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bronislav malinovski

1884 - 1942

bronislav kasper malinovski daibada poloneTSi,


qalaq krakovSi. man krakovis universitetSi fizika da
maTematika Seiswavla da 1908 w. doqtoris samecniero
xarisxi daicva. Semdgomi ori wlis ganmavlobaSi laifcigis universitetSi fizikur qimias eufleboda, mogvianebiT ki zust mecnierebaTa Seswavlas Tavi daaneba da
1910-1914 ww. londonis ekonomikur skolaSi anTropologiisa da eTnografias eufleboda. aqve daamTavra
aspirantura. am wlebSi mas intensiuri urTierToba hqonda cnobil anTropologebTan j. frezerTan, C. zeligmanTan, e.vestermarkTan da xvebTan. cnobil anTropologebTan. frezeris Sromam _`oqros rto~ malinovskis, rogorc
anTropologisa da eTnografis formirebaze gansakuTrebuli zegavlena moaxdina.
1914-1918 ww. malinovski axali gvineis kunZul trobriandis, kanaris kunZulebis da avstraliis aborigenebis yofas ikvlevda. evropaSi dabrunebis
Semdeg, 1927 malinovskim londonis universitetis profesoris Tanamdeboba
miiRo. 1938 wels igi gaemgzavra amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, sadac ielis universitetSi aswavlida da imavdroulad meqsikaSi savele kvlevas atarebda.
malinovskim pirvelma gamoiyena CarTuli dakvirvebis meTodi. misi azriT,
eTnografi da socialuri anTropologiis mkvlevari, garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi im sazogadoebaSi unda cxovrobdes, romelsac swavlobs. malinovski
cdilobda konkretuli sazogadoebis kulturis problemebi adamianis fundamenturi biologiuri moTxovnilebebidan gamomdinare Seeswavla da moiTxovda TiToeuli kulturis mTlianobaSi, misi elementebis funqciur urTierTkavSirSi ganxilvas. am moTxovnidan gamomdinare, man Camoayaliba kulturis
Seswavlis funqciuri midgoma, romlis Tanaxmadac, nebismier civilizaciaSi
nebismieri Cveuleba, materialuri obieqti, idea da rwmena asrulebs sasicocxlo funqcias, wyvets garkveul amocanas da aris kulturis, rogorc mTelis,
aucilebeli nawili. kulturis funqcia malinovskis SexedulebiT isaa, rom
pirdapir an iribad daakmayofilos adamianis moTxovnilebebi. kulturaSi
araferia zedmeti, SemTxveviTi. Tu romelime Cveuleba myarad sruldeba _ is
saWiroa. ama Tu im kulturaSi esa Tu is Cveuleba mavned an uazrod gveCveneba mxolod imitom, rom sakmarisad ar viciT misi kavSiri adamianis bazisur
moTxovnilebebTan an sxva kulturul movlenebTan kavSiris gareSe vafasebT.

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malinovskis pirveli wigni `wynari okeanis argonavtebi~ (1922), romelic


axali gvineis ucnobi kulturis Seswavlas eZRvneba. am naSromiT dasrulda
socialur anTropologiaSi gabatonebuli tradicia kulturis spekulanturi Seswavlisa da daiwyo axali, empiriuli socialuri anTropologiis etapi.
malinovskim Camoayaliba `CarTuli dakvirvebis~ meTodi, rac gulisxmobs mkvlevaris srulyofil integracias sakvlev kulturaSi. swored am meTodiT
`Signidan~ Seiswavla trobriandiis kunZulis mkvidrTa cxovreba: aiSena qoxi,
iswavla maTi ena, aborigenebTan erTad Tevzaobda, nadirobda, monawileobda
ritualebsa da dResaswaulebSi. mis mier mopovebuli mravali empiriuli masala da ritualebis dawvrilebiT aRwera mkiTxvels aborigenebis kulturaSi
cxovrebaSi Tanamonawileobis srul gancdas aniWebs. am SromaSi gansakuTrebiT
sainteresodaa gaanalizebuli saCuqrebis gacvlis sistema da misi socialuri
funqcia. malinovskim `wynari okeanis argonavtebSi~ pirvelad gamoTqva mosazreba kulturis funqcionalisturi Seswavlis aucileblobis Sesaxeb.
1929 wels gamoqveynebulma meore mniSvnelovanma eTnografulma Sromam
_ `velurebis sqesobrivi cxovreba Crdilo-aRmosavleT melaneziaSi. siyvaruli, qorwineba da ojaxuri cxovreba britanuli axali gvineis trobriandiis
kunZulis aborigenebSi~ _ didi interesi gamoiwvia mkiTxvelTa da mecnierTa
Soris. sqesobrivi cxovreba malinsovskis ainteresebda bunebisa da kulturis, spontanurobisa da wesis dualobis TvalsazrisiT. ojaxi, rogorc sqesebis
urTierTobis socialuri Sedegi, aborigenebis kulturaSi emyareba ormxrivi
urTierTobis wess. ojaxis socialuri sazrisi mdgomareobs ormxrivobis da,
Sesabamisad, Temis (Temuri urTierTobebis) formirebaSi. trobriandielebi
erTmaneTisagan mkafiod ganasxvaveben sasiyvarulo urTierTobasa da qorwinebas. sasiyvarulo urTierToba damyarebulia drois Tavisuflad gatarebasa da
spontanur ormxriv urTierTobaze, xolo qorwineba _ iZulebasa da mavaldebulebel ormxriv urTierTkavSirze. qorwineba (institucionalizebuli sqesobrivi kavSiri), mozardebis mowifulobaSi gadasvlisa da socialur cxovrebaSi monawileobis saSualebaa da gansakuTrebuli roli akisria materialur
da simbolur `qonebaTa~ gacvlaSi. sasiyvarulo urTierToba asrulebs sqesobrivi ltolvis dakmayofilebis funqcias, xolo qorwineba uzrunvelyofs
wyvilebis socialur aRiarebas, sazogadoebaSi maT rangsa da prestiJs.
malinovskis Semoqmedebam mniSvnelovani zegavlena moxdina sociologiis
ganviTarebazec. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia misi funqcionalisturi midgomis zegavlena sociologiaSi struqturul-funqcionalisturi paradigmis
formirebaze, risi mkafio dadasturebac amerikeli sociologis talkot parsonsis struqturul-funqcionalisturi Teoriaa.
malinovski amerikaSi, niu heivenSi gardaicvala.

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magiis xelovneba da rwmenis Zlevamosileba

magia! am sityvis mxolod warmoTqmac sakmarisia, rom Tvalwin is farda dagvidges,


romlis miRmac amoucnobi da saidumloebiT moculi samyaroa mimaluli. maTTvisac
ki, visTvisac ucxoa ltolva raime okulturisadmi, visac ar izidavs `ezoTeruli
WeSmaritebis~ yalb margalitTa brwyinvaleba, visTvisac ucnobia TanamedroveobaSi
modis karnaxiT gaRvivebuli mwveli interesi im naxevrad gasagebi aryofnidan aRzevebuli Zveli rwmenebisa da kulturebis mimarT, romlebmac axla sxvadasxva `Teosofiebis~, `spiritizmebis~ an `spiritualizmebis~, sxvadasxva fsevdomecnieruli
swavlebebis, `logiebisa~ da `izmebis~ saxelebi SeiZina; maTTvisac ki, visTvisac mecnieruli azrovnebis sicxadea damaxasiaTebeli, sityva `magias~ gansakuTrebuli xibli axlavs. es SeiZleba garkveulwilad magiaSi pirvelyofili adamianebis umniSvnelovanesi
miswrafebebisa da maTi sibrZnis raime kvintesenciis Ziebis imediT aixsnas _ amgvari
codnis faseulobaSi daeWveba SeuZlebelia, rogoric ar unda iyos misi Sinaarsi. garda amisa, ar SeiZleba ar vaRiaroT, rom sityva `magia~ CvenSi TiTqos mTvlemare sulier
potencias, sulis siRrmeSi arsebul saswaulis imeds da adamianis ucnob SesaZleblobaTa rwmenas aRviZebs. gavixsenoT Tundac is damatyvevebeli Zala, romelic sityvebis
_ `magia~, `grZneba~ da `jadoqroba~ aqvs poeziaSi, sadac maTi emociuri mniSvneloba
mTeli sicxadiT warmoCindeba da JamTasvlisTvis mouxelTebeli rCeba.
magram rodesac magias xels sociologi hkidebs, romelic cdilobs gadaabijos am
idumalebiT moculi samyaros zRurbls _ rac savsebiT SesaZlebelia adamianTa iseT
Tanamedrove sazogadoebebze dakvirvebis wyalobiT, romlebmac SeinarCunes qvis xanis yofa da kultura, _ igi garkveuli imedgacruebiT aRmoaCens, rom magia sakmaod
prozauli, zustad gaTvlili da, garkveulwilad mouxeSavi xelovnebaa, romelsac
mxolod praqtikuli mosazrebebis gamo mimarTaven da safuZvlad sxvadasxva primitiuli da zedapiruli rwmenebi udevs, xelovneba, romelic mravali martivi da erTferovani ileTis SesrulebiT amoiwureba. amaze ukve visaubreT, rodesac vcdilobdiT ise gangvesazRvra magia, rom igi religiisgan gagvesxvavebina da mivuTiTebdiT,
rom igi wminda praqtikul qmedebamde dadis, qmedebamde, romelic garkveuli miznis

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miRwevis saSualebad gvevlineba. amgvar rames Cven maSinac vawydebiT xolme, roca vcdilobT gavxsnaT is kvanZebi, romlebiTac igi ase mWidrod aris gadaxlarTuli codnasa da im gamoyenebiTi xelovnebebis dargebTan, romelTaganGAN garegnulad TiTqmis
arc ki gansxvavdeba. sakmao Zalisxmevaa saWiro misi mentaluri wesrigis, wesdebis
arsebiTi specifikisa da magiuri aqtebis gansakuTrebuli ritualuri bunebis gasa
gebad. _ savele anTropologiis nebismierma specialitma sakuTari gamocdilebiT
icis, rom pirvelyofil adamianTa magia ukiduresad monotonuri da uemocio saqmia
nobaa, srulebiT gansazRvruli saSualebebiT, romlis Tvalsawieri rwmenaTa da amosaval wanamZRvarTa garkveuli erTianobiT Semoifargleba. sakmarisia erTi romelime
wesCveulebis arsSi Cawvdoma, erTi romelime jadoqrobis procesis Seswavla, magiuri
rwmenis principebis, magiis xelovnebisa da misi socialuri maxasiaTeblebis garkveva da SeZlebT mocemuli pirvelyofili tomis TiTqmis yvela qmedebis ara mxolod
gagebas, aramed, sakuTar qmedebaTa viTarebis Sesabamisi cvalebadobiT, magis rolSi
movlinebasac ki, sadac ar unda xdebodes es da ragind Zlieric ar unda iyos dRemde
SemorCenili rwmena am erTob momxibvleli xelovnebisadmi.

1. rituali da jadoqroba
ganvixiloT magiis romelime tipuri aqti _ magaliTad, kargad nacnobi Savi magiis aqti, romelic, rogorc wesi, standartuli Teatraluri warmodgenis formiT
tardeba. rogorc Cans, aborigenebis sxvadasxva magiur qmedebaTa Soris yvelaze
gavrcelebuli yofila jadoqroba, romelic xorcieldeba isris, wamaxuli joxis,
romelime cxovelis Zvlis an fxis saSualebiT. veluri umiznebs an isvris am iaraRs
Tavisi warmosaxviTi mtris mimarTulebiT, romlis mokvdinebac surs, saxis manWvis,
muqaris Jestebisa da Setevis simulaciis TanxlebiT. yvelaferi es garkveul rituals warmoadgens. amgvari ritualebi mravladaa aRwerili Zvel evropul da aRmosavlur traqtatebSi Savi magiis Sesaxeb, agreTve eTnografiul gamokvlevebsa da mogzaurTa monaTxrobebSi, Tumca amgvar warmodgenebSi monawile velurebis mimika da
eqspresia gacilebiT iSviaTadaa aRwerili. ara da swored maT aqvT gadamwyveti mniSvneloba.
warmovidginoT damkvirvebeli, romelic uecrad aRmoCnda melaneziis romelime
raionSi da aborigenTa amgvari saqmianobis mowme gaxda. Tuki man zustad ar icis, ras
akvirdeba, uTuod ifiqrebs, rom mis winaSe mTvareuli an raime mizezis gamo mZvinvarebiT gondakarguli adamianebi arian. aborigeni ara mxolod mimarTavs iaraRs warmosaxviTi msxverplisken, is, amave dros, iaraRis haerSi trialiT damarcxebuli mowi-

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naRmdegis gulis gangmirvas da amiT gamowveul mZvinvarebas ganasaxierebs. amgvarad
aborigeni ara mxolod warmoadgens mterze sakuTar gamarjvebas, gamarjvebis survilis mTel vnebasac aqsovs am qmedebaSi.
maSasadame, Cven vxedavT, rom emociis dramatuli gamoxatva ritualis arsebiTi
nawilia magram ras gamoxatavs TviT es rituali? cxadia, aborigens gamarjvebis sabo
loo Sedegis gamoxatva rom surdes, maSin warmodgenaSi mowinaaRmdegis sikvdilsac
CarTavda, mis imitacias moaxdenda, TumcaRa es yovelTvis ase ar xdeba. samagierod,
warmodgenis ganuyofeli nawili brZolisa da gamarjvebis situaciebTan uSualod
dakavSirebuli im emociebis gamoxatvaa, romlebic mimikisa da sxeulis sfecifikuri
moZraobebis saSualebiT miiRweva.
amgvari ritualis uamravi magaliTi SegveZlo mogveyvana, _ nawils Tavadve vakvirdebodi, ufro meti ki sxva TviTmxilvelebma aRweres. am dakvirvebebiT SegviZlia
davaskvnaT, rom Savi magiis ritualebSi jadoqari raRacnairad zians ayenebs, `asaxiC
rebs~ an saerTod anadgurebs msxverplis ganmasaxierebel sagans, Tan am rituals siZulvilisa da brazis gamomxatveli emociebiT amdidrebs. analogiurad, rodesac sasiyvarulo magiis ritualebSi jadoqari ereva, efereba da ealerseba sasiyvarulo
ltolvis obieqtis gamomxatvel sagans, is ganasaxierebs Tavbrudamxvevi da mwveli
ltolvisagan gondakarguli Seyvarebulis grZnobebs. sabrZolo magiis ritualebSi brazi, Setevis mZvinvareba, sabrZolo vnebebi met-naklebad (SedarebiT) uSualo
formiT gamoixateba. boroti sulebisa da eSmakebis gandevnis magiaSi jadoqris qceva
mogvagonebs im Tavzardacemuli adamianis mdgomareobas, romelic panikur SiSs didi
ZalisxmeviT gadalaxavs. danTebuli CiraRdnebi, iaraRis JRaruni am speqtaklis gaformebis Semadgeneli nawilia. me aRvwere erT-erTi amgvari rituali, sadac eSmakis
bneli Zalis mogeriebisas magi warmoTqvams Selocvebs da TiTqosda devnis maT Tavisi
SiSisagan gaqvavebuli, krunCxvebiT mborgavi sxeulidan. SiSi ukve ipyrobs sxva jadoqars, romelic maTTan miaxloebas cdilobs da es SiSi gaqcevas aiZulebs.
yvela amgvari qmedeba, romelTa racionaluri axsna, rogorc wesi, magiis zogierTi
amosavali principiTaa SesaZlebeli, pirvel rigSi, garkveuli emociebis gamovlinebebs hgavs. xSirad zustad imave mizans emsaxureba is sagnebi da elementebi, romlebiTac magiuri warmodgenebia gaformebuli. danebi, basrad alesili saCxvleti(wvetiani)
da sakveTi iaraRi, myrali an Sxamiani nivTierebebi gamoiyeneba Savi magiis ritualebSi,
aromatuli fisi (nelsacxeblebi), yvavilebi, maTrobela nivTierebebi _ sasiyvarulo
magiaSi, Zvirfasi nivTebi _ sayofacxovrebo magiaSi. es yvelaferi gamoyenebulia ara
ideebis, aramed gZnobebis gamosaxatavad, grZnobebisa, romlebSic Sesabamisi magiuri
ritualebis miznebi fiqsirdeba.
imgvari ritualebis garda, romelTa mTavari elementebi garkveuli emociis gamoxatvas emsaxureba, arsebobs sxva ritualebic, romlebSic qmedebis mizani garkveuli

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Sedegis imitaciaa an, ser jeims frezeris gamoTqma rom vixmaroT, rituali xdeba am
ritualis miznis imitacia. magaliTad, Cem mier aRweril Savi magiis erT-erT ritualSi, romelsac melanezieli aborigenebi asrulebdnen, jadoqrobis ritualuri sruldeba imiT, rom jadoqari dasustebuli xmiT gamoscems ukanasknel bgerebs, Semdeg
sikvdiliswina xrialis xmas da grZnobamixdili ecema. sxva magaliTebis moyvana zedmetia, vinaidan msgavsi ritualebi da magiis es aspeqti brwyinvaled aris aRwerili da
detalurad dasabuTebuli frezeris mier. ser jeimsma agreTve aCvena, rom arsebobs
magiuri sagnebis gansakuTrebuli profesiuli codna, romelic am sagnebis Tvisebebs,
maT urTierTobebs, msgavsebisa da Tanaziarobis ideebs efuZneba da romelmac ganviTareba magiur fsevdomecnierebebSi pova.
magram arsebobs iseTi ritualuri warmodgenebic, romlebSic ar aris arc imitacia, arc miznis winaswari Wvreta, arc raime konkurentuli ideis an emociis gamoxatuleba. cnobilia imdenad martivi ritualebi, rom isini SeiZleba aRvweroT, rogorc
garkveuli magiuri unaris ubralo demonstracia. magaliTad, rodesac jadoqari dgeba, mimarTavs qars da iZaxebs mas. sxva ritualSi jadoqari Tavis grZneulebas gadascems
raime sagans da ajadoebs mas. amgvar SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneba sruliad gansazRvruli
materialuri obieqtebi _ iseTi sagnebi an nivTierebebi, romlebic yvelaze metad gamosadegnia imisTvis, rom miiRon, Seinaxon da gadascen magiuri Zala, iyvnen am Zalebis
damcavi garsi manam, sanam maTi amoqmedebis Tu uSualo gamoyenebis dro ar dadgeba.
magram ra aris es magiuri Zala, romelic nebismier magiur rituals axlavs?
magiuri ritualis ra elementic ar unda aviRoT _ garkveuli emociebis gamom
xatveli qmedebebi, imitacia Tu saboloo Sedegis winaswar ganWvreta, an ubralo
jadoqroba _ yvela maTgans erTi ram aqvs saerTo: magiuri Zala, misi zemoqmedeba yo
velTvis gadaecema mosajadoebel obieqts. ra Zalaa es? Tuki mis mokled gadmocemas
SevecdebodiT, SeiZleboda gveTqva, rom es aris jadoqruli Selocvis garkveuli, metad mniSvnelovani Zalaufleba. es xazgasmiT aRsaniSnavia, radgan mkvlevarebs xSirad
yuradRebis miRma rCebaT es Zalze mniSvnelovani garemoeba. jadoqruli Selocva _
magiuri ritualis umniSvnelovanesi elementia. jadoqruli Selocvis saidumlo _
magiuri saidumlos nawilia, romelic gandobilisgan (xeldasmulisgan) gandobils
gadaecema. aborigenTaTvis magiis codna jadoqruli Selocvis codnas niSnavs; magaliTad, Savi magiis nebismieri ritualis aRwera faqtobrivad imis dadasturebaa, rom
magiuri rituali jadoqrobis garSemo iyris Tavs. jadoqrobis formula magiuri warmodgenis centraluri nawilia.
pirvelyofili magiis teqstebisa da formulebis gamokvleva gviCvenebs, rom arsebobs sami tipuri elementi, romlebTanac magiuri ritualebis qmedunarianobis rwmenaa dakavSirebuli. upirveles yovlisa, es aris fonetikuri efeqtebi, magaliTad,

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bronislav malinovski
bunebrivi xmebis imitacia: qaris stvena da qrola, zRvis talRebis xmauri, Weqa-qu
xili, sxvadasxva cxovelis gamocemuli xmebi. es xmebi sxvadasxva movlenis simboloebia da amitom aborigenebs swamT, rom maTi daxmarebiT Tavad am movlenebis magiuri
gamowvevaa SesaZlebeli. xmebi sxvadasxva emociebsac gamoxatavs, romlebic adamianis
survilebs ukavSirdebian da amitom maT magiur dakmayofilebas emsaxurebian.
meore elementi, romelic pirvelyofil jadoqrobaSi did rols asrulebs
_ aris sityvebi, romelTa warmoTqmac garkveuli movlenebis gamowvevis, miznis
miRwevis, movlenaTa msvlelobis SenarCunebis an marTvis saSualebaa. magaliTad,
jadoqari aborigeni CamoTvlis im daavadebis yvela simptoms, romlis gankurnebac
surs, im SemTxvevaSi ki Tu misi mizania romelime adamianis sikvdili, warmoTqvams
formulas, romelic msxverplis sicocxlis ukanasknel wuTebs aRwers. samkurnalo
magiaSi jadoqari xatovani sityvebiT amkobs janmrTelobisa da sxeulis siZlieris
didebulebas. sayofacxovrebo magiis ritualebSi gamoiyeneba sityvebi mcenareTa
zrdis, cxovelebisa da Tevzebis sakvebis Sesaxeb. magis sityvebSi is grZnobebicaa
gadmocemuli, romlebic magiiT gamoxatuli qmedebebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli da
agreTve Tavad es qmedebebi, romlebic Sesabamisi emociebiT aris Seferadebuli.
jadoqrobaSi gawafuli aborigeni mrisxanebiT imeorebs: `me davamtvrev. . . , me gavTe
lav . . . , me gavsres . . . , me gavWylet . . . , da am sityvebis Semdeg CamoTvlis msxverplis
sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilebs da organoebs. advili SesamCnevia, rom jadoqruli
qmedebebi ZiriTadad magiuri ritualis struqturis msgavsia, xolo jadoqruli
Selocvis sityvebi imave moTxovnebs emsaxureba, rasac magiuri ritualebis sagnebi.
mesame elementi, romelsac jadoqroba Seicavs da romlis analogic ritualebSi
ar moiZebneba, aris miTologiuri iluziebi anu im kulturis winaprebisa da gmirebis
moSvelieba, romelTaganac Tavad magia warmoiSva. aq albaT yvelaze mniSvnelivan momentamde mivdivarT _ es aris magiis tradiciuli wyaro.

