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Special Topic Seminar


Under Guidance of
Outline of Presentation
 Introduction
 History of Biosensor
 Components of biosensor
 Classification of Biosensor
 Typical Biosensor
 Biosensor on Nanoscale
 Application of Biosensor
 Conclusion
What is Biosensor?

 “A biosensor is an analytical device incorporating a deliberate

and intimate combination of a specific biological element (that
creates a recognition event) and a physical element (that
transduces the recognition event)”.

 Biosensor consist of : 1) Bioelement 2) Transducer

Current Definition
A sensor that integrates a biological element
with a physiochemical transducer to produce
an electronic signal proportional to a single
analyte which is then conveyed to a detector.
Why Are Biosensors Important ?
Biosensors are required:

 important tools in food safety, diagnostics,

medical monitors, and detection systems for
biological warfare agents.

 important devices offering analytical simplicity

both in and outside the analytical laboratory.

 selective, rapid and sensitive instruments for

determination of chemical and biochemical
Market Size of Biosensor

7.3 Billion $ in 2007 & 10.2 Billion $ in 2009 with a

growth rate about 10.4%
History of Biosensor

 1956 Clark published his definitive paper on the oxygen electrode.

 1962 First description of a biosensor: an amperometric enzyme

electrode for glucose (Clark)

 1969 Guilbault and Montalvo – First Potentiometric biosensor: urease

immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect urea

 1970 Bergveld – ion selective Field Effect Transistor (ISFET)

 1975 First commercial biosensor ( Yellow springs Instruments glucose


 1975 First microbe based biosensor, First immunosensor

History of Biosensor
1976 First bedside artificial pancreas (Miles)
1980 First fiber optic pH sensor for in vivo blood gases (Peterson)
1982 First fiber optic-based biosensor for glucose
1983 First Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor
1984 First mediated amperometric biosensor: ferrocene used with glucose
oxidase for glucose detection
1990 SPR based biosensor by Pharmacia BIACore
1992 Hand held blood biosensor by i-STAT
1996 Launching of Gluco-card
1998 Blood glucose biosensor launch by Life Scan Fast Take
1998 Roche Diagnostics by Merger of Roche and Boehringe Mannheim.
Current Quantum dots, nanoparicles, nanowire, nanotube, etc
Components of a

Immobilization Technique
 Membrane Entrapment
 Physical Adsorption
 Matrix Entrapment
 Covalent Bonding
Signal Conditioning Device with

Schematic diagram showing the main components of a biosensor. The

biocatalyst (a) converts the substrate to product. This reaction is
determined by the transducer (b) which converts it to an electrical signal.
The output from the transducer is amplified (c), processed (d) and
displayed (e).
Classification of Biosensor
Classification cont..
Example of biosensors

Pregnancy test

Detects the hCG

protein in urine.

Glucose monitoring device (for

diabetes patients)

Monitors the glucose level in the

Example of biosensors
 Infectous disease biosensor from RBS

BIACore Biosensor
Typical Biosensors

 Calorimetric Biosensor
 Optical Biosensor
 Piezo-electric Biosensor
 Ion Sensitive Biosensor
 Wearable Biosensor
Calorimetric Biosensor
 If the enzyme catalyzed reaction is exothermic,
two thermistors may be used to measure the
difference in resistance between reactant and
product and, hence, the analyte
concentration. The Sample Stream (a) passes through the
outer insulated box (b) to the heat
exchanger (c) within an aluminium block (d).
From there, it flows past the reference
thermistor (e) and into the packed bed
bioreactor (f, 1ml volume), containing the
biocatalyst, where the reaction occurs. The
change in temperature is determined by the
thermistor (g) and the solution passed to
waste (h). External electronics (I) determines
the difference in the resistance, and hence
temperature, between the thermistors.
Optical Biosensors

 Photometric for light intensity

Photon output for a luminescent or fluorescent
process can be detected with photomultiplier
tubes or photodiode systems.
Piezo-Electric Biosensors

Piezo-electric devices use gold to detect the specific angle at which electron
waves are emitted when the substance is exposed to laser light or crystals,
such as quartz, which vibrate under the influence of an electric field.
Ion-Sensitive FET Based
Based on Potentiometric principle.
Gate terminal of FET is coated with Enzymes Membrane.
Wearable Biosensor
 Wireless miniature sensors.
 Allow monitoring of physiological signals.
 Used for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
 Recorded data can be processed to detect
patient’s clinical situation.
 Examples
Ring Sensor

 Monitor Heart rate and

Oxygen Saturation.
 Equipped with low power
 Accomplishes bi-directional
communication with base
Working Principle of Ring Sensor
 Blood volume in the finger changes with the heart
muscle expansion and contraction.
 This blood volume changes can be easily detected
by photoelectric methods.
 Light emitted from LED is passed through finger and
is directed to Photo-resistor.
 Optical density of blood depends on the blood
 If the blood volume increases, optical density
increases, light transmission through finger reduces
& the resistance of photo-resistor increases.
 Thus the voltage generated by photo-resistor varies
with the amount of blood in the finger.
Ring Sensor

• Continuous monitoring
• Detection of transient phenomena
• promote further diagnostic and
therapeutic measures
• easy to use
• reducing hospitalization fee

• initial cost is high
• Limited number of physiological
parameters are to be monitored
Biosensors on the Nanoscale
 Molecular sheaths around the nanotube are developed that
respond to a particular chemical and modulate the
nanotube's optical properties.

 A layer of olfactory proteins on a nanoelectrode react with

low-concentration odorants (SPOT-NOSED Project). Doctors
can use to diagnose diseases at earlier stages.

 Nanosphere lithography (NSL) derived triangular Ag

nanoparticles are used to detect streptavidin down to one
picomolar concentrations.

 The School of Biomedical Engineering has developed an anti-

body based piezoelectric nano-biosensor to be used for
anthrax, HIV hepatitis detection.
Application of Biosensor
 Food Analysis
 Study of bio-molecules and their interaction
 Drug Development
 Crime detection
 Medical diagnosis (both clinical and laboratory use)
 Environmental field monitoring
 Quality control
 Industrial Process Control
 Detection systems for biological warfare agents
 Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and replacement

 Potential uses in Virtual Reality

Biosensors play a part in the field of

environmental quality, medicine and
industry mainly by identifying
material and the degree of
concentration present