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izvsUÇai[

Çivasütras

The sütras below are called ‘Çivasütras’. According to tradition, these sütras
came out of Lord Çiva's òamaru (drum) during his täëòava (dance of ecstasy)
and Mahaåñi Päëini recorded them. The entire Sanskrit grammar is based on
these Çivasütras.

1. A # % ([! )
2. \ ¤ (k! )
3. @ Aae ('! )
4. @e AaE (c! )
5. h y v r (q! )
6. l ([! )
7. | m ' [ n (m! )
8. H É (|! )
9. " F x (;! )
10. j b g f d (z! )
11. o ) D Q w c q t (v! )
12. k p (y! )
13. z ; s (r! )
14. h (l! )
Bird’s Eye View

13. zaSÇai[
Scriptures
12. siNx> 1. A]rai[
Combination Alphabets

11. àyaeg> 2. zBda>


Voice Nouns

10. s'!Oya> 3. AVyyain


Numerals s<Sk«tm! Indeclinables
Sanskrit

9. àTyya> 4. i³yapd< lkaraí


Suffixes Verbs and Tenses

8. %psgaR> 5. pué;> vcn< c


Prefixes Person & Number

7. zBd> ivÉiKtí 6. l"uvaKyain


Words & Cases Simple Sentences
A]rai[
Alphabets

Sanskrit alphabets are classified into four groups. They are:


1. Svra> – Vowels
2. VyÃnain – Consonants
3 . SvryuKt-VyÃnain – Consonants with vowels
4. s<yuKt-VyÃnain – Conjunct consonants

1.1 Svra> – Vowels


There are 13 vowels in the Sanskrit language. They are:
A Aa # $ % ^ \ § ¤ @ @e Aae AaE
There are two more letters (1) Anusvära and (2) Visarga represented by a
‘dot’ ( . ) and two ‘vertical dots’ (>) respectively. Example: A< and A> .

1.2 VyÃnain – Consonants


There are 33 consonants categorized into 8 groups.
kœ o! g! "! 'œ – k group
c! Dœ j! H! |! – c group
qœ Qœ fœ Fœ [! – q group
t! w! dœ x! n! – t group
p! )œ b! É! m! – p group
y! r! l! v! – semi-vowels
z! ;! s! – sibilants
hœ – aspirate
³
4 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Almost all the consonants drop their ‘vertical line’ and the ‘slanting line’ that
are below them to form half consonants. Note that their pronunciation does
not change due to this modification.

1. k! = K 18. d! = -
2. o! = O 19. x! = X
3. g! = G 20. n! = N
4. "! = ¸ 21. p! = P
5. '! = - 22. )! = á
6. c! = C 23. b! = B
7. D! = - 24. É! = _
8. j! = J 25. m! = M
9. H! = H 26. y! = Y
10. |! = Á 27. r! = R
11. q! = - 28. l! = L
12. Q! = - 29. v! = V
13. f! = - 30. z! = Z
14. F! = - 31. ;! = :
15. [! = { 32. s! = S
16. t! = T 33. h! = -
17. w! = W

Observe that some of consonants do not have any vertical lines in them and
therefore do not change. For example: q! Q! F! and d! .
Textbook 5

1.3. SvryuKt-VyÃnain – Consonants United with Vowels


The consonants that are combined with vowels are called ‘svarayukta-
vyaïjanäni’.

k! + A = k
k! + Aa = ka
k! + # = ik
k! + $ = kI
k! + % = k…
k! + ^ = kª
k! + \ = k«
k! + § = k©
k! + ¤ = „
k! + @ = ke
k! + @e = kE
k! + Aae = kae
k! + AaE = kaE
With anusvära ( . ) and visarga (> ), the forms are:

k! + A< = k<
k! + A> = k>
³
6 Sulabha Saàskåtam

This chart gives you an overall view of all the svarayukta-vyaïjanäni.

A Aa # $ % ^ \ § ¤ @ @e Aae AaE A< A>


k! k ka ik kI k… kª k« k© k ke kE kae kaE k< k>
¤
o! o oa io oI ou oU o& o¨ o
¤ oe oE oae oaE o< o>

g! g ga ig gI gu gU g& g¨ g
¤ ge gE gae gaE g< g>

"! " "a i" "I "u "U "& "¨ " "e "E "ae "aE "< ">
¤
'! ' 'a i' 'I 'u 'U '& '¨ '
¤ 'e 'E 'ae 'aE '< '>

c! c ca ic cI cu cU c& c¨ c ce cE cae caE c< c>


¤
D! D Da iD DI Du DU D& D¨ D De DE Dae DaE D< D>
¤
j! j ja ij jI ju jU j& j¨ j
¤ je jE jae jaE j< j>

H! H Ha iH HI Hu HU H& H¨ H He HE Hae HaE H< H>


¤
|! | |a i| |I |u |U |& |¨ | |e |E |ae |aE |< |>
¤

q! q qa iq qI qu qU q& q¨ q qe qE qae qaE q< q>


¤

Q! Q Qa iQ QI Qu QU Q& Q¨ Q Qe QE Qae QaE Q< Q>


¤
f! f fa if fI fu fU f& f¨ f fe fE fae faE f< f>
¤
F! F Fa iF FI Fu FU F« F¨ F Fe FE Fae FaE F< F>
¤
[! [ [a i[ [I [u [U [& [¨ [ [e [E [ae [aE [< [>
¤
Textbook 7
A Aa # $ % ^ \ § ¤ @ @e Aae AaE A< A>
t! t ta it tI tu tU t& t¨ t te tE tae taE t< t>
¤
w! w wa iw wI wu wU w& w¨ w we wE wae waE w< w>
¤
d! d da id dI Ê Ë d& d¨ d de dE dae daE d< d>
¤
x! x xa ix xI xu xU x& x¨ x xe xE xae xaE x< x>
¤
n! n na in nI nu nU n& n¨ n ne nE nae naE n< n>
¤

p! p pa ip pI pu pU p& p¨ p pe pE pae paE p< p>


¤
)! ) )a i) )I )… )ª )« )© ) )e )E )ae )aE )< )>
¤
b! b ba ib bI bu bU b& b¨ v be bE bae baE b< b>
¤
É! É Éa iÉ ÉI Éu ÉU É& ɨ É Ée ÉE Éae ÉaE É< É>
¤
m! m ma im mI mu mU m& m¨ m me mE mae maE m< m>
¤

y! y ya iy yI yu yU y& y¨ y ye yE yae yaE y< y>


¤
r! r ra ir rI é ê r& r¨ r re rE rae raE r< r>
¤

l! l la il lI lu lU l& l¨ l le lE lae laE l< l>


¤
v! v va iv vI vu vU v& v¨ v ve vE vae vaE v< v>
¤
z! z za iz zI zu zU z& z¨ z ze zE zae zaE z< z>
¤
;! ; ;a i; ;I ;u ;U ;& ;¨ ; ;e ;E ;ae ;aE ;< ;>
¤
s! s sa is sI su sU s& s¨ s se sE sae saE s< s>
¤

h! h ha ih hI hu hU ù h¨ h he hE hae haE h< h>


¤
8 Sulabha Saàskåtam

1.4. s<yKu t-VyÃnain – Conjunct Consonants


A conjunct consonant is formed when two or more consonants are joined
together. For ease of reading we have presented the second consonant with
the vowel A.

1. kœ + k = Kk 18. c! + D = CD
2. kœ + t = Kt 19. c! + m = Cm
3. kœ + n = Kn 20. c! + y = Cy
4. kœ + m = Km 21. j! + j = Jj
5. kœ + y = Ky 22. j! + v = Jv
6. kœ + l = Kl 23. j! + y = Jy
7. kœ + v = Kv 24. |! + D = ÁD
8. o! + y = Oy 25. Q!! + y = Q(
9. g! + [ = G[ 26. f!! + y = f!y
10. g! + x = Gx 27. F!! + y = F!y
11. g! + n = Gn 28. [!! + q = {q
12. g! + m = Gm 29. [!! + Q = {Q
13. g! + y = Gy 30. [!! + f = {f
14. g! + l = Gl 31. [!! + F = {F
15. g! + v = Gv 32. [!! + [ = {[
16. "! + n = ¸n 33. [! + m = {m
17. c! + c = Cc 34. [!! + y = {y
Textbook 9

35. [!! + v = {v 56. p!! + t = Pt


36. t!! + w = Tw 57. p!! + n = Pn
37. t!! + n = Tn 58. p!! + y = Py
38. t!! + p = Tp 59. p!! + l = Pl
39. t!! + m = Tm 60. p!! + s = Ps
40. t!! + y = Ty 61. )œ + y = áy
41. t!! + v = Tv 62. b!! + j = Bj
42. t!! + s = Ts 63. b!! + d = Bd
43. w!! + n = Wn 64. b!! + x = Bx
44. w!! + y = Wy 65. É!! + y = _y
45. d!! + É = d! É 66. m!! + n = Mn
46. x!! + n = Xn 67. m!! + p = Mp
47. x!! + m = Xm 68. m!! + b = Mb
48. x!! + y = Xy 69. m!! + É = MÉ
49. x!! + v = Xv 70. m!! + m = Mm
50. n!! + t = Nt 71. m!! + y = My
51. n!! + d = Nd 72. m!! + l = Ml
52. n!! + x = Nx 73. y!! + y = Yy
53. n!! + m = Nm 74. l!! + k = Lk
54. n!! + y = Ny 75. l!! + p = Lp
55. n!! + v = Nv 76. l!! + m = Lm
10 Sulabha Saàskåtam

77. l!! + y = Ly 91. ;!! + p = :p


78. l!! + l = Ll 92. ;!! + m = :m
79. l!! + v = Lv 93. ;!! + y = :y
80. v!! + y = Vy 94. ;!! + v = :v
81. z!! + c = Zc 95. s!! + k = Sk
82. z!! + n = Zn 96. s!! + o = So
83. z!! + m = Zm 97. s!! + t = St
84. z!! + y = Zy 98. s!! + w = Sw
85. z!! + v = Zv 99. s!! + p = Sp
86. z!! + l = Zl 100. s!! + ) = S)
87. ;!! + k = :k 101. s!! + m = Sm
88. ;!! + q = :q 102. s!! + y = Sy
89. ;!! + Q = :Q 103. s!! + v = Sv
90. ;!! + [ = :[
³
When r! precedes any consonant, the symbol ( R ) is used above the succeeding
consonant.

104. r!! + k = k› 107. r!! + c = cR


105. r!! + g = gR 108. r!! + j = jR
106. r!! + " = "R 109. r!! + m = mR
Textbook 11

When r follows a consonant it is represented with a slanting line below the


preceding consonant.

110. kœ + r = ³ 117. b!! + r = ä


111. o! + r = µ 118. É!! + r = æ
112. g! + r = ¢ 119. m!! + r = è
113. "! + r = º 120. v!! + r = ì
114. j! + r = ¿ 121. z!! + r = ï
115. d!! + r = Ô 122. s!! + r = ö
116. p!! + r = à 123. h!! + r = ÿ
When certain consonants combine with r, the r sound is represented by the
symbol ( + ) written below the consonant.

124. D!! + r = D+ 127. f!! + r = f+


125. q!! + r = q+ 128. F!! + r = F+
126. Q!! + r = Q+
Some more conjunct consonants:

129. kœ + n = ² 134. x!! + n = ×


130. o! + n = On 135. n!! + n = Ú
131. g! + n = ¶ 136. p!! + n = ß

132. + n = ¹ 137. b!! + n = ã

133. t!! + n = Æ 138. É!! + n = å


12 Sulabha Saàskåtam

139. m!! + n = ç 158. d!! + d = Î


140. v!! + n = ë 159. d!! + x = ˜
141. z!! + n = î 160. d!! + É = Ñ
142. s!! + n = õ 161. d!! + m = Ò
143. h!! + n = û 162. d!! + y = *
144. kœ + l = ¬ 163. d! + v = Ö
145. '! + k = » 164. d!! + b = Ó
146. '! + o = Œ 165. p!! + t = Ý
147. '! + g = ¼ 166. l!! + l = ‘
148. c! + c = ½ 167. z!! + c = í
149. j! + j = ¾ 168. z!! + l = ð
150. |! + c = Â 169. z!! + v = ñ
151. |! + j = Ã 170. ;!! + q = ò
152. q!! + q = ” 171. ;!! + Q = ó
153. Q!! + y = Q( 172. h!! + [ = Ÿ
154. f!! + y = f( 173. h!! + m = ü
155. F!! + y = F( 174. h!! + y = ý
156. t!! + t = Ä 175. h!! + l = ’
157. d!! + g = Ì 176. h!! + v = þ
Textbook 13

Note the following conjunct consonants. Their forms make them unique.

177. kœ + ; = ] 179. j! + | = }
178. t!! + r = Ç

Given below are a few conjunct consonants that are formed by the combination
of three consonants.

180. kœ + t! + v = KTv 194. t!! + r! + y = Èy

181. kœ + ;! + [ = ú[ 195. t!! + s! + n = Tõ

182. kœ + ;! + m = úm 196. t!! + s! + y = TSy

183. kœ + ;! + y = úy 197. d! + x! + v = d!Xv

184. kœ + ;! + v = úv 198. d!! + É! + y = Ñ(

185. g! + É! + y = G_y 199. d!! + r! + y = Õ

186. '! + kœ + t = '!Kt 200. n!! + t! + y = NTy

187. '! + "! + y = '!¸y 201. n!! + t! + r = NÇ

188. c! + D! + r = CD 202. n!! + d! + y = N*

189. c! + D! + v = CD!v 203. n!! + d! + r = NÔ

190. [! + q! + y = {q!y 204. n!! + x! + r = NØ

191. t!! + t! + v = Åv 205. m!! + p! + r = Mà

192. t!! + p! + r = Tà 206. r!! + g! + y = GyR

193. t!! + m! + y = TMy 207. r!! + "! + y = ¸yR


14 Sulabha Saàskåtam

208. z!! + c! + y = ZCy 212. ;!! + p! + r = :à

209. ;! + q! + y = ò( 213. s!! + t! + y = STy

210. ;!! + q! + r = ò+ 214. s!! + t! + r = ô

211. ;!! + q! + v = ò!v 215. s!! + t! + v = STv


Textbook 15
zBda>
Nouns

Based on their gender, nouns are classified into three types – masculine,
feminine and neuter. The specific mention of the noun’s gender is found in
texts such as Amara-koça. However, some rules are given here for the students’
easy comprehension.

zBda>
Nouns

pui‘¼> ôIil¼> npus


< kil¼>
Masculine Nouns Feminine Nouns Neuter Nouns

A> #> %> Aa $ Am!

2.1 pui‘¼> – Masculine Gender Nouns


Words which end with A>, #> and %> are usually masculine gender nouns.
When two vertical dots (>) are put after any letter it is called ‘visarga’. When
words end with A>, they are called akäränta-pulliìga; when they end with #>,
they are called ikäränta-pulliìga; and when they end with %>, they are called
ukäränta-pulliìga.
16 Sulabha Saàskåtam

2.2 SÇIil¼> – Feminine Gender Nouns


Words that end with Aa and $ are usually feminine gender nouns (äkäränta-
stréliìga and ékäränta-stréliìga).