2. magiis tradicia
rogorc araerTxel aRvniSneT, tradicia, romelic pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSia gabatonebuli, Tavis koncentrirebul gamovlinebas magiur ritualsa da kultSi
iZens. yovelTvis, roca saubaria ramdenadme mniSvnelovan magiur qmedebaze, maSinve
vawydebiT raime istorias, romelic xsnis am qmedebis arsebobas. rogorc wesi, es ambavi
mogviTxrobs imis Sesaxeb, rogor gaxda esa Tu is magiuri rituali adamianTa romelime
erTobis, tomis, ojaxisa Tu gvaris yofis nawili. magram es monaTxrobebi arasdros
migviTiTebs im wyaroze, saidanac SeiZleba `warmoSobiliyo~ magia; aseTi wyaro ar ar-

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sebobs _ magia arc Seqmnilia da arc gamogonili. yvelanairi magia Tavidanve iyo adamianis sasicocxlo interesebis sferoSi Semavali yvela sagnisa Tu procesis arsebiTi
damateba, TumcaRa yovelTvis rCeboda misi Cveulebrivi gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis
zRvars miRma. jadoqroba, magiuri rituali da is mizani, ris miRwevasac isini emsaxurebian, yovelTvis erTdroulad arseboben.
magaliTad, centraluri avstraliis aborigenebSi yvela magiuri rituali alkeringas (alcheringa) droidan arsebobs. aqedanve iRebs saTaves maTi yofis yvela sxva danarCeni elementi; melaneziis aborigenebSi, magiis istoria iwyeba maTi gamoqvabulSi
cxovrebis droidan, rodesac magia gvarovnuli wyobilebis adamianisTvis sruliad
bunebrivi codna iyo. ufro maRalganviTarebul sazogadoebebSi magiis wyaroebad sulebs da demonebs asaxeleben, magram es Zalebic, rogorc wesi, magiis gamomgoneblebi
ki ara, misi mxolod kargad amTviseblebi iyvnen. ase rom, magiis dasabamidanve arsebobis rwmena SeiZleba universalurad CaiTvalos. am rwmenas Tan axlavs rwmena imisa,
rom swored misi absoluturi ucvlelobis gamo, imis wyalobiT, rom igi gadaecema
Taobidan Taobas mciredi damaxinjebis an damatebebis gareSe, magia inarCunebs Tavis
qmedunarianobas. sawyisi da samudamod dadgenili nimuSisagan iotisodena gadaxrac ki
damRupvelia magiisTvis.
amas ukavSirdeba arsebiTi kavSiris idea, romelic Tavs iCens magiur ritualsa da
im obieqts Soris, romliskenac aris igi mimarTuli. magia sxva araferia, Tu ara obieqtis Tviseba, ufro zustad, es aris urTierTobebi am obieqtsa da adamians Soris _
urTierTobebi, romlebsac adamiani ar qmnis, magram adamianisTvis arsebobs. romeli
tradicia an miTologiac ar unda ganvixiloT, yvelgan SevxvdebiT rwmenas, rom magia
yovelTvis emsaxureboda adamianTa miznebs da arsebobda misi (an raime adamianis msgavsi arsebis) codnis wyalobiT. es erTnairad exeba rogorc yvelaze gamoCenil mags,
aseve saSualebebs, romlebsac igi jadoqrobisTvis iyenebs da TiTqmis yvela obieqts,
romlebiskenacaa mimarTuli magia. pirvelyofil kacobriobas _ iqneboda es avstraliuri mura-mura Tu alkeringa, melaneziis gamoqvabulis tomebi Tu magiuri oqros
xanis _ droindeli dedamiwis mosaxleoba _ Tavidanve hqonia magia Tavis kulturul
arsenalSi.
magia ubralod ki ar xorcieldeba adamianis mier, aramed adamianuria Tavisi miswrafebebis gamo: magiuri qmedebebi, rogorc wesi, adamianis praqtikul saqmianobasa
da mdgomareobas _ nadirobas, Tevzaobas, miwaTmoqmedebas, vaWrobas, siyvaruls,
avadmyofobas da sikvdils esadageba. magiis obieqtia ara TviT buneba, aramed masTan
adamianis mimarTeba da bunebrivi obieqtebiT adamianuri qmedebebis ganxorcieleba.
ufro metic, magiur moqmedebaTa Sedegebi, rogorc wesi, imad ki ar aRiqmeba, rasac
gvaZlevs buneba jadoqruli Selocvebis gavleniT, aramed rogorc raRac sakuTriv
magiuri, risi gakeTeba Tavad bunebas ar SeuZlia, rac mxolod magiis Zalas emor-

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Cileba. amitom magia bunebaze dakvirvebiT an misi kanonebis codniT ar miiReba. igi
adamianis TviTnabadi sakuTrebaa, romlis sayrdenic kulturuli tradiciaa da gansakuTrebuli, damoukidebeli Zalis arsebobas amtkicebs, risi wyalobiTac adamians
Tavisi miznebis ganxorcieleba SeuZlia.
aqedan gamomdinare, magiuri Zala yofierebis universumSi ki ar aris ganfenili (gafantuli), aramed mxolod da mxolod adamianisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. magia _ esaa
specifiuri da unikaluri Zala, romelic ekuTvnis mxolod adamians da mJRavndeba mxolod magiur xelovnebaSi, adamianis xmiT gadmoedineba da ritualis jadosnuri ZaliT gadaicema.
aq unda gavixsenoT, rom adamianis sxeuli, rogorc magiuri Zalis WurWeli da gamtari, romlis saSualebiTac es Zala gadadis sxva sagnebze, iZulebulia sxvadasxva
pirobebs daeqvemdebaros. amitom magi valdebulia yvelanairi tabu daicvas, radgan,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, jadoqrobam SeiZleba fuWad Caiaros. es azri gansakuTrebiT
gavrcelebulia zogierT pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi, magaliTad, melaneziaSi, sadac
aborigenebs miaCniaT, rom verSemdgari jado magis mucelSi rCeba, romelic ara marto
adamianis sakvebis, aramed mexsierebis saTavsicaa. roca aucilebelia, jadosnur Zalas
Tavmoyra SeuZlia, xorxSi sadac moTavsebulia goneba da saidanac igi gadmoedineba
xmis _ adamianis sulis mTavari organos saSualebiT. amgvarad, magia adamianis ara
mxolod arsobrivi monapovaria, aramed pirdapiri gagebiT imyofeba masSi cxovrebis
nebismier monakveTSi da misi gadacema adamianisagan adamianisTvis SesaZlebelia mxolod saidumlos gandobis, memkvidreobiT gadacemisa da swavlebis umkacresi wesebis
dacviT. amitom pirvelyofil kulturaSi magiuri Zala arasodes iTvleboda raRac
bunebriv Zalad, romelic bunebrivi obieqtebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli da adamianis
gareSe da misgan damoukideblad moqmedebs, Zalad, romelic SeiZleba amocnobili da
gagebuli yofiliyo romelime im rigiTi xerxiT, romliTac adamiani bunebis Sesaxeb
iZens codnas.

3. mana da magiuri SesaZlebloba


cxadia, Tuki Cveni zemoT moyvanili msjelobebi WeSmaritia, maSin yvela Teoria da
koncefcia, romelTa mixedviTac magiis safuZvelSi Zevs is, rasac isini mana- s uwodeben,
mcdari iqneba. Tuki vamtkicebT, rom es Zala mxolod adamianisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli,
igi am Zalas mxolod gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi moipovebs da misi gamoyeneba mxolod
dadgenili tradiciis farglebSi SeuZlia, maSin, ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia daveTanxmoT doqtor kodringtons, romelic am Zalas Semdegnairad agviRwers: `mana araferSi
ar aris koncentrirebuli da SeuZlia nebismier rameSi gadasvla~. mana agreTve `yvela-

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nairi xerxiT moqmedebs sasikeTod an samtrod. . . arsebobs fizikur an sxva romelime


ZalaSi, da agreTve, adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebel nebismier unarsa Tu ganmasxvavebel
TvisebaSi~. axla cxadia, rom Zala, romelsac kodringtoni aRwers, sruliad sawinaaRmdegoa imgvari magiuri Zalisa, romelic pirvelyofili sazogadoebis miTologiebSi
velurTa qcevebsa da maT magiur formulebSi warmogvidgeba. rogorc Cemi melaneziuri gamokvlevebis Sdegad davrwmundi, magiuri Zala marTlac mxolod jadoqrobasa
da masTan dakavSirebul ritualSia da gadaicema ara nebismieri gziT, aramed mxolod
mkacrad gansazRvruli proceduriT. igi srulebiT ar vlindeba fizikur ZalaSi, xolo
misi zemoqmedeba adamianis unarebsa da gansxvavebul Tvisebebze mkacrad gansazRvruli da SezRudulia.
igive SeiZleba iTqvas Crdiloamerikel indielTa kulturidan nasesxebi zogierTi
cnebis ganmartebis Taobazec. maT araferi aqvT saerTo raime konkretul da gansakuTrebul magiur ZalasTan. magaliTad, dakotas tomis enidan aRebuli sityva `vakan ~,
Semdegnairad ganimarteba: `yvelaferi, rac cocxalia, vakan- ia. aseTia nebismieri sagani, romelSiac vlindeba Zala: iqneba es qari Tu moZravi Rrubeli an raime pasiuri
masa, magaliTad, gzaze dagdebuli lodi, . . . es sityva moicavs nebismier saidumlos,
nebismier farul Zalas, yvelafers, rac zebunebrivia~. xolo irokezebis enidan aRebuli sityva `orenda~ niSnavs: `es Zala axasiaTebs yvela sagans, . . . kldes, wyals, zRvis moqcevas, mcenares, cxovels, adamians, niavsa Tu qariSxals, Rrublebs, elvasa Tu
Weqa-quxils . . . pirvelyofili mentaloba am ZalaSi, yvela im movlenisa Tu qmedebis
mizezia, romlebic adamianTa garemomcvel samyaroSi xdeba~.
magiuri Zalis arsis raobaze Cveni msjelobis Semdeg saWiro aRar aris imis xazgasma, rom mana -s msgavs cnebebs TiTqmis araferi aqvs saerTo magiuri jadoqrobisa
da ritualis gansakuTrebul ZalasTan. ukve aRvniSneT, rom magiur rwmenaTa gagebis
gasaRebi magiis tradiciuli Zalisa da adamianebisa Tu bunebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
sxva Zalebisa da unarebis erTmaneTisgan mkacri gamijvnaa. sityvebi `vakan ~, `orenda ~
da mravali cneba Zalisa da Zalauflebis yvela saxeobas aRniSnavs magiis garda da TavisTavad saukuneTa siRrmeSi mimavali wminda metafizikuri cnebebis generalizaciis
magliTia, romlis niSnebic zogierTi Tanamedrove aborigeni tomis metyvelebaSic
SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT. isini Zalze mniSvnelovania pirvelyofili mentalobis gasagebad, magram maTi kvlevis monacemebze dafuZnebuli Tanamedrove analizi saSualebas gvaZlevs vimsjeloT garkveuli problemis arsebobis Sesaxeb, romelic `Zalis~
pirvelyofil gagebas, `zebunebrivsa~ da im fenomens Soris arsebobs, rasac `magiur
Zalas~ vuwodebT. is informacia, rac axla gvaqvs, ar gvaZlevs saSualebas, rom dausabuTeblad vimsjeloT iseT rTul cnebaTa pirvelad mniSvnelobaze, rogoricaa fizikuri Zala da zebunebrivi qmedeba. Crdiloamerikel aborigenTa enebze, rogorc Cans,

369

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aqcents pirveli adgili ukavia, okeaniis aborigenTa enebSi ki _ ukanaskneli. me msurda xazi gamesva, rom aborigenTa mentalobis gagebis yvela mcdeloba, upirveles yovlisa, maTi qcevis tipebis aRwerasa da Seswavlaze unda iyos dafuZnebuli, xolo enis
leqsikisa _ maTi yofa-cxovrebis Seswavlaze. enas yvelaze ufro iolad SeuZlia Semecnebis CixSi Cveni Seyvana da amitom `ontologiuri argumentacia~ anTropologiaSi
gansakuTrebiT saxifaToa.
es problema uzustes analizs saWiroebs, radgan mana, rogorc pirvelyofili magiisa da religiis arsis Teoria, imdenadve brwyinvalea formiT, ramdenadac ususuri
realuri gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT. axla unda davafiqsiroT, rom Cveni codna manas
Sesaxeb (gansakuTrebiT es melanezias exeba) sakmaod winaaRmdegobrivia da rac ufro
mniSvnelovania, TiTqmis ar gagvaCnia monacemebi, romelTa meSveobiTac SevZlebdiT
gveCvenebina rogor Sedis es cneba religiur kultebsa da rwmenebSi.
dabejiTebiT mxolod erTi ramis Tqmaa SesaZlebeli: magiis warmoSoba ar unda
gaigivdes universaluri Zalis garkveuli abstraqtuli gagebis SeqmnasTan, romelic
Semdeg konkretul SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneba. piriqiT, yoveli konkretuli situacia
sxva situaciisgan damoukideblad Tavis magias Sobs. magiis nebismieri tipi, ganpirobebuli konkretuli situaciiTa da misTvis damaxasiaTebeli emociuri daZabulobiT,
ideaTa spontanuri moZraobisa da adamianis uSualo reaqciebis SedegebiT warmoiSoba. swored sulieri procesis es universalurobaa im faqtis safuZveli, rom magias
aqvs raRac saerTo maxasiaTeblebi, romelic adamianTa magiuri azrovnebisa da qcevis
zogadi cnebebiT gamoxatvis saSualebas gvaZlevs. axla mivuaxlovdiT mdgomareobas,
rodesac konkretuli magiuri situaciebisa da im gamocdilebis urTierTdamokide
bulebis gaanalizebaa saWiro, romelTa meSveobiTac isini warmoiSva.

4. magia da gamocdileba
aqamde ZiriTadad ganvixilavdiT aborigenul ideebsa da magiur warmodgenebs,
romlebic, faqtobrivad, velurebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli ubralo rwmenaa, rom magia
adamians garkveul sagnebze mbrZaneblobis unars aniWebs. axla saWiroa ganvixiloT es
Sexeduleba damkvirvebel-sociologis TvaliT. modiT, erTxelac ganvixiloT iseTi
tipuri situacia, sadac magiasTan gveqneba saqme. adamiani Tavisi praqtikuli saqmianobisas drodadro gamouval mdgomareobaSi vardeba. monadires xelidan usxlteba
nadavli, mezRvaurs qaris mimarTuleba eSleba, ostati, kanoebs rom amzadebs, dar
wmunebuli ar aris masalis gamZleobaSi, Zal-RoniT savse adamiani uecrad avad xdeba.

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ra unda qnas adamianma aseT mdgomareobaSi, Tuki magias, rwmenasa da ritualebs gverdze
gadavdebT?
mas daxmarebas verc codna da verc warsulis gamocdileba gauwevs; teqnikurma
Cvevebmac uRalates. adamiani Tavis umweobas grZobs, magram survilebiTaa Sepyro
bili, romlebic Zlierdeba, sazrunavi, SiSi da imedebi qmnis Sinagan daZabulobas, rac
moqmedebaSi gantvirTvas moiTxovs. veluria is Tu civilizebuli, flobs magiis xelovnebas Tu saerTod warmodgenac ki ara aqvs misi arsebobis Sesaxeb _ adamiani, romelic aseT situaciaSia Cavardnili, SeuZlebelia umoqmedod, anu iseT mdgomareobaSi
darCes, romliskenac dabneuli goneba ubiZgebs. arada, nervuli sistema da mTeli sxeuli mas moqmedebisken mouwodebs, moqmedebisaken, romelsac ZaluZs Caenacvlos wina
warumatebel qmedebas. mis cnobierebaSi sasurveli miznis xati dominirebs, TiTqos
xedavs da exeba mas. TviT sxeuli ukve moqmedebs da misi qmedeba Seesabameba imas, rasac
imedi hpirdeba, rasac sawadeli vneba karnaxobs.
uZluri mrisxanebis anda damabrmavebeli siZulvilis tyveobaSi Cavardnili adamiani muStebs Sekravs da warmosaxviT dartymebs ayenebs mters: iwyevleba, mrisxanebisa da sibrazis gamomxatvel sityvebs gaiZaxis. vnebiTa da JiniT aRvsil Seyvarebuls,
misi uarmyofeli anda misTvis miuwvdomeli lamazmani warmoesaxeba, igi muxls iyris
mis winaSe da keTilganwobas evedreba, da roca Tavs mis rCeulad aRiqvams, sanukvari
ocnebebiT mkerdSi Caikravs. warumateblobiT guldawyvetili meTevze an monadire,
warmodgenebSi badeSi mofarTxale nadavls anda SubiT gangmirul cxovels xedavs: is
imeorebs maT saxelebs, cdilobs sityvebiT gamoxatos ocneba brwyinvale Tevzaobaze,
JestebiTa da mimikiT gamosaxavs TevziT damZimebul saTxevels. RamiT tyeSi an junglebSi gzaabneuli adamiani crurwmenebiT aRsavse SiSiT aris Sepyrobili, garSemo
Tavis mdevar demonebs xedavs, maT Tavdasxmas rom gadaurCes, elaparakeba kidec, cdilobs rom daaSinos anda raimenairad dausxltes xelidan Tundac im cxovelis msgav
sad, sicocxlis SesanarCuneblad Tavs rom imkvdarunebs.
msgavsi reagireba sulis amaforiaqebel vnebebsa

da dauZlevel survilebzeP_

aseT mdgomareobaSi Cavardnili adamianuri arsebis bunebrivi reaqciaa. maT safuZ


vlad saerTo fsiqofiziologiuri meqanizmi udevs. isini aRagzneben imas, risTvisac
qmedebaSi an sityvaSi gamoxatuli emociis gagrZeleba SeiZleboda dagverqmia: muqaris Jestebsa da wyevlas saaSkaraoze gamoaqvs uZluri mrisxaneba, miuwvdomeli, magram
sanukvari mizani spontanuri saxiT warmogvidgeba, rodesac praqtikuli moqmedeba
uSedegoa, Seyvarebulis Jestebi im sinazes gamoxatavs, gamosavali rom ver unaxavs da
a.S. yvela amgvari qmedeba da grZnobaTa gamoxatuleba adamianebs sasurveli Sedegis
cnobierebaSi miRwevis saSualebas aZlevs, rac mis vnebebs gzas uxsnis da Jestebisa da
sityvebis saSualebiT imas uaxlovebs, rac sxvagvarad miuRweveli iqneboda.

371

bronislav malinovski
magram ra xdeba inteleqtSi, rodesac emociebi uxvad iRvreba sityvebad da saqcielad, risi rwmena yalibdeba am dros? upirveles yovlisa, cnobiereba sasurveli miznis, saZulveli mtris, boroti sulis mkafio xats ayalibebs. es xati specifikur emociur Seferilobas iZens, romelic cnobierebas induqciurad gamoumuSavebs aqtiur
ganwyobas am xatis mimarT. Tuki vneba raime konkretul zRvars aRwevs, roca adamiani
sakuTar Tavze kontrols kargavs, aqamde Sekavebuli fsiqofiziologiuri daZabuloba sityvebis nakadiT da ugunuri saqcieliT ganimuxteba. magram es mSfoTvare afeTqebac miznis saxiT agrZelebs moZraobas. es yvelaferi aZlierebs reaqciis mamotivirebel Zalas, garkveuli saxiT awesrigebs da orientacias aZlevs sityvebsa da saqcielebs.
amitom saqmianoba, romelic mxolod magivrobis gamwevia da romelSic vneba uZlurebis
nangrevebisgan poulobs gamosavals, subieqturad flobs realuri moqmedebis mTel
Rirebulebas, romelic im SemTvevaSi ganxorcieldeboda, gadaulaxavi barierebi rom
ar warmoSobiliyo.
rodesac situacia ganimuxteba, rasac sityvebi da Jestebi uwyobs xels,rodesac
akviatebuli zmanebebi damcxralia, sasurveli mizani moaxloebulad an SeiZleba
miRweuladac ki CaiTvalos da adamiani isev grZnobs sicocxlis harmonias. mas uCn
deba rwmena, rom wyevlam da mrisxanebis gamomxatvelma Jestebma daamarcxa mteri
sasiyvarulo vedreba da warmosaxviTi Caxuteba upasuxod ar darCenila da gaRebul
Zalisxmevas, Zal-Ronis xarjvas amaod ar Cauvlia. raki ganicada SiSi da Semdeg
iZulebuli iyo gaqceuliyo an samkvdro-sasicocxlod Sebmoda warmosaxviT mters,
igrZno ra Sveba, adamiani Tvlis, rom swored am saqcielma ixsna is gansacdelisgan.
sityvebis nakadSi, saxeebsa da moqmedebebSi gamoxatuli Zlieri emociuri gancda,
bolos da bolos realurobis Rrma gancdas tovebs: es rwmena imaSi gamoixateba,
rom praqtikulad mniSvnelovani da sasurveli Sedegi im saidumlo Zalis wyalobiT
ganxorcielda, romelic adamians uecrad zegardmo mieniWa. Cndeba rwmena imisa,
rom Zala, romelic adamians fizikuri an sulieri Zalauflebis dapatronebis unars
aZlevs, garedan eniWeba da pirvelyofili adamiani, iseve, rogorc nebismier droSi
arsebuli gulubryvilo da ganuviTarebeli subieqti, miiCnevs, rom TiTqos am gareT
arsebuli da, ueWvelad, upirovno ZalTa wyaroebis gaxsnis mizezi swored misi
spontanuri qmedebebi da maTi efeqturobis Sinagani rwmena gaxda.
Tuki amgvar spontanur qmedebebsa da metyvelebis aqtebs, romlebic zRvarga
dasuli vnebebiT an daukmayofilebeli survilebiTaa gamowveuli, SevadarebT ma
giur ritualebs, jadoqruli Selocvebis formulebsa da magiur warmodgenebSi
gamoyenebul, tradiciul sagnebs, maTi TvalSi sacemi msgavseba saSualebas gvaZlevs
davaskvnaT, rom isini mWidrod arian dakavSirebulni da damokidebulni erTmaneTze.
magiuri ritualebi, magiuri formulebisa da principebis didi nawili, jadoqruli
ileTebi im boboqari situaciebidan momdinareobs, romlebic adamianebs praqtikuli

