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I.

Power

A. Definition

According to Morhead and Griffin, power is the potential ability of a person

or group to exercise control over another person or group. One of the important

issues discussed by the authors is the interpretation of power in terms of

potential; sometimes just having the potential is enough to influence other people

under certain circumstances. It is also explained how power may reside in each

individual, as a result, it is possible to establish a relationship between power and

influence (385).

Another author, Dorothy Emmet, gives a multiple definition of power. First

she explains power as a “causal efficacy”, which can be a change observed in

the physical world, or psychological pressure or manipulation, giving people

reasons for choosing one alternative over another. Second, she views power as

a “creative energy”, which manifested in the creation of art, ideas, discoveries,

and inventions, and will stimulate creative work and effort in other people. Third,

she explains power as a “personal influence” that will give strength to the

character, prestige, or charismatic qualities. Fourth, Emmet defines ritual power,

which will be a “causal efficacy in the magical sense” that institutionalizes

charismatic power, a way of expressing and canalizing corporate sentiment.

Fifth, legal power is explained, being understood as the legal capacity of a

person or agent, of an institution to take certain actions (88-89).

For this study power is defined as the capacity of individuals to influence

and exercise control over others’ opinions or behaviors.


B. Types of Power

These are classified by the bases of power, and into positional or personal

power.

1. Bases of power

John R.P. French, Jr, and Bertram Raven, in their study " The Basis of

Social Power", identified five major types of power: reward power, coercive

power, legitimate power, referent power, and expert power.

a. Reward power is the "power to bestow recognition (tangible or

psychological) upon followers.”

b. Coercive power is the "power to obtain compliance through fear of

punishment or sanctions.”

c. Legitimate power is the "power based on formal position and authority in

an organization.”

d. Referent power is the "power based on the follower's personal liking or

admiration of the leader.”

e. Expert power " is obtained through the exercise of specialized skills and

knowledge” (262-268).

2. Positional and Personal Power

In keeping with Moorhead and Griffin, another way to classify power is into

Positional or Personal Power.

a. Positional Power resides in the position, regardless of who holds it, to

include legitimate, reward, and coercive power. Examples of these three

types of power would be on the first place, a supervisor, who has the

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power of making decisions based on his/her position. At the same time the

position of that supervisor allows him/her to reward his/her employees for

his/her performance. Finally, that supervisor has the power of punishing

his/her employees based on the definition of his/her position.

b. Personal Power resides in the person, regardless of the position being

filled, to include in this classification, expert and referent power. Examples

of these two powers will be, on the first place, when employee in a

company without being supervisor could be seen as a source of expert

power, when he/she possess skills that are needed by others. Referent

power is that one that is (finish example) (387).

3. Power and its Consequences

Power can be classified according to its consequences. In agreement with

Kenneth Boulding there are three major categories: Destructive Power,

Productive Power, and Integrative Power.

In consonance with Boulding, Destructive Power can be explained as a

two-force power that could be positive or negative. The author claims, destruction

could be used in a productive way for humanity. When using dynamite,

bulldozers, to build dams, hospitals, humanity is getting benefits from it. Though,

it is important to be conscious that positive destructive power can have some

type of consequences such as destroying natural reservoirs for building a dam,

among others.

Productive Power, in line with Boulding, is found in creation, ideas, “in the

tools and machines that make things.”

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Finally, Integrative Power, as Boulding explains, is the capacity of bringing

people together, create organizations, groups, and inspire others. But at the

same time, says Boulding, this power could be used in a negative way by

creating enemies or alienating people (23-25).

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II. Leadership

A. Types

1. Transactional Leadership

According to Burns, “transactional leadership is based on bureaucratic

authority and legitimacy within the organization. Transactional leaders emphasize

work standards, assignments, and task-oriented goals. In addition, transactional

leaders tend to focus on task completion and employee compliance, and these

leaders rely quite heavily on organizational rewards and punishments to

influence employee performance” (qtd. in Tracey and Hinkin 2).

Den Harton, Van Muijen, and Koopman confirm that leadership has been

understood as a transactional or cost-benefit exchange process as previously

proposed by Bass. The authors note how the relationship established between

leaders and followers are based on a series of exchanges. They also suggest

how the behavior of the leaders will clarify what is expected from the

subordinates, and what they will get in return as compensation (2).