2.3 npus
< kil¼> – Neuter Gender Nouns
Words that end with Am! are usually neuter gender nouns (akäränta-
napuàsakaliìga).

³
Masculine Gender Nouns
Words ending with A> Words ending with #> Words ending with %>

1. Aj> 1. Air> 1. #NÊ>


2. AwR> 2. kiv> 2. gué>
3. ram> 3. pit> 3. té>
4. kr> 4. muin> 4. zMÉu>
5. Ët> 5. Ai¶> 5. irpu>

Feminine Gender Nouns


Words ending with Aa Words ending with $
1. ÉayaR 1. ndI
2. Daya 2. narI
3 . maya 3 . pTnI
4. icNta 4. pavRtI

Neuter Gender Nouns


Words ending with Am!
1. icÇm!
2. Évnm!
3 . ]eÇm!
4. %pvnm!
³
Textbook 17

More Masculine Gender Nouns

1. Aj> – Goat 23. kal> – Time

2. AwR> – Meaning 24. kIq> – Worm

3. Als> – Lazy person 25. kªp> – Well

4. Anl> – Fire 26. k«;Ivl> – Farmer

5. Anug> – Follower 27. kez> – Hair

6. Añ> – Horse 28. kaeivd> – Expert

7. Axr> – Lip 29. kaez> – Treasure

8. jy> – Victory 30. or> – Donkey

9. Air> – Enemy 31. og> – Bird

10. Ainl> – Wind 32. ol> – Wicked man

11. AiÉÉv> – Insult 33. gayk> – Singer

12. AacayR> – Teacher 34. "q> – Pot

13. Aadez> – Order 35. ºa[> – Nose

14. AadzR> – Mirror 36. ctur> – Clever

15. Aahar> – Food 37. c]u> – Eye

16. #NÊ> – Moon 38. icÇk> – Leopard

17. %*m> – Effort 39. caer> – Thief

18. A»‚r> – Sprout 40. jld> – Cloud

19. kak> – Crow 41. jng[> – Community

20. kNÊk> – Ball 42. jNtu> – A creature

21. kvaq> – Door 43. té> – Tree

22. kiv> – Poet 44. tu;ar> – Dew, mist


18 Sulabha Saàskåtam

45. d]> – Expert 67. Éek> – Frog

46. di][hSt> – Right hand 68. smuÔ> – Ocean


47. dzn> – Tooth 69. mStk> – Head
48. Ët> – Messenger 70. me;pal> – Shepherd
49. nq> – Actor
71. mae"> – Vain
50. nr> – Man
72. yit> – Saint
51. nairkel> – Coconut
73. rw> – Chariot
52. naivk> – Boat-man
74. irKt> – Empty
53. n&pit> – King
75. irpu> – Enemy
54. pit> – Leader 76. laek> – World
55. p]> – Wing 77. v]> – Chest
56. pqu> – Smart person 78. vqv&]> – Banyan tree
57. praepkar> – Help 79. vTs> – Calf
58. prapkar> – Harm 80. vamhSt> – Left hand

59. pai[> – Palm 81. vat> – Wind

60. iv*aly> – School 82. ivvad> – Dispute

61. pavk> – Fire 83. iv¹> – Obstacle


62. àatraz> – Breakfast 84. ivzal> – Big
63. ANtk> – Yama 85. Vyayam> – Exercise
64. bal> – Boy 86. zail> – Paddy
65. ÉKt> – Devotee 87. zakiqk> – Cart-man
66. Éq> – Soldier 88. izzu> – Child
Textbook 19

89. zMÉu> – Lord Çiva 92. har> – Garland

90. sr> – Tank 93. hIrk> – Diamond

91. SkNx> – Shoulder

More Feminine Gender Nouns


1. AqvI – Forest 20. ÉayaR – Wife
2. Aaza – Desire 21. mhI – Earth
3. kNya – Girl 22. mala – Garland
4. ktRrI – Scissor 23. m&;a – Falsehood
5. k…iÂka – Key 24. m&iÄka – Clay
6. kaEmudI – Moonlight 25. mexa – Memory
7. "{qa – Bell 26. lúmI – Lakñmé
8. icNta – Worry 27. vaihnI – Army
9. cUfa – Crest 28. vataR – News
10. jnnI – Mother 29. iv*a – Knowledge
11. devta – Goddess 30. vIwI – Street
12. xra – Earth 31. vedna – Pain
13. xaÇI – Nurse 32. zkRra – Sugar
14. narI – Woman 33. zv›rI – Night
15. nasa – Nose 34. zaoa – Branch
16. naEka – Boat 35. zu{fa – Trunk
17. pTnI – Wife 36. sÉa – Assembly
18. piÇka – Letter 37. Sp&ha – Desire
19. peiqka – Box
20 Sulabha Saàskåtam

More Neuter Gender Nouns


1. A]rm! – Alphabet 23. gaÇm! – Body

2. Aijnm! – Deer-skin 24. gaepurm! – Tower

3. AMbrm! – Sky 25. "&tm! – Ghee

4. An&tm! – Falsehood 26. icÇm! – Picture

5. AXyynm! – Study 27. c³m! – Wheel

6. Aannm! – Face 28. DÇm! – Umbrella

7. AaÉr[m! – Ornament 29. iDÔm! – Hole

8. %Ärm! – Answer 30. jQrm! – Belly

9. %*anm! – Garden 31. tqakm! – Lake

10. %drm! – Stomach 32. t&[m! – Grass

11. %pvnm! – Garden 33. taeym! – Water

12. Aaednm! – Cooked rice 34. ÊGxm! – Milk

13. AaE;xm! – Medicine 35. xnm! – Wealth

14. kgRlm! – Paper 36. xaNym! – Grain

15. kNdm! – Root 37. xEyRm! – Courage

16. klÇm! – Wife 38. n]Çm! – Star

17. klevrm! – Body 39. nynm! – Eye

18. kmRg&hm! – Work-place 40. nIfm! – Nest

19. kaVym! – Poetry 41. ngrm! – City

20. k…{flm! – Earring 42. pdm! – Step

21. kaEzlm! – Skill 43. pÃrm! – Cage

22. kaeqrm! – Hollow of a 44. p[Rm! – Leaf


tree
45. paÇm! – Vessel
Textbook 21

46. patkm! – Sin 58. vSÇm! – Dress


47. pu:pm! – Flower 59. ivñm! – World
48. )lm! – Fruit 60. zkqm! – Cart
49. bNxnm! – Bondage 61. zakm! – Vegetable
50. Évnm! – House 62. sahsm! – Bravery
51. mULym! – Price 63. saepanm! – Step, stairs
52. maedkm! – Sweet ball 64. SvCDm! – Clean
53. yaejnm! – 8 miles 65. ihmm! – Snow
54. llaqm! – Forehead 66. ]Irm! – Milk
55. lv[m! – Salt 67. ]eÇm! – Field
56. laecnm! – Eye 68. }anm! – Knowledge
57. vdnm! – Face

³
)lain – Fruits
1. kdlI)lm! – Banana 6. Anans)lm! – Pineapple

2. nar¼)lm! – Orange 7. daifm)lm! – Pomegranate

3. inMbUk)lm! – Lemon 8. bhubIj)lm! – Guava

4. Ôa]a)lm! – Grape 9. Aaè)lm! – Mango

5. pns)lm! – Jackfruit

³
m&ga> – Animals
1. xen>u – Cow 4. majaRr> – Cat
2. k…Kk…r> – Dog 5. is<h> – Lion
3. gj> – Elephant 6. vanr> – Monkey
22 Sulabha Saàskåtam

7. mU;k> – Rat 12. zz> – Rabbit

8. Vyaº> – Tiger 13. gdRÉ> – Donkey

9. %:q+> – Camel 14. vrah> – Pig

10. hir[> – Deer 15. z&gal> – Fox

11. ÉLlUk> – Bear 16. v&k> – Wolf

pi][> – Birds
1. h<s> – Swan 7. k…Kk…qI – Hen

2. myUr> – Peacock 8. kpaet> – Dove

3. kaeikl> – Cuckoo 9. %lUk> – Owl

4. zuk> – Parrot 10. bk> – Crane

5. kak> – Crow 11. cqk> – Sparrow

6. k…Kk…q> – Cock

àai[n> – (Other) Living Beings


1. m{fUk> – Frog 7. g&hgaeixka – House lizard

2. mTSy> – Fish 8. v&iík> – Scorpion

3. kªmR> – Tortoise 9. mi]ka – Fly

4. mkr> – Crocodile 10. mzk> – Mosquito

5. spR> – Snake 11. mxukr> – Honeybee

6. kkRq> – Crab 12. ippIilka – Ant

v[aR> – Colours
1. k«:[> – Black 2. ñet> – White
Textbook 23

3. pIt> – Yellow 6. paql> – Rose

4. hirt> – Green 7. nIl> – Blue

5. k;ay> – Orange 8. rKt> – Red

v&]a> – Trees
1. Aaèv&]> – Mango tree 5. vqv&]> – Banyan tree

2. talv&]> – Palm tree 6. AZvTwv&]> – Peepal tree

3. pnsv&]> – Jack tree 7. nairkelv&]> – Coconut tree

4. kdlIv&]> – Banana tree

zrIrSy A¼ain – Parts of the Body


1. izr> – Head 8. hSt> – Hand

2. neÇm! – Eye 9. A¼‚lI – Finger

3. ïaeÇm! – Ear 10. no> – Nail

4. naiska – Nose 11. k{Q> – Neck

5. muom! – Mouth 12. %drm! – Belly

6. dNt> – Teeth 13. ^é> – Thigh

7. ijþa – Tongue 14. pad> – Leg

pu:pai[ – Flowers
1. kmlm! – Lotus 4. miLlka – Jasmine
2. jpak…summ! – Hibiscus 5. sUyRkaiNt> – Sunflower
3. gulavpu:pm! – Rose

³
24 Sulabha Saàskåtam

rsa> – Tastes
1. mxur> – Sweet 4. AMl> – Sour

2. k;ay> – Astringent 5. itKt> – Bitter

3 . kqu> – Pungent 6. lv[> – Salty

idza> – Directions
1. %Ära – North 3. piZcma – West

2. pUvaR – East 4. di][a – South

vasra> – Days
1. rivvasr> – Sunday 5. guévasr> – Thursday

2. saemvasr> – Monday 6. zu³vasr> – Friday

3 . m¼lvasr> – Tuesday 7. zinvasr> – Saturday

4. buxvasr> – Wednesday

vahnain – Vehicles
1. kar!yanm! – Car 5. iÇci³ka – Auto

2. zkqm! – Cart 6. naEka – Boat

3 . ivmanm! – Aeroplane 7. mhanaEka – Ship

4. laekyanm! – Bus

g&hm! – House
1. iÉiÄ> – Wall 3. #iòka – Brick

2. Did> – Roof 4. vataynm! – Window


Textbook 25

5. kvaqm! – Door 7. Öarm! – Entrance

6. saepanm! – Steps 8. %pvnm! – Garden

k…qMu b> – Family


1. ipta – Father 5. A¢ja – Elder sister

2. mata – Mother 6. A¢j> – Elder brother

3 . Anuj> – Younger brother 7. iptamh> – (Paternal)


Grandfather

4. Anuja – Younger sister 8. iptamhI – (Paternal)


Grandmother

iv*aly> - School
1. AXyapk> – Teacher (M) 7. k«:[)lkm! – Blackboard

2. AXyaipka – Teacher (F) 8. puStkm! – Book

3 . DaÇ> – Student (M) 9. A]rm! – Letter, syllable

4. DaÇa – Student (F) 10. A»nI – Pencil

5. %TpIiqka – Table 11. leonI – Pen

6. AasNd> – Chair

\tu – Season
1. hemNt> – Winter 4. ¢I:m> – Summer

2. izizr> – Cold season 5. v;aR – Rainy season

3. vsNt> – Spring 6. zrt! – Autumn

³
26 Sulabha Saàskåtam

mas> – Month
1. magRzI;R> 7. Jyeó>
2. paE;> 8. Aa;aF>
3. ma"> 9. ïav[>
4. )aLgun> 10. ÉaÔpd>

5. cEÇ> 11. Aaiñn>

6. vEzao> 12. kaiÄRk>


Textbook 27
AVyyain
Indeclinables

Words that remain unchanged in all numbers, cases and genders are known as
’indeclinables’ (avyaya).

1. AÇ – Here 21. %CcEStrm! – Loudly

2. tÇ – There 22. tU[m


R ! – Speedily

3. Ax> – Down 23. A* – Today

4. %pir – Above 24. àitidnm! – Every day

5. pUvm
› ! – Before 25. inTyz> – Daily

6. AxStat! – Below 26. ý> – Yesterday

7. A¢t> – In front of 27. prý> – The day before

8. purStat! – Before yesterday

9. p&ót> – Behind 28. ñ> – Tomorrow

10. àat> – Morning 29. prñ> – The day after

11. saym! – Evening tomorrow

12. idva – Day 30. ta†zm! – Like that

13. nKtm! – Night 31. tdanIm! – Then

14. mNdm! – Slowly 32. Aip – Also

15. zIºm! – Quickly 33. A* – Today

16. shsa – Suddenly 34. ikNtu – But

17. sTvrm! – Immediately 35. prNtu – But

18. prm! – After 36. ywa - twa – As – so

19. s*> – Instantly 37. yid - tihR – If – so


20. pura – In the olden days 38. k…Ç – Where
28 Sulabha Saàskåtam

39. kda – When 58. AtIv – Very much

40. #danIm! – Now 59. àaye[ – Mostly

41. kwm! – How 60. @vm! – Thus

42. kit – How many 61. @kda – Once


43. ikyt! – How much 62. kdaict! – Once
44. ikimit – Why 63. Alm! – Enough
45. ikmut – Whether 64. ma – Don't
46. kId¯zm! – Of what kind 65. va – Or
47. ivna – Without 66. olu – Certainly
48. #it – Thus 67. ANtralm! – Between
49. #v – Like 68. intram! – Entirely
50. #h – Here 69. É&zm! – Often
51. pun> – Again 70. tt> – Then
52. sda – Always 71. tt> àÉ&it – Since then
53. sNttm! – Always 72. Axuna – Now
54. sMyk! – Good, well 73. muhUtRm! – Awhile
55. kwÂn – By any means 74. sh – With
56. smNtt> – All around 75. kiít! – Someone
57. Anekz> – Many times, 76. svRt> – From every side
many ways
Textbook 29
i³yapd< lkaraí
Verbs and Tenses

There are about 2200 verb roots (dhätu) in Sanskrit. These roots are classified
into three types – (1) parasmaipada (2) ätmanepada and (3) ubhayapada.
Ubhayapada has not been dealt with in this book.

xatv>

prSmEpdI AaTmnepdI

‘Parasmai’ means ‘for other’ and ‘ätmane’ means ‘for oneself’. Thus, when
actions are done for others’ sake, parasmaipadé roots are used. And, when the
actions are done for one's own sake, ätmanepadé roots are used. This
differentiation is mainly to indicate the intention of the doer. Please note that
this rule is not followed presently in Sanskrit.
Parasmaipadé is dealt in detail while ätmanepadé is dealt briefly at the end
of the course.
The verbal root is termed ‘dhätu’. It is used to form the 'verbal base'. Many
examples for verbal root and verb base have been given in the next two pages.
You may notice that some verbal roots change completely when they become
verbal bases.