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cxovrebis urTules situaciebSi ganucdiaT, gansakuTrebiT ki maSin, rodesac


isini kulturis arasrulfasovnebis gamo, win SeCexebul kedelSi RriWos povnis
mcdelobisas gamouval CixSi Sedian, rodesac cdiloben daZlion winaaRmdegoba
mZlavr cxovrebiseul cdunebebsa da Casafrebuli bedisweris mrisxane safrTxeebs
Soris. Cemi azriT, aq magiuri rwmenis erT-erT ubralo faqtors ki ara, mis yvelaze
mniSvnelovan wyaros vxvdebiT.
Cven vxedavT, rom magiuri rwmenisa da praqtikis safuZvlebi haeridan ar aris motanili _ maTi sawyisi im gancdebSia saZebneli, romlebiTac aRsavsea cxovreba, im gamocdilebaSi, romlisganac adamiani dasaxuli miznis miRwevis SesaZleblobis rwmenas
iZens. axla vikiTxoT: rogor mimarTebaSi arian erTmaneTTan amgvari gamocdilebidan miRebuli imedebi da maTi realuri ganxorcieleba? pirvelyofil adamians magiis
uzomo pretenziebi SesaZloa ganxorcielebadac mosCveneboda, magram rogor avxsnaT
is faqti, rom maT amdeni xnis ganmavlobaSi ar daukargavT.
am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemamde, gavixsenoT, pirvel rigSi, is cnobili faqti, rom
adamianis mexsierebaze dadebiTi movlenebi bevrad ufro Rrma kvals tovebs, vidre
uaryofiTi. erTi warmateba advilad gadawonis yvela warumateblobas. amitom is
cxovrebiseuli situaciebi, rodesac magiur rituals warmateba moaqvs, Tavisi mniSvnelobiT aviwroeben, auferuleben yvela sxva SemTxvevas, rodesac sasurveli mizani
ar iyo miRweuli. arsebobs sxva faqtorebic, romlebic adamians magiis realur ZlevamosilebaSi ufro metad arwmuneben. ukve vnaxeT, rom magiuri rituali adamianis
garkveuli gamocdilebidan iRebs saTaves. is adamiani, vinc pirvelad gaacnobiera es
gamocdileba da mis safuZvelze Seqmna magiuri ritualis birTvi _ Selocvis formula, romelmac TanatolebisTvis am formulis gadacema SeZlo, maT mexsierebaSi
gamtkicebuli rituali tradiciad qceuliyo da rwmenis sagani gamxdariyo _ ueWvelad geniosi unda yofiliyo. is xalxi ki, romelmac aRiqva magiuri rituali, daeufla
mas, mudmivad aviTarebda da xvewda _ Tumca TviTon Tvlida, rom mxolod tradicias
misdevda _ ueWvelad didi inteleqtisa da sulieri energiis mqone erTob sazriani
iyo. advili savaraudebelia, rom adamianebi, romelTac aseTi Tvisebebi hqondaT, sxvebze ufro xSirad aRwevdnen warmatebas yvelaferSi, risTvisac xeli ar unda moekidaT.
da marTlac, dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom velur sazogadoebaSi magia da gamorCeuli piradi Tvisebebi yovelTvis gverdi-gverd arsebobs. ar aris gasakviri, rom magiur xelovnebas yvelaze xSirad iRblianebi, xelmarjve, mamaci gulisa da Zlieri nebisyofis
Aadamianebi floben. ueWvelia, rom pirvelyofili adamianis cnobierebaSi sworedac
rom magia iyo mis warmatebul qmedebaTa mizezi.
magis piradi avtoriteti da misi mniSvneloba magiis rwmenis gaZlierebaSi safuZvlad udevs erT metad saintereso movlenas, romlisTvisac magiis Sesaxeb moaruli
miTebi SeiZleboda gvewodebina. yovel cnobil mags gars akravs Saravandedi, romelic

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misi wyevlis saocari Zalis, mis mier magiis saSualebiT Cadenili mkvlelobebis, nanadirevis da naalafaris Tu sasiyvarulo gamarjvebebis Sesaxeb arsebuli ambebisgan
Sedgeba. yvela velur sazogadoebaSi msgavsi istoriebi magiur rwmenaTa RerZs qmnis.
raki sazrdoobs emociuri gancdebiT, romlebic yvela adamianisTvis sakuTari gamocdilebiTaa nacnobi, xmebi magiuri saswaulebis Sesaxeb, romelic farTod vrceldeba,
nebismier eWvs Tu skeptikur gamokidebas SeuZlebels xdis. yvela saxelganTqmuli
magi, tradiciasTan wilnayarobisa da winamorbedebTan kavSiris paralelurad, sakuTar didebas eyrdnoba, rogorc saswaulmoqmedebis garants.
amitomac miTi warsuli saukuneebis usicocxlo memkvidreoba ki ar aris, romelic kulturaSi mxolod TavSesaqcevi moTxrobis saxiT arsebobs. es is cocxali
Zalaa, mudmivad axal movlenebs rom iwvevs da magias misi Zlierebis axal-axali mtkicebulebebiT mosavs. magia brunavs warsuli tradiciis didebaSi, magram is yovelTvis miTis TviTganaxlebadi atmosferoTia garemoculi. warsulis Sesaxeb miTiur
gadmocemaTa nakadi mudmivad erwymis im monaTxrobebs, romlebic mocemuli tomis
folklors warmoqmnian. magia xidia pirvelyofili xelovnebis oqros xanasa da mis
Tanamedrove saswaulmoqmed Zalas Soris. amitomac misi formulebi gamsWvalulia
mistikuri iluziebiT, romelTa warmoTqmac mkvdreTiT aRadgens warsulis Zalebs
da gadmoisvris awmyoSi.
yvelaferi es saSualebas gvaZlevs axleburad davinaxoT miTebis roli da mniSvneloba. miTi ar aris samyaros sawyisis Sesaxeb pirvelyofili warmodgenebis krebuli,
romelsac wminda filosofiuri sarCuli aqvs. igi aseve ar aris bunebaze dakvirvevebis an
misi kanonebis garkveuli simboluri ganzogadebis Sedegi. miTi warmoCindeba, rogorc
raime movlenis Sesaxeb istoriulad Camoyalibebuli msjeloba, romlis TviT arsebobac ki erTxel da samudamod, romelime magiuri moqmedebis sasargeblod metyvelebs.
xandaxan miTi sxva araferia, Tu ara magiur saidumloebaTa fiqsacia, romelic sawyiss
im pirveli adamianisgan Rebulobs, romelsac es saidumloeba raime niSandoblivi SemTxvevis saSualebiT gaexsna. ufro xSirad miTi ubralod mogviTxrobs, rogor gaixsna garkveuli magiuri saidumloeba romelime gvaris, tomis an ojaxuri klanisaTvis.
magram nebismier SemTxvevaSi, miTi magiuri saidumloebis, misi geneologiis, adamianTa cnobierebaze misi uflebebis qartiis garantad gvevlineba. ukve vTqviT, rom miTi
bunebrivi Sedegia adamianis rwmenisa, rom nebismier Zalauflebas gacnobierebuli
unda hqondes, arsebobs is moqmedi Zala, romlis gamoyenebac mxolod rwmeniTaa SesaZlebeli. yvela rwmenas aqvs Tavisi miTologia, rameTu ar arsebobs rwmena saswaulis
gareSe, miTi ki, ZiriTadad, ubralod gadmogvcems raRac pirvel saswauls, romelic
magiis wyalobiT ganxorcielda.
dasasrul, unda aRvniSnoT, rom miTi SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos ara marto magiasTan, aramed socialuri Zalis an Zalauflebisadmi socialuri mizidulobis nebis-

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mier formasTan. miTs yovelTvis mimarTaven maSin, roca undaT raime gansakuTrebuli
privilegiis an movaleobebis, TvalSisacemi socialuri uTanasworobis, sxvadasxva
rangobrivi gansxvavebis damkvidreba. religiuri rwmena da religiuri Segonebebis Zalac miTologiuri monaTxrobebidan momdinareobs. magram religiuri miTi metwilad
naTlad gamoxatuli raime dogmaa, magaliTad, samyaros Seqmnis an romelime RvTaebis
xasiaTis Sesaxeb arsebuli monaTxrobi, romelsac zog SemTxvevaSi literaturuli
formac ki aqvs. socialuri miTi, gansakuTrebiT pirvelyofil kulturebSi, rogorc
wesi, magiuri Zalis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb arsebul legendebTan aris gadajaWvuli.
gazviadebis gareSe SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pirvelyofili sazogadoebebisaTvis metnaklebad tipuri da yvelaze daxvewili miTologia _ magiis miTologiaa. miTis funqcia
aris ara axsna, aramed dadastureba, ara cnobismoyvareobis dakmayofileba, aramed ZalisaTvis damajereblobis miniWeba sxvadasxva rwmenis, sazrisis erTmaneTTan dakavSireba, movlenaTa uwyvet mdinarebaSi maTi CarTva. kultsa da miTs Soris arsebuli
Rrma kavSiri, miTis pragmatuli funqcia, romelic rwmenis gaZlierebas emsaxureba,
miTis etiologiuri da eqsplanativisturi Teoriebis mier imdenad didi xnis manZilze
iyo ignorirebuli, rom am sakiTxze ufro dawvrilebiT unda visaubroT.

5. magia da mecniereba
Cven erTgvari gadaxveva mogvixda miTologiis Temaze, ramdenadac davadgineT,
rom miTi jadoqrobis realuri an warmosaxviTi warmatebis Sedegad ibadeba. magram
jadoqroba xom zogjer warumatebladac mTavrdeba? Tavisi mniSvnelovnebis miuxedavad, romelsac magia Rrma rwmenasTan erTad mwveli survilisa da vnebiani grZnobebis
ganmasaxierebeli ritualis spontanurobas umadlis da amasTan erTad, im uzarmazari
Zalis miuxedavad, romelsac mas aniWebs rogorc Tavad magis, aseve magiuri ritualis
monawilis piradi avtoriteti, socialuri Zalaufleba da warmateba _ magia mainc ar
aris dazRveuli warumateblobisa da Cavardnebisagan. da Tuki davuSvebdiT, rom isini
mosalodnel warumateblobas ver acnobierebdnen an ar SeeZloT saTanado daskvnebis
gamotana, es Cveni mxridan iqneboda velurTa inteleqtis, logikisa da gamocdilebis
araseriozuli Sefaseba.
upirveles yovlisa, unda gvaxsovdes, rom magia Tavisi efeqturobis mkacri pirobebiTaa SezRuduli: magisTvis savaldebuloa jadoqruli formulis zusti kvlavwarmoeba, ritualis unaklo srulyofilebiT Sesruleba, tabusa da ritualis ceremoniis
xelSeuxeblad dacva. Tuki am pirobaTagan erT-erTi mainc ar sruldeba, magia warumateblobisTvisaa ganwiruli. magram maSinac ki, roca rituali srulyofilad srul-

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deba, sasurveli Sedegi mainc ar aris garantirebuli. saqme isaa, rom yovelgvar magias
SeiZleba moeZebnos kontrmagia. rogorc Cven vaCveneT, Tuki magia adamianTa ukidegano
survilebis damakavSirebelia SemTxveviTobis TviTnebur TamaSTan, maSin gasagebia,
rom yvela survils, rogorc pozitiurs, aseve negatiurs, SeiZleba da unda gaaCndes
kidec Sesabamisi magia. cxovreba iseTi ramaa, rom yvela socialur da sayofacxovrebo
swrafvaSi, fortunis keTilganwyobisa da bednierebis mopovebis nebismieri mcdelobisas adamians ar SeuZlia angariSi ar gauwios mis msgavs arsebaTa metoqeobas, Sursa
da siaves. iRbali, qoneba, janmrTelobac ki _ yvelaferi es SedarebiTad aRqmadia.
Tuki Tqveni mezobeli met pirutyvs, met qals, met Zalauflebas flobs, maSin daukmayofileblobis grZnoba geuflebaT ara marto Tqveni qonebis, aramed sakuTari Tavis
mimarTac. aseTia adamianis buneba; xSirad mas sakuTar warmatebaze metad sxvisTvis
xelis SeSla akmayofilebs. survilebisa da kontrsurvilebis, ambiciis da RvarZlis,
warmatebisa da Suris am socialurad ganpirobebul TamaSs magiis da kontrmagiis anu
TeTri da Savi magiebis TamaSi Seesabameba.
melaneziaSi, sadac me, pirvel rigSi swored am problemiT viyavi dakavebuli, aborigenTa uklebliv yvela magiur qmedebas Tan axlavs myari rwmena imisa, rom arsebobs
ukuqmedebac; da Tuki es ukuqmedeba aRmatebuli Zalis mqonea, magis mTeli gaweuli
Sromis `wyalSi gadayrac~ SeuZlia. magiis zogierT saxeSi, magaliTad, samkurnalo magiaSi, Selocvisa da kontrSelocvis formulebi mudam erTdroulad arsebobs. jadoqari, im magiuri ritualis teqnikis Seswavlis paralelurad, romlis saSualebiTac
raime daavadebis gamowvevas SeZlebs, swavlobs formulas da rituals, romlebsac
boroti magiis moqmedebis sruli anulireba SeuZliaT. sasiyvarulo magiaSi arsebobs
ara marto imis rwmena, rom satrfos guli misken mimarTuli ori Selocvidan ufro
Zliers gamoexmaureba, aramed agreTve iTvleba, rom Selocvis daxmarebiT ukve arsebul sasiyvarulo urTierTobaTa Secvlac SeiZleba, magaliTad, SesaZlebelia cols
qmari SeaZulo. Znelia imis Tqma, trobriandis kunZulebis1 garda, danarCen msoflioSic aRiniSneba Tu ara magiis amgvari ormxrivoba, magram faqtia, rom dapirispirebuli _ Savi da TeTri, dadebiTi da uaryofiTi Zalebi yvelgan SeimCneva. amitomac magiis warumatebloba SeiZleba mexsierebis Secdomas, daudevrad Catarebul rituals,
tabus darRvevas mieweros, amasTanave rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania, warumatebloba
SeiZleba imiTac aixsnas, rom viRac sxvam raime kontrmagiuli rituali Seasrula.
axla Cven ufro vrclad SegviZlia magiisa da mecnierebis urTierTmimarTebis daxasiaTeba. . . magia mecnierebas im azriT enaTesaveba, rom erTic da meorec garkveuli
miznisakenaa mimarTuli. es is miznebia, romlebic mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli adamianis bunebasTan, moTxovnilebebTan da miswrafebebTan. magiuri xelovneba praqtikuli miznebis miRwevazea orientirebuli. iseve, rogorc sxva xelovnebebi da praqti-

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kuli saqmianobebi, isic emorCileba mraval princips, romlebic yalibdebian garkveul


sistemad da adamians qmedebaTa im xerxs karnaxoben, romelic yvelaze efeqturad iTvleba. principTa aseTi sistemis aRmoCena SesaZlebelia magiuri ritualebis, jadoqruli Selocvebisa da magis arsenalis Semadgeneli sagnebis analizisas. magias, iseve
rogorc mecnierebas, sakuTari teqnikuri gaformeba aqvs. adamianma, romelmac magias
mimarTa, Secdomis gamo Canafiqri SeiZleba ver ganaxorcielos, magram mas Secdomis
gamosworebac SeuZlia, rogorc es sxva xelovnebebSic xdeba. sxva saqmea, rom magiaSi
Savisa da TeTris raodenobriv Tanafardobas bevrad ufro didi mniSvneloba aqvs,
jadoqrobis Sedegebis aRmofxvra aq gacilebiT advili SesaZlebelia, vidre nebismier sxva praqtikul xelovnebasa Tu xelobaSi. ase rom, magiasa da mecnierebas Soris
garkveuli msgavseba arsebobs da Cvenc, jeims frezeris msgavsad, ufleba gvaqvs magias
fsevdomecniereba vuwodoT.
rTuli ar unda iyos imis garkveva, raSi mdgomareobs am fsevdomecnierebis siyalbe. namdvili mecniereba, TviT Canasaxis mdgomareobaSic ki, anu pirvelyofili
adamianebis primitiuli codna, adamianis cxovrebis yoveldRiur universalur gamocdilebas eyrdnoba, agreTve im gamarjvebebs, romlebsac adamiani moipovebs bunebasTan sakuTari arsebobisa da usafrTxoebisTvis brZolaSi. im dakvirvebebs, romlebic Semdeg racionalur gamoyenebas pouloben, magia gansakuTrebuli emociuri
mdgomareobebis specifikur gamocdilebaze fuZndeba. es is emociuri mdgomareobaa,
roca adamiani bunebas ki ara, sakuTar Tavs akvirdeba, roca WeSmariteba gonebiT ki ar
miiRweva, igi grZnobaTa im WidilSi sacnaurdeba, romlebiTac adamiania Sepyrobili.
mecniereba gamocdilebis universalur mniSvnelobaze, praqtikul garjasa da gonebazea dafuZnebuli; magia _ imis rwmenaze, rom adamianis imedis ganuxorcielebloba
da survilis daukmayofilebloba SeuZlebelia. Semecnebis TeoriaSi centraluri adgili logikas aqvs daTmobili, magiis TeoriaSi _ SiSveli survilebis zemoqmedebis
qveS myof ideaTa asociaciebs. gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom racionaluri da magiuri
codnis dargebi gansxvavebul kulturul tradiciebs, gansxvavebul socialur pirobebsa da saqmianobis sxvadsxva tipebs miekuTvneba. unda iTqvas, rom es gansxvavebebi
pirvelyofili sazogadoebis xalxebs bolomde hqonda gacnobierebuli. racionaluri
codna gaundoblebisTvisacaa xelmisawvdomi, magiuri ki sakraluris sferoSi Sedis,
misi mopoveba ritualis saidumlosTan ziarebasa da tabus Sesrulebas moiTxovs.

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6. magia da religia
magiac da religiac emociuri stresis _ sayofacxovrebo krizisis, umniSvnelo
vanesi Canafiqrebis msxvrevis, sikvdilisa da sakuTari tomis saidumloebis gandobis,
uiRblo siyvarulis an daucxromeli siZulvilis dros ibadeba; magiac da religiac
amgvari situaciebidan da cxovrebiseuli Cixebidan gamosavali gzebis maCvenebelia
maSin, roca arsebuli sinamdvile adamians sxva gzas ar utovebs, garda imisa, rom
rwmenas, rituals da zebunebriv sferoebs mimarTos. religiaSi es sfero sulebiT,
goniT, bedisweriT, tomis zebunebrivi mfarvelebiTa da maTi saidumloebebis ma
xaroblebiT ivseba magiaSi _ Selocvis jadosnuri Zalis pirvelyofili rwmeniT.
magiac da religiac uSualod eyrdnobian miTologiur tradicias da TavianTi
saswaulmoqmedi Zalis gacxadebis jadosnuri molodinis atmosferos. magiac da
religiac tabuTa da ritualTa sistemiT aris garSemortymuli da es ganasxvavebs
maT moqmedebas gaundobelTa qcevisgan.
maS, raRa ganasxvavebs magias religiisgan? daviwyoT yvelaze aSkara da TvalSisa
cemi gansxvavebebiT. sakralur sferoSi magia, rogorc raRac praqtikuli xelovneba,
iseTi qmedebebis Sesrulebas emsaxureba, romelTagan TiToeuli garkveuli miznis
miRwevis saSualebaa, religia ki iseT qmedebaTa sistemaa, romelTa Sesrulebac ukve
TavisTavad garkveuli mizania. SevecadoT ufro Rrmad gavaanalizoT es gansxvavebebi.
magiis praqtikuli xelovneba gansazRvrul, mkacri CarCoebiT SezRudul da mxolod
masSi gamosayeneblad vargis Sesrulebis teqnikas flobs: jadoqruli Selocvebi,
rituali da Semsruleblis piradi SesaZleblobebi mudmiv `samTa erTobas~ qmnis. reli
gias, mTeli Tavisi aspeqtebisa da miznebis mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, aseTi martivi teqnika ar gaaCnia; misi mTlianoba verc formalur qmedebaTa sistemaze da verc
mis Sinaarsis universalurobaze ver daiyvaneba, is yvelaze metad aRsrulebuli funqciis, agreTve ritualis RirebulebiTi mniSvnelobiT ganisazRvreba. magiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli rwmena, magiis praqtikulobis Sesabamisad, Zalze martivi rwmenaa. es yovelTvis aris rwmena adamianis Zalmosilebisa, miaRwios sasurvel mizans jadosnobisa
da ritualis saSualebiT. amave dros, religiaSi SesamCnevia zebunebrivi samyaros, rogorc rwmenis obieqtis, mravlismetyveli sirTule da mravalferovneba demonTa da
sulTa panTeoni, totemis keTilmyofeli Zalebi, gvarisa da tomis mfarveli sulebi,
mamamTavrebis sulebi, momavali saiqio cxovrebis suraTebi _ es yvelaferi da bevri
sxva ram, meore, zebunebriv realobas qmnis pirvelyofili adamianisTvis. religiuri
miTologiac bevrad ufro rTuli, mravalferovani da metwilad SemoqmedebiTi muxtis
matarebelia. Cveulebriv, religiuri miTebi sxvadasxva dogmebis garSemo arian koncentrirebulni da maT Sinaarss kosmoligiuri da sagmiro TqmulebebiT, RmerTebisa

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da naxevradRmerTebis saqmeTa aRweriT aviTareben. magiuri miTologia ki, rogorc


wesi, pirvelyofili adamianebis araCveulebrivi warmatebebis Sesaxeb usasrulod ganmeorebuli moTxrobebis saxiT warmogvidgeba.
magia, rogorc konkretuli miznebis miRwevis gansakuTrebuli xelovneba, odesRac
erT-erTi Tavisi formiT adamianis kulturul arsenalSi Sevida da mas Semdeg uSualod gadaecemoda Taobidan Taobas. arsebobis pirveli dRidanve is iyo xelovneba,
romelsac mxolod zogierTi specialisti flobda. kacobriobis istoriaSi pirveli
profesia _ jadoqrisa da jadosnis profesiaa. religia ki, Tavisi sawyisi formiT,
pirvelyofil adamianTa sayovelTao saqmianobaa, romelSic yvela aqtiur da Tanabar
monawileobas Rebulobs. tomis yovel wevrs, gandobis (iniciaciis) ritualis Semdeg
TviTon eZleva sxvaTa gandobis ufleba. tomis TiToeuli wevri dastiris gardacvlil
Tvistoms, monawileobs mis dakrZalvaSi, pativs miagebs gansvenebulis xsovnas. da
roca misi dro mova, isic zustad aseve iqneba gamotirebuli da moxseniebuli. yvela
adamians aqvs sakuTari suli da sikvdilis Semdeg TviTonac sulad gadaiqceva. religiis farglebSi arsebuli erTaderTi specializacia _ e. w. pirvelyofili spiritistuli mediumizmi _ profesia ki ara, individualuri niWis gamoxatulebaa. kidev erTi
gansxvaveba magiasa da religias Soris aris is, rom _ jadoqrobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Savis da TeTris TamaSi, religia ki Tavdapirvelyofil stadiebSi maincdamainc
ar interesdeboda keTilisa da borotis, keTilismyofeli da borotmoqmedi Zalebis
dapirispirebiT. aq kvlav wina planze gamodis magiis kargad gaTvlili, uSualo Sedegis misaRwevad gamiznuli praqtikuli xasiaTi, pirvelyofili religia ki orientirebulia sabediswero, Seuqcevad movlenebze, zebunebriv Zalebsa da arsebebze (Tumca,
umTavresad, es misTvis moraluri aspeqtia) da amitomac ar exeba garesamyaroze adamianis zegavlenasTan dakavSirebul problemebs. SiSis mier pirvelad RmerTebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb arsebuli aforizmi anTropologiuri TvalsazrisiT absoluturad arasworia.
imisTvis, rom kargad gavigoT religiasa da magias Soris gansxvaveba da naTlad
warmovaCinoT urTierTobebi magiis, religiisa da mecnierebis samkuTxa TanavarskvlavedSi, minimum, zogadad mainc unda gamoikveTos TiToeuli maTganis kulturuli
funqcia. pirvelyofili codnis funqcia da misi Rirebuleba zemoT ukve ganvixileT
da is sakmaod martivia. garemomcveli samyaros codna adamians bunebis Zalebis gamoyenebis saSualebas aZlevs; pirvelyofili mecniereba adamianebs sxva cocxal arsebebTan SedarebiT uzarmazar upiratesobas aniWebs da evoluciis gzaze sxva qmnilebebze
gacilebiT win wamoswevs. pirvelyofili adamianis cnobierebaSi religiis funqciisa
da misi Rirebulebis gasagebad aucilebelia uamravi aborigenuli rwmenisa da kultis
dawvrilebiT Seswavla. adre ukve aRvniSneT, rom religiuri rwmena adamians aniWebs

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gamZleobas, ayalibebs da aZlierebs yvela RirebulebiT _ mniSvnelovan mentalur
mowyobilobas, iseTebs, rogoricaa tradiciisadmi pativiscema, harmoniuli msoflaRqma, pirovnuli siqvele da yofiT usiamovnebebTan brZolaSi Seupovroba, sikvdilis
SiSis daZleva da a.S. am rwmenas, romelic kultsa da ceremoniaSia gansaxierebuli da
mxardaWerili, udidesi sasicocxlo Zala aqvs da pirvelyofil adamians WeSmaritebas
uxsnis, am sityvis yvelaze farTo da mniSvnelovani gagebiT.
rogoria magiis kulturuli funqcia? rogorc ukve iTqva, adamianis yvela instinqtsa Tu emocias, nebismier praqtikul qmedebas misi iseT Cixur situaciaSi Seyvana
SeuZlia, sadac adamians mTeli Tavisi codna Ralatobs, misi gonebrivi SezRuduloba
vlindeba da TviT eSmakoba da dakvirvebis unaric ki veRaraferSi exmareba; Zalebi,
romelTac adamiani yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi eyrdnoba, mas kritikul momentSi tovebs.
amaze adamianis buneba pasuxobs spontanuri afeTqebiT, romelic qcevis rudimentul
formebsa da maTi efeqturobis mTvlemare rwmenas aTavisuflebs. magia swored am rwme
naze fuZndeba, aqcevs standartul ritualad, romelic Semdeg uwyvet tradiciul
formas iZens. am saxiT magia adamians `Cuqnis~ araerT mza ritualur aqtsa da standartul rwmenas, romlebsac garkveuli praqtikuli da mentaluri `teqnikuri gaformeba~
aqvs. amiT TiTqos xidi ideba im ufskrulebze, romlebic adamianis winaSe umTavresi
miznebisken mimaval gzaze Cndeba da daiZleva saSiSi krizisi. es adamians saSualebas
aZlevs ar dakargos mxneoba yvelaze rTuli sasicocxlo amocanebis gadaWris dros,
SeinarCunos TavdaWeriloba da pirovnuli mTlianoba, brazis Semotevis, siZulvilis
paroqsizmis, SiSisa da sasowarkveTilebis damTrgunveli mdgomareobidan. magiis funqcia adamianuri optimizmis ritualad qceva, anu imedis sasowarkveTilebaze gamarjebis rwmenis gaZlierebaa. magiaSi adamiani imis dadasturebas poulobs, rom sakuTari
Tavis rwmena, cxovrebiseuli gansacdelis Jams medgrad yofna da optimizmi orWofobaze, eWvebsa da pesimizmze imarjveben.
dRevandeli, pirvelyofili adamianebisgan usasrulod Sorswasuli, ganviTarebuli civilizaciis simaRleebidan Zalze advilia magiis uxeSobisa da ususurobis
danaxva. magram ar unda daviviwyoT, rom magiis dauxmareblad pirvelyofili adamiani
Tavisi cxovrebis urTules problemebTan gamklavebas ver SeZlebda da kulturuli
ganviTarebis ufro maRal safexurze ver gadainacvlebda. aqedan gamomdinareobs
pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi magiis universaluri gavrceleba da misi gansakuTrebuli Zlevamosileba. aqedanve efineba naTeli pirvelyofil adamianTa nebismier mniSvnelovan saqmianobaSi magiis mudmiv monawileobasac.
Tanamedrove adamianma magia unda aRiqvas mxolod imedis diad arakeTilgonierebasTan mWidro kavSirSi, romelic yovelTvis adamianis xasiaTis saukeTeso skola iyo.

