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Cooling System

Cooling & Heating

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Methods Of Cooling Of Rotating Elec...


Methods Of Cooling Of Rotating Elec...
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Methods Of Cooling Of Electrical Machines


by Rahuldey1991
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Methods Of Cooling Of Electrical Machines


Presentation Transcript
Cooling system

1. What is cooling?

Process by which heat resulting from losses occurring in a machine is given up to a

primary coolant by increasing its temperature.

1161 views

Heated primary coolant may be replaced by a new

coolant at lower temperature or may be cooled by a secondary coolant in some form of heat exchanger.

Stator earth fault protection


863 views

2. Why is cooling needed? Energy transfer and energy conversion in electrical machines manifest
losses. These losses appear as heat and increase temperature of the machine beyond its optimum
level. Heat is dissipated to surroundings by conduction and convection assisted by radiation from outer

Transformer seminar-basics

surfaces.

486 views

3. COOLANTS AND HEAT EXCHANGERSA. Primary Coolant : It has lower temperature than
machine part. Example: WaterB. Secondary Coolant : It has Lower temperature than primary coolant.

Cooling system ppt

Example: Ethylene Glycol, Propylene Glycol, Calcium Chloride, Sodium Chloride.C. Heat Exchanger :

1519 views

Component that keeps two coolants separate but allows transfer of heat energy between them. Example:
They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants,

Presentation Design of Computer


aided design of power transformer

petrochemical plants.

608 views

4. Methods of cooling

Size of a machine of a given duty depends on heat losses in its various parts.

Small machines (Fractional H.P.) cooled by natural means.

Modern machines require cooling.

Generator protection

Cooling by Air stream -> Ventilation

1324 views

5. COOLING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION Based on origin of

Based on manner of cooling:

cooling: Natural Cooling Open Circuit Ventilation Self Cooling Surface Ventilation Separate

PRESENTATION ON
MANUFACTURING OF
TRANSFORMER By Dhruv Jimit

Cooling Closed Circuit Ventilation Liquid Cooling


6. TYPES OF VENTILATION

INDUCED

FORCED

Fan -> Decrease in air

Fan -> Sucks air

16478 views

from pressure inside machine - atmosphere-> Forces it > Air sucked in -> Pushed into machine -> Air

Obstacle avoidance robot

out by fan pushed out

12503 views

Small, medium machines

Temperature of cooling air rises due to heat loss

More amount of air required


7. RADIAL VENTILATION Most common, Up to 20kW rating Large machines -> Large core

Protection Of Generator

lengths -> Core subdivided to provide radial ventilating ducts

Advantages: Minimum energy loss for

24990 views

ventilation, almost uniform temperature rise in axial direction

Disadvantages: Makes machine length

larger, cooling might be unstable with amount of cooling air flowing


7 h2 hydrogen intro

8. AXIAL VENTIALTION Used in induction machines (medium output, high speed machines) Solid
rotor -> Restricts radial ventilation Holes punched where heat loss is more

85 views

Disadvantages: Non-

uniform heat transfer, increased iron loss (Ducts in slots of rotor reduce amount of iron -> Including flux
density in core -> Increase in iron loss

Electrical machine design


4761 views

9. AXIAL-RADIAL VENTILATION For large motors, small turbo-alternators Axial system -> Large
iron loss -> So mixed system is used Rotor mounted fan forces out the air As a rule, induction motors
having radial ducts in stator and rotor use forced self ventilation

Protection of alternator
8324 views

10. COOLING OF TOTALLY ENCLOSED MACHINE Totally enclosed machines -> Heavy,
expensive, Hence uneconomical Air -> Impurities -> Destroy insulation Natural cooling -> Ineffective
-> Rating reduces

Cooled By :

Self ventilated frame, Ventilated radiator machines

11. VENTILATED FRAME MACHINES


part of machine

Synchronous machines
1114 views

Self ventilated frame, fan enclosed on shaft outside working

Fan enclosed by cover to secure direction of air flow for machine rating < 25kW

rating > 25kW,internal fan (Primary coolant) + External fan (Secondary coolant)

For

Internal fan -> Inside

Generator fundamentals 2
967 views

machine, avoids temperature gradient across air gap


12. VENTIALTED RADIATOR MACHINES

Internal fan circulates air inside machine

External fan

-> Sucks hot air from inside -> Pushes it back to radiators (Heat exchanger) on frame of machine
Totally enclosed machine up to 5 MW

