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Bending moment =

shear area

Area Method

2 Beam diagram

3 Shear diagram

4 Bending diagram

Consider the beam part between m and n

Equilibrium:

V n = 0 V m - V n - w x = 0 where wx = load between m & n M n = 0 M m -M n +V m x-wx 2 /2=0

where V m x-wx 2 /2 = shear between m & n

Area Method:

V n = V m + load between m & n (down -) M n = M m + shear area between m & n

V n =V m - wx

M n = M m +V m x-wx 2 /2

Area Method implications

• Positive shear = increasing bending

• Negative shear = decreasing bending

• Zero shear = maximum bending

• Linear shear

• Parabolic bending moment

• Moving from left to mid-span:

• Decreasing shear reduces amount of bending increase

Area Method implications

• Constant shear between point loads

• Linear bending moment

Examples

Design Defines beam size for actual loads and allowable stress of selected material Analysis Checks if a given beam satisfies allowable stress of the actual material Assume:

Wood

Allowable bending stress Allowable shear stress (parallel to fiber) Steel Yield strength Allowable bending stress (0.6 F y )

Allowable

F b = 1200 psi

F v =

95 psi

F y = 50 ksi F b = 30 ksi F v = 20 ksi

shear stress

(0.4 F y )

Note:

 F = allowable stress f = actual stress

Beam analysis Reactions

M c =0 =16 Rb-1000 (20)-300(4)18-200(16) 8

R

M b =0 =-16 Rc-1000(4)-300(4)2+200(16)8

R

b =(20000+21600+25600)/16

R b = 4200 lb

c

=(-4000-2400+25600)/16

R c = 1200 lb

Beam analysis Reactions

Shear

V ar = 0 - 1000 V bl = -1000 - 300 (4) V br = -2200 + 4200 V cl = +2000 - 200(16) = -R c Find X (V = 0 M max ) V br -wX=0 X=V br /w = 2000/200 Bending moment

M b

M x

=4(-1000-2200)/2

=-6400+10(2000)/2

Section modulus S=bd 2 /6=(3.5)11.25 2 /6 Bending stress f b =M/S= 6400(12)/74

Shear stress f v = 1.5V/(bd) = 1.5(2200)/[3.5(11.25)]

R b = 4200 lb R c = 1200 lb

V ar = -1000 lb V bl =-2200 lb V br = +2000 lb V cl = -1200 lb

X = 10 ft

M b = -6400 lb’ M x = +3600 lb’

S = 74 in 3

f b =1038 psi

1038<1200

f v = 84 psi<95

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2

Steel beam design

1 Actual beam

2 Beam diagram - ignore loads at supports

(has no effect on shear & bending, but on columns)

 Assume: L = 30’, P = 36 k, F b = 30 ksi, F v = 20 ksi

Reactions

R = 2P/2 = 2 (36)/2

Shear

V ar = V bl =R V br = V cl = 36 - 36 V cr = V dl = 0 - 36 V dr = -36 + 36 Bending moment M b = M c = 36 (10) Section modulus required

S = M/F b = 360 k’(12”)/ 30 ksi Use W18x76 Shear stress f v = V/(d t w ) = 36k/(18.21x0.425)

R = 36 k

V ar = V bl = 36 k V br = V cl = 0 V cr = V dl = -36 k V dr = 0

M b = 360 k’

S = 144 in 3 S = 146 > 144

f v = 4.65 ksi<20

Note: shear stress is rarely critical in steel beams

Concrete beam analysis
1
Actual beam
2
1
Beam diagram – ignore load at supports
(has no effect on beam shear & bending, but column)
Assume:
Span L = 30’, point load P = 20 k
Beam DL = 1.33’x2’x150 pcf /1000
Reaction
R = (2 P+w L)/2 = (2x20+0.4x30)/2
Shear
w = 0.4 klf
2
R = 26 k
= R
V ar
V bl = 26 - 0.4 (10)
V br = 22 - 20
V cl = 2 - 0.4 (10)
V cr = -2 - 20
V dl = -22 - 0.4 (10)
Bending moment
V ar = 26 k
V bl = 22 k
V
2 k
br =
V cl = -2 k
V cr = -22 k
V dl = -26 k
M b = 10 (26+22)/2
M max = M b + 2(5)/2
M b = 240 k’
M max = 245 k’
Note: Concrete stress will be covered in Arch 313

The end