³
30 Sulabha Saàskåtam

S.No Verb Roots Verb Base Meaning


1. ÉU Év Be
2. Aq! Aq Wander
3. AcR! AcR Worship
4. k«;! k;R Plough
5. ³If! ³If Play
6. oad! oad Eat
7. gm! gCD Go
8. gjR! gjR Roar
9. gE gay Sing
10. cr! cr Move
11. cl! cl Move
12. jp! jp Chant
13. jLp! jLp Blabber
14. ij jy Conquer
15. jIv! jIv Live
16. Jvl! Jvl Shine
17. tp! tp Heat
18. Tyj! Tyj Abandon
19. dz! dz Bite
20. dh! dh Burn
21. da yCD Give
22. †z! pZy See
23. nq! nq Dance
24. nm! nm Salute
25. nNd! nNd Glad
Textbook 31

26. inNd! inNd Criticise


27. pQ! pQ Read
28. pt! pt Fall
29. pa ipb Drink
30. bux! baex Know
31. æm! æm Roam
32. r]! r] Protect
33. vd! vd Speak
34. zuc! zaec Grieve
35. xav! xav Run
36. Swa itó Stand
37. hs! hs Laugh
38. muc! mu Liberate
39. ivd! ivNd Get
40. vs! vs Live
41. isc! is Sprinkle
42. ivz! ivz Enter
43. iml! iml Meet
44. kw! kwy Tell
45. g[! g[y Count
46. icNt! icNty Think
47. tf! tafy Beat
48. d{f! d{fy Punish
49. pUj! pUjy Worship
50. É]! É]y Eat

³
32 Sulabha Saàskåtam

4.1. dz-lkara> – Ten Lakäras

Each of the verb root has ten ‘lakäras’ (daça-lakäräù). Of these ten lak äras, six
indicate tenses (kälaväcakäù) and four indicate moods (prakära-bodhakäù).
Besides the ten lakäras, there is one more lakära which is called leq! . This is
used only in the Vedas, and is termed 'Vedic Subjunctive'.
³

4.1.1 ;q!-kalvacka> – Six Tenses

Out of the six tenses, there is only one type in the present tense, three varia-
tions for past tense, and two variations for the future tense.
Let us take the root ÉU (Év) and see the variations:

Six Tenses Example


1 lqœ vtRman> Present Évit

2 l'! An*tnÉUt> Past Tense (Imperfect) AÉvt!

3 lu'! ÉUt> Past Tense (Aorist) AÉUt!

4 ilqœ prae]ÉUt> Past Tense (Perfect) bÉUv

5 luqœ An*tnÉiv:yt! First Future Éivta

6 l&qœ Éiv:yt! Second Future Éiv:yit

To explain further:
1. In ‘vartamäna’ (present tense), Év becomes Évit.
Textbook 33

We will now see the three variations of past tense:


2. In ‘anadyatana-bhüta’ (past imperfect tense), Év becomes AÉvt! . This
indicates ‘not today’ meaning, something that happened the previous day or
before that.
3. In ‘bhüta’ (past tense), Év becomes AÉUt! . This indicates the immediate
past.
4. In ‘parokña-bhüta’ (past perfect tense), Év becomes bÉUv. This indicates the
historical past.
In the same way we have two variations of future tense:
5. In ‘anadyatana-bhaviñyat’ (first future), Év becomes Éivta. This indicates
'not today'. It could be the next day or any time in the distant future.
6. In ‘bhaviñyat’ (second future), Év becomes Éiv:yit. This indicates the
general future (could be immediate or distant).

Now let us go through the terminations of the three basic tenses: (1) present
(2) future and (3) past. Even though, as mentioned before, there are three
variations in the past tense and two variations in the future tense, we will be
studying only one from each of the past tense and future tense.
There are nine terminations for each of the lakäras. The different
terminations indicate the different person and number (Refer to Chapter 5).
The verb base pQ is taken as an example here (see next page) to illustrate
the terminations taken by the verb in the present, future and the past tenses.
34 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Present Future Past


lq! ¤q! l'!

it t> AiNt it t> AiNt t! ta< n!


#:y
is w> w or is w> w A A t< t
Aaim Aav> Aam> Sy Aaim Aav> Aam> Am! Aav Aam

pQit pQt> pQiNt piQ:yit piQ:yt> piQ:yiNt ApQt! ApQta< ApQn!

pQis pQw> pQw piQ:yis piQ:yw> piQ:yw ApQ> ApQt< ApQt

pQaim pQav> pQam> piQ:yaim piQ:yav> piQ:yam> ApQm! ApQav ApQam

Present tense verbal form : Verb base + Termination


Future tense verbal form : Verb base + #:y//S
/ y + Termination
Past tense verbal form : A + Verb base + Termination
³

4.1.2 cTvar> àkarbaexka - Four Moods

Four Moods Example


1 laeq! Aa}a Imperative Évtu
2 ivixil'! ivix> Potential Évet!
3 AazIilR'! AazI> Benedictive ÉUyat!
4 ¤'! i³yaitpiÄ> (s»et>) Conditional AÉiv:yt!

Out of four moods (catväraù prakärabodhakäù), we will only be studying the


terminations of two important moods – the imperative and potential moods.
There are nine terminations for each of these moods. Just as in the tenses,
Textbook 35

here too, there are different terminations to indicate the different person and
number.
The verb base pQ is taken for illustration.

Imperative Potential
laeq! il'!

tu tam! ANtu $t! $tam! $yu>


- tm! t $> $tm! $t
Aain Aav Aam $ym! $v $m

pQtu pQtam! pQNtu pQet! pQetam! pQey>u


pQ pQtm! pQt pQe> pQetm! pQet
pQain pQav pQam pQeym! pQev pQem
36 Sulabha Saàskåtam
pué;> vcn< c
Person and Number

In Sanskrit, just as in many other languages like English, there are three persons
( puruñäù ) . They are: (1) àwmpu é ;> – Third person, (2) mXympu é ;> –
Second person and (3) %Ämpué;> – First person.
Sanskrit permits three numbers : (1) @kvcnm! - Singular, (2) iÖvcnm! – Dual
and (3) b÷vcnm! – Plural.
The dual number is unique to Sanskrit.

@kvcnm! iÖvcnm! bhuvcnm!


Singular Dual Plural

s> – He taE – They two te – They all


àwm­pué;>
III Person
sa – She te – They two ta> – They all
tt! – It te – They two tain – They all

mXym­pué;>
Tvm! – You yuvam! – You two yUym! – You all
II Person

%Äm­pué;> Ahm! – I Aavam! – We two vym! – We all


I Person

Please note that the verbal terminations depend on the person, number and
tense/mood.
Textbook 37

The present tense verbal formations for the various persons and numbers have
been indicated below with the example of the verb pQ.

@kvcnm! iÖvcnm! bhuvcnm!

àwm­pué;> pQit pQt> pQiNt


mXym­pué;> pQis pQw> pQw
%Äm­pué;> pQaim pQav> pQam>
38 Sulabha Saàskåtam
l"uvaKyain
Simple Sentences

Simple sentences can be formed using person, number and verb terminations.

s> taE te
pQit pQt> pQiNt
sa te ta>
tt! te tain
+ pQis pQw> pQw
Tvm! yuvam! yUym!

Ahm! Aavam! vym! pQaim pQav> pQam>

³
III Person

s> taE te
sa pQit te pQt> ta> pQiNt
tt! te tain
³

s> pQit, taE pQt>, te pQiNt,


He reads. They (two) read. They (all) read.

sa pQit, te pQt>, ta> pQiNt,


She reads. They (two) read. They (all) read.

tt! pQit, te pQt>, tain pQiNt,


It reads. They (two) read. They (all) read.

³
Textbook 39

II Person
Tv< pQis, yuva< pQw>, yUy< pQw,
You read. You (two) read. You (all) read.

I Person
Ah< pQaim, Aava< pQav>, vy< pQam>,
I read. We (two) read. We (all) read.

6.1 Formation o f Simple Sentences

III Person

s>
sa
tt!
ipbit

taE
te ]Irm! ipbt>
te
ipbiNt
te
ta>
tain

s> ]Ir< ipbit, taE ]Ir< ipbt>, te ]Ir< ipbiNt,

sa ]Ir< ipbit, te ]Ir< ipbt>, ta> ]Ir< ipbiNt,

tt! ]Ir< ipbit, te ]Ir< ipbt>, tain ]Ir< ipbiNt,


40 Sulabha Saàskåtam

II Person

Tvm! gCDis

yuvam! devalym! gCDw>

yUym! gCDw

Tv< devaly< gCDis,


yuva< devaly< gCDw>,
yUy< devaly< gCDw,
³

I Person

Ahm! pQaim

Aavam! s<Sk«tm! pQav>

vym! pQam>

Ah< s<Sk«t< pQaim,


Aava< s<Sk«t< pQav>,
vy< s<Sk«t< pQam>,

³
Textbook 41

6.2 More Simple Sentences

1. s> k>, Who is he ?

2. s> iz]k>, He is a tutor.

3. s> AixkarI, He is an officer.

4. taE kaE, Who are they (two)?

5. taE AXyapkaE, They (two) are teachers.

6. taE cturaE, They (two) are clever.

7. te ke, Who are they ?

8. te yuvka>, They are youth.

9. te icÇkara>, They are artists.

10. te balka>, They are boys.

11. sa ka, Who is she?

12. sa gIta, She is Gétä.

13. sa lta, That is a creeper.

14. te ke, Who are they (two)? (F)

15. te bailke, They (two) are girls.

16. te g&ih{yaE, They (two) are housewives.

17. ta> ka>, Who are they? (F)

18. ta> seivka>, They are servants. (F)

19. ta> v&˜a>, They are old ladies.


42 Sulabha Saàskåtam

20. ta> nayR>, They are ladies.

21. tt! ikm! , What is that?

22. tt! )lm!, That is a fruit.

23. tt! g&hm!, That is a house.

24. te ke , What are they (two)?

25. te pu:pe, Those (two) are flowers.

26. te kaVye, They (two) are epics.

27. tain kain, What are they?

28. tain AaÉr[ain, Those are ornaments.

29. tain %Ärai[, They are answers.

30. tain kaVyain, They are poems.

31. Tv< k> Who are you? (M)

32. Tv< DaÇ>, You are a student. (M)

33. Tv< DaÇa, You are a student. (F)

34. Tv< imÇm!, You are a friend.

35. yuva< É&TyaE, You (two) are servants.

36. yuva< kNye, You (two) are maidens.

37. yuva< imÇe, You (two) are friends.

38. yUy< kinóa>, You (all) are young.

39. Tv< DaÇ> va, Are you a student? (M)


Textbook 43

40. Aam! Ah< DaÇ>, Yes, I am a student. (M)

41. Ah< vE*>, I am a doctor. (M)

42. Ahm! AXyaipka, I am a teacher. (F)

43. Aava< rjkaE, We (two) are washermen.

44. Aava< g&ih{yaE, We (two) are housewives.

45. Aava< imÇe, We (two) are friends.

46. vym! AXyapka>, We are teachers. (M)

47. vy< xmaRcayaR>, We are teachers of Dharma.

48. vy< imÇai[, We are friends.

49. Ah< saxRsPtvadne iv*aly< gCDaim, I go to school at 7.30.

50. AXyapk> kda AagCDit, When does the teacher come?

51. kda paQzalaya> AarMÉ>, When does the school start?

52. svaRn! pZytu, Look at everybody.

53. Tv< k…Ç gCDis? Where do you go?

54. mnu:y> k…Ç AiSt, Where is the man?

55. )l< kSmat! ptit, Where does the fruit fall from?

56. sUy>R kda %deit, When does the sun rise?

57. miNdr< k…Ç AiSt, Where is the temple?

58. AcRk> ikmw›< miNdr< gCDit, Why does the priest go to the

temple?
44 Sulabha Saàskåtam

59. ram> iv*aly< gCDit, Räma goes to the school.

60. Tviy mm Sneh> Aixk>, I love you a lot.

61. s> mm g&hm! AagCDit, He comes to my house.

62. Ah< svRda ÉvNt< Smraim, I always remember you.

63. Ah< sTy< vdaim, I speak the truth.

64. ma< tÇ n àe;ytu, Do not send me there.

65. miy ivñas< kraet,


u Have faith in me.

66. ramSy shaedr> saem>, Räma’s brother is Soma.

67. Évan! paQ< pQit, You read the lesson. (M)

68. ÉvtI itlk< xrit, You bear a tilak. (F)


³

69. Ah< mXyaûe Éaejn< kraeim, I eat in the afternoon.

70. s> àat> %iÄ:Qit, He gets up in the morning.

71. balk> say< ³Ifit, Boy plays in the evening.

72. Ah< zaekkale n pQaim, I don't study when I am sad.

73. s> kayaRly< gCDit, He goes to the office.

74. Ah< bailka AiSm, I am a girl.

75. Ah< xIr> AiSm, I am brave.

76. Ah< inpu[a AiSm, I am skilled. (F)

77. Ahm! AXyapk> AiSm, I am a teacher.

78. prI]a prñ> Éiv:yit, The exam will be the day after
tomorrow.
Textbook 45

79. balk> puStk< pQit, The boy reads the book.

80. Aar]k> caer< tafyit, The policeman beats the thief.

81. )lm! AÇ ptit, The fruit falls here.

82. iz:y> àZn< p&CDit, The disciple asks a question.

83. sa jl< nyit, She carries water.

84. vE*> AaE;x< yCDit, The doctor gives medicine.

85. gaiyka gIt< gayit, The singer sings a song. (F)

86. sIta vn< gCDit, Sétä goes to forest.

87. gayk> gIt< gayit, The singer sings a song. (M)

88. DaÇ> %Ärai[ Smrit, The student remembers the

answers.

89. balk> icÇ< pZyit, The boy sees the picture.

90. ÉKt> devta< nmit, The devotee worships the Lord.

91. izzu> hsit, The child laughs.

92. sa vSÇà]aln< kraeit, She washes cloth.

93. k«:[> vsudv


e Sy puÇ>, Kåñëa is the son of Vasudeva.

94. devkI k«:[Sy jnnI, Devaké is the mother of Kåñëa.

95. ram> ÉrtSy A¢j>, Räma is the elder brother of Bharata.

96. ram> AyaeXyaya> n&p>, Räma is the king of Ayodhyä.


46 Sulabha Saàskåtam

97. lúm[> ramSy Anuj>, Lakñmaëa is the younger brother

of Räma.