Cool air drawn in, forced

CLOSED CIRCUIT VENTIALTION:

Electrical machines I (II-EEE)

Same volume of air out after passing over passes

through a closed heated machine parts circuit -> Path has fans,

5967 views

Filters required to clean coolers, drying

agents -> air, driers to remove Hot air from outlet is moisture cooled -> Cool air enters
large through the inlets machines

390 views

At higher ratings, air may be cooled by water if convenient

13. COOLING CIRCUIT OPEN CIRCUIT


VENTILATION:

Generator fundamentals 1

Unsuitable for
Loss of excitation

14. COOLING OF TURBO-ALTERNATORS


diameter Methods :
cooled

Closed circuit ventilation

Long core length, small

Air cooled (One side axial, two side axial, multiple inlet system)

10372 views

Hydrogen

Direct cooled

Protection of power transformer

15. COOLING OFTRANSFORMERS Different Cooling Methods Air Cooling Cooling For Oil For Dry

17941 views

Type Oil Immersed Transformer Immersed Water Transformer Cooling Air Forced type Oil Natural Air
Natural Type (O.N.A.N.) Oil Forced Water (A.F.) Forced (O.F.W.F.) Oil Natural Air Forced Type
(O.N.A.F.) Air natural Type Oil Natural Water (A.N.) Forced (O.N.W.F.) Oil Forced Air Natural Type

Generator protection by bhushan


kumbhalkar

(O.F.A.N.) Oil Forced Air Forced Type (O.F.A.F.)

2353 views

16. AIR COOLED TURBO-ALTERNATORS

For small units used as auxiliaries in large power

stations

Air supply by propeller fan -> Air enters at an end,

ganesh ppts on supercritical


thenology

1 side axial ventilation : Up to 3MW

leaves by the other

1080 views

In long machines, temperature rise is high along the length

17. AIR COOLED TURBO-ALTERNATORS


sides, both windings have same temperature rise
system : Larger machines

2 Sided Axial Ventilation :

Air forced from both

Used for machine rating up to 12MW

Multiple inlet

Circuit breakers
2707 views

Outer stator -> Many chambers -> Alternate inlets and outlets ->Up to rating

60MW

Substation overview

18. HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM


enough, all joints gas tight
atmosphere

Hydrogen (4-76%)+Air -> Explosive mixture

Frame strong

12460 views

Hydrogen above atmospheric pressure, so leakage is from machine to

Gas pressure maintained

Explosive mix avoided

Purity of hydrogen checked by

measuring its thermal conductivity

Presentation on induction motor


5712 views

19. HYDROGEN COOLING OF TURBO-ALTERNATORS For machines > 50MW,air cooling


unsuitable No requisite amount of air, higher fan power
efficiency
cooler

Increase in rating

Increase in life span

Advantages of hydrogen cooling :

Elimination of fire hazard

Increased

Smaller size of

POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION


11019 views

Less noise

20. DIRECT COOLING OF TURBO-ALTERNATOR Conventional cooling Direct cooling : Losses


dissipated to medium circulating in windings Called supercharged/Conductor cooled/Inner cooled

ABB - TRANSFORMERSPROTECTION-COURSE (2001)

machines Advantages : Hydrogen, Water, Oil

13192 views

21. Coolants in direct cooling Hydrogen:


transformer

Oil:

Stator, rotor made hollow

Hydrogen pumped from oil one end to other

machines with of stator conductors rating up to 300MW

High grade

Used in US-direct cooling

Used for

Obstacle Avoidance Robot


2676 views

Flash point, can be reached in fault

conditions, damages insulation


Transformer

22. Water as coolant in direct cooling Higher rating -> Mechanical limitations for hydrogen

13598 views

cooling Water : Superior heat transfer property, Low viscosity, No high pressure heads required for
circulations Advantages :1) Higher load is possible as no temperature difference between conductors and
Advantages and Disadvatages of
AC/DC Motor

water2) For rating up to 600MW


23. Conclusion:

Cooling is very much essential for modern output machines

machine stable

Increases efficiency, rating of machine

safe operation

Protects the inner parts of machine from thermal damages

62007 views

Increases longevity of machines, maintains

24. Thank You! RAHUL DEYDept. ELECTRICALRoll. 09187016017

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