2. Transformational Leadership

Moorhead and Griffin define Transformational Leadership as the set of

abilities that allow the leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision

to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively. Only a leader with

tremendous influence can hope to perform these functions successfully (381).

In line with Burns, Transformational Leadership is “a process that

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motivates followers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values.

Transformational leaders must be able to define and articulate a vision for their

organizations, and the followers must accept the credibility of the leader” (qtd. in

Tracey and Hinkin 2).

Den Hartog, Van Muijen, and Koopman think that the transformational

leader inspires followers to do more and to become emotionally attached to

him/her by showing strong personal identification, sharing a vision, or going

beyond the expected requirements (2).

The interpretation of leadership in this paper is going to be from the

perspective of Transformational Leadership.

A. Dimensions

Bass and Avolio proposed that transformational leadership is comprised of

dimensions: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation,

and individualized consideration.

Idealized influence is described as a behavior that results in follower

admiration, respect and trust. Idealized influence involves risk sharing on the part

of leaders, a consideration of follower’s needs over personal needs, and ethical

and moral conduct.

The second dimension, inspirational motivation, is defined as behavior

that provides meaning and challenge to the follower’s work. It includes behaviors

that articulate clear expectations and demonstrate commitment to overall

organizational goals. In addition, team spirit is aroused through enthusiasm and

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optimism.

The third dimension is intellectual stimulation. Leaders who demonstrate

this type of transformational leadership solicit new ideas and creative problem

solutions from their followers, and encourage novel and new approaches for

performing work.

The fourth dimension is individualized consideration. This is reflected by

leaders who listen attentively and pay special attention to follower achievement

and growth needs (qtd. in Tracey and Hinkin 2).

Yusuf Ahmed explains that the foundations of transformational leadership

are charisma, inspiration, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation

(4).

B. Leadership and Credibility

In accordance with Bornstein and Smith, followers will make conscious

and unconscious evaluations of the potential leader. In consequence, they will

only keep to that leader they consider to be credible.

Credibility, in line with the authors, is based on six criteria that are called

the Six C's of Leadership Credibility:

a. conviction (passion and commitment the person demonstrates toward

his or her vision);

b. character (permanent demonstration of integrity, honesty, respect, and

trust);

c. care (concern for the personal and professional well being of others);

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d. courage (willingness to stand up for one's beliefs, challenge others,

admit mistakes, and change one's own behavior when necessary);

e. composure (consistent display of appropriate emotional reactions,

particularly in tough or crisis situations);

f. competence (proficiency in hard skills, such as technical, functional, and

context expertise skills, and soft skills, such as interpersonal, team,

communication, and organizational skills).

The degree to which leaders are seen as credible is the degree to which

potential followers will allow themselves to be influenced (283-284).

C. Characteristics of Leaders

As reported by Schein, the characteristics of leaders should be:

a. extraordinary levels of perception and insight into the realities of

the world and into themselves;

b. extraordinary levels of motivation to enable them to go through

the inevitable pain of learning and change, especially in a world

with looser boundaries, in which loyalties become more difficult to

define;

c. the emotional strength to manage their own and others' anxiety

as learning and change become more and more a way of life;

d. new skills in analyzing cultural assumptions, identifying functional

and dysfunctional assumptions, and evolving processes that

enlarge the culture by building on its strengths and functional

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elements;

e. the willingness and ability to involve others and elicit their

participation, when tasks become too complex and information too

widely distributed for leaders to solve problems on their own

f. the willingness and ability to share power and control according to

people's knowledge and skills, to permit and encourage leadership

throughout the organization (67-68).

D. Causes for leadership

In agreement with John W. Work, there are two general causes for

leadership. The first one, named perceived-inequity, arises from the perception

differences among groups in different settings. The second cause, named the

search-for-excellence, develops from managers or organizational heads, among

others, which perceive the need for improving an organization's level of

efficiency, productivity and profitability. It also can develop from a manager-

leader having a vision of the organization's mission in the future (74-75).

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III. Historic and Business Figures as examples of Power and Leadership

A. Interactions between Power and Leadership

There are three possible major combinations that can emerge from the

interaction of Power and Leadership.

• Individuals with Power and Leadership characteristics.

• Individuals with Power and no Leadership characteristics.

• Individuals with no Power and Leadership characteristics.