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sikvdilisa da cxovrebis wriuli ciklis Sesaxeb arsebuli miTebi

zogierT miTSi, romelic ama Tu im kulturuli realiis sawyisebis Sesaxeb mo


gviTxrobs, gamoqvabulis adamianTa cxovreba Sedarebulia sulebiT dasaxlebul
imqveyniur samyaroSi adamianTa sulebis arsebobasTan. amgvarad, miTebi TiTqos damakavSirebel Zafs abamen pirvelyofil warsulsa da yvela adamianis gardauval momavals Soris. es erT-erTi im kavSirTagania, romelTa gareSec miTebis fsiqologiuri
Taviseburebebisa da kulturuli mniSvnelobis swori gageba SeuZlebeli iqneboda.
pirvelyofil cxovrebasa da sulebis arsebobas Soris ufro Rrma kavSirebic ar
sebobs. magaliTad, gardacvlilTa sulebi kunZul tumaze saxldebian. am kunZulze
isini gansakuTrebuli xvrelis gavliT xvdebian, riTic isini amqveynad movlinebis raRac sapirispiro aqts axorcieleben. ufro mniSvnelovania, rom kunZul tumaze, sulTa
samyaroSi an, rogorc aborigenebi amboben, qveda samyaroSi, Tavisi miwieri cxovrebis
Semdeg moxvedrili adamiani TiTqos Tavidan iwyebs zrdas, emateba asaki, Semdeg berdeba, naoWdeba; magram Semdeg mas kvlav ubrundeba axalgazrdoba, iZrobs Zvel kans da
axliT imoseba. swored ase iyo im pirvelyofil epoqaSi, roca adamianebi jer kidev
gamoqvabulSi cxovrobdnen. maSinac ki, rodesac isini gamoqvabulidan gamovidnen da
miwaze daiwyes cxovreba, es unari erTbaSad ar daukargavT; kacebsa da qalebs SeeZloT
ecxovraT da mudam axalgazrdebi yofiliyvnen.
magram yvelaferi mas Semdeg Seicvala, rac erTi SexedviT wvrilmani, magram sinam
dvileSi Zalian mniSvnelovani ambavi moxda, romelmac yvela adamianis bedi gansazRvra.
kunZul bvadelas erT-erT sofelSi odesRac cxovrobda moxuci qali qaliSvilTan da
SviliSvil gogonasTan erTad (friad sayuradReboa, dedis mxridan sami Taobis arsebobis faqti). erTxel bebia da SviliSvili sabanaod wavidnen. gogona napirze darCa, am
dros ki bebia iqaurobas gaecala da Tvals miefara. myudro adgilas man kani gaiZro,
magram uceb xelidan dausxlta da wyalSi Cavarda. moqcevam kani gaitaca da waiRo.
is wyalSi tivtivebda, sanam wylispira buCqs ar wamoedo da zed ar Camoekida. bebia ki
axalgazrda gogod gadaiqca da SviliSvilTan dabrunda. magram gogonam is ver icno,
ucxo qalis danaxvaze SeSinda, yvirili daiwyo da mis gagdebas Seecada. bebias Zalze
ewyina, gabrazebuli dabrunda im adgilas, sadac Zveli kani dauvarda da daiwyo misi
Zebna; bolos ipova, kvlav Caicva da SviliSvilTan mibrunda. amjerad gogonam icno bebia da tiriliT mouyva mas: `aq viRac axalgazrda gogo movida, SemeSinda da gavagde
is~. magram moxucma upasuxa: `ara, Sen ubralod ar moindome Cemi cnoba. amieridan Sen
dRiTidRe daberdebi, me ki movkvdebi~. isini dabrundnen saxlSi, sadac moxucis qali
Svili vaxSmad elodeboda. moxucma Tqva: `me sabanaod wavedi, moqcevam Cemi kani wai-

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Ro, magram Senma Svilma ver micno da gamagdo. amieridan me aRar gamovicvli kans, Cven
yvelani davberdebiT da bolos movkvdebiT~.
ai, amis Semdeg adamianebs aRar SeuZliaT kanis gamocvla da axalgazrdad darCena.
magram cxovelebs, romlebic pirvelyofili adamianebis msgavsad miwis qveS, `qveda samyaroSi~ cxovroben, dRemde SeuZliaT kanis gamocvla da axalgazrdobis dabruneba
_ esenia gvelebi, xvlikebi, kiborCxalebi da iguanebi. pirvelyofil adamianebs `zeda
samyaroSi~ rom ecxovraT, maSin im cxovelebsac, romlebic am samyaroSi cxovroben _
Citebs, Ramurebsa da mwerebs _ kanis gamocvla da mudam axalgazrdad darCena SeeZlebodaT.
miTebSi moTxrobili ambavi, rogorc wesi, aq mTavrdeboda. zogierT miTSi damatebulia garkveuli komentarebi , romlebic pararels avleben sulebsa da pirvelyofil
adamianebs Soris; xandaxan xazgasmulia reptiliaTa regeneraciis motivi, xandaxan mxolod kanis dakargvis incidentze yvebian. TavisTavad miTis Sinaarsi arafriT
gamorCeuli ar iqneboda, Tuki mas sikvdilisa da saiqio cxovrebis Sesaxeb aborigenTa
warmodgenebTan dakavSirebul sxvadasxva ideis, adaTisa da ritualis konteqstis gareSe ganvixilavdiT. sinamdvileSi es miTi _ dramatuli siuJeturi qargiT gamoxatuli rwmenaa Zalisa, romelic axalgazrdobis dabrunebis saSualebas iZleva, Zalisa,
romelsac adamianebi odesRac flobdnen da Semdeg dakarges.
im gaugebrobis Semdeg, romelic bebiasa da mis SviliSvils Soris moxda, yvela
adamiani unda damorCileboda siberisa da Wknobis sayovelTao process. magram es ar
niSnavs, rom adamianebi daemorCilnen ulmobel bedisweras, romelic maT momavals
arTmevdda da mxolod awmyos utovebda. saqme imaSia, rom dabereba, Wknoba da sxeulis
uZlureba, karsmomdgari gardauvali sikvdilis simptomebad ar ganixileba aborigenTa mier. mxolod maTi rwmenis erTiani sistemis gagebis Semdeg aris SesaZlebeli, CavwvdeT maT warmodgenebs avadmyofobis, fizikuri gamofitvisa da sikvdilis mizezebis
Sesaxeb. magaliTad, trobriandis kunZulebis aborigenebi janmrTelobis sakiTxebSi
didi optimistebi arian. sxeulebis Zala, energia da srulyofili fizikuri ganviTareba _ maTi azriT, adamianis savsebiT bunebrivi mdgomareobaa, romelic mxolod ubeduri SemTxvevis an vinmes boroti nebis gamo SeiZleba dairRves, da isic garkveuli
zebunebrivi Zalebis daxmarebiT. ra Tqma unda, SesaZlebelia adamiani cudad grZnobdes Tavs, rac gadaRlilobiT, mzeze gadaxurebiT da gaciebiT, an zedmeti WamiT iyos
gamowveuli. is SeiZleba dasaxiCrdes an mokvdes brZolaSi mowinaaRmdegis SubiT, xidan an kldidan Camovardnis Semdeg. mas SeiZleba zvigeni an niangi daesxas Tavs anda
daixrCos zRvis an mdinaris talRebSi. magram amgvari ram SeiZleba vinmes jadoqrobis gareSe? es aborigenebisTvis yovelTvis seriozuli problemaa. Tumca, rodesac
saubari raime saSiS an sasikvdilo daavadebas exeba, aborigenebs eWvi ar eparebaT, rom
maTi gamomwvevi mizezi jadoqrobaa. swored is jadoqroba, romelsac is jadoqrebi da

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magebi mimarTaven, SelocvebiTa da ritualebiT nebismier daavadebas rom iwveven, moulodnelad afeTqebuli, advilad mosaxdeli daavadebebisa da epidemiis garda.
aborigenebs miaCniaT, rom avadmyofobis gamomwvevi Zala yovelTvis samxreTidan
vrceldeba. avadmyofobismqmneli jadoqroba, romelic trobriandis arqipelagze
dentrekastos arqipelagis kunZulebidanaa Setanili, or adgilzea Tavmoyrili. erTerTia _ kunZul lavauvoze, or sofel _ bausa da bvoitalus Soris arsebuli tye,
meore ki _ samxreTis kunZuli vakuta. orive es adgili _ jadoqruli Zalebis mTavari
wyaroa.
bvoitalu _ yvelaze saeWvo adgilia kunZulze, Tumca, iq saukeTeso xis ostatebi,
wnuli nakeTobebis yvelaze daxvewili ostatebi da eqstravaganturi kerZebis moyva
ruli xalxi cxovrobs. aqauri aborigenebi uxsovari droidan cxovrebis endogamiur
wess misdeven da, albaT, arqipelagis yvelaze Zvel kulturas warmoadgenen. maT swamT,
rom jadosnuri Zala maT kunZulze romeliRac kiborCxalis Semotanilia. es arseba
aRniSnul tyeSi an romeliRaca xvrelidan gamoZvra, an cidan Camovarda. swored maSin
dainaxes kiborCxala iq myofma adamianma da ZaRlma. kiborCxala wiTeli iyo, radgan mas
jadosnuri Zala hqonda. ZaRli amas mixvda da kiborCxalis kbena moindoma. kiborCxalam
ZaRli mokla da Semdeg adamians daesxa Tavs. magram, Sexeda ra Tavis msxverpls, kiborCxalam Tavi SeuZlod igrZno, `misi muceli Seirxa~, da aman ixsna adamianis sicocxle.
maSin adamianma Tavis mkvlelsa da mxsnels didi ZRveni _ pokala miutana da kibosebrs
jadosnuri Zalis misTvis miyidva sTxova, daiTanxma kidec. jadoqruli Zalis miRebisTanave adamianma igi yofili mflobelis winaaRmdeg mimarTa da mokla kiborCxala.
Semdeg man dedis mxridan erT-erTi Tavisi axlo naTesavi mokla (amgvari rituali, aborigenTa TqmiT, kunZulebze arsebobda da SeiZleba axlac arsebobs). amis Semdeg igi
jadoqruli Zalis sruli baton-patroni gaxda. kiborCxalebi ki amis Semdeg gaSavdnen,
radgan jadosnurma Zalam miatova isini; TandaTan ki mTlianad gadaSendebian, Tumca
iyo dro, roca swored isini iyvnen sicocxlisa da sikvdilis ganmgebelni.
msgavsi miTis mosmena samxreTis kunZul vakutazec aris SesaZlebeli. romeliRac
boroti arsebebi, adamianebs rom hgavdnen, normanbis kunZulis CrdiloeT sanapiroze
bambukis joxSi Casaxldnen. joxi CrdiloeTis mimarTulebiT gacurda, bolos talRebma igi iaivaus koncxis an vakutas sanapiros maxloblad gariyes. sofel kvadagidas mcxovrebs Semoesma xmebi, romlebic bambukis joxidan gamodioda, gaxvrita igi da
gamouSva gareT demoni, romelmac madlobis niSnad jadoqroba aswavla mas. amboben,
rom swored am momentidan daiwyo. vakutadan is baus da bvoitalus teritoriaze gadavida. aborigenTa sxva moTxrobebis mixedviT, tauvau am kunZulze ara bambukis jo
xiT, aramed bevrad ufro rTuli gziT xvdeba. normanbis kunZulis CrdiloeT napirze,
sofel sevatuvas maxloblad, odesRac didi xe idga, romelSic igive boroti arsebebi

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bronislav malinovski
Casaxldnen. xe gadavarda da daeca ise, rom misi kenwero vakutaze moxvda, fesvebi ki
normanbize darCa. xis tani da totebi zRvaze xidiviT gaido. amgvarad, jadoqrobis Zalis wyaroebi samxreTis kunZulze mdebareobs, is adgili, ki sadac es Zala gadadis,
vakutas CrdiloeTi napiria, am kunZulebis gamyofi zRva savsea TevziT, romelic waqceuli xis totebsa da mis korZebSi binadrobs. samma mavne arsebam, orma kacma da erTma
qalma, romlebic am xis kenweroSi cxovrobdnen, magiuri Zalis codna kunZul vakutaze
mcxovreb adamianebs gadasces.
es miTebi im rwmenaTa jaWvis mxolod erT-erTi rgolia, romlebic dakavSirebulia adamianis cxovrebiseul bed-iRbalTan. maTi Sinaarsis gageba da Sefaseba mxolod
jadoqrobis Zalisa da bunebis aborigenuli rwmenis saerTo konteqstSia SesaZlebeli.
Tu miTebSi moTxrobili ambebi am konteqstis gareSe iqneba aRebuli, maSin saeWvoa, maT
zebunebrivi Zalebisgan momdinare safrTxeTa mTeli is simravle moicvan, romelic
adamians emuqreba. magaliTad, uecari da swrafwarmavali avadmyofoba, agreTve sikvdili, aborigenTa warmodgeniT, mamakacTa jadoqrobis Sedegad ki ar arian gamowveulni,
aramed mfrinavi alqajebis mier, romelTa jadosnuri Zala gansxvavdeba mamakacuri
jadoqrobisgan da mTlianobaSi ufro zebunebrivi xasiaTi aqvs. me ver SevZeli alqajobis warmoSobis Sesaxeb miTis Cawera, magram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom rwme
naTa mTeli sistema arsebobs alqajebisa da maTi oinebis Taobaze da maTi erTobliobisaTvis SeiZleboda sayofacxovrebo anda yofiTi miTi gvewodebina.
am sakiTxze aq dawvrilebiT ar visaubreb. amgvari miTebis detaluri analizi mocemulia Cems wignSi `dasavleT okeaniis argonavtebi~2. mxolod imas SevniSnav, rom
zebunebrivi Zalis SaravandediT garSemortymuli alqajebisa da grZneulebis ambebi,
mudmiv ganaxlebas ganicdis. Zalian bevri amgvari ambavi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc
yvelaze dabali donis miTologia, romelic jadoqrobis zebunebrivi Zalis rwmenisgan ibadeba. analogiur istoriebs mamrobiTi sqesis jadoqrebze, bvagauzec hyvebian.
aborigenebi epidemiebs tauvaus boroti sulebis moqmedebiT xsnian. jadoqrobis
pirveli mizezi veragi tauvauebi mudmivad arqipelagis samxreT kunZulze imyofe
bian. drodadro isini trobriandebze dadian, adamianebisTvis SeumCnevlad soflebSi futuro gograze kakuniTa da xis joxebis rxeviT daiarebian. am xmebis gagonebisas
soflis macxovreblebs SiSi ipyrobT, radgan Tuki tauvau Tavisi joxiT vinmes Seexeba, is adamiani mokvdeba amitomac sulebis TareSTan yovelTvis didi sikvdilianoba
aris dakavSirebuli. am dros leria anu epidemia atydeba sofels Tavs; zog borot
suls niangad gadaqceva SeuZlia da maSin isini adamianTaTvis xilulni xdebian. Zalian rTulia amgvari niangis namdvilisgan gansxvaveba, magram es Zalian mniSvnelovania, radgan tauau m, Tuki mas SemTxveviT cudi sityviT an mimarTviT gaabrazeb, SeiZleba Suri iZios da moklas Seuracxmyofeli.

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amgvar SemTxvevebSi sayofacxovrebo miTi anu ambavi ara didi xnis winaT momxdar movlenaze, aramed imaze, rac xdeba mudmivad yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, uTvalavi
konkretuli istoriiT ivseba. zogierTi maTgani maSinac ki Seiqmna, rodesac trobriandis kunZulebze vcxovrobdi; magaliTad, rodesac aq dizenteriis da im daavadebis
afeTqeba iyo, romelsac 1918 wels `espanuri gripi~ ewoda, bevri aborigeni yveboda,
rom tauvaus xma gaigo. sofel vavelaSi giganturi xvliki naxes; adamiani, romelmac
is mokla, cota xanSi Tavad gardaicvala, mis sofelSi ki epidemiam ifeTqa. roca oburakuSi vcxovrobdi da iq sayovelTao daavadeba daiwyo, aborigenma, romelsac naviT
gadavyavdi, namdvili tautau dainaxa; xeze uSvelebeli, xasxasa Seferilobis gveli
gamoCnda, magram maSinve gaqra, rogorc ki mivuaxlovdiT. me is ar daminaxavs, SeiZleba Cemi axlomxedvelobis gamo an iqneb imis gamo, rom ar vicodi rogor unda Semexeda

tauvau- sTvis.
msgavsi ambebi aborigenebis albaT yvela sofelSi maqvs mosmenili, sadac ki vyofilvar. mizanSewonilia amgvari gvelebis moTavseba SemaRlebul adgilebze, maT win
ki _ Zvirfasi ZRvenis dalageba. piradad me aseTi ram ar minaxavs, magram aborigenebis
monayoliT, aseTi ram arcTu iSviaTad xdeba. imasac umatebdnen, rom qali jadoqrebi
sqesobriv kavSirs amyareben tauvausTan, da gvaCvenebdnen kidec aseT qalebs.
am magaliTebiT vxedavT, rogor igeba yofiTi miTologia raime mniSvnelovani sqematuri konstruqciis garSemo. sayovelTao rwmena, rom daavadebebsa da sikvdils zebunebrivi mizezebi iwvevs, raRac konkretuli Tqmulebebi sxvadasxva SemTxvevebis
Sesaxeb, romlebic aborigenTa cxovrebaSi mudmivad xdeba _ yvelaferi es organul
mTlianobad yalibdeba. ra Tqma unda, am zogad rwmenaSi ar SeiZleba raime iseTis danaxva, rac Camoyalibebuli Teoriis odnav msgavsi mainc iqneboda, kerZo SemTxvevis
axsnas SeZlebda. erTis mxriv, es aris kulturiT ganpirobebuli praqtikis rTuli
sistema, radganac aborigenebs ubralod ki ar sjeraT jadoqrobis Zalisa, aramed mudmivad mimarTaven mas yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, sadac jadoqris roli, gansakuTrebiT
mamakacisa, Zalze didia. meores mxriv, es sistema Tavis TavSi moicavs sikvdilisa da
daavadebebis mimarT damokidebulebis erTobliobas. masSi gamoxatulia grZnobebi da
winaTgrZnobebi adamianebisa, romelTa qcevac didad aris am sistemaze damokidebuli.
amitomac WeSmaritebisagan Zalian Sors aris is, vinc miTis inteleqturi axsnisken
ixreba.
axla SegviZlia gavigoT, rogor gaiazra aborigenma is mizezebi, romelTa gamoc
adamianebma odesRac, Soreul warsulSi axalgazrdobis dabrunebis unari dakarges,
awmyoSi ki _ Tavad sicocxles kargaven. am or danakliss Soris mxolod iribi kavSiria. aborigenebi Tvlian, rom jadoqrobas adamianze zemoqmedeba SeuZlia, rogorc
misi cxovrebis dasawyisSi, aseve xandazmulobis asakSic, magram moxucebi ubralod

