility of the personnel department and the line supervisors.

Companies that have strong and well equipped personnel departments no longer observe the
Rule of Three. Instead, the personnel department assumes full responsibility for the selection and
hiring employees. If the personnel department bases its selection on objective methods, the
possibility of getting the right man for the right job is great and will remove the suspicion that it is
"whom you know" and some other such considerations that prevail in personnel selection.


Step ElevenPhysical and Medical Check-up

The selected applicant is required to pass a physical and medical examination. In small
companies the applicant may be referred to a company physician who then conducts. The check-up.
In some cases the new man is simply asked to present a certification from a private physician as to
his health condition. Large companies, however, usually have their own medical departments or
retain the services of private hospitals or clinics for the purpose.

As stated above, such physical and medical check-ups add to the guarantee that the new
man (1) is fit to work; (2) will protect the firm from claims for disability or sickness which may be
aggravated during his employment; (3) will safeguard the health of the present employees against
possible contamination; (4) will minimize absenteeism; (5) will avoid or elimanate accidents.

In addition to the physical examination, many companies also resquire the applicant to get
police and NBC clearances. This is done to safeguard company interests from potential trouble-
makers or applicants with police records.


Step TwelveHiring

When a candidate has passed all the requirements and is chosen, he is finally turned over to
the personnel department. Hiring papers are prepared, and the following process takes place:

a) The conditions for employing him: probationary, temporary, contractual, etc. If other than
regular, the period of employment, specific project, or the terminal date should be
indicated in the contact.

On the security of tenure, the Labor Code of the Philippines provides that in cases of
employment without a definite period, the employer shall not terminate the services of an employee
for a just cause.

b) The final approval by the companies official responsible for confirming appointments.
c) Signing of the employment contract by the applicant, who signifies his acceptance of the
stipulated conditions of his employment.
d) Accomplishing the permanent personnel records; e.g., income tax form, Social Security
System form, Medicare form, and other forms required by the office.
e) Notification to the payroll section and the department where the employee will work.

After completing the paper requirements of the personnel department, the new employee is
ready to undergo the orientation or induction program of the company.


Follow-up on Placement

When a new employee has been placed on the job, his progress should be closely watched to
insure that he is not being hampered by certain problems affecting him or his job. This check also
serves to measure the effectiveness of the selection and placement procedure. The primary
responsibility for follow-up is the line supervisor's , although the personnel manager may be asked
to give counsel to the employee when necessary. It is a good policy to know the problems of a new
employee before he becomes discouraged. A man who is not happy on the job either because he is
incorrectly placed or because of any other factor is a potential source of inefficiency, and other
serious problems. Further evaluation and check-up may be made after a couple of weeks, a month,
or two months. The final appraisal may be made before deciding whether or not to change the
employee's status from probationary or temporary to regular.


CATEGORIES OF EMPLOYEES

Employees and workers usually fall under four categories according to their status of
permanence or tenure:

Regular. A regular employee or worker is a person who, having passed through a
probationary period of employment, is placed on the regular rolls of the company and is assigned to
perform work directly ralated to the regular operations of the firm. A regular employee is
sometimes called a permanent employee or is employed without a definite period and the employer
may not terminate his services except for a just cause or when authorized by law.

Employment without a fixed period. An employment is deemed to be without a definite
period where the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or
desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer.

Probationary. A probationary employee or worker is a person hired to occupy a permanent or
regular position in the company after a tryout period during which he should prove himself
satisfactory to the employer. The probationary period is usually from three to six months. Skilled
workers or technical men may require a longer period of observation.

The employment status of a probationary employee is temporary. His employment can be
terminated at any time before the expiration date of his probationary employment if the employer
finds him unable to meet the requirements of the job to the satisfaction of the firm.

The Labor Code authorizes the Secretary of Labor to prescribe regulations for a
probationary period of employment to prevent the circumvention of the right of the employees to
be secure in their employment.

Temporary. A temporary employee is a person hired to perform work in terms of a specific
project, job, or period, upon completion of which the worker's employment is terminated.

Contractual Employee. A contractual employee is one hired on an individual employment
contract basis to perform work on a specific project or projects as indicated in his contract. The
duration of such employment is determined by and shown in the employment contract.

Casual Employee. By connotation, a casual worker is one who is hired for only a few days or a
few months at a time to perform a unit of work or to fill a gap in the absence of another employee,
or a worker who is hired occasionally and intermittently especially during peak production periods.
Casual workers may or may not possess special trade skills or qualifications; they are not on the
permanent payroll of the same employer for years.

The term is also used to mean an employment for a specific project or undertaking, the
completion or termination of which is determined at the time of the engagement of the employee;
or where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature, the employment is for the
duration of that season only.

A casual employee is sometimes given the name emergency worker. In government offices,
his tenure of office is temporary and is usually assigned miscellaneous work like clerical, janitorial,
or manual.


THE PROBATIONARY EMPLOYEE

The probationary period is a span of time during which the employee is under observation
on his actual job. It aims to help the new employee learns valuable concepts and to prove or show his
potentialities in the firm's business during his first several months of work experience. As stated
earlier, different firms prescribe different periods of probation for their new employees, and
these range from one to six months. The employment may be terminated at any time during the
probationary period without the necessity of notice and separation pay. During such period, the
employee is not usually entitled to any fringe benefit except whatever is provided for in the
collective bargaining agreement, if any.

Unfortunately some firms use the probationary period of an employee to avoid the
consequences of their failure to work out a thorough selection procedure. When the probationary
period is due to expire and the supervisor is confronted with the problem of deciding whether or
not the employee should be made permanent the supervisor is faced with difficulties. Some soft-
hearted supervisors would not want to displease the employee's sponsors and friends who may be
using their influence to make the employee permanent even if his services are below par.

The services of an employee who has been engaged on probationary basis may be terminated
only for a just cause or when authorized by existing laws, or when he fails to qualify as a regular
employee in accordance with reasonable standards prescribed by the employer.

When a man passes through his probationary period and is made permanent, he remains on
the company's payroll. If he is a misfit or incompetent, he will remain a burden to the supervisor as
well as to his co-workers, who will have to do more than their just share of the work to make up for
his deficiency. He will thus be not only a liability to the firm but also a potential source of problem.
The probability of his resigning is quite unlikely since he is seldom the type of worker who can easily
find another job elsewhere. The chances are that unless he violates certain rules for which he can
be dismissed, he will stick it out with the company because he needs his pay.

Thus, while it is true that the test of an employee is his performance on the job, the use of
scientific procedures in the choice of employees prevents costly errors in hiring undesirable
applicants. The best way to keep unwanted man safely away is not to hire them. The probationary
period has a clear place in the employment procedure, and the supervisor must carefully use his
discretion in deciding which employees should be put on probation, and among those on probation
which ones should be placed on the permanent rolls.