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1) Use

Past Perfect Simple Past


The past perfect simple is used to describe one action that happened
before another action in the past.
James had cooked breakfast before we got up.
He told me they had paid the bill.
The past perfect simple is used to refer to the action that happened
first or earlier
The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later
Action started and finished in the
past

Reda played football yesterday.
I met Ahmed in Agadir a month
ago.

2) Signal words
Past Perfect Simple Past
no unambiguous ones yesterday, last week, a month ago, in 2002m etc
3) Form
Past Perfect Simple Past
Subject + had + past participle (V3)
regular verbs: infinitive + ed / d / ied
watched
loved (if we have -e at the end of the word, add just -d.)
worried (consonant before -y ->Change -y to -i.)
irregular verbs:
3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs
regular verbs: infinitive + ed / d / ied
watched
loved (if we have -e at the end of the word, add
just -d.)
worried (consonant before -y ->Change -y to -i.)
irregular verbs:
2nd column of the table of the irregular verbs

4) Examples
We use the same form of the auxiliary (had) every time regardless of the subject.
Past Perfect Simple Past
4-1 Affirmative sentences
He had played hockey.
He'd played hockey.
He played hockey.

Past Perfect Simple Past
4-2 Negative sentences
He had not played hockey.
He'd not played hockey.
He hadn't played hockey.
He did not play hockey.
He didn't play hockey.

Past Perfect Simple Past
4-3 Questions
Had he played hockey? Did he play hockey?

In many cases a complete sentence is written in two parts with two different tenses:
Time Expressions in Past Perfect Simple
The time expressions already, for, since, and yet may be used in the past perfect simple.
She had already told him before I got a chance to give him my version.
Remember the following rules for using other time expressions:
Use after, as soon as, the moment that, until before past perfect simple.
E.g: After she had moved out, I found her notes.
I didnt say anything until she had finished talking.
Use before, when, by the time before past simple:
Eg. Before I knew it, she had run out the door.
By the time he phoned her, she had found someone new.
I had already had my breakfast when my friend knocked the door.
Note: Had Had A verb combination that often causes confusion in the past perfect simple is had had.
E.g. I had had enough to eat but I wanted dessert anyway. The first had is the auxiliary (or helping) verb and
the second had is the V3 (or past participle) of the main verb to have. It means that even though I ate enough, I
wanted dessert after that. It may look strange, but it is correct.



:

. ( .
.
:
Last night , after I had watched television, I went to bed

( play )
had + past participle
played had I
played had You
played had He
played had She
played had It
played had We
played had You
played had They
( play )
not had past participle .





had had
played ? I had
played ? you had
played ? he had
played ? she had
played ? it had
played ? we had
played ? you had
played ? they had
: had d ' .
Id washed my hands before I went to bed
played not had I
played not had You
played not had He
played not had She
played not had It
played not had We
played not had You
played not had They


Uses


USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past



We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until
another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with
the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration
does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.
" " .
. " "
.

Examples:

* They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
* She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
* How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
* Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
* James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
* A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

:
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past



Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and
effect.



Examples:

* Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
* Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
* Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

A. Put the verbs into the correct tense (Simple Past or Past Perfect).
1. My friend (eat).. up all the biscuit we (bake)...
2. The teacher (correct) the tests we (write) .
3. I (give) ..them some of the candies I (buy)
4. My sister (see / not).. the note that I (lay) .on the
kitchen table for her.
5. We (want) .to watch a film that we (see / not) ..
before.
B. Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or past perfect simple).
1. When he (wake up) woke up his mother (already / prepare) had already prepared breakfast.
2. We (go) ..to London because the Queen (invite) .us for tea.
3. He (hear) ..the news, (go)to the telephone
and (call).. a friend.
4. When she (start)..to learn English, she (already / learn)
.French.
5. Jane (already / type) .ten pages when her computer (crash).
6. By the time he (arrive) .at the pub, they (run) ..out of
beer.
7. Before that day we (never / think) .of going to Japan.
8. I (know) him for a long time before
I (meet) .his family.
9. They (not / know) ..where to meet because nobody (tell)
.them.
10. It (be) .cloudy for days before it finally (begin) to rain.
C. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. Peter was Sally's best friend. She (know) .. him all her life.
2. The children were wet because they (play) . football in the rain.
3. We were very hungry because we (not / eat) ..
4. I was delighted when I found my keys. I (look) . for them for hours.
5. She was exhausted because she (work) .. since eight o'clock that
morning.
6. Everything was white because it (snow).
7. The passengers were cross because the airline (lose) everyone's bags.
8. I (not / see) .. Jacob for several years, but I recognised him immediately

A. Put the verbs into the correct tense (Simple Past or Past Perfect).
1. My friend ate up all the biscuit we had baked.
2. The teacher corrected the tests we had written.
3. I gave them some of the candies I had bought.
4. My sister did not see the note that I had laid on the kitchen table for her.
5. We wanted to watch a film that we had not seen before
B. Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or past perfect simple).
1. When he woke up, his mother had already prepared breakfast.
2. We went to London because the Queen had invited us for tea.
3. He heard the news, went to the telephone and called a friend.
4. When she startedto learn English, she had already learned French.
5. Jane had already typed ten pages when her computer crashed.
6. By the time he arrived at the pub, they had run out of beer.
7. Before that day we had never thought of going to Japan.
8. I had known him for a long time before I met his family.
9. They did not know where to meet because nobody had told them.
10. It had been cloudy for days before it finally began to rain.
C. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. Peter was Sally's best friend. She (know) had known him all her life.
2. The children were wet because they (play) had been playing football in the rain.
3. We were very hungry because we (not / eat) hadnt eaten
4. I was delighted when I found my keys. I (look) had been looking for them for hours.
5. She was exhausted because she (work) had been working since eight o'clock that morning.
6. Everything was white because it (snow) had been snowing
7. The passengers were cross because the airline (lose) had lost everyone's
bags.
8. I (not / see) hadnt seen Jacob for several years, but I recognised him
immediately