385

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ufro iolad eqcevian misi gavlenis qveS. amitomac swored gaaxalgazrdavebis unaris
dakargvam moamzada niadagi, romelzec jadoqroba imkis nayofs.
iyo dro, rodesac adamianebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom berdebodnen, kvdebodnen da
Semdeg sulebad iqceodnen, mainc rCebodnen soflebSi, mis mkvidrTa gverdiT _ iseve,
rogorc milamalas yovelwliuri dResaswaulisas isini dResac brundebian soflebSi
da adamianTa sacxovreblebis garSemo daZrwian. saqme imaSia, rom erTxel aseTi ram
moxda: dedaberi-suli, romelic Tavisi soflis erT-erT qoxSi cxovrobda, sawolTan
iatakze Camojda. mis qaliSvils, romelic saWmels unawilebda ojaxis wevrebs, qoqosisgan damzadebuli WurWlidan cxeli kerZi gadmoeRvara da suli dafufqa. dedaberi
gabrazda da qaliSvils gauwyra. maSin man upasuxa: `me vfiqrobdi, rom Sen aq ar iyavi,
me megona, rom Sen mxolod milamalas dResaswaulze modixar weliwadSi erTxel~. dedabers es Zalian ewyina da Tqva: `me tumaze waval da qveda samyaroSi vicxovreb~. Semdeg
qoqosis kakali aiRo, Suaze gaWra, TavisTvis samTvaliani naxevari aiRo, Svils ki meore
naxevari misca. `me Sen qoqosis im naxevars gaZlev, romelic brmaa, da amitom Sen me veRarasodes mixilav _ Tqva man _ CemTvis ki Tvalebian naxevars viReb, raTa yvelafers
vuyuro, roca aq sxva sulebTan erTad moval xolme~. ai, ratom arian sulebi uxilavni,
TviTon ki SeuZliaT adamianTa danaxva.
am miTSi naxsenebia sezonuri dResaswauli milamala, romlis drosac sulebi TavianT soflebSi brundebian. sxva miTi mogviTxrobs imis Sesaxeb, rogor daiwyes adamianebma milamalas aRniSvna. erTi qali, kunZul kitavadan, gardaicvala da datova orsuli
qaliSvili. gaCnda vaJi, magram dedas ar hyofnida rZe Svilis gamosakvebad. is mivida
mezobel kunZulel erT momakvdav adamianTan da sTxova mas, gadaeca sulTa samyaroSi
misi dedamTilisaTvis, rom saWmeli moetana SviliSvilTan. da ai, am ambis gagebis Semdeg, gardacvlili qalis sulma kalaTa sulTa saWmliT gaavso da Tan sityva daayola:
`vis vumzadeb am saWmels? Cems SviliSvils, me waval masTan, davapureb mas!~. da is mivida kunZul kitavas bomagemas sanapiroze da miitana saWmeli Tavisi SviliSvilisTvis.
Semdeg uTxra Tavis qaliSvils: `me movitane saWmeli. im adamianma, visac Seevedre, gadmomca Seni Txovna. magram meSinia, rom xalxs SeiZleba alqaji vegono~. man Sewva yabayi
da misca Tavis SviliSvils, Semdeg buCqnarSi daimala, monaxa iq myudro adgili da qaliSvilsTvis patara baRi gaaSena. magram rodesac igi kvlav gamoCnda qaliSvilis winaSe, am ukanasknels SeeSinda _ dedamisi Zalian hgavda alqajs. man tirili daiwyo
da dedas Seevedreba. `ukan dabrundi tumaze, sulTa miwaze, Torem xalxi ityvis, rom
Sen alqaji xar~. deda-suli gabrazda: `ratom magdeb? me mindoda SenTan darCena da
Cemi SviliSvilisTvis baRis damuSaveba~, magram qaliSvili Tavisas ar iSlida: `wadi,
dabrundi tumaze~. maSin dedaberma aiRo qoqosi, Suaze gaWra, uTvalo naxevari Svils
misca, TavisTvis ki Tvalebiani naxevari daitova. man Tqva, rom weliwadSi erTxel sxva
sulebTan erTad milamalas dResaswaulze mova xolme, rom naxos, rogor cxovrobs

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xalxi sofelSi, magram TviTon uxilavi darCeba. ai, ratom aris es yovelwliuri dResaswauli iseTi, rogoric aris.
am miTebis gasagebad saWiroa maTi dakavSireba sulebis samyaros Sesaxeb aborigenTa rwmenasTan, im sezonis damaxasiaTebel samuSaosTan, rodesac milamalas dResaswauli aRiniSneba da aseve urTierTobebTan, romlebsac, rogorc isini Tvlian, or
samyaros _ cocxalTa da mkvdarTa samyaros Soris3 aRiniSneba. roca adamiani kvdeba,
misi suli qveda samyaroSi, tumaze midis. man unda gaiaros karibWe, romelTanac topileta _ sulTa samefos daraji dgas. axalmosuls Tan Zvirfasi saCuqrebi moaqvs,
ufro sworad, im saganZuris sulieri Sedgenilobebi, romelTan erTadac iqna dakrZaluli. sulTa qveyanaSi xvdebian mas adre gardacvlili megobrebi da naTesavebi, romlebsac is zemo samyaros axal ambebs uyveba. ase iwyeba misi, rogorc sulis, cxovreba,
romelsac miwier arsebobas hgavs, Tumca aborigenebi xSirad alamazeben mis aRwerilobas zogierTi axdenili ocnebiT da Sesrulebuli imedebiT da mas namdvil samoTxed
warmoadgenen. Tumca, niSandoblivia, rom samoTxis cxovrebis aRwerisas aborigenebi
arasdros gamoTqvamen iq male moxvedris survils.
cocxal adamianebTan sulebis urTierToba sxvadasxvanairad xdeba. bevri irwmuneba, rom naxa Tavisi gardacvlili naTesavis an megobris suli. gansakuTrebiT xSirad
es tumas maxloblad xdeba. amas garda, aborigenTa Soris uxsovari droidan iyvnen da
dResac arian kacebi da qalebi, romlebic ZilSi an transSi Cavardnisas qveda samyaroSi mogzauroben xolme. iq isini sulebTan erTad cxovroben, dabrunebis Semdeg ki sxvadasxva ambebi an mniSvelovani cnobebi moaqvT maTgan, maT cocxali adamianebisgan
sulebisTvis saCuqrebis, saWmlisa da sxva Zvirfaseulobis gadacemac SeuZliaT. isini
fasdaudebel samsaxurs uweven imas, visac Tavisi gansvenebuli axloblisgan ambis an
ubralod, mokiTxvis miReba surs.
yovelwliuri dResaswaulis _ milamala- s dros, sulebi tumadan TavianT saxlebSi brundebian. am soflis mosaxleoba sulebisTvis specialur ficarnagebs akeTebs,
romlebzec sulebs SeuZliaT Camosxdnen da Tvali adevnon TanamoZmeTa dResaswauls.
uamravi saWmeli mzaddeba rogorc cocxlebis, aseve gardacvlil TvistomTa gasaxa
reblad. beladis, agreTve zogierTi mniSvnelovani da saxelganTqmuli adamianis
sacxovreblis win gaSlil Wilofze sxvadasxva Zvirfas sagans deben. sulebi raime
SesaZlo usiamovnebisa da wyenisgan rom daicvan, soflis macxovreblebi garkveul tabus icaven. ar SeiZleba cxeli siTxis dasxma, sulebi rom ar daifufqon, rogorc es
dedabers daemarTa miTSi. aravin ar unda ijdes, aravin ar unda Cexdes SeSas, ar unda
TamaSobdes SubiT da sxva basri an sasroli iaraRiT, raTa ar miayenos ziani suls _

baloma- s. sulebs TavianTi iq yofnis gamJRavneba garkveuli niSnebiT SeuZliaT, romlebic maT kmayofilebas an ukmayofilebas gamoxataven. sulis msubuqi gaRizianeba

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usiamovno suniT SeiZleba dadgindes, Tuki suli ufro seriozulad aris SeSfoTebuli, SesaZloa gafuWdes amindi, adamians an mis qonebas raime ubedureba daatydes Tavs.
aborigenebi sulTa samyarosTan gansakuTrebul siaxloves da mis realobas cxadad
SeigrZnoben, roca romelime cnobili mediumis transSi Cavardnis anda rigiTi Tvistomis sikvdilTan pirispir Sexvedris momswreni xdebian.
miTi _ aborigenTa rwmenis saerTo sistemis Semadgeneli nawilia. adamianebsa da
sulebs Soris urTierTobebi erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakavSirebuli miTiuri TqmulebebiT, religiuri rwmenebiTa da grZnobebiT ganisazRvreba. am sistemaSi miTi _
TiTqosda uwyveti perspeqtivis safuZvelia, romelSic adamianTa yoveldRiuri sazrunavi, dardi da wuxili raRac saerTo miznisken moZraobis gaazrebul formas iZens.
Tavis gzaze mimavali adamiani saerTo rwmeniT, piradi gamocdilebiTa da gardasul
TaobaTa mexsierebiT xelmZRvanelobs, mexsierebiT, romelic im drois xsovnas inaxavs,
rodesac miTis SeqmnisTvis stimulis mimcemi ambebi xdeboda.
faqtebis analizi da miTebis Sinaarsi, maT Soris zemoxsenebulebisac, pirvelyofili adamianebis rwmenaTa yovlismomcveli da Tanmimdevruli sistemis Sesaxeb
daskvnis gakeTebis saSualebas iZleva. uSedego iqneboda am sistemis Zebna aborigenTa folkloris mxolod garegan, uSualo dakvirvebisTvis xelmisawvdom SreebSi. am
sistemas Seesabameba garkveuli kulturuli realoba, romelSic aborigenul rwmenaTa, gancdebisa da winaTgrZnobis yvela is konkretuli forma, adamianTa sikvdilsa
da sikvdilis Semdgom sulebis sicocxles rom exeba, raRac grandiozul organul
mTlianobad yalibdeba. miTuri Tqmulebebi erTmaneTSi ijaWveba, maTi ideebi ikveTeba da aborigenebi yovelTvis naxuloben maT Soris Sinagan kavSirebsa da paralelebs.
miTi, rwmena da gancda dakavSirebulia sulTa samyarosTan da zebunebriv arsebebTan
_ isini erTi mTlianobis Semadgeneli nawilebi arian. am elementebis gamaerTianebeli
_ qveda samyarosTan, sulTa samyofelTan urTierTobis maradiuli survilia. miTuri
ambebi aborigenTa rwmenis umTavres momentebs mxolod aSkarad gamokveTil formas
aZlevs. maTi siuJetebi xandaxan sakmaod rTulia, isini mudam raRac usiamovnebaze, danakargze an danaklisze mogviTxroben: imaze, rogor dakarges adamianebma axalgazrdobis dabrunebis unari, rogor iwvevs jadoqroba avadmyofobas an sikvdils, rogor
datoves sulebma adamianTa samyaro da, amis miuxedavad, rogor Sedga maTTan Tundac
nawilobrivi kavSiri.
TvalSisacemia, rom am ciklis miTebi ufro dramatulia, maT Soris kavSiri ufro
Tanmimdevrulia, Tumca, rTulic, vidre miTebi yofierebis sawyisebze. am aspeqtze
aRar SevCerdebi da mxolod vityvi, rom socialuri xasiaTis problemebTan SedarebiT
SesaZloa aq bevrad ufro Rrma metafizikuri azrisa da bevrad ufro Zlieri grZnobebi iyos, romlebic adamianis bed-iRbalTan arian dakavSirebuli.

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da mainc, rogorc ar unda iyos, vxedavT, rom miTi, rogorc aborigenTa sulierebis
nawili, ar SeiZleba mxolod SemecnebiTi faqtorebiT aixsnas, raoden didic ar unda
iyos maTi mniSvneloba. miTSi umniSvnelovanes rols misi emociuri mxare da praqtikuli sazrisi TamaSobs. maTSi monaTxrobi ambavi, aborigens gansakuTrebuli ZaliT
aRelvebs. magaliTad, miTi milamala- s dResaswaulis warmoqmnis Sesaxeb, im ceremoniebis da tabuebis xasiaTs gansazRvravs, romlebic sulebis periodul dabrunebasTanaa dakavSirebuli.
aborigenTaTvis Tavad es ambavi sruliad gasagebia da aranair axsnas ar saWiroebs,
amitomac miTi odnavadac ar acxadebs pretenzias amgvar rolze. misi funqcia sxvaa:
is mowodebulia moxsnas is emociuri daZabuloba, romelic adamians eufleba Tavisi
gardauvali da ulmobeli bedisweris winaTgrZnobisas. jer erTi, miTi am winaTgrZnobas sakmaod naTel da xelSesaxeb formas aZlevs, meorec, mas idumali, sulis gamyinavi
idea Cveulebrivi, yoveldRiuri realobis doneze dahyavs. Tanac gamodis, rom axalgazrdobis dabrunebis netari unari, romelsac uZlurebisa da siberisgan xsna SeuZlia, adamianebma wvrilmani SemTxveviTobis gamo dakarges, romlis Tavidan acileba
Tavisuflad SeeZlo bavSvsac da qalsac. sikvdili, romelic samudamod aSorebs axlobel da sayvarel adamianebs _ iseTi ramaa, rac cxel kerZTan dakavSirebuli patara
Cxubis an daudevrobis gamo SeiZleba moxdes. saSiSi daavadeba adamianis, ZaRlisa da
kiborCxalis SemTxveviTi Sexvedris gamo gavrcelda. Secdomebi, danaSaulebi da SemTxveviTobebi udides mniSvnelobas iZenen, xolo bedisweris, fatumis, garduvalobis
roli adamianuri daudevrobis masStabze daiyvaneba.
zemoTqmulis gasagebad aucilebelia gavixsenoT, rom aborigenis grZnobebi, dakavSirebuli sakuTar, an sayvareli da axlobeli adamianis sikvdilTan, mxolod misi
rwmeniTa da miTebiT ar ganisazRvreba. sikvdilis SiSi, misi Tavidan acilebis mZafri survili, axloblebisa da naTesavebis dakargviT gamowveuli Rrma mwuxareba _
yvelaferi es Zlier ewinaaRmdegeba saiqio cxovrebis advilad miRwevis optimistur
rwmenas, riTic gamsWvalulia aborigenTa adaTebi, ideebi da ritualebi. roca adamians
daRupva elis an mis saxlSi sikvdili Seabijebs, yvelaze udardel rwmenasac ki bzari
uCndeba. zogierT avadmyof aborigenTan, maT Soris Cems Wleqian megobar bagidousTan
xangrZlivi saubrebisas yovelTvis erTi da imave, SeiZleba bundovnad an primitiulad
gamoxatul, magram eWvmiutanel melanqoliur wuxils vgrZnobdi cxovrebisa da mis siameTa warmavalobis gamo, agreTve SiSs gardauvali sikvdilis winaSe da erTi da imave
imeds, rom aRsasruli SesaZloa gadavadebul iqnes, Tundac cota xniT. magram imasac
vgrZnobdi, rom am adamianTa sulebi maTi rwmenidan momdinare imediT Tbebodnen. miTis cocxali siuJeti maT winaSe win xaxadaRebul ufskruls faravda.

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magiis miTebi

axla Tavs uflebas mivcem ufro dawvrilebiT SevCerde miTuri Txzulebis sxva
saxeobaze. im miTebze, romlebic magiasTan arian dakavSirebulni. magia, romeli kuTxiTac ar unda SevxedoT mas _ pirvelyofili adamianebis mier realobis yvelaze mniSvnelovani da saidumloebiT moculi aspeqtia. magiis problemebTan anTropologTa
yvelaze Zlieri da winaaRmdegobrivi interesebia dakavSirebuli. samxreT-dasavleT
melaneziaSi magiis roli imdenad didia, rom TvalSisacemia yvelaze zedapiruli damkvirveblisaTvisac ki. gamovlinebaTa gageba Tvalis erTi SevlebiT arc ise advilia.
miuxedavad imisa, rom aborigenTa mTeli praqtikuli cxovreba absoluturad gamsWvalulia magiiT, zerele damkvirvebels SeiZleba moeCvenos, rom igi saqmianobis
mTel araerT mniSvnelovan sferoSi ar monawileobs.
magaliTad, arc erTi aborigeni yabayis an taros kvals ise ar gaiyvans, rom magiuri
Selocvebi ar warmoTqvas, magram amave dros qoqosis, bananis, mangos an puris xis movla-patronoba yovelgvari magiuri ritualis gareSe mimdinareobs. TevzWera, romelic
miwaTmoqmedebasTan SedarebiT meorexarisxovania, mxolod nawilobriv aris dakavSirebuli magiasTan. is, ZiriTadad, zvigenis, Tevzebis _ kalalas da toulamis Weris
dros gamoiyeneba. magram erT-erT aseve mniSvnelovan, Tumca ufro advil da xelmisawvdom _ mcenareuli Sxamebis daxmarebiT Tevzaobis _ magiuri rituali saerTod ar
sruldeba. kanoes agebas Tan sdevs Zalze rTuli magiuri rituali, romelic am saqmis
ganuyofeli nawilia da am saqmianobisaTvis savaldebulod iTvleba. es albaT, imiTaa
ganpirobebuli, rom Tavad kanoes ageba garkveul siZneleebTanaa dakavSirebuli, sariskoa da Sromis maRal organizebas moiTxovs. qoxis aSeneba ki, romelic teqnikurad
iseve rTuli saqmianobaa, rogorc kanoes ageba, Tumca SemTxveviTobaze naklebadaa
damokidebuli, arc riskTan da saSiSroebasTanaa dakavSirebuli da Sromis mniSvnelovan organizebasac ar moiTxovs, magiuri ritualis gareSe xorcieldeba. sawarmoo
mniSvnelobis xeze kveTac, romelsac bavSvobidan swavloben da amiT zogierTi soflis
TiTqmis mTeli mosaxleobaa dakavebuli, ar sruldeba magiis TanxlebiT. samagierod,
amnozis an rkinis xisgan mxatvruli qandakebis damzadeba, romelic mxolod gamorCeuli teqnikuri da SemoqmedebiTi niWiT dajildoebul adamianebs xelewifebaT, Sesabamis magiur ritualebs moiTxovs _ es ritualebi iTvleba swored ostatobisa da
STagonebis mTavar wyarod. vaWrobas anu kulas _ saqonlis gacvlis ceremonias, sakuTari magiuri rituali aqvs; Tumca sxva, gacvla-gamocvliTi vaWrobis ufro wvrili
formebi, romlebsac mxolod komerciuli xasiaTi aqvT, aranair magiur ritualTan ar
arian dakavSirebulni. omi da siyvaruli, daavadebebi, qaris stiqia, amindi, bediswera
_ yvelaferi es, aborigenTa azriT, mTlianad magiur Zalebzea damokidebuli.

390

magia, mecniereba da religia

faqtebisa da movlenebis es zedapiruli mimoxilvac ukve mniSvnelovani ganzogadebis saSualebas gvaZlevs, romelic SemdgomSi garkveul amosaval wertilad gamodgeba. magia arsebobs iq, sadac adamiani gaurkvevlobasa da SemTxveviTobas eyreba, agreTve
maSin, rodesac warmoiqmneba ukiduresi emociuri daZabuloba im winaaRmdegobis gamo,
romelic miznis miRwevis imedsa da am miznis miuRwevlobis saSiSroebas Soris arsebobs. rodesac saqmianobis miznebi gansazRvrulia, advilad misaRwevi da racionaluri meTodebiTa da teqnologiebiT kargad kontrolirebadi magiisaTvis adgili aRar
rCeba. samagierod, is saxezea iq, sadac riskisa da safrTxis elementebi aSkaraa. magia
arc iq aris, sadac arsebobs warmoebis usafrTxoebis sruli garantia, romlis drosac
movlenaTa ganviTarebis winaswar ganWvreta absoluturad zedmetia. am dros muSaobs
fsiqologiuri faqtori. magram, magia sxva, aranakleb mniSvnelovan socialur funqciasac asrulebs. ukve aRvniSne, magia Sromis organizebisa da misTvis sistemuri xasiaTis miniWebis qmediTi faqtoria. amavdroulad, igi aris Zala, romelic praqtikuli
Canafiqris ganxorcielebis saSualebas iZleva. amitom magiis kulturul-maintegrirebeli funqciaa im winaaRmdegobebisa da Seusabamobebis Tavidan acilebaSi, romlebic gardauvlad Cndebian yofa-cxovrebis im sferoebSi, romlebsac didi socialuri
mniSvneloba aqvT da sadac adamians Zala ar Seswevs srulad akontrolos movlenaTa
mimdinareoba. magia adamians Tavis saqmianobaSi warmatebis rwmenas unergavs, uromlisodac ver SeZlebda sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani amocanebis gadawyvetas; aniWebs
gambedaobas da sakuTar Tavze kontrolisa da Zalebis mokrebis unars iseT garemoebebSi, roca mas sasowarkveTileba da SiSi eufleba, ZrwolviT an siZulviliT aris Sepyrobili, gauazrebeli siyvaruliT an dauZleveli mrisxanebiTaa daTrgunuli.
magiis xelovneba mudmivad praqtikul miznebs eqvemdebareba. rogorc nebismier
sxva xelovnebas an xelobas, masac garkveuli konceptualuri safuZvlebi da principebi aqvs, romelTa sistemac miznis miRwevis saSualebas gansazRvravs. amitomac magiasa
da mecnierebas garkveuli msgavseba axasiaTebT da ser jeims frezeris msgavsad Cvenc
SegveZlo magiisTvis, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT `fsevdomecniereba~ gvewodebina.
ufro kargad davakvirdeT, ras warmoadgens magiis xelovneba. rogoric ar unda
iyos magiis konkretuli forma, is yovelTvis sam umTavres elements Seicavs. magiur
qmedebaSi saxeze gvaqvs warmoTqmuli an namReri Selocvebi, rituali an ceremonia
da is adamiani, romelsac oficialurad miniWebuli aqvs Selocvis warmoTqmisa da
ritualis Sesrulebis ufleba. amgvarad, magiis analizis dros saWiroa erTmaneTisgan ganvasxvavoT Selocvis formula, rituali da TviTon magis pirovneba. Tavidanve
aRvniSnav, rom melaneziis im kuTxeSi, sadac gamokvlevas vawarmoebdi, magiis umTavres
elementad Selocva gvevlineba. aborigenTaTvis magiis xelovnebis floba _ Selocvis
codnas niSnavs; nebismier jadoqrul tradiciaSi mTeli rituali Selocvebis mra-

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valjerad gameorebaze igeba. rac Seexeba Tavad ritualsa da magis pirovnebas, maT pirobiTi xasiaTi aqvs da mniSvnelovania. mxolod rogorc Selocvis warmosaTqmeli saTanado elementebi: Cveni gansaxilveli Temis TvalsazrisiT es erTob sayuradReboa,
ramdenadac magiuri Selocva mWidro kavSirs gamoavlens tradiciul swavlebebTan da
ufro metad _ miTologiasTan.
magiis sxvadasxva formaTa gamokvlevisas, TiTqmis yovelTvis aRmovaCenT xolme
garkveul Tqmulebebs, romlebSic sxvadasxva magiuri ritualisa da Selocvis warmoqmnis wyaroebia aRwerili da ganmartebuli. am TqmulebebSi moTxrobilia imis Sesaxeb,
sad, rodis da rogor gadaecemoda an gadadioda igi memkvidreobiT Taobidan Taobaze.
magram aseTi Tqmulebebi ar unda aRviqvaT, rogorc `magiis istoria~. magias ar gaaCnia
`dasawyisi~, is arc Seqmnilia da arc gamogonili. magia ubralod `iyo~ Tavidanve, is
yovelTvis arsebobda, rogorc yvela im movlenis, sagnisa da procesis yvelaze arsebiTi piroba, romlebic adamianis sasicocxlo interesebis sferos Seadgenen da mis racionalur Zalas ar emorCilebian. Selocva, rituali da mizani, romlis misaRwevadac
isini sruldeba, erTdroulad Tanaarseboben adamianuri yofierebis erTsa da imave
droSi.
amgvarad, magiis arsi mis tradiciul mTlianobaSi mdgomareobs. is yovelgvari
damaxinjebisa da cvlilebis gareSe gadaecema Taobidan Taobas, pirvelyofili adamianebidan ritualis Tanamedrove Semsruleblebamde _ mxolod ase inarCunebs igi
efeqturobas. amitom magias esaWiroeba Taviseburi, ase vTqvaT, sagvareulo pasporti
droSi mogzaurobisTvis. Tu rogor aniWebs miTi magiur rituals misi qmedunarianobis rwmenasTan Serwymul Rirebulebasa da mniSvnelobas, yvelaze kargad konkretuli
magaliTiT SeiZleba iqnes naCvenebi.
rogorc viciT, melanezielebi did mniSvnelobas aniWeben siyvaruls da seqss.
samxreTis zRvebis mkvidri sxva tomebis msgavsad, isinic did Tavisuflebas uSveben
sqesobriv urTierTobaSi, gansakuTrebiT qorwinebamde, Tumca col-qmruli Ralati
dasjad danaSaulad iTvleba, agreTve sastikad ikrZaleba totemur klans SigniT kavSirebi. aborigenTa TvalSi yvelaze didi danaSauli incestis nebismieri forma aris.
da-Zmas Soris kanonsawinaaRmdego kavSirze fiqric ki maTSi zizRsa da SiSs aRZravs. daZmas, romlebic am matriarqalur sazogadoebaSi yvelaze mWidro naTesauri kavSiriT
arian SeerTebulni, erTmaneTTan Tavisufali urTierTobis uflebac ki ara aqvT. arasodes ar unda exumron an gauRimon erTmaneTs. erT-erTi maTganis TandaswrebiT meoreze gadakruli sityvac ki Zalian cud tonad iTvleba. Tumca, klanis gareT sqesobriv
urTierTobaTa Tavisufleba Zalze mniSvnelovania da siyvarulic uTvalavi macduri
da mimzidveli formiTaa Semosuli.

