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Homogenization refers to the process of forcing
the milk through a homogenizer with the object
of sub dividing the fat globules to a size of 2 µ
dia. or less.
„ Piston driven valve homogenizers are used
which subject milk to high velocity turbulent
flow fields.
„ Homogenizers are sometimes incorporated in
the pasteurizer and operated at or near
pasteurization Temp.
„ This has the advantage of permitting lower
pressures to be used and reducing problems
due to microbial contamination.
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Æactors contributing to stability of
homogenized milk :
1. Decrease in the mean dia. of Æ (a factor in stokes law
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2. Decrease in the size distribution of Æ 


causing the speed of rise to be similar for
majority of the globules so that they don¶t tend
to cluster during creaming
3. Increase in density of globules owing to the
adsorption of a protein membrane bringing
them closer to the continuous phase
4. Heat pasteurization breaks down the cryo
globulin complex (IgM+ lipoprotein complex)
which tends to cluster fat globules causing
them to rise.
Pfficiency of homogenization:
6 Æarrall index : Pfficiency is excellent when
upon microscopic examination average
Diameter of 90% fat globules ’ 2 µ
6 Ãreaming index:
50 ml homogenized milk in 2 centrifuge tubes
6 Ãentrifuge (1200 ± 1500 rpm/ 15min.)
6 Take upper 5 ml from each tube and test for
fat
6 Mix the rest of the two left over portions of
two tubes and carry out fat test
Ãreaming index = [(f1f2)/f1]X100
Interpretation scale:
’10 = Pxcellent
1020 = Very good
2030 = ood
30 = Æair
>30 = Poor
e.g.:
Æat in upper 5 ml (f1)= 3.5%
Æat in lower portion (f2) = 2.9%
Ãreaming index = (f1f2)/f1x 100

= 3.5 ± 2.9 x100 = 17%


3.5
Very good
lternative Method:
Homogenized milk in a measuring cylinder
Keep quiescent for 48 hrs.
Two layers are formed
Take fat test of both layers

Ãreaming index = [(f1f2)/f1]X100


Pffects:
6 6x in Æat lobule surface area
6 dsorption of major amounts of Ãasein &
casein micelles on to the newly created milk fat
globule surface
6 Æoaming properties
6 Heat stability (of high fat products)
6 Ãurd tension
6 Viscosity
6 Susceptibility to lipolytic enzyme action
6 Susceptibility to the formation of light
induced/ oxidized flavor
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