98. g¼a ihmalyat! àvhit, Gaìgä flows from the Himälayas.

6.3 Sentences from the Upaniñads and the Bhagavad Gétä


1. sTy< vd, Speak the truth.

2. xm›< cr, Walk on the path of Dharma.

3. mat&dv
e ae Év, Worship mother as God.

4. ipt&dv
e ae Év, Worship father as God.

5. Aacay›dv
e aee Év, Worship teacher as God.

6. Aitiwdevae Év, Worship guest as God.

7. sTymev jyte n An&tm!, Truth alone wins, not untruth.

8. tSmat! %iÄó Éart, Therefore get up, O Bhärata!

9. n AnuzaeciNt pi{fta>, The wise never grieve.

10. tan! itit]Sv Éart, Endure them, O Bhärata!

11. n Anuzaeictum! AhRis, You should not grieve.

12. smTv< yaeg %Cyte, Evenness of mind is called ‘yoga’.

13. kmRi[ @v Aixkar> te, Your right is to work only.

14. yaeg> kmRsu kaEzlm!, Skill in action is ‘yoga’.


Textbook 47

15. bui˜nazat! à[Zyit, Man perishes from the destruction

of his intellect.

16. k«p[a> )lhetv>, Wretched are they whose motive

is the ‘fruit’.

17. muKts¼> smacr, Free from all attachments, act!

18. tSy kay›< n iv*te, He does not have any duty.

19. yuXySv ivgtJvr>, Free from feverish excitement,

fight!

20. %iÄót ja¢t, Arise! Awake!

21. àk«it< yaiNt ÉUtain, Living beings follow their own

nature.

22. ghna kmR[ae git>, The nature of karma is

imponderable.

23. ï˜avan! lÉte }anm!, The man of faith obtains

knowledge.

24. y> pZyit s pZyit, He who sees, sees.

25. pi{fta> smdizRn>, Sages look at everything

impartially.

26. SvÉavStu àvt›t,


e It is nature that acts.

27. %˜ret! AaTmna AaTmanm!, Lift yourself by yourself.

28. AaTma @v AaTmnae bNxu>, Self alone is the friend of oneself.


48 Sulabha Saàskåtam

29. AaTma @v irpu> AaTmn>, One oneself is the enemy of oneself.

30. mm maya durTyya, My illusion is difficult to crossover.

31. mamnuSmr yuXy c, Remember me and fight.

32. n me ÉKt> à[Zyit, My devotee never perishes.

33. sm> Ah< svRÉt


U ;
e ,
u I am equal to all.

34. yaeg]em< vhaim Ahm!, I bestow yoga and kñema.

35. ddaim bui˜yaeg< tm!, I give him the ‘buddhi-yoga’.

36. mam! @k< zr[< ìj, Take refuge in me alone.

37. kir:ye vcn< tv, I will act according to your word.

38. tSmat! zaSÇ< àma[< te, Therefore let the scriptures be your

authority.

39. SvxmRe inxn< ïey>, Death while in one’s own duty is

meritorious.

40. inimÄmaÇ< Év sVysaicn!, O left handed archer! Be an

instrument.
Textbook 49
zBd> ivÉiKtí
Nouns and Cases

We have already studied the following:


(1) Masculine Nouns usually end with A>, #> and %>
(2) Feminine Nouns usually end with Aa and $ and
(3) Neuter Nouns usually end with Am! .

zBda>
Nouns

puiLl¼> SÇIil¼> npus


< kil¼>
Masculine Nouns Feminine Nouns Neuter Nouns

ram> muin> gué> lta ndI )lm!

7.1 Declension of Nouns


The term ‘declension’ means the various forms taken by a noun in the various
cases and numbers. We shall be presently studying the declension of the nouns
belonging to the three genders.
In Sanskrit, there are seven cases and one vocative.

³
50 Sulabha Saàskåtam

7.1.1 AkaraNt> puiu Ll¼> ram-zBd>

Case Singular Dual Plural

I (subject) ram> ramaE rama>

II (to, object) ramm! ramaE raman!

III (with, by) rame[ rama_yam! ramE>

IV (for) ramay rama_yam! rame_y>


V (from, than) ramat! rama_yam! rame_y>
VI (of) ramSy ramyae> rama[am!
VII (in, on) rame ramyae> rame;u
Vocative he ram he ramaE he rama>

Application of cases in ram-zBd>

ramae rajmi[> sda ivjyte ram< rmez< -je


rame[ AiÉhta inzacrcmU> ramay tSmE nm>,
ramat! naiSt pray[< prtr< ramSy dasae=SMyhm!
rame icÄly> sda Évtu me Éae ram mamuÏr.
Victory to Räma, the best of the kings. I worship Räma, the lord of Sétä. Armies
of the demons were killed by Räma. Salutations to the Räma. There is no
better resort than Räma. I am a servant of Räma. May my mind be absorbed
in Räma. Oh! Räma, protect me.

³
Textbook 51

AkaraNt> puiu Ll¼> k«:[-zBd>

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) k«:[> k«:[aE k«:[a>
II (to, object) k«:[m! k«:[aE k«:[an!
III (with, by) k«:[en k«:[a_yam! k«:[E>
IV (for) k«:[ay k«:[a_yam! k«:[e_y>
V (from, than) k«:[at! k«:[a_yam! k«:[e_y>
VI (of) k«:[Sy k«:[yae> k«:[anam!
VII (in, on) k«:[e k«:[yae> k«:[e;u
Vocative he k«:[ he k«:[aE he k«:[a>

Application of cases in k«:[-zBd>

k«:[ae r]tu nae jgTÇygué> k«:[< nmSyaMyhm!


k«:[en AmrzÇvae ivinhta> k«:[ay tSmE nm>,
k«:[at! @v smuiTwt< jgidd< k«:[Sy dasae=SMyhm!
k«:[e itóit sv›mte diol< he k«:[ r]Sv mam!.
May Kåñëa, the teacher of the three worlds protect us. I salute Kåñëa. The
demons who are enemies of Gods are killed by Kåñëa. Salutations to that Kåñëa.
This world has sprung from Kåñëa alone. I am the servant of Kåñëa. All this
entirely stays in Kåñëa. O Kåñëa, save me!

Decline the following nouns.


1. dev> – God
2. nr> – Man
52 Sulabha Saàskåtam

3 . Aj> – Goat
4. gj> – Elephant
5. d{f> – Stick
6. rw> – Chariot
7. dIp> – Lamp
8. pvRt> – Hill

7.1.2 #karaNt> puiu Ll¼> muin-zBd> (Sage)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) muin> munI muny>
II (to, object) muinm! munI munIn!
III (with, by) muinna muin_yam! muiniÉ>
IV (for) munye muin_yam! muin_y>
V (from, than) mun>e muin_yam! muin_y>
VI (of) mun>e muNyae> munInam!
VII (in, on) munaE muNyae> muin;u
VIII (vocative) he mune he munI he muny>

Decline the following nouns.


1. Air> – Enemy
2. kiv> – Poet
3 . pit> – Leader
4. Ai¶> – Fire
5. hir> – Lord Viñëu

³
Textbook 53

7.1.3 %karaNt> puiu Ll¼> gué-zBd> (Teacher)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) gué> guê gurv>
II (to, object) guém! guê guên!
III (with, by) gué[a gué_yam! guéiÉ>
IV (for) gurve gué_yam! gué_y>
V (from, than) gurae> gué_yam! gué_y>
VI (of) gurae> guvaeR> guê[am!
VII (in, on) guraE guvaeR> gué;u
VIII (vocative) he gurae he guê he gurv>

Decline the following nouns.


1. zMÉu> – Lord Çiva
2. irpu> – Enemy
3 . #NÊ> – Moon
4. té> – Tree
5. ivxu> – Moon
6. iv:[u> – Lord Viñëu
7. meé> – Mount Sumeru
8. \tu> – Season
9. bNxu> – Relative
10. àÉu> – Lord or master

³
54 Sulabha Saàskåtam

7.1.4 AakaraNt> SÇIil¼> lta-zBd> (Creeper)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) lta lte lta>
II (to, object) ltam! lte lta>
III (with, by) ltya lta_yam! ltaiÉ>
IV (for) ltayE lta_yam! lta_y>
V (from, than) ltaya> lta_yam! lta_y>
VI (of) ltaya> ltyae> ltanam!
VII (in, on) ltayam! ltyae> ltasu
VIII (vocative) he ltee he lte he lta>

Decline the following nouns.

1. icNta – Worry, thought


2. Daya – Shade
3 . mala – Garland
4. iv*a – Education, knowledge, learning
5. peiqka – Box
6. suxa – Nectar
7. rsna – Tongue
8. ippIilka – Ant
9. naEka – Boat
10. naiska – Nose

³
Textbook 55

7.1.5 $karaNt> SÇIil¼> ndI-zBd> (River)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) ndI n*aE n*>
II (to, object) ndIm! n*aE ndI>
III (with, by) n*a ndI_yam! ndIiÉ>
IV (for) n*E ndI_yam! ndI_y>
V (from, than) n*a> ndI_yam! ndI_y>
VI (of) n*a> n*ae> ndInam!
VII (in, on) n*am! n*ae> ndI;u
VIII (vocative) he nid he n*aE he n*>

Decline the following nouns.

1. devI – Goddess
2. mhI – Earth
3 . gaErI – Parvaté
4. narI – Woman
5. leonI – Pen
6. jnnI – Mother
7. mNdaiknI – Hevenly Gangas
8. ÿaidnI – Thunder-bolt
9. pavRtI – Consort of Lord Çiva
10. lúmI – Consort of Lord Viñëu

³
56 Sulabha Saàskåtam

7.1.6 AkaraNt> npus


< kil¼> )l-zBd> (Fruit)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) )lm! )le )lain
II (to, object) )lm! )le )lain
III (with, by) )len )la_yam! )lE>
IV (for) )lay )la_yam! )le_y>
V (from, than) )lat! )la_yam! )le_y>
VI (of) )lSy )lyae> )lanam!
VII (in, on) )le )lyae> )le;u
VIII (vocative) he )l he )le he )lain

Decline the following nouns.


1. AÚm! – Food
2. kaVym! – Poetry
3 . xnm! – Wealth
4. pu:pm! – Flower
5. }anm! – Knowledge
6. ]eÇm! – Field
7. laecnm! – Eye
8. lv[m! – Salt
9. ]Irm! – Milk
10. Évnm! – House

³
Textbook 57

7.2 Declension of Pronouns – sarvanäma-çabdaù

svRnam­zBda>

àwm­pué;> mXym­pué;> %Äm­pué;>

s> sa td! yu:mdœ ASmdœ


He She It (That) You I

7.2.1 dkaraNt> puiu Ll¼> td!-zBd> (He)

Case Singular Dual Plural

I (subject) s> taE te

II (to, object) tm! taE tan!

III (with, by) ten ta_yam! tE>


IV (for) tSmE ta_yam! te_y>
V (from, than) tSmat! ta_yam! te_y>
VI (of) tSy tyae> te;am!
VII (in, on) tiSmn! tyae> te;u

³
58 Sulabha Saàskåtam

7.2.2 dkaraNt> ôIil¼> td!-zBd> (She)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) sa te ta >
II (to, object) tam! te ta>
III (with, by) tya ta_yam! taiÉ>
IV (for) tSyE ta_yam! ta_y>
V (from, than) tSya> ta_yam! ta_y>
VI (of) tSya> tyae> tasam!
VII (in, on) tSyam! tyae> tasu

7.2.3 dkaraNt> npus


< kil¼> td!-zBd> (That)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) tt! te tain
II (to, object) tt! te tain
III (with, by) ten ta_yam! tE>
IV (for) tSmE ta_yam! te_y>
V (from, than) tSmat! ta_yam! te_y>
VI (of) tSy tyae> te;am!
VII (in, on) tiSmn! tyae> te;u

³
Textbook 59

7.2.4 dkaraNt> yu:md!-zBd> (You)


(Same in all the three genders)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) Tvm! yuvam! yUym!
II (to, object) Tvam!­Tva yuvam!­vam! yu:man!­v>
III (with, by) Tvya yuva_yam! yu:maiÉ>
IV( for) tu_ym!­te yuva_yam!­vam! yu:m_ym!­v>
V (from, than) Tvt! yuva_yam! yu:mt!
VI (of ) tv­te yuvyae>­vam! yu:makm!­v>
VII (in, on) Tviy yuvyae> yu:masu

7.2.5 dkaraNt> ASmd!-zBd> ( I )


(Same in all the three genders)

Case Singular Dual Plural


I (subject) Ahm! Aavam! vym!
II (to, object) mam!­ma Aavam!­naE ASman!­n>
III (with, by) mya Aava_yam! ASmaiÉ>
IV (for) mým!­me Aava_yam!­naE ASm_ym!­n>
V (from, than) mt! Aava_yam! ASmt!
VI (of) mm­me Aavyae>­naE ASmakm!­n>
VII (in, on) miy Aavyae> ASmasu

Note: There is no vocative form for pronouns.


60 Sulabha Saàskåtam
%psgaR>
Prefixes

Upasargas or prefixes are added to the verb roots, to modify, intensify and
sometimes to alter the original sense of the roots. Sometimes they are prefixed
without any alteration to the root sense. There are twenty two upasargas in all.
1. à – More, higher
2. pra – Opposite, against
3. Ap – Away, separation
4. sm! – Coincide, congruently
5. Anu – Favourable, after, according to
6. Av – Downwards
7. ins! – Low
8. inr! – Low
9. Ês! – Wicked
10. Êr! – Bad
11. iv – More, opposite, divergent
12. Aa – On this side
13. in – To vacate, to empty
14. Aix – In, on, above, over
15. Aip – Moreover
16. Ait – Very much
17. su – Best
18. %t! – On, above, over
19. AiÉ – In front of
20. àit – Contrary to
21. pir – Everywhere
22. %p – Near, more
Textbook 61

The application of upasarga to verbal roots:


Ait, the upasarga, combines with the verbal root ³m! to become Ait³amit.
Ait + ³m! = Ait³amit – goes beyond.
³
The following is a sample list of verbal formations when the upasarga joins
with the verbal root.