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magia, mecniereba da religia

aborigenebi Tvlian, rom seqsis mimzidveloba da sasiyvarulo ltolvis Zala sasiyvarulo magiidan iRebs saTaves. am ukanasknels safuZvlad udevs drama, romelic
Soreul warsulSi moxda. masze mogviTxrobs tragikuli miTi da-Zmas Soris incestis
Sesaxeb. ai misi mokle Sinaarsi4:
erT sofelSi, dedis qoxSi da-Zma cxovrobda. erTxel axalgazrda gogonam SemTxveviT Zlevamosili sasiyvarulo nayeni Seiynosa, romelic Zmis mier sxva qalis keTilganwyobis mosapoveblad iyo damzadebuli. vnebisgan gagiJebulma Zma zRvis ukacriel
napiras gaityua da iq Seacdina igi. sinanulis grZnobiT Sepyrobilma, sindisis qenjniT
gatanjulma sayvarlebma Sewyvites Wamac da smac da erT-erT gamoqvabulSi gverdigverd dalies suli. iq, sadac maTi sxeulebi esvena, aromatuli balaxi amovida, romlis wvensac axla sxva nayenebs ureven da sasiyvarulo magiis ritualebSi iyeneben.
gadaWarbebis gareSe SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aborigenTa miTologiis sxva saxeobeb
Tan SedarebiT, magiuri miTebi gacilebiT TvalsaCinod asaxavs adamianTa socialur
miswrafebebs. maT safuZvelze iqmneba rituali, mtkicdeba rwmena magiis saswaulmoqmedebisa, myardeba socialuri qcevis tradiciuli normebi.
magiuri miTis kulturis Semoqmedi funqciis aRmoCena savsebiT adasturebs ser
jeims frezeris brwyinvale Teorias Zalauflebisa da monarqiis warmoSobis Sesaxeb,
romelic Tavis `oqros rtos~ pirvel TavebSi ganaviTara. ser jeimsis Tanaxmad, socialuri Zalauflebis wyaroebi ZiriTadad magiaSi unda veZeboT. Cven ukve vaCveneT,
rogoraa magiis efeqturoba damokidebuli adgilobriv tradiciaze, socialur kuTvnilebasa da pirdapir memkvidreobiTobaze. axla SegviZlia tradicias, magiasa da Zalauflebas Soris arsebuli sxva mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri veZeboT.

baloma: gardacvlilTa sulebi trobriandis kunZulebze

magia gansakuTrebiT did rols TamaSobs velur gvarovnul TemebSi (kirivinialebi, am mxriv, arafriT gansxvavdebian aborigenTa sxva tomebisgan). magiiT gamsWvalulia maTi sameurneo saqmianobis yvela ZiriTadi saxeoba, gansakuTrebiT ki garkveul
riskTan da safrTxeebTan dakavSirebuli, romlebSic bevri ram SemTxveviTobazea
damokidebuli. sasoflo-sameurneo samuSaoebi ganuyoflad arian magiasTan gadajaWvulni; mcire masStabis nadirobasac ki Selocvebi axlavs Tan; TevzWera, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, roca misi Sedegebis winaswar gansWvreta SeuZlebelia, xolo
warmateba ganuyofelia riskisgan, magiuri qmedebebis rTul sistemasTanaa dakavSirebuli. kanoes awyoba uamravi Selocvis TanxlebiT mimdinareobs, romlebic unda

393

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warmoiTqvas samuSaos sxvadasxva stadiaSi _ Sesabamisi xis arCevis da moWris, navis
gamoTlis, SeRebvis, aRWurvisa, da bolos, wyalze gaSvebis dros. magaram es xdeba mxo
lod maSin, rodesac zRvaSi curvisTvis gamiznuli, SedarebiT didi xomaldi igeba. Tu
patara navebs, wynar lagunebSi an napirTan axlos sacuraod ageben, sadac safrTxe ar
aris, maSin magiuri rituali saerTod aRar tardeba.
arsebobs amindze zemoqmedebis uamravi Selocva, mzisa da qaris marTviT xan wvimas, xan TqeSs iZaxeben. es Selocvebi icis am saqmis zogierTma mcodnem, ufro zustad,
mcodneTa ojaxebma, romlebic am codnas memkvidreobiT gadascemen da iyeneben maSin,
rodesac amisken Tanatomelebi mouwodeben. magaliTad, kunZulebze TeTri adamianebis kanonis Semosvlamde momxdari sabrZolo Setakebebis dros kirivinialebi zogierTi STamomavlobiTi profesionalis magiur xelovnebas mimarTavdnen, romlebmac
sabrZolo magia memkvidreobiT miiRes winaprebisagan. aborigenebs eWvi ar eparebaT,
rom adamianis janmrTeloba da guneba-ganwyobileba magebis magiuri xelovnebis wyalobiT SeiZleba Seiryes an aRdges. es magebi, amave dros xalxs eqimbaSadac evlinebian. Tuki adamianis sicocxles romelime mulukualusi (romlebzec zemoT gvqonda
saubari) emuqreba, maTTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweva garkveuli Selocvebis saSualebiT
aris SesaZlebeli, magram amisTvis aucilebelia daxmarebisaTvis mimarTos qals, romelic TviTon iTvleba mulukualusad. ganapira soflebSi yovelTvis SeiZleba ramdenime aseTi qalic ipovno.
magia imdenad farTod aris gavrcelebuli, rom aborigenebTan cxovrebisas Zalian
xSirad sruliad moulodnelad vxdebodi sxvadasxva magiuri warmodgenis mowme, rom
aRaraferi vTqvaT im SemTxvevebze, roca TviTon vcdilobdi saqmis ise awyobas, rom
aseT ceremoniebze movxvedriliyavi. bagidous, omarakaneli baR-bostnis magiis specialistis qoxi Cemi karvidan araumetes 50 metriT iyo daSorebuli da maxsovs misi
simRerebi, romelic kunZulze misvlis pirveli dReebidanve mesmoda _ maSin jer
TiTqmis araferi vicodi msgavsi qmedebebis Taobaze. mogvianebiT neba damrTes davswrebodi ceremonias, rodesac is magiur mcenareul wamlebs umReroda; am privilegiiT sargebloba SemeZlo imdenjer, ramdenjerac movisurvebdi da mec gamoviyene igi
ramodenimejer.
baRis magiis bevr ceremoniaSi Selocvebi sxvadasxva mcenareebze damRerebiT warmoiTqmeba. es xdeba sofelSi, TviT magis qoxSi, da mxolod amis Semdeg _ baRSi. ceremoniis dRes, diliT, magi marto midis tyeSi, xandaxan sakmaod Sorsac, raTa iq saWiro
balaxi da sxva mcenareebi moZebnos. me vakvirdebodi ceremonias, romlisTvisac
saWiro iyo aTeulobiT saxeobis balaxi, romlebic kunZulis TiTqmis mTel floras
Seadgenen. zogierTi mcenare mxolod zRvis napirze unda Segroviliyo _ raiboagze
(mcenareulobiT dafarul marjnis rifze), zogi _ dablari buCqnaris bardebSi.

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balaxeulis saZebnelad magi ganTiadisas midis, da yvela misTvis saWiro mcenares


mzis amosvlamde agrovebs. Semdeg Tavisi nadavli qoxSi Seaqvs da xandaxan SuadRemdec
umReris maT Selocvebs.
magis saZile sarecelze erTi meoris Tavze ori Wilobi iSleba. zeda Wilobis naxevarze Segrovebuli balaxi ifineba da meori naxevriT gadaifareba. magi odnav gamoaCens
Tavis nadavls da Selocvebis damRerebiT Sesrulebas iwyebs. misi tuCebi isea Wilobis
kideze midebuli, rom fuWad bgera ar ikargeba, yvela xma xvdeba iq, sadac moTavsebulia balaxi, romelic am xmebsa da maTSi arsebul Selocvebs STanTqavs. SelocvisTvis
xmis daWeris procedura yvela saxis magiuri damRerebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.
rodesac SedarebiT mcire zomis sagnis mojadoebaa saWiro, magi foTlebisgan raRac
Zabris msgavss akeTebs, romlis viwro nawilSic es sagani Tavsdeba, Selocva ki farTo
nawilSi warmoiTqmeba.
axla bagidous da mis mier Catarebul baRis magiis proceduras davubrundeT. misi
jadoqruli reCitativebi daaxloebiT naxevar saaTs da SeiZleba ufro met xansac unda
grZeldebodes. Selocvebi kvlav da kvlav meordeba, xandaxan meordeba calkeuli
frazebi da am frazebSi yvelaze metad mniSvnelovani sityvebi. magi dabal xmaze raRac
naxevradmelodiur reCitativs mReris, romlis motivic erTi magiuri formulidan
meoreze gadasvlisas cotaTi icvleba. sityvebisa da frazebis gameoreba mosajadoebel saganSi Selocvis Cazelvas SeiZleba SevadaroT.
rodesac magi simRerebs amTavrebs, is mojadoebul mcenareebs WilobSi axvevs da
gverdze debs. axla isini mzad arian sxva magiuri procedurisTvis, romelic, Cveulebriv, meore dilas baRSi an bostanSi sruldeba. swored es aris mTavari rituali,
romlis drosac bevri Selocva imRereba. baRis magia _ esaa rTuli da detalurad
gaazrebuli ritualebis mTeli sistema, romelTagan TiToeuli Sesabamisi Selocvis
TanxlebiT sruldeba. baRis samuSaos yvela saxes garkveuli rituali Seesabameba.
pirvel rigSi, arsebobs kurTxevis saerTo rituali, romelic baRis nebismier saqmianobas win uswrebs da yovel nakveTze cal-calke tardeba. meore rituali sarevelebisagan nakveTis gawmendas ukavSirdeba. moWrili da gamxmari totebis dawva TavisTavad
magiuri ceremoniaa, romelic sxva, azrobrivad masze daqvemdebarebul ritualebs
moicavs da xandaxan oTx dResac ki grZeldeba. Semdeg gansakuTrebuli ritualebi
ukve im dros sruldeba, roca baRis mcenareebi zrdas iwyebs, da isinic ramdenime dRe
grZeldeba. gamargvlasac, niadagis kultivaciasac Tan axlavs magiuri ceremoniebi.
yvela zemoaRniSnuli da kidev sxva ritualebi TiTqos aucilebel CarCos qmnis, romelic baRis mTel samuSaos moicavs. magi agreTve adgens dasvenebis ganrigs, romelic
mkacrad unda iqnes daculi da awesebs periodebs, rodesac soflis macxovreblebma
raRac samuSaoebi erTdroulad unda Seasrulon, ise, rom aravin CamorCes da arc win
gauswros sxvebs.

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magis roli aborigenul sazogadoebaSi Zalian didia. TiTqmis SeuZlebelia baRis
romelime samuSaos Sesruleba tovosis (baRis magis) monawileobis gareSe.
tovosis roli imdenad didia, rom mis gareSe baRis samuSaoebis organizacia da
Sesruleba faqtobrivad ar xdeba; aborigenebi didi yuradRebiT ekidebian mis rCevebs,
Tumca es yuradReba Tavisi arsiT wminda wylis formalobaa, ramdenadac ar arsebobs
Cveulebriv mebaReobasTan dakavSirebuli raime sakamaTo an saWoWmano problema. amis
miuxedavad, aborigenebi imdenad afaseben magis monawileobas da did pativs scemen mis
avtoritets, rom aman ucxo damkvirvebelSi gancvifreba SeiZleba gamoiwvios. amgvari
SromisTvis magi gasamrjelos iRebs: uxv ZRvens (yvelaze xSirad es Tevzia) soflis erTobis wevrebisgan. unda aRiniSnos, rom xSirad, magram ara yovelTvis, magis rols Tavis Tavze soflis beladi iRebs. magram `miwis qomagad~ (ivoie buiagu) gaxdoma SeuZlia
mxolod am sofelSi dabadebul adamians, romlis winaprebi dedis mxridan am miwis baton-patronebi iyvnen.
Tavisi didi mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, baRis magia raime statiuri da saidumlo
ceremoniebiT ar aris gamoxatuli, romlebic mkacri tabuTia garemoculi da im pompezurobiT sruldebian, rogorc es aborigenebs ZaluZT. piriqiT, kirivinialuri magiis armcodnes SeiZleba ubralod gverdi aevlo yvelaze mniSvnelovani ceremoniisTvis ise, rom verc gaecnobierebina, rom raRac Zalian mniSvnelovani xdeba. mas aseve
SeiZleba gverdi aevlo adamianisTvis, romelic niadags baRis niCbiT Txris an gamxmar
totebsa da Reroebs erTad agrovebs, taroebs alagebs da SeiZleba amasTan erTad, raRacas butbutebdes. Cveni warmosaxviTi damkvirvebeli SesaZloa daseirnobdes baRis
axal nakveTze, sadac axlaxans sarevelebisagan gaasufTaves da dabares niadagi. is aq
naxavs CarWobil joxebs, romlebic taitusTvis sayrdenia da raRaciT sviis nargavebs
Camohgavs. am dros is SeiZleba Sexvdes xalxis jgufebs, romlebic ratomRac aqa-iq
Cerdebian da baRis nakveTis kuTxeSi raRacas akeTeben. da mxolod maSin, roca velze xmamaRal Selocvebs gaigonebda, damkvirvebeli SeZlebda am moqmedebebis magiur
xasiaTis aRmoCenas. da maSin es yvelaferi misTvis gansakuTrebul pompezurobas da
sanaxaobiT iers SeiZenda, saqmeSi Cauxedav adamians, SesaZloa, mTeli es rituali usicocxlod da uinteresodac ki mosCveneboda. is dainaxavda adamians, romelic mcire
jgufisgan gancalkevebiT dgas da raRac uxilav Zalebs mouwodebs an rogorc Tavad
kirivinialebi ityodnen, am uxilav Zalebs velebze ganfantavs. es Zalebi SelocvebSi
arian `Camwyvdeulni~, maTSi mravali Taobis sibrZne da RvTismosaobaa Tavmoyrili.
Cvenma damkvirvebelma SesaZloa ramdenime adamiani dainaxos, romelTa simReris xmebic yvela vels swvdeba: ase xdeba, roca tovosebi Zmebs an dedis sxva naTesavebs mouxmoben dasaxmareblad.
yovelive amis ukeT warmosadgenad modiT erTad daveswroT erTi-erT aseT _ moWrili da gamomSrali totebis dawvis ceremonias. zogierTi balaxi, romelsac Selocva

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winaswar umReres, bananis foTolSia gaxveuli da qoqosis gamomSrali foTlebis patara grovebis irgvlivaa dawyobili. ase mzaddeba CiraRdnebi, romliTac cecxli velze
gadaaqvT. diliT (ceremonia, romelsac vakvirdebodi omarakanaze, daaxloebiT 11 saaTze daiwyo) bagidou, am soflis tovesi, baRebSi movida touluvas _ dedis mxridan
biZis, soflis beladisa da ramdenime sxva aborigenis TanxlebiT, romelTa Soris imyofeboda bokuiobac, beladis erT-erTi coli. cxeli dRe iyo, uberavda susti brizi.
veli gamomSrali iyo da cecxlis gaCaReba rTuli ar iyo. yvela damswres, maT Soris
bokuiobasac CiraRdani eWira xelSi. CiraRdnebis danTebas aranairi ceremonia ar axlda (maT yovelgvari orWofobis gareSe moukides cecxli Cemi SeTavazebuli sanTliT);
Semdeg ritualis yvela monawile Tavisi CiraRdniT mindvris im mxares wavida, saidanac qari hqroda, da male veli cecxlma dafara. ramdenime bavSvi uyurebda cecxls,
araviTar tabuze saubari ar yofila. sofelSi ar SeimCneoda am movleniT gamowveuli
SesamCnevi mRelvareba; SevniSne, rom ramdenime biWi da patara bavSvi saerTod sofelSi darCa, maT azradac ar mosvliaT mosuliyvnen da ritualisTvis edevnebinaT Tvali.
rogorc Cans, es yvelaferi srulebiT ar ainteresebdaT. ramdenimejer daveswari iseT
ritualebs, roca mxolod bagidou da me viyaviT monawileebi, Tumca ar arsebobda aranairi tabu, romelic vinmes daswrebas akrZalavda. ra Tqma unda, Tuki vinme ritualSi
monawileobs, mas wesebis dacvac moeTxoveba.
unda aRiniSnos, rom tabu sxvadasxva sofelSi sxvadasxvanairia, baRis magias sakuTari sistema aqvs. magaliTad, erTxel mezobel sofelSi saerTo ceremoniis meore
dRes Catarebul dawvis ceremonias vadevnebdi Tvals igi Zalian hgavda imas, razec
zemoT gvqonda saubari: baRis yovel nakveTze nagvis patara grovebs raRac balaxTan
erTad wvavdnen. me SevamCnie, rom soflis tovosi Zalian gabrazebuli iyo imis gamo,
rom ramodenime gogona, sakmaod Sori manZilidan, magram mainc uyurebda am ceremonias; amixsnes, rom arsebobs tabu, romelic am soflis qalebs ceremoniis naxvas ukrZalavs. arsebobs ritualebi, romlebSic mxolod tovosebi monawileoben, rogorc wesi
soflis zogierTi sxva macxovrebelic monawileobs, magram arsebobs iseTi ritualebic, romlebSic gamonaklisis gareSe yvela macxovrebeli iRebs monawileobas. aseT
ceremonias dawvrilebiT mogvianebiT aRvwerT, radganac mas pirdapiri kavSiri aqvs

baloma- s magiur qmedebebSi monawileobasTan.


baRis magiis dawvrilebiT aRwera saWiroa kirivinialuri magiis garkveuli, saerTo
maxasiaTeblebis sailustraciod. baRis magia, ubralod, ufro SesamCnevia sxva magiur
qmedebebs Soris, magram zogadi daskvnebi, romlebsac masze dakvirvebiT vRebulobT,
magiis sxva saxeebsac SeiZleba mivusadagoT. amis safuZvelze SeiZleba raRac saerTo
suraTis warmodgena, romelic magiaSi baloma- s rolis Cemeul SeniSvnebs swor perspeqtivas dausaxavda.

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kiriviniauluri magiis RerZi _ Selocvebia. swored maTSia magiuri ritualis mTavari Zala. imis Tqmac ki SeiZleba, rom rituali mxolod imisTvis arsebobs, rom Selocvebi Sesabamis pirobebSi warmoiTqvas. rituali _ Selocvis transmisiis garkveuli
meqanizmia. aseTia yvela kirivinianelis azri, rogorc specialistisa, agreTve saqmeSi
Cauxedavisac magiur ritualTan mcireodeni Sexebac ki amas naTlad adasturebs. amitomac swored Selocvis formulaSi SeiZleba veZeboT im ideaTa gasaRebi, romlebic
magiur ritualTan aris dakavSirebuli. am Ziebisas, pirvel rigSi, TvalSi sacemia
amgvar formulebSi awmyoSi mcxovreb aborigenTa winaprebis saxelebis xSiri xseneba.
bevri formula pirdapir am saxelTa grZeli CamoTvliT iwyeba da maTi mflobelebis
sulebis gamoZaxebis garkveul xerxad gvevlineba.
albaT ar SeiZleba erTmniSvnelovani pasuxis gacema SekiTxvaze, winaparTa saxelebis CamoTvla _ es aris maTi sulebis namdvili gamoZaxeba, magiur ritualSi monawileobis misaRebad, Tu es saxelebi mxolod raime tradiciisaTvis xarks, wminda da
saidumloebiT moculi magiuri Zalebis simboloebia. sinamdvileSi, rogorc Cans, saxezea orive maTgani: baloma- s gamoZaxeba da romelime wminda tradiciis Sesruleba.
magiuri formulebi Taobidan Taobas gadaecema _ mamis xaziT mamisgan Svils an dedis xaziT kadalasgan (biZa dedis mxridan) diswuls, aborigenTa azriT, dedis mxridan
naTesaoba sisxliT naTesaobis namdvil xazad iTvleba. memkvidreobis es ori forma
erTmaneTisagan garkveulwilad gansxvavebulia. arsebobs magiuri ritualebi, romlebsac adgilobrivi magia SeiZleba daerqvas, radgan mxolod mocemul adgilas gvxvdeba. magiis am tips miekuTvneba baRis magiis yvela sistema da agreTve is magiuri Selocvebi, romelTa moqmedebac, aborigenTa azriT, dakavSirebulia magiuri Tvisebebis
mqone adgilebTan. kunZul kasanaize, aseTia Zalian gavleniani wvimis magia, romlis
ritualebic am kunZulze arsebul tyeSi, romeliRac wyalsatevTan unda Catardes.
aseTia agreTve kirivinialebis oficialuri samxedro magia, romlis ritualebic
sofel kuaibuagas mamakacebma unda Seasrulon da romelic dakavSirebulia am soflis Soriaxlo mdebare kaboma-sTan (wminda tyesTan). magiuri ritualebis detalurad
ganviTarebuli sistema, romelic zvigenis da kalala-s daWerasTanaa dakavSirebuli,
sofel kaibuola-s da labai-s mcxovreblebis mier yvela am formulas memkvidreobiT
gadascemen dedis xaziT.
is magiuri ritualebi, romlebic konkretul adgilTan ar arian dakavSirebuli da
advilad gadaecemian mamisgan Svils, an Tundac SemTxveviT Sexvedril sruliad ucnob
adamianebs maRali safasuris sanacvlod, ufro naklebia. pirvel rigSi mas aborigenuli medicinis magiuri formulebi SeiZleba mivakuTvnod, romlebic yovelTvis avadmyofobis ganmkurnavi an misi gamomwvevi Zalebisaken mimarTul SelocvaTa wyvilebs
qmnian (vivisa da silami). amave klass miekuTvneba magia, romlis saSualebiTac adamiani

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xeze muSaobis xelobas eufleba (takabitami) da kanoes agebis Tanmxlebi magiuri ritualebi. aqvea mwerTa nakbenebis sawinaaRmdego magiuri Selocvebi, sasiyvarulo magia,
mulukuausis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli magiuri ritualebi (am ukanasknelT sxvebTan SedarebiT ufro didi mniSvneloba aqvs). magiis es saxeebi nakleb ezoTerulia. Tumca
maT formulebSic, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini SesaZloa, sxvadsxva adgilas mcxovrebi
xalxis warmoTqmuli iyo, rogorc wesi, raime gansazRvrul adgilzea miniSneba. mTel
magiur sistemas safuZvlad, yovelTvis am adgilTan dakavSirebuli raime miTi udevs.
amgvarad, magiis yvelaze mniSvnelovani saxeebi, romlebic did jgufs qmnian maTi
raodenobis gamo, mWidrod arian adgilTan dakavSirebuli, rogorc Tavisi SinaarsiT,
aseve magiuri formulebis memkvidreobiTi xasiaTiT (`matrilinearuli~ magia), roca
magiis sxva, mniSvnelobiTa da raodenobiT ufro mcire jgufebis saxeobaTa mxolod
nawili ki adgilobrivia Tavisi xasiaTiT. kirivinialebis cnobierebasa da tradiciebSi adgilTan kavSiri an lokaluroba, rogorc wesi, mocemul gvarTan an ojaxTan kuTvnilebiT gamoixateba.
yvela adgilze mamakacTa Taobebi, romlebic erTmaneTs cvlidnen mocemuli aborigenuli sazogadoebis beladis rolSi da am sazogadoebis sakeTildReod sasicocxlod mniSvnelovan magiur qmedebebs (iseTebs, rogoricaa baRis magiis ritualebi) asrulebdnen, moipovebdnen gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas TanatomelTa cnobierebaSi.
amiT SeiZleba aixsnas zemonaxsenebi faqtebi, kerZod ki is, rom dedis mxridan winaparTa saxelebi amdenad mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben magiur formulebSi.
naTqvamis dasamtkiceblad mravali magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba, Tumca amis gakeTeba wvrilmanebis sizustiT im SemTxvevamde unda gadavdoT, roca am Tvisebis magiis sxva elementebTan Sedarebis saSualeba mogvecema amisaTvis saWiro gaxdeba magiuri formulebis ufro sruli aRdgena. daviwyoT baRis magiiT. me movaxerxe am magiis
ori sistemis aRwera, erTi _ sofel omarakanaSi, sadac mas kailuebilas uwodeben; es
erT-erTi yvelaze gavleniani sistemaa; meore _ momtilakaivas sistema, romelic oTx
patara sofels: kupuakopulas, tilakaivas, ioruavotus da vakailuvas ukavSirdeba.
im sistemaSi, romelic sofel omarakanaSia miRebuli, baRis magia moicavs aT Selocvas, romelTagan TiToeuli gansakuTrebul qmedebebTanaa dakavSirebuli: erTi warmoiTqmeba niadagis dabarvisas, im adgilas, sadac axal baRs eyreba safuZveli, meore
_ im ceremoniis dros, romelic win uswrebs gasxvlas, mesame _ moWrili da gamxmari
totebis ceremoniuli dawvis dros da a.S. am aTi Selocvis garda, arsebobs kidev sami,
romlebSic winaprebis baloma moixsenieba. erT-erTi maTgani sxvebze mniSvnelovania _
igi warmoiTqmeba ramdenime ritualSi _ totebis moWris, axali mcenareebis dargvisa
da sxva ceremoniebSi.