%psgaR>< xatv> Verbal Form Meaning


1. Aix gm! AixgCDit To get
2. Anu k« Anukraeit Imitates
3. Ap nI Apnyit Takes away
4. Aip xa Aipdxait Covers
5. AiÉ gm! AiÉgCDit Goes after
6. Av mn! AvmNyte Disrespects
7. Aa gm! AagCDit Comes
8. %t! gm! %ÌCDit Goes up
9. %p k« %pkraeit Obliges
10. Ês! /Êrœ cr! Êracrit Acts badly
11. inr! idz! inidRzit Commands
12. ins! /inr! gm! ingRCDit Goes out
13. pra ij prajyte Defeats
14. pir xa pirdxait Places all round
15. à ù àhrit Strikes
16. àit k« àitkraeit Acts in opposite
17. iv ³I iv³I[ait Sells
18. sm! ù s<hrit Destroys
19. su k« sukraeit Does well
62 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Note how the meaning of the root ù (to take away) changes when it combines
with various upasargas:
à + ù = àhrit – beats
s< + ù = s<hrit – kills
Aa + ù = Aahrit – brings
iv + ù = ivhrit – plays
pir + ù = pirhrit – removes

Following are the changes effected in the meaning by different upasargas


coming together with the derivatives of root ÉU (to be):

à + ÉU = àÉUtm! – abundant
= àÉv> – birth
= àÉav> – prowess
= àÉu> – lord, husband
pra + ÉU = praÉv> – defeat
Ap + ÉU = ApÉUit> – ruin
sm! + ÉU = sMÉvit – creation
Anu + ÉU = AnuÉv> – experience
iv + ÉU = ivÉv> – wealth
Ait + ÉU = AitÉvnm! – being the greatest of all
%d! + ÉU = %Ñvm!! – birth
pir + ÉU = pirÉvm! – insult

Two or more upasargas may also be combined and prefixed to one


verbal root:
Textbook 63

AiÉ + in + ivz! = AiÉinivzte – to enter into with resolution


sm! + %p + Aa + gm! = smupagCDit – to come into close contact

The following sentences are given as examples to illustrate how the upasargas
are used in constructing sentences:

1. bailka prmeZvrm! A_ycRit, Girl worships the Lord.


2. balk> iv*alyat! AagCDit, Boy comes from the school.
3 . sa jlm! Apnyit, She takes away water.
4. s> Évn< àivzit, He enters the house.
64 Sulabha Saàskåtam
àTyya>
Suffixes

Pratyaya or suffix is added at the end of verbal root to transform the verbal
root into indeclinable, imperfect verb, definite verb, past tense of verb, present
continuous tense of verb and so on.
The following are some important suffixes:

1. tumn
u ! àTyya> 8. zt&

2. KTva 7. Kt

3. Lyp! 6. Ktvt!

4. AnIyr! 5. tVyt!

9.1 tumn
u -
! àTyy>
The suffix tum! is added to the verbs to indicate the purpose of action.
Example: ram> piQtu< iv*aly< gCDit, Räma goes to school in order to study.
Once the tu mu n ! - àTyy is added to the verbal derivative, it becomes an
indeclinable, which means that the word will be the same in all genders, cases
and numbers.
Textbook 65

Here are a few examples:

1. piQtum! – To read 17. vKtum! – To speak

2. ri]tum! – To protect 18. AagNtum! – To come

3. yaictum! – To beg 19. gNtum! – To go

4. g&hItum! – To hold 20. patum! – To drink

5. leiotum! – To write 21. ïaetum! – To hear

6. vistum! – To live 22. htuRm! – To snatch

7. xaivtum! – To run 23. ttuRm! – To cross

8. ivmaeictum! – To release 24. ktuRm! – To do

9. Éivtum! – To become 25. hNtum! – To kill

10. baeixtum! – To teach 26. lBxum! – To get

11. jIivtum! – To live 27. ³Iiftum! – To play

12. jiLptum! – To blabber 28. pittum! – To fall

13. icNtiytum! – To think 29. Swatum! – To stand

14. oaidtum! – To eat 30. mtuRm! – To die

15. iniNdtum! – To criticise 31. paliytum! – To nurture

16. d{fiytum! – To punish 32. AicRtum! – To worship

9.2 KTva-àTyy>
The suffix Tva is added only to roots that are not prefixed by upasarga. It
denotes the sense of adverbial past participle (prefix). After having completed
66 Sulabha Saàskåtam

an action, if the subject does another action, then, the KTva suffix is added to
the completed action.
Example: ram> piQTva ³Iiftu< gCDit, Having read, Räma goes to play.
The verbal forms formed with KTva suffix are also indeclinables.

Here are a few examples:

1. piQTva – Having read 16. icNtiyTva – Having thought

2. ilioTva – Having written 17. imilTva – Having met

3. xaivTva – Having run 18. ÉUTva – Having been

4. %idTva – Having risen 19. hTva – Having killed

5. %i;Tva – Having lived 20. gTva – Having gone

6. hisTva – Having laughed 21. pITva – Having drunk

7. ri]Tva – Having protected 22. nTva – Having prostrated

8. g&hITva – Having held 23. Sm&Tva – Having remembered

9. É]iyTva – Having eaten 24. ijTva – Having conquered

10. g[iyTva – Having counted 25. †:qœva – Having looked

11. caeriyTva – Having stolen 26. ïuTva – Having heard

12. rciyTva – Having composed 27. k«Tva – Having done

13. yaciyTva – Having begged 28. TyKTva – Having given up

14. tafiyTva – Having beaten 29. mTva – Having considered

15. kwiyTva – Having told 30. AiqTva – Having Wandered


Textbook 67

9.3 Lyp!-àTyy>
Lyp!-àTyy has the same function as KTva-àTyy, but the only difference is that, in
Lyp!-àTyy (y) is suffixed when the verbal form has an upasarga prefixed to it.
Example: When the Lyp! is added to }a, which has the iv upasarga, it becomes
iv}ay.
iv + }a + Lyp! = iv}ay – Having known
Without upasarga, }a becomes }aTva.

Here are a few more examples:

1. Aa + þe = AahUy – Having called

2. in + bNx! = inbXy – Having bound

3. Aa + da = Aaday – Having brought

4. à + # = àeTy – Having reached

5. Aa + p¨ = AapUyR – Having filled up

6. à + ivz! = àivZy – Having entered

7. iv + lI = ivlIy – Having dissolved

8. sm! + Sm& = s<Sm&Ty – Having thought well

9. Aix + # = AxITy – Having got

10. Aa + p&CD! = Aap&CD!y – Having asked

11. in + mJj! = inmJJy – Having sunk

12. %d! + Swa = %Tway – Having got up

13. ins! + ic = iniíTy – Having decided

14. sm! + k« = s<Sk«Ty – Having purified


68 Sulabha Saàskåtam

15. à + vc! = àaeCy – Having told

16. Aa + éh! = Aaéý – Having climbed

17. Aa + mNÇ! = AamNÈy – Having discussed

18. à + nm! = à[My – Having prostrated

19. Aa + gm! = AagTy/AagMy – Having come

20. à + baex! = àbaeXy – Having educated

9.4 AnIyr!-
! àTyy>
When the AnIyr!!-àTyy is added to the verbal root, the potential passive participle
is formed. It conveys a sense of 'necessity' or 'command'.
Example: ïImÚaray[> Smr[Iy>, Lord Näräyaëa is to be remembered.
The derivatives formed using this suffix agrees with the noun in gender,
number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender − pQnIy>
Feminine Gender − pQnIya
Neuter Gender − pQnIym!
Here are a few more examples:

1. kr[Iym! – To be done 6. hsnIym! – Have to laugh

2. pQnIym! – To be read 7. vdnIym! – To be spoken

3. gmnIym! – Have to go 8. vcnIym! – To be spoken

4. vhnIym! – To be carried 9. danIym! – To be given

5. hnnIym! – To be killed 10. dzRnIym! – To be seen


Textbook 69

11. ïv[Iym! – To be heard 16. oadnIym! – to be eaten

12. ÉednIym! – To be split 17. jynIym! – to be conquered

13. inNdnIym! – To be condemned 18. yaejnIym! – to be linked

14. TyjnIym! – To be given up 19. nynIym! – to be carried

15. ÉaejnIym! – To be consumed 20. Smr[Iym! – to be remembered

9.5 tVyt!-àTyy>
The usage of tVyt!-àTyy is similar to AnIyr!-àTyy. The only speciality is that
the aspects of 'necessity' and 'command' are stressed more in the tVyt!-àTyy
than AnIyr!-àTyy.
Example: ktRVy< dEvmaiûkm! , The religious rites ought to be done.
The derivatives formed using this suffix agrees with the noun in gender,
number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender – piQtVy>
Feminine Gender – piQtVya
Neuter Gender – piQtVym!
Here are a few examples:

1. piQtVym! – Must be read 6. ktRVym! – Must be done

2. Éai;tVym! – Must be spoken 7. TyKtVym! – Must be given up

3. ÉaeKtVym! – Must be enjoyed 8. datVym! – Must be given

4. ointVym! – Must be dug 9. ïaetVym! – Must be heard

5. baeixtVym! – Must be educated 10. maijRtVym! – Must be purified


70 Sulabha Saàskåtam

11. sihtVym! – Must be borne 19. hNtVym! – Must be killed

12. leiotVym! – Must be written 20. SnatVym! – Must be bathed

13. tirtVym! – Must be crossed over 21. }atVym! – Must be known

14. ³IiftVym! – Must be played 22. ÔòVym! – Must be seen

15. kwiytVym! – Must be told 23. netVym! – Must be carried

16. ri]tVym! – Must be protected 24. patVym! – Must be drunk

17. jetVym! – Must be conquered 25. gNtVym! – Must be gone

18. SwatVym! – Must be positioned 26. v´Vym! – Must be spoken

³
9.6 Ktvt!-àTyy>
The past active participle is formed by adding the suffix Ktvt! to the verbal
root and has the same meaning as that of the verbal past tense.
Example: ram> iv*aly< gtvan! (AgCDt! ), Räma went to school.
Thus gtvan! and AgCDt! mean one and the same.
The derivates formed using this suffix agree with the noun in gender, number
and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender – piQtvan!
Feminine Gender – piQtvtI
Neuter Gender – piQtvt!!
Here are a few examples:
1. gtvan! – Went 4. p&óvan! – Asked

2. k«tvan! – Did 5. xaivtvan! – Ran

3 . iSwtvan! – Stood 6. piQtvan! – Read


Textbook 71

7. nmSk«tvan! – Prostrated 17. ïutvan! – Heard

8. g&hItvan! – Held 18. pItvan! – Drank

9. %Ktvan! – Told 19. ijtvan! – Conquered

10. †òvan! – Looked 20. iliotvan! – Wrote

11. oaidtvan! – Ate 21. AahUtvan! – Called

12. Aiqtvan! – Roamed 22. nItvan! – Carried

13. Swaiptvan! – Established 23. AanItvan! – Brought

14. TyKtvan! – Gave up 24. iciNttvan! – Thought

15. àei;tvan! – Sent 25. Aacirtvan! – Did

16. i]Ptvan! – Threw 26. }atvan! – Knew

³
9.7 Kt-àTyy>
The past passive participle is formed by adding Kt-àTyy to the transitive verbal
roots.
Example: rav[> ht>, Rävaëa has been killed.
The verbal derivative formed using this suffix agrees with the noun in
gender, number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender – k«t>
Feminine Gender – k«ta
Neuter Gender – k«tm!
Here are a few examples:
1. k«t> – Has been done 3. gt> – Has been gone
2. ïut> – Has been heard 4. †ò> – Has been looked
72 Sulabha Saàskåtam

5. pIt> – Has been drunk 10. ijt> – Has been conquered

6. nIt> – Has been carried 11. iliot> – Has been written

7. piQt> – Has been read 12. kiwt> – Has been told

8. taift> – Has been beaten 13. TyKt> – Has been given up

9. ht> – Has been killed 14. }at> – Has been known

³
9.8 zt&-àTyy>
The present participle is formed by adding zt&-àTyy to the verbal root. This
has the sense of present continuous tense.
Example: ram> gayn! gCDit, Räma goes singing.
The verbal derivative formed using this suffix agrees with the noun
in gender, number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender – k…vRn!
Feminine Gender – k…vRNtI
Neuter Gender – k…vRt!
Here are a few examples:

1. k…vRn! – Doing 5. z&{vn! – Hearing

2. gCDn! – Going 6. Tyjn! – Giving up

3 . AagCDn! – Coming 7. xavn! – Running

4. pQn! – Reading 8. palyn! – Protecting


Textbook 73
s'!Oya>
Numerals

1 @km! 1 12 Öadz 12
2 Öe 2 13 Çyaedz 13
3 ÇIi[ 3 14 ctudz
R 14
4 cTvair 4 15 pÂdz 15
5 p 5 16 ;aefz 16
6 ;q! 6 17 sPtdz 17
7 sÝ 7 18 Aòadz 18
8 Aò 8 19 nvdz/ 19
9 nv 9 @kaeniv<zit
10 dz 10 20 iv<zit> 20
11 @kadz 11

Note that the number nineteen has two appellations nvdz and @kaeniv<zit>
^n means less. @k - ^n - iv<zit> means, 1 less than 20. This applies for 29, 39,
49 and so on.

21 @kiv<zit> 21 28 Aòaiv<zit> 28
22 Öaiv<zit> 22 29 nviv<zit>/ 29
23 Çyaeiv<z
< it> 23 @kaeniÇ<zt!
24 ctuiv›<zit> 24 30 iÇ<zt! 30
25 pÂiv<zit> 25 31 @kiÇ<zt! 31
26 ;f!iv<zit> 26 32 ÖaiÇ<zt! 32
27 sPtiv<zit> 27 33 ÇyiSÇ<zt! 33
74 Sulabha Saàskåtam

34 ctuiSÇ<zt! 34 55 pÂpÂazt! 55
35 pÂiÇ<zt! 35 56 ;q!pÂazt! 56
36 ;q!iÇ<zt! 36 57 sPtpÂazt! 57
37 sPtiÇ<zt! 37 58 AòpÂazt! 58
38 AòaiÇ<zt! 38 59 nvpÂazt!/ 59
39 nviÇ<zt!/ 39 @kaen;i:q>
<
@kaencTvair zt! 60 ;iò> 60
40 cTvair<zt! 40 61 @k;i:q> 61
41 < t!
@kcTvair z 41 62 iÖ;i:q> 62
42 < t!
iÖcTvairz 42 63 iÇ;i:q> 63
43 < t!
iÇcTvairz 43 64 ctu>i:q> 64
44 ctuZcTvair<zt! 44 65 pÂ;i:q> 65
45 pÂcTvair<zt! 45 66 ;q!;i:q> 66
46 ;q!cTvair<zt! 46 67 sPt;i:q> 67
47 sPtcTvair<zt! 47 68 Aò;i:q> 68
48 AòcTvair<zt! 48 69 nv;i:q>/ 69
49 nvcTvair<zt!/ 49 @kaensPtit>
@kaenpÂazt! 70 sPtit> 70
50 pÂazt! 50 71 @ksPtit> 71
51 @kpÂazt! 51 72 iÖsPtit> 72
52 iÖpÂazt! 52 73 iÇsPtit> 73
53 iÇpÂazt! 53 74 ctu>sPtit> 74
54 ctu>pÂazt! 54 75 pÂsPtit> 75
Textbook 75

76 ;q!sPtit> 76 95 pÂnvit> 95
77 sPtsPtit> 77 96 ;{[vit> 96
78 AòsPtit> 78 97 sPtnvit> 97
79 nvsPtit>/ 79 98 Aònvit> 98
@kaenazIit> 99 nvnvit>/ 99
80 AzIit> 80 @kaenztm!
81 @kazIit> 81 100 ztm! 100
82 Ö(zIit> 82 200 iÖztm! 200
83 ÈyzIit> 83 300 iÇztm! 300
84 cturzIit> 84 400 ctu>ztm! 400
85 pÂazIit> 85 500 pÂztm! 500
86 ;fzIit> 86 600 ;q!ztm! 600
87 sPtazIit> 87 700 sPtztm! 700
88 AòazIit> 88 800 Aòztm! 800
89 nvazIit>/ 89 900 nvztm! 900
@kaennvit> 1,000 shöm! 1000
90 nvit> 90 10,000 Ayutm! 10000
91 @knvit> 91 1,00,000 l]m! 100000
92 iÖnvit> 92 10,00,000 inyutm! 1000000
93 iÇnvit> 93 1,00,00,000 kaeiq> 10000000
94 ctunRvit> 94
76 Sulabha Saàskåtam
àyaeg>
Voice

Sanskrit language permits three kinds of voice: (1) ktRiràyaeg> (2) kmRi[àyaeg>
and (3) Éaveàyaeg>. We will be studying only the first two voices in this course.
(1) ktRiràyaeg> or Active Voice – In this the subject (kartä) is principal and the
verb agrees with the subject in person, number and gender.
(2) kmRi[àyaeg> or Passive Voice – In this the object (karma) is principal and the
verb agrees with the object in person, number and gender.