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ai, misi dasawyisi:
`vatuvi, vatuvi (meordeba bevrjer);
vitumaga, imaga;
vatuvi, vatuvi (bevrjer);
vituola, ilola:
tubugu polu, tubugu koleko, tubugu takikila,
tubugu malabuoita, tubugu kuaiudila,
tubugu katupuala, tubugu buguabuaga, tubugu numakala;
bilumavau bilumam;
tabugu muakenava, tamagu iovana. . .~
amas mohyveba formulis danarCeni, Zalian grZeli nawili; misi Sinaarsi ZiriTadad magiuri formulis Sedegebis aRweras: mcenareTa zrdas, sxvadasxva daavadebebis
mimarT maT amtanobas mavne mwerebisgan dacvis garantias da a.S. exeba.
am magiuri formulis sworad Targmna Zalze rTulia. masSi arsebuli arqauli gamoTqmebi mxolod nawilobrivaa gasagebi TviT aborigenebisaTvis, romlebsac TviTon
uWirT aseTi gamoTqmebis Tanamedrove kirivinialur enaze Targmna. Selocvis tipuri
struqtura sami nawilisgan Sedgeba: 1. Sesavali nawili (mas uulas eZaxian; am sityviT
xis tanis qveda nawili gamoixateba da agreTve cneba, romelic nawilobriv Cveneuli
`mizezis~ cnebis msgavsia); 2. Selocvis korpusi (tapuala _ zurgi, xerxemali); 3. finaluri nawili (dogina _ kenwero, bolo, piki), etimologiurad es sityva dogas (eSvi,
didi kbili) ukavSirdeba. rogorc wesi tapualas gageba da Targmna bevrad ufro advilia, vidre sxva nawilebisa. winaprebisadmi mimarTva, an, ufro zustad rom vTqvaT,
maTi saxelebis CamoTvla yovelTvis Sedis uulaSi.
zemoT xsenebul uulas pirveli sityva vatuvi Cemi informatoris, sofel omarakanas tovosisaTvis (baRis magi) bagidousTvisac ki gaugebari iyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi,
CemTvis misi Targmna ar SeeZlo. me vfiqrob, rom garkveuli etimologiuri TvalsazrisiT, es sityva SeiZleba iTargmnos rogorc `cudis SemTxveva~ an `keTeba~.
sityvebi vitumaga, imaga prefiqsebis _ vitus (miyeneba) da i-s (zmnis mxolobiTi ricxvis mesame piris niSani) daxmarebiT iwarmoeba; fuZe maga Sedgeba azrobrivi
nawilisagan _ ma, romelic mosvlis moqmedebas aRniSnavs, da sufiqsisgan ga, romelic
xSirad emfatikuri miznebisTvis gamoiyeneba. sityvebs vitulola, ilola igive struqtura aqvs, ubralod fuZe ma-s magivrad aq fuZe la (siaruli) figurirebs, romelic sityva ilola-Sia redublicirebuli.
im nawilSi, sadac winaparTa saxelebia CamoTvlili, ori momentia aRsaniSnavi:
pirveli sityvebi sityva tubugu-s examebian, xolo bolo erTi sityva _ tubugu -s.

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tubugu _ mravlobiTi formaa, aRmniSvneli cnebisa `Cemi winaprebi~ (gu _ pirveli


piris nacvalsaxeluri sufiqsi); tabugu _ mxolobiTi ricxvi, `Cemi winapari~. mravlobiTi forma imasTan aris dakavSirebuli, rom yvela ojaxs aqvs raRac saxeli (es
saxeli garkveulwilad mocemuli ojaxis sakuTrebaa), amitom ojaxis nebismieri wevri
unda atarebdes winaparTa saxelTagan erT-erTs, Tumca SeiZleba erqvas sxva, ukve
aramemkvidreobiT miRebuli saxeli, romliTac mas ufro icnoben. amitomac Selocvis pirvel nawilSi magi mimarTavs ara erT-erT konkretul Tavis winapars, romelsac
saxelad erqva polu, aramed yvela Tavis winapar polus, yvela winapars _ saxelad
kolekos da a.S.
winaparTa saxelebis yvela msgavsi CamonaTvalisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli meore niSani
imaSi mdgomareobs, rom ukanasknel saxelebs Tan axlavs sityvebi _ bilumavau bilumam, romlebic lingvistikuri wvrilmanebi rom gamovtovoT, `Tqven, axalo baloma- s~
niSnavs. Semdeg modis ramdenime bolo winapris saxeli. magaliTad, bagidou moixseniebs Tavis babuas _ muakenuvas da mamas _ iovanas. es mniSvnelovania, radganac aq Cven

baloma- sadmi uSualo mimarTvas vxvdebiT: `o Tqven, baloma !~ (sityvaSi bilumam `m~ _
meore piris sufiqsia). vfiqrob, swored es miuTiTebs imaze, rom winaparTa saxelebis
CamoTvla ufro metad maTi baloma- s gamoZaxebaa da ara ubralo CamoTvla, Tumca Tavad dasaxelebac magiur funqcias asrulebs. radgan Tavad winaparTa saxelebs ukve
gaaCnia es funqcia maTTvis Sinaganad damaxasiaTeEbeli, qmediTi magiuri ZaliT.
am fragmentis Tavisufali Targmani ase SeiZleba JRerdes:
`Seasrule! Seqmeni es! gaxdi is, vinc qmnis!
daexmare mosvlaSi!
daexmare siarulSi!
Cemo winaprebo saxelad polu da a.S.
da Tqvenc, axlaxans qceulno balomad, papa muakenua
da mama iovana~.
am Tavisufal TargmanSi bevri ramaa gaugebari, magram aRsaniSnavia, rom es gaugebrobebi marTlac arsebobs im adamianTa cnobierebaSi, romlebic yvelaze kargad icnoben am formulas. rodesac bagidous vekiTxebodi, saxeldobr ra unda movides da
ram unda iaros, is Tavis azrs varaudis saxiT gamoTqvamda. erTxel man miTxra, rom
saubaria mcenareebze, romlebic unda `Sevidnen~ niadagSi, magram sxva dros fiqrobda,
rom wasasvlelni baRis mavneblebi arian. aseve gaugebaria, aRniSnavs Tu ara sityvebi
`mosvla~ da `siaruli~ raRac sapirispiros mimarTulebiT. Cemi azriT, swori interpretacia imaSi mdgomareobs, rom uulas mniSvneloba ar SeiZleba erTmniSvnelovnad

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ganisazRvros: es ubralod formaa, romliTac winaprebis gamoZaxeba `imoseba~. aborigenebs miaCniaT, rom aq yovel sityvas raRac Sinagani maxasiaTebeli Zalas aqvs da misadmi mimarTva gadmoscems swored WeSmarit azrs. tapualaSi aranairi gaurkvevloba
ar arsebobs da Selocvis mizanic gasagebia.
aseve niSandoblivia, rom uula ritmiulad aris agebuli, sityvaTa oTxi jgufi
garkveul simetrias qmnis. amas garda, sityva vatuvi sxvadasxva raodenobiT meordeba
(araerTxel momeca saSualeba, momesmina am Selocvis namdvili Sesruleba), Tumca yovelTvis Tanabrad orive periodSi. ueWvelia, arc am formulaSi arsebuli aliteraciaa
SemTxveviTi, vinaidan igive movlena sxva SelocvebSic aRiniSneba.
dawvrilebiT ganvixile es formula, vinaidan misi agebuleba tipuria da saSualebas gvaZlevs vimsjeloT sxvebze, romlebic detaluri analizis gareSe SeiZleba iqnan
warmodgenilni.
meore formula, romelSic winaparTa saxelebia naxsenebi, iovotas mravalferovani
ceremoniebis dasawyisSi warmoiTqmeba, rodesac tovosibi sabaRe miwas niSnavs. Selocvis formula ase iwyeba:
`tudava, tu-tudava,
malita, ma-malita~ da a.S.
aq naxsenebia ori winapari-gmiris saxeli. maTze miTologiis mTeli cikli
mogviTxrobs. amboben, rom tudava iyo tabalu-s winapari (yvelaze warCinebuli ojaxi,
romelsac omarakanas beladebi ekuTvnodnen), Tumca ueWvelia, rom is lukuba-s gvars
miekuTvneboda, tabalu ki malasis-s gvarisaa.
igive ori saxeli gvxvdeba Selocvis sxva formulaSic, romelic warmoiTqmeba,
baRis magiaSi gamosayenebel zogierT balaxze, da kamkokolad wodebul, mxolod magiur ritualebSi gamoyenebul zogierT xis nagebobaze Selocva ase iwyeba:
`kailola, lola; kailola, lola;
kaigulugulu; kaigulugulu;
kailalola tudava,
kaigulugulu malita,
bisipela tudava, bisilai otokaikaia da a.S.
Tavisufal TargmanSi es niSnavs:
`Cadi qveviT (o, Sen fesvs idgam); Cadi siRrmeSi (niadagSi, o, Sen idgam fesvs); (daexmare maT) Cavidnen qveviT, o, tudava; (daexmare maT) CaRrmavebaSi (niadagSi), o, malita;
tudava amodis (sityvasityviT `gadaadgildeba~); (tudava) tokaikaiaze (baloma- sTvis
gankuTvnil specialur platformaze) Tavsdeba~.

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omarakanaze baRis magiis sistemaSi ar arsebobs raime gansakuTrebuli miTiTeba


soflis Soriaxlo mdebare wminda adgilebze. baloma- sTan dakavSirebuli erTaderTi
ritualuri moqmedebis Sesabamis ceremonias erTob salaRobo xasiaTi aqvs. mas Semdeg, rac baleko- Si, anu baRis mocemul adgilze dargul pirvel taroze Sesabamisi
Selocva warmoiTqmeba (baleko _ mebaReobis garkveuli sameurneo, amasTan, magiuri
erTeuli), magi miniaturul qoxs aSenebs, mis garSemo ki _ mSrali totebisgan damzadebul Robes; am yvelafers si buala baloma (`saxli baloma -sTvis~) hqvia. am nagebobas arafers ulocaven. me ver SevZeli am moqmedebis raime tradiciasTan dakavSireba
an am erTob eqstravaganturi proceduris raimenairi axsna.
ulaula magTaAn, tovosi- sTan soflis Temis wevrebs miaqvT. rogorc wesi, esaa Tevzi, SeiZleba iyos agreTve qoqosis kakalic, am bolo dros ki Tambaqo. ZRveni lagdeba
qoxSi; Tevzi TiTqmis yovelTvis ukve gamzadebulia da patara porciebad dayofili.
im dros, roca magi magiur balaxebsa da mis qoxSi moTavsebul sxva magiur nivTebs
Selocvebs umReris, baloma- sTvis motanili ulaula sadme Soriaxlos unda iyos
gamofenili. baloma -sTvis aseTi ZRvenis mirTmeva mxolod omarakanis baRis magiisTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli, igi yvela sxva magiur sistemaSic SeimCneva.
kidev erTi sistema, romelic saWiroa aq movixsenioT (momtilakaiva), mxolod erTi
formulisgan Sedgeba _ es aris baloma- s CamonaTvali. aq am formulis citirebas
ar movaxden, radgan is Zalian hgavs zemoT moyvanils da mxolod sakuTari saxelebiT
gansxvavdeba misgan. Tumca am magiur sistemaSi mocemuli konkretuli baloma- s roli
bevrad ufro gamokveTilia; am sistemis erT-erT ZiriTad ceremoniaSi, kamkokola_Si
xdeba am baloma- sTvis ZRvenis mirTmeva.
kamkokola _ es sakmaod STambeWdavi nagebobaa, romelic 3-dan 5 metramde sigrZis
vertikaluri da igive zomis horizontaluri sarebisganaa damzadebuli. . . zevidan
am konstruqcias marTi kuTxis moyvaniloba aqvs, is Camohgavs asoLL -s, romelzec vertikaluri saria dadebuli. gverdidan is raRaciT berZnuli aso M-s mogvagonebs. am
nagebobebs aranairi praqtikuli mniSvneloba ar gaaCnia, maTi erTaderTi funqcia _
magiuria. isini taitu-s zvrebis sayrdenad gamoyenebuli sarebis prototipebad gvevlinebian. miuxedavad imisa, rom kamkokola _ wminda ritualuri sagnebia, maTi ageba
sakmao jafasTanaa dakavSirebuli. mZime sarebi xSirad Zalze Sori manZilidan moaqvT,
vinaidan soflis axlos saTanado samSeneblo masalis povna arc ise advilia; buCqebs
regularulad Cexaven yovel 4-5 weliwadSi erTxel. maT Zebnas soflis mamakacebi ramdenime kviras andomeben, Wrian da ezidebian TavianT baRebSi; iSviaTi ar aris dava soflis macxovreblebs Soris, roca vinme SemTxveviT an gamiznulad cdilobs miiTvisos
kamkokolas asagebad motanili sxvisi sarebi.
kamkokolas rituals yvela magiur sistemaSi ramdenime dRe eTmoba; daaxloebiT
oTxi dRe grZeldeba magiuri moqmedebebis winmswrebi baRis samuSaoebisgan savalde-

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bulo dasveneba. momtilakaivas sistemaSi ceremoniis pirveli dRe eZRvneba baRebsa da
velebze magiuri Selocvebis simRerebiT Sesrulebas. magi erTi-ori mamakacis TanxlebiT daivlis baRis yvela nakveTs _ im sofelSi, sadac amas vakvirdebodi, es daaxloebiT milis sami meoTxedia, _ da yovel maTganze, kamkokolas erT-erT ganiv RerZTan
daxrili, Tavis Selocvebs mReris. is gahyurebs nakveTs, misi xma ki imdenad maRalia,
rom simRera mTel nakveTze kargad ismis. magi sul ocdaaTidan ormocamde aseT simReras asrulebs.
gansaxilvel TemasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa ceremoniis meore
dRe. am dRis ritualSi yvela mezobeli soflis mosaxle iRebs monawileobas da, rogorc aborigenebi amboben, swored am dRes modis ceremoniaze baloma . am ritualis
azri zogierTi mcenaris mojadoebaa, romlebsac kamkokolas safuZvelTan da vertikaluri da horizontaluri sarebis gadakveTis adgilze Tesaven. am dRes soflis mTeli mosaxleoba dilidan mosamzadebeli samuSaoebiT aris dakavebuli. qvebze alageben
Tixis did qoTnebs, romlebSic saWmels mxolod sadResaswaulo dReebSi amzadeben.
qoTnebs kvamli da orTqli asdis, qalebi ki maT Soris dadian da saWmlis momzadebas
adevneben Tvals. zogierTi qali ki gawiTlebamde gaxurebuli qvebis or fenas Soris
taitus aSrobs. Semdeg gamomSrali da Semwvari taitu miaqvT velze da ceremoniis
monawileebs urigeben.
daTqmul dros ramdenime mamakaci magiuri ritualisTvis aucilebeli balaxis Segrovebas iwyebs. amisaTvis zogi zRvis napirze midis, sxvebi _ buCqnarSi, zogi _ raiboagze (adgili kldovani xramis piras). maT am balaxebis didi konebi unda moitanon.
ceremoniis Semdeg mojadoebuli mcenareebi soflis yvela mamakacs urigdeba, raTa
isini TavTavianT nakveTebze waiRon.
daaxloebiT dilis aT saaTze velze sofel tilakaiva-s tovosisTan _ nasibo
vaisTan erTad mivedi. mas mxarze didi saceremonio qvis najaxi ekida, romelsac
sxvadasxva ceremoniaSi xSirad iyenebda; omarakanaeli bagidou aseT instruments
arasdros iyenebda. roca ceremoniis adgilas mivediT, movkalaTdiT miwaze, sadac
ukve isxdnen momlodine aborigenebi; TandaTan qalebmac iwyes Sekreba. yvela maTgans taituTi savse xis WurWeli mohqonda, zogierTs erTi bavSvisTvis Caekida xeli,
meore ki mxrebze Seesva. gza sofel tilakaivas baRebze gadioda. Robes cal mxares
bardebi dauyveboda, meore mxares ki _ buCqebisa da balaxisagan gasufTavebuli
baRi; taitu-s zvrebis sayrdeni sarebis sakmaod xSiri mesris miRma tyiT dafaruli
raiboagi da erTmaneTisgan garkveuli manZiliT daSorebuli xeebis jgufi moCanda.
bilikis gaswvriv or rigad iyo Camwkrivebuli Txeli da gemovnebiT SerCeuli sarebi. es mwkrivebi gansakuTrebiT daxvewili ori kamkokolaTi mTavrdeboda. swored
maT safuZvelTan unda Catarebuliyo ceremonia. aq Tavad mags unda daelagebina mojadoebuli balaxebi.

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qalebi am xeivanis gaswvriv baRis orive mxares Camosxdnen. maT Sekrebas daaxloebiT
naxevari saaTi dasWirda. amis Semdeg maTi motanili sakvebi ulufebad dalagda, yovel
damswre mamakacze TiTo ulufa modioda da axladmotanili saWmelic aseve nawildeboda. amasobaSi ceremoniis adgilze danarCeni mamakacebi, biWebi da gogoebi, patara
bavSvebic movidnen; bolos da bolos mTeli sofeli Seikriba da ceremoniac daiwyo.
ceremonia saWmlis Cveulebrivi darigebiT daiwyo (sagali); viRac kaci saWmlis
dalagebuli ulufebis gaswvriv dadioda da yovel maTganTan erT-erTi damswris saxels ambobda. amis Semdeg es ulufa xis WurWliT im qals mihqonda sofelSi, romelsac
dasaxelebul mamakacTan raime kavSiri hqonda. amgvarad, qalebi erTmaneTis miyolebiT brundebodnen sofelSi da Tan mihyavdaT bavSvebi da axalSobilebi. ceremoniis
es nawili, aborigenTa TqmiT, baloma- saTvis sruldeba. amgvarad darigebul saWmels
baloma kasi anu baloma- s saWmeli ewodeba; iTvleba, rom sulebic Rebuloben am ceremoniaSi monawileobas, adamianTa Soris imyofebian da am saWmliT tkbebian. am zogadi
SeniSvnebis garda, sxva ufro dawvrilebiTi axsnis mopoveba ver SevZeli verc erTi aborigenisgan, Tavad nasibovai-saganac ki.
roca qalebi sofelSi dabrundnen da ceremonia daiwyo, gayares yvela patara, vinc
jer kidev iq imyofeboda. mec da Cemi `biWebic~ Robis iqiT unda gadavsuliyaviT. ceremonia mcenareebze Selocvis ubralo gameoreba iyo; am mcenareTa didi Sekvrebi miwaze gaSlil Wilobze daawyes, nasibovai maT win dajda da Tavisi Selocvebi pirdapir
balaxSi daamRera. rogorc ki es saqmianoba daasrula, kacebi daesivnen mojadoebul
balaxs, yvelam TiTo bRuja aiRo da gaiqca Tavisi baRis nakveTisken, raTa iq daedo
balaxi kamkokolaze da mis qveS. amiT dasrulda ceremonia, romelsac saaTze met xans
velodiT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom momtilakaivas magiuri sistemis erT-erT SelocvaSi naxsenebia
`wminda tye~ (kaboma) saxelad ovavavile. esaa tyis didi masivi, romelic sofel omarakana-sTan da yilakaiva-sTan axlos mdebareobs, rogorc Cans, Taobebis manZilze
ar iCexeboda. am tyes icavs tabu, romlis damrRvevi sasqeso organos uzomo gazrdiT
daisjeboda. me arasodes Sevsulvar am tyeSi, ara imdenad tabus darRvevisTvis mosalodneli sasjelis, aramed patara wiTeli tkipebis gamo, romelTa kbenac autanel qavils iwvevs. es am adgilebis namdvili wyevlaa. magram sofel talakaivas tovosi erTerTi magiuri ritualis Sesasruleblad swored am tyeSi midis da yabayis did bolqvs
(amas kasi-iena ewodeba) qvaze debs. esaa ZRveni baloma- sTvis.
Selocva ase JRers:
uula: `avaitau ikavakavala ovavavala?
iaegulai nasibovai,
akavakavala ovavavala!