àyaeg>
Voice

ktRiràyaeg> kmRi[àyaeg>
Active Voice Passive Voice

The ätmanepadé terminations play an important role in changing a sentence


from kartariprayoga to karmaëiprayoga. The following table gives the present
tense and the past tense ätmanepadé terminations.
Textbook 77

AaTmnepdI Terminations

Present (lq!) Past (l'!)

te #te ANte t #tam! ANt


se #we Xve wa> #wam! Xvm!
# Aavhe Aamhe # Aavih Aamih

pcte pcete pcNte Apct Apcetam! ApcNt


pcse pcewe pcXve Apcwa> Apcewam! ApcXvm!
pce pcavhe pcamhe Apce Apcavih Apcamih

In order to change active voice verb into passive voice verb, y is added to the
verbal root and then the AaTmnepdI terminations are added.
Example:
Active Voice : pcit
Passive Voice: pCyte
Thus, in order to change the active voice pcit into passive voice, the verbal
root pc! (to cook) is taken, y is added, and then the present tense termination
of AaTmnepdI is added.

Here are a few more examples:

1. nmit nMyte ( nm! – to worship)


2. pQit pQ(te ( pQœ – to learn)
3. yacit yaCyte ( yac! – to beg)
4. nyit nIyte ( nI – to lead)
78 Sulabha Saàskåtam

In passive voice, the subject takes the third case and the object takes the first
case. The verb must agree with the object in number and person.
Example:
ÉKt> dev< nmit , The devotee worships the Lord. (A.V.)
ÉKten dev> nMyte , The Lord is being worshipped by the devotee. (P.V.)
In order to change the active voice sentence ÉKt> dev< nmit into a passive
voice sentence, change the subject ÉKt> to its third case and the object dev< to its
first case, and the verb into its passive form. Then we get the passive voice
sentence ÉKten dev> nMyte,

Here are a few more examples:

1. sIta Éaejn< pcit , Sétä cooks food. (A.V.)


sItya Éaejn< pCyte , The food is being cooked by Sétä. (P.V.)

2. n&p> caer< d{fyit , The king punishes the thief. (A.V.)


n&p[
e caer> d{f!yte , The thief is being punished by the king. (P.V.)

3 . Ah< devan! pUjyaim , I worship the devas. (A.V.)


mya deva> pUJyNte , The devas are worshipped by me. (P.V.)

4. É&Tya> Éar< nyiNt , The servants are carrying load. (A.V.)


É&TyE> Éar> nIyte , The load is being carried by the servants. (P.V.)

5. Ah< s<Sk«t< pQaim, I study Sanskrit. (A.V.)


mya s<Sk«t< pQ!yte, Sanskrit is studied by me. (P.V.)
Textbook 79
siNx>
Combination

When two words come together, the last letter of the first word and the first
letter of the second word are combined together using certain rules. The
combination of these letters is known as ‘sandhi’.
There are three kinds of sandhis:
(1) Svr-siNx> When two vowels are combined together it is known as
‘svara-sandhi’.
(2) VyÃn-siNx> When two consonants are combined together it is known as
‘vyaïjana-sandhi’.
(3) ivsg›-siNx> When visarga (:) is joined with any vowel or a consonant it is
known as ‘visarga-sandhi’.
³

The following table gives a complete classification of all the letters of the
Sanskrit alphabet. This table will be useful while learning sandhis especially
vyaïjana-sandhi.

VyÃnain Consonants
kQaerVyÃnain m&ÊVyÃnain
Svra> Hard Consonants Soft Consonants
Vowels ^:ma[> ALpàa[ mhaàa[ ALpàa[ mhaàa[ Anunaisk ANt>Sw mhaàa[
Sibilants Unaspirate Aspirate Unaspirate Aspirate Nasals Semivowels Aspirate

A Aa kœ o! g! "! '! h!
#$ z! c! D! j! H! |! y!
\§ ;! q! Q! f! F! [! r!
¤ s! t! w! d! x! n! l!
%^ p! )! b! É! m! v!

@ and @e are both guttural and palatal; Aae and AaE are guttural and labial; and v
is both dental and labial.
80 Sulabha Saàskåtam

The following table gives the three types of sandhis and their subdivisions.

siNx>

Svr-siNx> VyÃn-siNx> ivsg›-siNx>


(Ac! siNx>) (hl! siNx>)
1. %kar>
1. dI"RsiNx> 1. cTv›siNx>
2. laep>
2. gu[siNx> 2. jZTvsiNx>
3. re)>
3. v&i˜siNx> 3. AnunaisksiNx>
4. skar>
4. y[!siNx> 4. AnuSvarsiNx>

5. AyaidsiNx> 5. prsv[›siNx>

6. pUvê
› psiNx> 6. íuTvsiNx>

7. prêpsiNx> 7. òuTvsiNx>
8 . àg&ýsiNx> 8. pUv›sv[RsiNx>

9. DTvsiNx>

10. 'mufagmsiNx>

³
Textbook 81

12.1 Svr-siNx>

When two vowels are combined together it is known as Svr-siNx>. It can be


divided into 8 types.

4. y[! 5. Ayaid

3. v&i˜ 6. pUvê
R p

2. gu[ 7. prêp

1. dI"R SvrsiNx> 8. àk«it

12.1.1 dI"Rs
R iNx>
Ak> sv[eR dI"R> – Päëini Sütra (6.1.101)
If A, #, %, and \ short or long, are followed by the same vowel – short or long
– they are combined to make the long vowel Aa, $, ^ and §.

A + A = Aa Aa + A = Aa
(A)
A + Aa = Aa Aa + Aa = Aa

Example: mur + Air> = murair>


The first word mur ends with the short vowel A; Air> begins with the short
vowel A. When these two short vowels combine they form the long Aa.
82 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Here are a few more examples:


dez + Aqnm! = dezaqnm!
ram + Avtar> = ramavtar>
dev + Aaly> = devaly>
)l + Aahar> = )lahar>
iv*a + A_yas> = iv*a_yas>
iv*a + Aaly> = iv*aly>
puStk + Aaly> = puStkaly>

(B) # + # = $ # + $ = $
$ + # = $ $ + $ = $

kiv + $ñr> = kvIñr>


mhI + $z> = mhIz>
yit + #NÔ> = ytINÔ>
riv + #NÔ> = rvINÔ>
igir + $ñr> = igrIñr>
lúmI + $z> = lúmIz>
mhI + #NÔ> = mhINÔ>

% + % = ^ % + ^ = ^
(C)
^ + % = ^ ^ + ^ = ^

Éanu + %dy> = ÉanUdy>


isNxu + ^imR> = isNxUimR>
tnu + ^XvRm! = tnUXvRm!
vxU + %Tsv> = vxUTsv>
r"u + %Äm> = r"UÄm>
Textbook 83

kqu + %iKt> = kqUiKt>

\ + \ = § \ + § = §
(D)
§ + \ = § § + § = §

ipt& + \[m! = ipt¨[m!


mat& + \iÏ> = mat¨i˜>
mat& + \[m! = mat¨[m!
mat& + \iTvj> = mat¨iTvj>

12.1.2 gu[siNx>

Ade¼[
‚ > – Päëini Sütra (1.1.2)
If the vowels # , % , \ and ¤ short or long, follow A or Aa , then they are
substituted with @ , Aae, Ar! and Al! respectively.

(A) A + # = @ A + $ = @
Aa + # = @ Aa + $ = @

Example: %p + #NÔ> = %peNÔ>

The vowel # in the second word #NÔ> follows A in the first word %p. A single
vowel @ is substituted in the place of both A and #. Thus, we have %p + #NÔ> =
%peNÔ>
Here are some more examples:
$ñr + #CDa = $ñreCDa
lta + #v = ltev
pU[R + #NÊ> = pU[NRe Ê>
84 Sulabha Saàskåtam

g[ + $z> = g[ez>

ram + $ñr> = rameñr>

%ma + $z> = %mez>

mha + #CDa = mheCDa

A + % = Aae A + ^ = Aae
(B)
Aa + % = Aae Aa + ^ = Aae

pr + %pkar> = praepkar>
sUyR + %dy> = sUyaeRdy>
dez + %Úit> = dezaeÚit>
g¼a + %dkm! = g¼aedkm!
iht + %pdez> = ihtaepdez>
mha + ^imR> = mhaeimR>
cNÔ + %dy> = cNÔaedy>
g&h + ^XvRm! = g&haeXvRm!

A + \ = Ar! A + § = Ar!
(C)
Aa + \ = Ar! Aa + § = Ar!

dev + \i;> = devi;R>


äü + \i;> = äüi;R>
raja + \i;> = raji;R>
mha + \i;> = mhi;R>
sPt + \i;> = sPti;R>
vsNt + \tu> = vsNttR>u
Textbook 85

12.1.3 v&i˜siNx>

v&i˜radEc! – Päëini Sütra (1. 1. 1)

If A or Aa is followed by @ or @e , they are combined to become @e.

If A or Aa is followed by Aae or AaE, they are combined to become AaE.

(A)
A + @ = @e A + @e = @e
Aa + @ = @e Aa + @e = @

Example: mm + @v = mmEv
In mm + @v note that the vowel @ follows A in mm. The vowel @e is

substituted in the place of A and @ . Thus we have mm + @v = mmEv.

Some more examples are given below:

@k + @km! = @kEkm!
sda + @v = sdEv
ivñ + @kta = ivñEkta
mt + @eKym! = mtEKym!
dev + @eñyRm! = devEñyRm!
xn + @eñyRm! = xnEñyRm!
mha + @eñyRm! = mhEñyRm!

A + Aae = AaE A + AaE = AaE


(B)
Aa + Aae = AaE Aa + AaE = AaE

idv + Aaeks> = idvaEks>


jl + Aae"> = jlaE">
86 Sulabha Saàskåtam

prm + AaEicTym! = prmaEicTym!


mha + AaE;ix> = mhaE;ix>
mha + AaETsuKym! = mhaETsuKym!
³

12.1.4 y[!siNx>

#kae y[ic – Päëini Sütra (3. 1. 77)


# , % , \ and ¤ , short or long, when followed by any dissimilar vowel
becomes y! , v! , r! and l! respectively.

(A) # or $ + any dissimilar vowel (other than # or $ ) = y!

yid + Aip = y*ip


àit + A] = àTy]
àit + @km! = àTyekm!
#it + Aaid = #Tyaid
Ait + %Äm> = ATyuÄm>
suxI + %paSy> = suXyupaSy>
pavRtI + Axuna = pavRTyxuna

(B) % or ^ + any dissimilar vowel (other than % or ^ ) = v!

Anu + @;[m! = ANve;[m!


gué + Aadez> = guva›dz
e >
Anu + Ay> = ANvy>
het u + AwRm! = heTvwRm!
saxu + #dm! = saiXvdm!
saxu + Aaednm! = saXvaednm!
Textbook 87

(C) \ or § + dissimilar vowel (other than \ or § ) = r!

ipt& + Aa}a = ipÇa}a


ipt& + A<z> = ipÇ<z>
ipt& + AaEdayRm! = ipÇaEdayRm!
mat& + Aa}a = maÇa}a
mat& + #CDa = maiÇCDa
mat& + %*anm! = maÇu*anm!

12.1.5 AyaidsiNx>

@cae=yvayav> – Päëini Sütra (6. 1. 78)


If @ , @e , Aae, and AaE are followed by any dissimilar vowel, they become Ay!

Aay! , Av! and Aav! respectively.

@ + any dissimilar vowel = Ay!


@e + any dissimilar vowel = Aay!

Example: ne + Anm! = nynm!


The @ in ne is changed to Ay! and hence ne + Anm! = nynm!

Here are a few more examples:


mageR + Aagta> = magRyagta>
iïyE + %*t> = iïyayu*t>
nE + Ak> = nayk>
hre + @ = hrye
88 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Aae + any dissimilar vowel = Av!


AaE + any dissimilar vowel = Aav!

paE + Ak> = pavk>


Éae + Anm! = Évnm!
iv:[ae + @ = iv:[ve
naE + #k> = naivk>
ivÉae + #h = ivÉivh
³

12.1.6 pUvê
R psiNx>
@'> pdaNtadit – Päëini Sütra (6. 1. 109)
If @ or Aae at the end of a word is followed by A, the A disappears and the sign
’=’ (avagraha) is placed instead. This sandhi being an exception to Ayaid-siNx

(refer 12.1.5), the @ or Aae is not changed into Ay! or Av! .

Example: hre + AÇ = hre=Ç


In hre + AÇ, A follows the vowel @ and hence A is changed to avagraha. The
avagraha indicates that the A is silent.

A few more examples:


lte + Av = lte=v

Ante + Aip = Ante=ip

gaepalae + Ahm! = gaepalae=hm!

sae + Aym! = sae=ym!

³
Textbook 89

12.1.7 prêpsiNx>

@i' prêpm! – Päëini Sütra (6. 1. 94)


If A is followed by @ or Aae, they combine to form the latter, that is @ or Aae.

Example: à + @jte = àejte


In à + @jte the vowel @ is substituted in the place of A and @ and it becomes
àejte.
%p + Aae;it = %pae;it

zu˜ + Aaedn> = zu˜aedn>

12.1.8 àk«itÉav siNx>

$Ëdedi! Övcn< àg&ým! – Päëini Sütra (1. 1. 11)

When any vowel follows a dual noun ending with $, ^ or @ , there is no


sandhi of the words, that is, they retain their original form. Therefore this
sandhi is also called ‘prakåtibhäva-sandhi’.

Example: hrI + AagtaE = hrI AagtaE


The word hrI is the prathamä-vibhakti-dvivacana of the word hir. So there is
no sandhi and the form remains as hrI AagtaE.

Here are a few more examples:


xenU + AagCDt> = xenU AagCDt>

lte + AisÂtam! = lte AisÂtam!

AmU + AñaE = AmU AñaE

³
90 Sulabha Saàskåtam

12.2 VyÃnsiNx>

When two consonants are joined together it is known as vyaïjana-sandhi.


This is of ten types.

5. prsv[R 6. íuTv

4. AnuSvar 7. òuTv

3. Anunaisk 8. pUvs
R v[R

2. jZTv 9. DTv

1.cTvR VyÃnsiNx> 10. 'mufagm

12.2.1 cTvRsiNx>

oir c – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 55)


The consonants except nasals and semi-vowels when followed by hard
consonants substitute the first letter of their group of consonants
(k! c! q! t! p).

Example: ivpd! + kal> = ivpTkal>


The d! of ivpd! is followed by k which is a hard consonant. So d is substituted
by t! , which is the first letter of its group.
Textbook 91

Here are a few more examples:


ivraf! + pué;> = ivraq!pé
u ;>
sd! + kar> = sTkar>
suùd! + ³Ifit = suùT³Ifit
idg! + pal> = idKpal>
]ux! + ippasa = ]uiTppasa

12.2.2. jZTvsiNx>

Hla< jzae=Nte – Päëini Sütra (8.2.39)


The consonants, except nasals, at the end of a word when followed by a vowel
or a soft consonant, take the third letter of their group.
Example: vakœ + danm! = vaGdanm!
The consonant kœ is followed by the soft consonant d. The kœ is therefore
changed into the third letter of its group g! .

Here are a few more examples:


idkœ + gj> = idGgj>
Ac! + ANt> = AjNt>
jgt! + $z> = jgdIz>
àakœ + @v = àagev
pirìaq! + vdit = pirìaf!vdit
Ap! + "q> = AB"q>
idkœ + AMbr> = idgMbr>

³
92 Sulabha Saàskåtam

12.2.3 AnunaisksiNx>

yrae=nunaiske=nunaiskae va – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 45)


When a word ends in a consonant other than h! and is followed by a nasal, the
final consonant of the first word is optionally substituted by the nasal of its
group.

Example: @td! + murair> = @tNmurair>/ @td!mru air>


The word @td! ends with the consonant d! and is followed by the nasal m! . So
the consonant d! takes up the nasal of its class, which is n! , and thus we get
@tNmurair>.
A few more examples:

;q! + masa> = ;{masa> / ;q!masa>

jgt! + naw> = jgÚaw>/ jgt!naw>

àak! + muom! = àa'!mo


u m! / àak!mo
u m!

sd! + mit> = sNmit> / sd!mit>

But when the end consonant of a word is followed by the suffixes my and maÇ,
the change into nasal is compulsory.

Examples:
ict! + mym! = icNmym!
tt! + maÇm! = tNmaÇm!

12.2.4. AnuSvarsiNx>

(A) mae=nuSvar> – Päëini Sütra (8. 3. 23)


If m! is followed by any consonant then m! is replaced by anusvära.
Textbook 93

Examples :

hirm! + vNde = hir < vNde


kayRm! + k…é = kay<› k…é
xmRm! + cr = xm›< cr
sTym! + vd = sTy< vd
sÅvrm! + yait = sÅvr< yait
ramm! + Éjaim = ram< Éjaim
(B) níapdaNtSy Hil – Päëini Sütra ( 8. 3. 24 )
m! and n! occurring within the middle of the word, when followed by a
consonant except a nasal or a semi vowel or hœ, is changed into anusvära.
Example: yzan! + is = yza<is
In yzan! + is, n! is changed into anusvära as it followed by the sibilant s! .

A few more examples:


pyan! + is = pya<is
nm! + Syit = n<Syit

sm! + sar> = s<sar>


³

12.2.5 prsv[RsiNx>

(A) AnuSvarSy yiy prsv[R> – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 58)


The m! or n! occurring within a word is changed into anusvära, and when
followed by any consonant except z! , ;! , s! , or hœ , is changed into a nasal of
the following consonant.

Example: A< + ikt> = Ai»t>


94 Sulabha Saàskåtam

In this example A< is followed by the consonant k . So m! is changed into the


nasal of its group which is '! Thus A< + ikt> = Ai»t>

Here are a few more examples:


m< + idrm! = miNdrm!
k…< + iQt> = k…i{Qt>
za< + t> = zaNt>
gu < + i)t> = guiM)t>
(B) va pdaNtSy – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 59 )
But the nasal at the end of a word is optionally changed into anusvära in accor-
dance with the above rule.

Examples:
Tv< + kraei; = Tv'!kraei; / Tv< kraei;
t&[< + crit = t&[Ârit / t&[< crit
¢am< + gCDit = ¢am'!gCDit / ¢am< gCDit

(C) taeilR – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 60)

If a consonant of the t group is followed by l! , the consonant of the t group


changes into l! .

Examples:
tt! + lIn> = tLlIn>
%d! + leo> = %Lleo>
jgt! + lúmI> = jgLlúmI>
ivlst! + l»a = ivlsLl»a

³
Textbook 95

12.2.6 íuTvsiNx>

(A) Stae> íuna íu> – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 40)

If s! is followed by z! or the consonants of c group, the s! is changed into z! .

Examples:
rams! + zete = ramZzete
mns! + cÂlm! = mníÂlm!
rams! + icnaeit = ramiínaeit
izzs! + zete = izzuZzete

(B) If the consonant of the t group is followed by z! or the consonant of the c


group, the consonant of the t group is changed into its corresponding c group
consonant.

Examples:
st! + ict! = si½t!
mht! + c³m! = mh½³m!
b&ht! + DÇm! = b&hCDÇm!

12.2.7 òuTvsiNx>

(A) òuna òu> – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 41)


If s! is followed by ;! or the consonant of the q group, the s! is changed into ;!.

rams! + ;ó> = ram:;ó>


xnus! + q»ar> = xnuò»ar>
bals! + ;ó> = bal:;ó>

(B) If the consonants of the t group is followed by the consonants of the q


96 Sulabha Saàskåtam

group, the consonant of the t group is changed into its corresponding


consonant of the q group.

mhd! + ifi{fm> = mhif!fi{fm>


tt! + qIka = t”Ika
b&ht! + qIka = b&h”Ika
ci³n! + FaEkse = ci³{FaEkse
b&ht! + q»zala = b&h”»zala
%t! + q»nm! = %”»nm!
%t! + Jvl> = %JJvl>
mhan! + jy> = mhaÁjy>
ANyt! + c = ANy½
³

12.2.8 pUvs
R v[RsiNx>
Hyae hae=NytrSyam! – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 62)
If h! comes after any of the first four letters of a group, the h! is optionally
changed to the fourth letter of that group. The end consonant of the first word
changes into the third letter of its group.

Example: vakœ + hir> = vaGhir>/vaG"ir>


vakœ ends with the consonant kœ which is changed into g! which is the third
letter of its group. h! is optionally changed into "! .

A few more examples:


ptt! + ihmm! = ptd!ihmm! /pti˜mm!
tt! + iht> = td!iht>/ti˜t>
Ap! + hr[m! = ABhr[m!/ABÉr[m!
Textbook 97

idkœ + hStI = idGhStI/idG"StI


sèaq! + ihtkr = sèaif!htkr/sèaif!Ftkr

12.2.9 DTvsiNx>

zZDae=iq – Päëini Sütra (8. 4. 63)


If z! is followed by a vowel, semi-vowel or h and is preceded by a word
ending in any of the first four letters of a group, z! is changed into D!
optionally. The t! of the first word changes into c! .

Examples:
tt! + izv> = tiCzv> / tiCDv>
tt! + zIl> = tCzIl> / tCDIl>
jgt! + zr[m! = jgCzr[m! / jgCDr[m!
%t! + iz:q> = %iCz:q> / %iCD:q>
st! + zaSÇm! = sCzaSÇm! / sCDaSÇm!

12.2.10 'mufagmsiNx>

'mae ÿSvadic 'mui{nTym! – Päëini Sütra (8. 3. 32)


If a word ends in '! , [! or n! , is preceded by a short vowel and is followed by
any vowel, then '! , [! or n! is doubled.

Examples:
àTy'! + AaTma = àTy'!'aTma
xavn! + Añ> = xavÚñ>
hsn! + AiÄ = hsÚiÄ
sug[! + $z> = sug{[Iz>
98 Sulabha Saàskåtam

gCDn! + AiSt = gCDÚiSt


Smrn! + %vac = SmrNnuvac

12.3 ivsgRsiNx>

When visarga (:) is combined with any vowel or consonant it is known as


‘visarga sandhi’ There are 4 types in this sandhi.

2. laep> 3. re)>

1. %kar> ivsgRsiNx> 4. skar>

12.3.1 %kar>

If a visarga (>) is preceded by A and is followed by a soft consonant or A then


the visarga is changed into % (A + % = Aae ) ( A = =).
The soft consonants do not change whereas A changes to avagraha (=).
Example: izv> + ACyR> = izvae=CyR>
In the word izv> the visarga is preceded by the vowel A and is followed by A
in ACyR>. Thus the visarga in izv> changes to %. Again A and % combine to
become Aae and thus we get izvae=CyR>.

A few more examples:


ram> + Aip = ramae=ip
k> + Aym! = kae=ym!
Textbook 99

gaeivNd> + Ahm! = gaeivNdae=hm!


Ax> + git = Axae git
mn> + blm! = mnae blm!

12.3.2 laep>

(A) If visarga is preceded by Aa and is followed by any vowel or a soft


consonant, the visarga is dropped.

Examples:
Aña> + AmI = Aña AmI
puÇa> + jata> = puÇa jata>
Aña> + xaviNt = Aña xaviNt
jna> + gCDiNt = jna gCDiNt
tara> + %idta> = tara %idta>
hta> + gja> = hta gja>

(B) If a visarga is preceded by A and is followed by any vowel other than the
short A, the visarga is dropped.
Examples:
k…t> + Aagta> = k…t Aagta>
nr> + #v = nr #v
cNÔ> + %deit = cNÔ %deit
dev> + \i;> = dev \i;>
k«:[> + @it = k«:[ @it
k> + @;> = k @;>
(C) If any consonant or vowel except short A follows s> or @;>, the visarga is
dropped.
100 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Examples:
s> + AagCDit = s AagCDit
s> + zMÉuu> = s zMÉu>u
@;> + iv:[u> = @; iv:[u>

(D) The words Éae> , Égae> and A"ae> lose their visarga if any vowel or soft
consonant follows it.
Éae> + ACyut = Éae ACyut
A"ae> + yaih = A"ae yaih
Égae> + nmSte = Égae nmSte

12.3.3 re)>

(A) If visarga is preceded by any vowel except A or Aa and is followed by any


vowel or a soft consonant then, visarga is changed into r! .

Examples:
hir> + Aym! = hirrym!
git> + #ym! = gitirym!
riv> + %deit = rivédeit
muin> + Éjit = muinÉRjit
kve> + bui˜> = kvebi›u ˜>
gurae> + g&hm! = guraeg&Rhm!

(B) Having changed visarga into r! ( > = r! ), if the first letter of the following
word is again r! , the r! of the first word disappears and the short vowels A, # or
% before r! of the first word is then changed to Aa, $ or ^ respectively.

hirr! (hir>) + rMy> = hrI rMy>


Textbook 101

The visarga in hir> is changed into r! and then when it combines with r! of the
following word rMy>, the r! in the hirr! (hir>) is dropped and the vowel is
lengthened. Thus hirr! (hir>) becomes hrI.

A few more Examples:


inr! + rs> = nIrs>
zMÉur! + rajte = zMÉU rajte
æatur! + raednm! = æatU raednm!
iptr! + r] = ipta r]
³

12.3.4. skar>
(A) When visarga is followed by t! or w! then the visarga is changed into
s! .

Examples:

mn> + tap> = mnStap>


ram> + it:Qit = ramiSt:Qit
iv:[u> + Çata = iv:[uSÇata

If visarga is followed by c! or D! then the visarga becomes z! .


Examples:

gaE> + crit = gaEírit


k> + ict! = kiít!
m&g> + crit = m&gírit

If visarga is followed by q! or Q! then the visarga is changed to ;!.

Examples:

ram> + qIkte = ram:qIkte


102 Sulabha Saàskåtam

xnu> + q<kar> = xnu:q<kar>

(B) If z!, ;! or s! follows a visarga then the visarga is changed into z! , ;! or


s! optionally.

Examples:

hir> + zete = hirZzete/hir> zete

suPt> + izzu> = suPtiZzzu>/suPt> izzu>

kiv> + ïu[aeit = kivZïu[aeit/kiv> ïu[aeit

mÄ> + ;q!pd> = mÄ:;q!pd>/mÄ> ;q!pd>

pdawaR> + sPt = pdawaRSsPt/pdawaR> sPt

k…mar> + sIdit = k…marSsIdit/k…mar> sIdit


Textbook 103
zaSÇai[
Scriptures

Five well known çlokas from Çrémad Välméki Rämäyaëam, Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä,
Çrémad Bhägavatam, Manusmåti, Upaniñads and Raghuvamça are given below along
with their prose order. With the knowledge that you have gained from this
study of Sanskrit you should be able to grasp the meaning of these verses.

13.1 ïImÖaLmIikramay[m!
Çrémad Välméki Rämäyaëam

1. Sage Viçvämitra to Daçaratha


Ah< veiÒ mhaTman< ram< sTypra³mm!,
visóae=ip mhateja ye ceme tpis iSwta>.
The glorious sage Vasiñöha and all those who are stead fast in austerity and I
know the great Räma as the possessor of true prowess. (Bälakäëòa 19.14)
Prose Order:
Ah< sTypra³m< mhaTman< (#it) ram< veiÒ, mhateja visó> #me ye tpis iSwta> c Aip
ivdiNt,

2. King Daçaratha to Sage Viçvämitra


^n;aefzv;aeR me ramae rajIvlaecn>,
n yu˜yaeGytamSy pZyaim sh ra]sE>.
My lotus-eyed Räma is less than sixteen years old. I do not perceive his
capacity to wage war with the Räkñasas. (Bälakäëòa 20.2)
Prose Order:
me rajIvlaecn> ramae ^n;aefzv;R> (Évit), ASy ra]sE> sh yu˜yaeGyta< n pZyaim,
3. Sage Viçvämitra to Çré Räma and Lakñmaëa
kaEsLyasuàja ram pUvaR sNXya àvtR t,
e
104 Sulabha Saàskåtam

%iÄó nrzaËRl ktRVy< dEvmaiûkm!.