405

bronislav malinovski
tapuala: `bala baise akavakavala, ovavavala iaegulai
nasibovai akavakavala ovavavala; bala baise,
agubitamuana, olopoulo ovavavala; bala baise
akabinaiguadi olopoulo ovavavala~.
am formulaSi ar aris bolo nawili (dogina). Targmani Semdegnairad SeiZleba
JRerdes:
`vin iyris aq muxls, ovavavalaSi? es me var, nasibovai (axlandeli tovosis sakuTari saxeli), muxls viyri aq, ovavavalaSi! me waval da muxls moviyri iq, ovavavalaSi;
es me, nasibovai, moviyri muxls iq, ovavavalaSi; me waval iq da waviReb Cems tvirTs (aq
magi Tavis Tavs im qvasTan aigivebs, romelzec kasi-ienaa dawyobili) ovavavalas wminda tyeSi. me waval iq da Semdeg iqidan gamovixedav (aq magi ukve mcenareebis saxeliT
laparakobs), ovavavalas tyeSi~.
am ceremoniaSi magiuri rituali naklebad asocirdeba baloma- sTan, magram am kavSiris danaxva aqac SesaZlebelia; roli, romelsac mocemul SemTxvevaSi konkretuli
adgili TamaSobs, saSualebas gvaZlevs magiur ritualebsa da winaparTa tradiciebs
Soris arsebul sxva saxis kavSirebzec visaubroT. axla magiis sxva tipebze gadavideT.
kirivinebze Tevzaobis magiis or yvelaze mniSvnelovan sistemaSi _ sofel kaibuolaSi zvigenis Weris da sofel labaiSi Tevz kalalas Weris Tanmxleb magiur
ritualebSi sulebic garkveul monawileobas iReben. orive sistemaSi aris ceremonia, romlis drosac baloma- sTvis ZRvenis mitana xdeba. esaa ulaulas _ magiisaTvis
gasamrjelos nawili, romelic magisTvis soflis macxovreblebs miaqvT. magaliTad,
zvigenis WerasTan dakavSirebul magiur ritualSi amgvari ZRveni magis qoxSi miaqvT,
magi ukve gamzadebuli Tevzis patara naWrebsa da betelis kakalsv (Tavisi ulaula
dan) debs erT-erTze im sami qvidan (kailagila), romlebic keriis irgvliv awyvia da
sadgamis funqcias asrulebs saWmlis mosamzadebeli didi qoTnebisaTvis. Semdeg is
Selocvas warmoTqvams:
uula: `kamkuamsi kami ulaula kubukuabuia, inenei,
ibuaugana iiovalu, viiamoulo, ulopoulo, bovasai,
bomuagueda~.
tapuala i dogina: `kukuavilasi poulo, kuminum kuaidasi
poulo; okavala vilaitai; okavala obuvabu; kulousi kuvaru-agise vadola kuau obuarita, kulouio kuluvabo-uodasi kuau obuarita, kuiaioiuvasi kukapuagegasi
kumaise kuluvabodasi matami pualalala okotalela vinaki~.

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uula ase SeiZleba iTargmnos:


`miirTvi Seni uula (Seni ZRveni, magiuri ZalisTvis Seni gasamrjelo), o, gauT
xovaro qalo inenei~ da a.S. (Semdeg gardacvlil qalTa baloma- s sakuTari saxelebi
modis).
tapuala -Si aris ramdenime sityva, romelTa mniSvnelobac CemTvis gaugebrad darCa, magram am nawilis zogadi azri naTelia:
`xeli SeuSale Cvens Tevzaobas, iRbali ar misce Cvens Tevzaobas~ ( Selocvis azri
negatiuria, igi imperatiuli formiT iZaxebs swored imas, risi Tavidan acilebac
unda); `----------(?); ----------(?); wadi gauRe piri zvigens zRvaSi; wadi da qeni ise, rom zvigeni Segvxvdes zRvaSi; dae misi piri Ria iyos; modi, qeni ise, rom Segvxvdes zvigeni; Seni
Tvalebi (?); vinakis napiras~.
am fragmentuli TargmaniT imas mainc vxvdebiT, rom Selocva gauTxovari qalebis
bili baloma- s (baloma- s mravlobiTi ricxvi, romelic xSirad gamoiyeneba maSin, roca
baloma Tavad magiuri ritualis moqmed pirad gvevlinebian) ixmobs, raTa maT warmatebul Tevzaobas Seuwyos xeli.
Cemi informanti Cemze aranakleb iyo sagonebelSi Cavardnili imis gamo, ratom SeuZ
liaT swored qalis da ara kacis baloma- s TevzaobisTvis xelis Sewyoba. TumcaRa, ara
mxolod magma, aramed yvela aborigenma icis, rom qalTa baloma tolipoulas _ `Tevzaobis diasaxlisebia~. SesaZloa, magi da soflis sabWos sxva mamakacebi darwmunebulni arian, rom mamakacTa baloma- ebi soflis sxva mamakacebTan erTad sanadirod
midian, qalTa baloma ki saxlebSi rCeba da magma isini unda daapuros, SimSiliT rom ar
gaitanjon. sxva aborigenma aRniSna, rom qali arsebiT rols TamaSobs miTSi, romelic
sofel kaibuolaSi zvigenebis Weris sawyisebs xsnis. magram erTi ram aSkaraa _ yvela
aborigeni, romlebsac me vesaubre, im faqts, rom qali-baloma `Tevzaobis diasaxlisebia~. TavisTavad imdenad cxad ambad miiCneven, rom amgvari SekiTxvebi azradac ar mosdiT.
sofel labaiSi Tevz kalalas Wera ukavSirdeba miTur gmir tudavas, romlis
cxovrebac mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli am sofelTan. tudava labais axlandeli bela
debis winaprad iTvleba. am sofelSi TevzWeris Tanmxlebi magiuri rituali ZiriTadad gansazRvrulia tudavas miTiur saqmeTa mogonebebiT. is cxovrobda sanapiroze,
macxovreblebi ZiriTadad TevzaobiT iyvnen dakavebulni da sadac yvelaze mniSvnelovani magiuri Selocvebi warmoiTqmeboda. aborigenebi gvaCveneben gzas, romliTac tudava Cveulebriv dadioda zRvis napiridan soflamde da am gzis zogierT
gamorCeul adgils, romlebic tudavas gmirobebs ukavSirdeba. yvelgan sadac misdeven TevzWeras, SeigrZnoba gmiris, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, `tradiciuli Tandaswreba~.
mTeli es raioni tabuTia daculi, mkacria TevzWeris periodSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom es

407

bronislav malinovski
periodebi regularulia da yovel TveSi eqvs dRes grZeldeba, dawyebuli iapiladan,
savsemTvareobis dRidan, rodesac Tevzi sanapiro rifebis wyalmarCx adgilebSi da
sanapirosTan gundad ikvreba. tradiciuli miTi gvamcnobs, rom tudavam Tevz kalalas dentrekastos arqipelagis `did mdinareebSi~ cxovreba da TveSi erTxel labais
maxloblad zRvis napirTan mosvla ubrZana. magiuri Selocvebi, romlebic xalxs maTma
miTiurma gmirma gadasca, yvelaze did rols TamaSoben _ maTi ugulvebelyofis SemTxvevaSi , Tevzi ar mova. tudavas saxeli sxva winaparTa saxelebTan erTad figurirebs
grZel SelocvaSi, romelic Tevzaobis sezonis dasawyisSi tabuirebuli qvis bomlikulikus maxloblad warmoiTqmeba.
Selocva ase iwyeba:
`tudava kulu tudava;
ibua kulu, vaibua;
kuluvidaga, kulubaivoie, kulubetoto,
muagai, karibuiuva~ da a.S.
tudava da vaibua _ miTiuri winaprebi arian, orive sofel labaiSi cxovrobda,
Tanac pirveli, rogorc ukve viciT, kunZulis didi `kulturuli gmiri~ iyo. aRsaniSnavia saxel vaibua-s JReradobis mxolod ritmuli mizniT gamoyeneba. aRvniSnav, rom
Cemma informantebma ver SeZles eTargmnaT sityva kulu, romelic pirvel or saxels
Soris dgas (tudava, ibua da saxeli, romelic sam Semdeg saxels uswrebs win). aseve ver
movaxerxe misi raime etimologiuri varaudis safuZvelze Targmna. zemoxsenebuli
sakuTaris saxelebis Semdeg modis 8 saxeli, romelTa winac ar aris naTesauri kuTvnilebis maniSnebeli sityva, `tubugu~ _ Cemi winaprebi da am sityviT dawyebuli 16
saxeli, Semdeg axlandeli magis uSualo winamorbedis saxeli modis. Cemma informantma ver amixsna, ratom dgas zogierTi saxelis win naTesaobis ganmsazRvreli termini da
zogierTis win ki ara. magram is darwmunebuli iyo, rom es aris saxelTa ori araTanabarmniSvnelovani jgufi, romlebic erTmaneTs ver Caenacvlebian.

baloma- sTvis Sesawiris mitana xdeba eqvsdRiani TevzWeris TiToeul DdRes. magi
momzadebuli Tevzis patara naWrebs (kaklis zomis) da betelis patara natexebs (am
bolo dros _ TuTunsac) awyobs bomlikulikus qvaze Semdegi sityvebis TanxlebiT:
`kamkuamsi kami ulaula, nunumuaia:
ilikilaluva, ilibualita;
kulisasisama~,
rac niSnavs:

408

magia, mecniereba da religia

`miirTviT Tqveni ulaula (ritualis Semsrulebeli magisTvis mirTmeuli


ZRveni),
o, moxuco qalebo: inikialuva (sakuTari saxeli), ilibualita(sakuTari saxeli);
gaxseni is~.
zvigenis es Selocva yoveldRe, yoveli axali ZRvenis motanisas meordeba. sxva Selocvas, guvadavas, eqvsi dRis ganmavlobaSi yoveldRe damRerian romeliRac balaxs; is
Tevz kalalas mozidvis Zalas flobs. es Selocva iwyeba winaprebis CamoTvliT, yoveli
maTgani moixsenieba, rogorc `Cemi winapari~ an `Cemi winare mama~.
arsebobs Selocva, romelic mxolod erTxel, Tevzaobis sezonis dawyebisas warmoiTqmis sofel labaidan zRvis sanapiromde mimaval gzaze. mas warmoTqvamen gansazRvrul mcenareze, romelsac Zirfesvianad glejen da gzis gaswvriv alageben. am SelocvaSi Semdegi frazaa:
`iamuana iaegulo, umnalibu
taiioko, kubugu, taigalalikiba`,
romelSic agreTve saxelTa CamoTvlaa. aborigenebi Tvlian, rom yoveli maTgani
axlandeli magebis winaprebs ekuTvnis.
sxva formula, romelSic winaparTa saxelebi gvxvdeba, im dros warmoiTqmis, rodesac magi Tevzaobis sezonis dasawyisSi Tavis sacxovrebels gvis. is ase iwyeba:
`bokiu, kalu bokiu; tamala, kuri tamala;
tageulo, karitageulo~.
formulis dasawyisSi im gvaris winaparTa saxelebia, romelsac magi miekuTvneba.
damaxasiaTebelia saxelTa gameoreba damatebiTi sufiqsiT, magaliTad, `bokiu, kalu
bokiu~ da a.S. aris Tu ara pirveli sityva romelime adamianis saxeli, meore ki ubralod
keTilxmovnebisTvis warmoTqmuli anda pirveli sityva _ am saxelis mxolod SemoklebiTi formaa Tu ara, Cemma informantebma ver amixsnes; rogorc Cans, es sakiTxi maTTvisac bundovani iyo.
kalalas sistemis saTevzao magiis SelocvaTa Svidi formulidan xuTSi anu umetesobaSi, winaprebis saxelebi figurirebs.
adgilis ekonomiis mizniT detalurad aRar ganvixilav Cem Caweril sxva magiur
formulebs. qvemoT moyvanili Semajamebeli cxrili mcire .
rogorc adre aRvniSne, magiur formulaTa ori klasi arsebobs: `matrilinialuri~
da `patrilinialuri~. pirveli klasis formulebi, rogorc wesi, raime konkretul

409

bronislav malinovski
adgilTan aris dakavSirebuli, meore klasis formulebi ki SesaZloa erTi soflidan
meores gadaecemodes. kirivinianul magiaSi garkveuli gansxvaveba SeimCneva magiuri
ritualebisa da ceremoniebis sistemebsa da calkeul magiur formulebs Soris, romlebic sistemebs ar warmoqmnian. aq `sistemis~ cnebaSi is magiuri formulebi moiazreba, romlebic, erTad aRebulni, garkveul Tanmimdevrul, organul mTlianobas qmnian.
rogorc wesi, es sistema Seesabameba qmedebebs, romlebic agreTve organul mTlianobas qmnian da erTi miznisaken arian mimarTulni. magaliTad, cxadia, rom baRis magia,
zemoxsenebuli azriT, sistemas warmoadgens. igive SeiZleba iTqvas Tevzaobis sezonis
sxvadasxva stadiaSi an savaWro eqspediciis momzadebisa da Catarebis gansxvavebul
etapebze warmosaTqmel magiur formulebze. yvela maTgani amgvar sistemaSi gamoiyeneba. isini Tanmimdevrulad warmoiTqmeba, erT sistemas miekuTvneba, da TiToeuli
maTgani garkveuli saqmianobis konkretul fazas Seesabameba. am sistemebisagan gansxvavebiT, magaliTad, sasiyvarulo magia mravali sruliad damoukidebeli Selocvisagan Sedgeba, romlebic erTmaneTTan kavSirSi araa.

Cawerili formulebis
saerTo jami

im formulaTa ricxvi,
romlebSic winaparTa
saxelebi moixseneba

im formulaTa ricxvi,
romlebSic winaparTa
saxelebi ar moixseneba

1. amindis magia

12

2. sabrZolo magia

3. kaitubutabu (qo
qosis kakalis magia)

4. Weqa-quxilis
Seocvebi

5. eqimbaSoba da medicina

19

15

6. kanoes ageba

7. muasila (saqonlis
gacvlis, vaWrobis
magia)

11

11

8. sasiyvarulo magia

9. kaigai (mulukuausis
Selocvebi)

magiis saxe

410

magia, mecniereba da religia

10. kabitam (xeze kveTis muSaobis magia)

11. saTevzao magia

12. Sxamian skarosze


Tevzaobi magia

13. vageva (silamazis magia)

14. arekis kaklis


Segrovebis magia

15. saikeulo (sabavSvo


magia)

sabrZolo magiac sistemas qmnis (ix. cxrili # 2). yvela misi Selocva erTi meoris
miyolebiT mkacri TanmimdevrobiT unda iqnes warmoTqmuli. es adgilobrivi magiis
sistemaa, masSi arsebobs miTiTebebi garkveul adgilze, magram winaprebis saxelebi ar
moixsenieba.
amindis magiasac (1), romelic ZiriTadad wvimaa da naklebmniSvnelovani mziani amindis magiaa adgilmdebareobiTi xasiaTi aqvs da misi Selocvebic miTTanaa dakavSirebuli. Tormetive Selocva erT adgils ukavSirdeba. es kunZulze yvelaze gavleniani
magiaa. am Selocvebze monopolia aqvs sofel kasanais (esaa sofel omarakanaze TiTqmis gadabmuli patara sofeli) beladebs, romlebic gvalvis periodSi gansakuTrebiT
did Semosavals Rebuloben Semowirulobis saxiT.
kaitubutamus magiaSi (3) sistemas ori formula Seadgens: isini qoqosis kakalze
dadebuli tabus periodis or sxvadsxva stadiaSi warmoiTqmeba. tabusa da Selocvebis
magiuri procedurebis azri, qoqosisaTvis xelSewyobaa.
Weqa-quxilis magias (4) aqvs miTis tradicia, romelSic miTiuri winapari figurirebs misi saxelic SelocvaSi moixsenieba.
kanoes agebis magia (6) da muasila (7), romlebic saqonlis (kulas) yidva-gayidvisa da
gacvlis SesaniSnav sistemasTanaa dakavSirebuli, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan magiur
sistemebs qmnian. Cem Caweril SelocvaTa formulebSi winaparTa saxelebi ar moixsenieba. samwuxarod, ver SevZeli muasilas mTeli sistemis Cawera, kanoes agebasTan dakavSirebuli magiis sistema ki Caviwere, magram veRar vTargmne. orive magiur sistemaSi
miniSnebulia garkveuli adgilebi, Tumca winaparTa saxelebi naxsenebi araa.
Tevzaobis magiis (11) sami Selocva erT sistemas qmnis.

411

bronislav malinovski
sxva Selocvebi (12-13) sistemebs ar qmnis. sasiyvarulo magiis SelocvebSi winaparTa saxelebi ar moixsenieba, rac savsebiT bunebrivia. samagierod, isini naxsenebia SelocvebSi, romelTa saSualebiTac ikurnebian avadmyofobebi an piriqiT, adamians raime
seni eyreba. zogierTi aseTi procedura miTebs ukavSirdeba.
aq moyvanili monacemebi magiur ritualebsa da SelocvebSi winaparTa saxelebis
monawileobis Sesaxeb, Tavis Tavze TviTon metyvelebs. aborigenebisgan damatebiTi
informaciis miReba me ver SevZeli. cxadia, rom baloma- s xseneba _ magiuri Selocvis umTavresi da arsebiTi nawilia. magram amao iqneboda aborigenebisTvis amgvari
SekiTxvebiT Tavis mobezreba: `ra moxdeboda, Tu ver SeZlebdiT baloma- s gamoZaxebas?~ (aseTi SekiTxvis dasma imas SeuZlia, vinc Tvlis, rom aborigenebis qmedebebs
safuZvlad raime racionaluri ideebi udevs, romlebic amarTleben an kicxaven am moqmedebas), vinaidan magiuri formula kulturuli tradiciis ucvleli da organuli
elementia. saWiroa am formulis zusti codna da misi warmoTqma yovel jerze absoluturad ucvlelad. Selocva an rituali, romelSic erTi niuansic ki Secvlilia,
aucileblad kargavs Tavis Zalas. amitom arafriT ar SeiZleba ritualidan winaparTa
saxelebis gamotoveba an moSoreba. amas garda, pirdapir SekiTxvaze `ratom axsenebT
am saxelebs?~ aborigenebi alalad pasuxoben: `tokunabogu bubunemasi~ (es Cveni Zveli adaTia) yvelaze inteligentur aborigenebTan saubrebSic ki ver _ SevZeli raime,
ufro damajerebeli informaciis mopoveba.
sruliad naTelia, rom winaprebis saxelTa xseneba raRac ufro metia, vidre maTi
ubralo CamoTvla. amaze Tundac is faqti metyvelebs, rom ulaula s Sewirva magiis
yvela im mniSvnelovan sistemaSi xdeba, romlebic dawvrilebiT Seviswavle. zemoT aRwerili, sagalis miZRvnac amis dasturia. magram es ukanasknelic ki, miuxedavad imisa,
rom naTlad adasturebs aborigenTa eWvSeuval rwmenas baloma- s arsebobisa da ceremoniebze misi daswrebis Sesaxeb, jer kidev iZleva saSualebas, vimsjeloT im miznebis
miRwevaSi sulebis monawileobis ideaze, risTvisac sruldeba magiuri rituali da
warmoiTqmeba Selocva. naCqarevad arc im daskvnis gamotana ivargebda, rom swored ba-

loma ar aris Zala, romlebsac mimarTavs magi, Selocvis saSualebiT eufleba da romlebic asruleben kidec magis davalebebs.
xandaxan aborigenebi gakvriT, rom sulebis keTilganwyoba maT TevzaobaSi an meba
ReobaSi did daxmarebas uwevs, Tuki sulebi ganrisxdebian, maSin maT adamianisTvis zianis miyeneba SeuZliaT. am ukanasknel negatiur mtkicebas ufro metad esmeba xazi, vidre
pozitiurs. marTlac, aborigenebi Tvlian, rom baloma raRac idumali saxiT monawileobs maTTvis mowyobil ceremoniebSi, da kargi iqneboda maTi keTilganwyobis mopoveba,
magram amis gamo araa, rom baloma sasurveli qmedebis Semsrulebel umniSvnelovanes an
Tundac damxmare Zalebad gvevlineba _ magiuri Zala Tavad SelocvebSia.

412

magia, mecniereba da religia

is, Tu rogor esmiT aborigenebs baloma- s roli magiur qmedebebSi, milamala- s


dros baloma- sadmi maTi damokidebulebiT SeiZleba aixsnas. am ceremoniaSi baloma
erTdroulad monawilecaa da mayurebelic. adamianebi maTi bunebrivi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebiT maTive keTilganwyobis mopovebas cdiloben; baloma- s ar moerideba Tavisi ukmayofilebis gamoxatva da mis mimarT arc ise keTilganwyobili adamianisaTvis raime zianis miyeneba, Tumca maTi mrisxaneba arc ise saSinelia, rogorc
magaliTad, romelime zebunebrivi arsebisa, romelTa arsebobac ara marto velurebs,
xSirad civilizebul adamianebsac sjeraT. baloma milamalas ceremoniaSic TiTqmis
arafers cvlis. maTi roli absoluturad pasiuria. am umoqmedobidan maTi gamoyvana
mxolod maSinaa SesaZlebeli, Tuki raimeTi gaabrazeb. maSin isini, ase vTqvaT, negatiurad avlenen Tavs.
saWiroa magiur SelocvebSi winaparTa saxelebis xsenebasTan dakavSirebuli pro
blemis meore mxarezec vTqvaT oriod sityva. kirivinianul magiaSi did rols TamaSobs
zogierTi magiuri sistemis safuZvelSi Cadebuli miTebi da tradiciuli rwmenebi.
ukve visaubre adgilis tradiciebis kavSirze konkretuli gvarebisa da ojaxebis tra
diciebTan. magiur formulebSi xsenebuli winaparTa saxelebi _ tradiciis erT-erTi
elementia, romelic am ukanasknelSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs. magiuri ritualis
monawileebisa da maTi gvaris miTuri fuZemdeblebis damakavSirebel saxelTa siwminde,
aborigenTa azriT, ukve maTi magiuri gamoyenebis safuZvelia. darwmunebuli var, rom
arc erTi aborigeni winaparTa saxelebis warmoTqmas ar moiazrebda raime qmedebis
Sesasruleblad baloma- s gamoZaxebis saSualebad. SesaZloa, ulaula- s Tanmxlebi
Selocvebi am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebulad miviCnioT, Tumca am SemTxvevaSic ki,
pragmatizmi aborigenTa cnobierebaSi ganmsazRvreli ar aris da arafers matebs magiisadmi maT damokidebulebas.
Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays.
Boston, 1948. p. 124 - 156.
1. trobriandis kunZulebi axali gvineis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT mdebare marjnis arqipelagia.
adgilobrivi mosaxleoba papua-melaneziur rasas ganekuTvneba da garegnobiT, mentalobiTa
Tu socialuri struqturiT okeaniis mcxovrebTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli da ufro CamorCenili
papuasuri kulturis TvisebaTa erTgvar nazavs warmoadgens.
2.

Malinowski B. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. P. 236-248, 320,321,393

3. dawvrilebiT amaze vsaubrob statiaSi _ `baloma : gardacvlilTa sulebi trobriandis


kunZulebze~ (Journal of the Royal Anthropologikal Institute. 1916)
4.

am miTis dawvrilebiTi aRwera ix. Cems naSromSi `sqesi da Zaldataneba pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi (Sex and Repression in Primitive Society, 1926), sadac yvela socialuri Sedegi ganixileba.

413