O Räma! the worthy son of Kausalyä, the morning twilight has set in. Get up.
O tiger among men! Contemplation on the deity and the daily duties have to
be performed. (Bälakäëòa 23.2)
Prose Order:
he ram, kaEsLyasuàja, pUvaR sNXya àvtR t e, nrzaËRl %iÄó, dEvm! Aaiûkm! ktRVym!,

4. Janaka to Çré Räma


#y< sIta mm suta shxmRcrI tv,
àtICD cEna< ÉÔ< te pai[< g&ŸI:v pai[na.
This Sétä, my daughter, is your companion in discharging your sacred duties.
Take her hand in your own and accept her. May good betide you. (Bälakäëòa
73.26)
Prose Order:
#y< sIta mm suta tv shxmRcrI (Évit), @na< c àtICD pai[na pai[< g&ŸI:v, te ÉÔm!
(AStu),

5. Sumiträ to Lakñmaëa
ram< dzrw< ivi˜ ma< ivi˜ jnkaTmjam!,
AyaeXyamqvI < ivi˜ gCD tat ywa suom!.
Consider Räma to be Daçaratha, look upon Sétä as myself, experience the forest
as Ayodhyä and depart happily, my dear. (Ayodhyäkäëòa 40.9)
Prose Order:
tat, ram< dzrw< ivi˜, jnkaTmja< ma< ivi˜, AqvI < AyaeXya< ivi˜, ywa suo< gCD,

³
Textbook 105

13.2 ïImÑgvÌIta
Çrémad Bhagavad Gétä

kmR{yevaixkarSte ma )le;u kdacn,


ma kmR)lhetÉ
u >UR ma te s¼ae=STvkmRi[.
Thy right is to work only but never to its fruits; let the fruit of action be not thy
motive, nor let thy attachment be to inaction. (Chapter 2.47)
Prose Order:
kmRi[ @v te Aixkar>, )le;u ma kdacn, kmR)lhet>u ma ÉU>, te s¼> AkmRi[ ma
AStu,

yda yda ih xmRSy GlainÉRvit Éart,


A_yuTwanmxmRSy tdaTman< s&jaMyhm!.
Whenever there is decay of righteousness, O Bhärata, and unrighteousness, is
on the rise, then I manifest Myself. (Chapter 4.7)
Prose Order:
he Éart, yda yda ih xmRSy Glain> Évit, AxmRSy A_yuTwan< (Évit), tda Ahm!
AaTman< s&jaim,

pirÇa[ay saxUna< ivnazay c Ê:k«tam!,


xmRsS< wapnawaRy sMÉvaim yuge yug.
e
I am born in every age for the protection of the good, for the destruction of the
wicked, and for the establishment of righteousness. (Chapter 4.8)
Prose Order:
saxUna< pirÇa[ay, Ê:k«ta< ivnazay, xmRsS< wapnawaRy c, yuge yuge sMÉvaim,a

pÇ< pu:p< )l< taey< yae me ÉKTya àyCDit,


tdh< ÉKTyupùt< Aîaim àytaTmn>.
106 Sulabha Saàskåtam

Whoever offers Me with devotion a leaf, a flower, a fruit, water, that I accept,
offered by the pure minded with devotion. (Chapter 9.26)
Prose Order:
y> me pÇ< pu:p< )l< taey< ÉKTya àyCDit àytaTmn>, ÉKTya %pùt< tt! Ahm! AZnaim,

svRxmaRn! pirTyJy mamek< zr[< ìj,


Ah< Tva svRpape_yae mae]iy:yaim ma zuc>.
Abandoning all dharmas, take refuge in Me alone; I will liberate thee from all
sins; grieve not. (Chapter 18.66)
Prose Order:
svRxmaRn! pirTyJy mam! @k< zr[< ìj, Ah< svRpape_y> Tva mae]iy:yaim, ma zuc>,

13.3 ïImÑagvtm!
Çrémad Bhägavatam

inzIwe tm %уte jaymane jnad›n,


e
devKya< devêip{ya< iv:[u> svRgh
u azy>,
AaivrasId!! ywa àaCya< idzINÊirv pu:kl>.
In the pitch darkness of midnight, Mahäviñëu, the dweller of all hearts, was
born of the divinely beautiful Devaké, like the full moon rising on the eastern
horizon. (Skandha 10.3.8)
Prose Order:
svRgh
u azy> iv:[u> inzIwe tm %уte jaymane jnad›ne devKya< devêip{ya< ywa àaCya<
idiz pu:kl> #NÊ> #v AaivrasIt! ,

tv iv³Iift< k«:[ n&[a< prmm¼lm!,


k[RpIyU;maSva* TyjTyNySp&ha< jn>.
O Kåñëa! hearing about your holy and auspicious sports, which is a real nectar
Textbook 107

for the ear, the people leave all other desires. (Skandha 11.6.44)
Prose Order:
he k«:[, n&[a< prmm¼l< k[RpIyU;< tv iv³Iift< jn> AaSva* ANySp&ha< Tyjit,
sv›vde aNtsar< ih ïIÉagvtim:yte,
tÔsam&tt&PtSy naNyÇ Syad! rit> Kvict! .
This Bhägavata being the essence of all Vedänta, it is natural that one who is
satisfied in its study does not feel interest in any other text. (Skandha 12.13.15)
Prose Order:
ïIÉagvt< sv›vde aNtsar< ih #:yte, tt!! rsam&tt&PtSy ANyÇ Kvict! rit> n Syat!,

n olu gaeipkanNdnae ÉvanioldeihnamNtraTmd¯k,


!
ivonsaiwRtae ivñguPtye so %deiyvan! saTvta< k…l.
e
O Friend! you are not merely the Gopikä's son, but the witness of the inner
essence of all embodied beings. Prayed by Brahmä, you have risen in the clan
of the Yadus for the protection of the world. (Skandha 10.31.4)
Prose Order:
so Évan! n olu gaeipkanNdn>, Aioldeihna< ANtraTm†kœ ivonsaiwRt> (Évan!)
ivñguPtye saTvta< k…le %deiyvan!,

inrpe]< muin< zaNt< invErR < smdzRnm!,


AnuìjaMyh< inTy< pUyy
e Te y'!iºre[iu É>.
I always follow the sage who desires nothing, who is always tranquil in order
that I may get purified by the dust of his feet. (Skandha 11.14.16)
Prose Order:
Ah< A'!iºre[uiÉ> pUyeyet! (#it icNtyn!) inrpe]< invERr< smdzRn< zaNt< muin< inTym!
Anuìjaim,

³
108 Sulabha Saàskåtam

13.4 mnuSm&it>
Manusmåti

n jatu kam> kamanam! %pÉaegn


e zaMyit,
hiv;a k«:[vTmev
R ÉUyv
E aiÉvxRt.
e
Desire is never satisfied by the enjoyment of its objects. Like fire fed with
ghee, it only flares up all the more. (Chapter 2.94)
Prose Order:
kam> kamanam! %pÉaegn
e n jatu zaMyit, hiv;a k«:[vTm› #v ÉUy @v AiÉvx›t,
e

ïuTva Sp&òv
! a c †ò!va c ÉuKTva ºaTva c yae nr>,
n ù:yit Glayit va s iv}eyae ijteiNÔy>.
One who, having heard, having touched, having seen, having tasted and
having smelt does not become joyful nor sink in sorrow, is declared as one
who has conquered his senses. (Chapter 2.98)
Prose Order:
y> nr> ïuTva Sp&òv
! a †ò!va ÉuKTva ºaTva n ù:yit Glayit va s> ijteiNÔy> iv}ey>,
sv›< prvz< du>o< sv›maTmvz< suom!,
@tiÖ*aTsmasen l][< suodu>oyae>.
Sorrow is for one who depends on the external world; joy for one who
depends on one's own self. Know this to be the nature of joy and sorrow.
(Chapter 4.160)
Prose Order:
sv›< prvz< du>om!, sv›m! AaTmvz< suom!, @tt! suodu>oyae> l][< smasen iv*at!,

xm› @v htae hiNt xmaeR r]it ri]t>,


tSma˜maeR n hNtVyae ma nae xmaeR htae=vxIt!.
Dharma destroys its destroyer. Dharma protects its protector. Therefore
Textbook 109

virtues should not be destroyed. Let not such dharma (which has been
destroyed) destroy us. (Chapter 8.15)
Prose Order:
ht> xmR> @v hiNt, ri]t> xmR> r]it, tSmat! xmR> n hNtVy>, ht> xmR> n> ma
AvxIt! ,

A}e_yae ¢iNwn> ïeóa> ¢iNw_yae xair[ae vra>,


xair_yae }ainn> ïeóa> }ain_yae Vyvsaiyn>.
Greater than the ignorant are those who have read the scriptures. Still greater
are those who have memorized them. Greater still are those who know their
meaning. The best are those who put them to practice. (Chapter 12.103)
Prose Order:
A}e_y> ïeòa> ¢iNwn>, ¢iNw_y> vra> xair[>, xair_y> ïeòa> }ainn>, }ain_y> Vyvsaiyn>
(ïeóa>),
³

13.5 %pin;d!
Upaniñad

Öa sup[aR syuja soaya sman< v&]< pir;Svjate,


tyaerNy> ipPpl< SvaÖiÄ AnZnÚNyae AiÉcakzIit.
Two birds bound to one other in close friendship, perch on the same tree. One
of them eats the fruits of the tree with relish, while the other looks on without
eating. (Muëòakopaniñad 3.1.1)
Prose Order:
syuja soaya Öa sup[aR sman< v&]< pir;Svjate, tyae> ANy> SvaÊ ipPpl< AiÄ, ANy>
AnZnn! AiÉcakzIit,
110 Sulabha Saàskåtam

à[vae xnu> zrae ýaTma äü tLlúymuCyte,


AàmÄen ve˜Vy< zrvt! tNmyae Évet.
!
The Praëava is the bow, the Ätman is the arrow and Brahman is said to be its
mark. It should be hit by one who is self-collected and the one who
hits becomes, like the arrow, one with the mark, which is Brahman.
(Muëòakopaniñad 2.2.4)
Prose Order:
xnu> à[v>, zr> ih AaTma, lúy< tt! äü %Cyte, AàmÄen ve˜Vy<, zrvt! tNmy> Évet,
!

%iÄót ja¢t àaPy vran! inbaext,


]urSy xara inizta ÊrTyya Êg›< pwStt! kvyae vdiNt.
Arise, awake; having reached the great teachers realize that Ätman. Like the
sharp edge of a razor is that path, difficult to cross and hard to tread – thus say
the wise. (Kaöhopaniñad 1.3.14)
Prose Order:
%iÄót, ja¢t, vran! àaPy inbaext, kvy> tt! pw> ]urSy xara inizta ÊrTyya Êg›<
(#it) vdiNt,
AaTman< riwn< ivi˜ zrIr< rwmev tu,
bui˜< tu sariw< ivi˜ mn> à¢hmev c.
Know the Ätman as the Lord of the chariot, and the body as the chariot. Know
the intellect as the charioteer and the mind verily as the reins. (Kaöhopaniñad
1.3.3)
Prose Order:
AaTman< riwn< ivi˜, zrIr< @v tu rwm! (#it ivi˜), bui˜< tu sariw< ivi˜, mn> à¢hm! @v
c (#it ivi˜),

#iNÔyai[ hyanahu> iv;ya<Ste;u gaecran!,


Textbook 111

AaTmeiNÔymnaeyKu t< ÉaeKteTyahumn


R Ii;[>.
The senses, they say, are the horses, and their roads are the sense objects.
When an individual is united with the body, the sense and the mind, call him
the enjoyer. (Kaöhopaniñad 1.3.4)
Prose Order:
#iNÔyai[ hyan! Aahu>, iv;yan! te;u gaecran! (Aahu>), AaTmeiNÔymnaeyKu t< ÉaeKta #it
mnIi;[> Aahu>,

13.6. r"uvz
< >
Raghuvaàça

vagwa›ivv sMp&KtaE vagwRàitpÄye,


jgt> iptraE vNde pavRtIprmeZvraE.
I bow down to Pärvaté and Parameçvara, the world parents, who like word
and meaning are unified, so that I may attain right knowledge of word and
sense. (Sarga 1.1)
Prose Order:
vakœ-AwR-àitpÄye vagwaRivv sMp&KtaE jgt> iptraE pavRtIprmeZvraE vNde,
tavuÉavip prSpriSwtaE vxRmanpirhIntejsaE,
pZyit Sm jnta idnaTyye pavR[aE zizidvakraivv.
Standing face to face in opposition, on the full moon day, the people beheld
them (Räma and Paraçuräma) like the sun and the moon at the end of the day,
with the glory of the one waxing and that of the other waning. (Sarga 11.82)
Prose Order:

pavR[aE idnaTyye zizidvakraE #v taE %ÉaE Aip prSpriSwtaE vxRmanpirhIntejsaE jnta


pZyit Sm,
112 Sulabha Saàskåtam

s sItalúm[so> sTyat! guémlaepyn!,


ivvez d{fkar{y< àTyek< c sta< mn>.
With Lakñmaëa and Sétä for companions, helping his father not to stray from
truth, he entered the Daëòaka forest, and the heart of every good man. (Sarga
12.9)
Prose Order:
s> sItalúm[so> sTyat! guém! Alaepyn! , d{fkar{y< àTyek< sta< mn> c ivvez,

àv&ÄaE %plBxaya< tSya> sMpaitdzRnat!,


maéit> sagr< tI[R> s<sar< #v inmRm>.
On meeting Sampäti they got news of Sétä. Märuti crossed the ocean, as a
selfless soul transcends this transitory life. (Sarga 12.60)
Prose Order:
sMpaitdzRnat! tSya> àv&ÄaE %plBxaya< inmRm> s<sarm! #v maéit> sagr< tI[R>,

s set<u bNxyamas PlvgE> lv[aMÉis,


rsatlat! #v %NmGn< ze;< SvPnay zai¼R[>.
Across the briny sea, with the help of the monkeys he built a bridge which
resembled Çeña rising from the nether regions for Viñëu to sleep on. (Sarga
12.70)
Prose Order:
s> PlvgE> lv[aMÉis zai¼R[> SvPnay rsatlat! %NmGn< ze;m! #v set<u bNxyamas,

< ivnazay c xmRs<SwapnawaRy yuge yu


Textbook 113

Transliteration and Pronunciation


In this book, Devanägaré characters have been transliterated according to the
scheme adopted by the International Congress of Orientalists at Athens in
1912. One fixed pronunciation value is given to each letter; f, q, w, x and z are
not called to use. According to this scheme:

sounds like sounds like

A a o in son f! ò d in dog
Aa ä in master F! òh dh in godhood
# i in if [! ë n in under
$ é ee in feel t! t
% u u in full w! th th in thumb
^ ü oo in boot d! d th in then
\ å ri in rim x! dh theh in breathe
here
@ e a in evade n! n
@e ai y in my p! p
Aae o )! ph ph in loop hole
AaE au ow in now b! b
kœ k É! bh bh in abhor
o! kh ckh in blockhead m! m
g! g (hard) y! y
"! gh gh in log-hut r! r
'! ì ng l! l
c! c ch in chuckle v! v in avert
D! ch chh in catch him z! ç sh in shut
j! j ;! ñ s in sugar
H! jh dgeh in hedgehog s! s
|! ï n in banyan h! h
q! ö t in tank < à
Q! öh th in ant-hill > ù (half h)