In order to understand these transactions better a triangle of Power and

Leadership has been designed by the writer of this study.

Leadership

It has been written in this paper how power can be classified in two types,

positional or personal. Applying this division to the previously mentioned

combinations the following number of alternatives can be suggested.

• Individuals with Personal and Positional Power, and Leadership

characteristics. This would be the ideal combination and in theory the

most beneficial type of transaction for the person embracing this two

characteristics.

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• Individuals with Personal Power and Leadership characteristics, lacking of

Positional Power. People in this condition would strive for reaching

positional power. In this case individuals may accomplish many goals, but

not as many as they could if they held positional power.

• Individuals with Positional Power, lacking of Personal Power and

Leadership characteristic. In this case the individual’s position gave

him/her the power, but he/she is lacking of leader characteristics. From

this transaction failure could be one of the results.

B. Differences and Similarities between Power and Leadership.

After reading the theory of Power and Leadership, it was necessary to

establish the differences and similarities between these two concepts. First

Power has been defined in this paper as the potential ability to exercise control;

on the contrary, leadership has been defined as the ability to influence people.

Second, Power is not necessarily used to pursue a vision; in contrast, Leadership

is the use of personal abilities and qualities to pursue a vision. Third, Power

could involve individuals by separately, while leadership would involve groups.

Fourth, the existence of credibility is essential for the substance of leadership;

however, credibility is not always linked with power. Fifth, a link can be

established between leadership and personal power; yet leadership seems to be

a broader concept for explaining “personal influence”.

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C. Historic and Business Figures

1. Power/Leadership

a. Margaret Thatcher

Michael Genovese explains how in the middle of 1970’s Britain was

experiencing difficult economic and politic times, and the country was perceived

as an “ungovernable”, in consequence economic indicators such as inflation,

economic growth, employment, were showing negative signals.

This was the country Margaret Thatcher received when she became

Britain’s Prime Minister. But Margaret’s last name was not always Thatcher.

She was the daughter of Alfred Roberts a man that marked her life. He

taught Margaret Roberts to win, to have work ethic, and to be willing to succeed.

Alfred gave her two important lessons for life. The first one was: “You must make

your own decisions. You don’t do something because your friends are doing it.

You do it because you think is the best thing to do.” The second lesson was:

“Don’t follow the crowd; don’t be afraid of being different. You decide what you

ought to do, and if necessary you lead the crowd. But you never just follow” (qtd.

in Genovese 181).

During college time Margaret Roberts became member of Oxford

University Conservative Association. In 1949, at the age of 24, she was elected

as candidate for the Conservative Party in Dartford. During her political campaign

Margaret met Denis Thatcher, her future husband. In 1951, they were married

and with the pass of two years she gave birth to her twins Carol and Mark

(Genovese 182-183).

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Margaret started to feel tired and unfulfilled with her home life, and

decided to fight for a seat in the Parliament. Thatcher’s political view was to

eliminate from Britain the power of the state, the centralization of authority, and

the socialist order.

Genovese writes, “as Margaret Thatcher prepared herself for the exercise

of power, she seemed quite ready to lead” (185). In 1975 Thatcher defeated her

opponent 130 to 119, becoming the leader of the Conservative Party. Although in

the 1979 election the Conservative’s won a majority of 43 seats and Margaret

Thatcher was pronounced Prime Minister, she was not having control over the

party she was representing.

Thatcher was a different type of British political leader. She was a bold,

innovative, ideological leader, a populist radical who relied on a strong

sense of self, a warrior image, self confidence, determination, and

conviction (…) she had a strong sense of moral rigidity and mission (…)

Thatcher was generally more ambitious, more of a centralizer, more

autocratic, less collegial, more confrontational, and more ideological than

her predecessors” (Genovese 197-198).

It can be inferred from Thatcher’s life that she was a woman with Power

and with characteristics of Leader. Her position as Prime Minister gave her

Positional Power. Her name is associated with a period of time “Thatcherism”,

becoming a figure that holds Personal Power. Margaret showed characteristics of

leader through her entire life. She was a motivated woman, with skills, following a

vision, and she had enough credibility to be elected three times as Prime

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Minister. She had the ideal combination of Power and Leadership to engage and

achieve major challenges.

b. Golda Meir

Golda Meir was born in Russia in May 1898. Two major issues drove her

life. The first was her sense of Jewish identity; the second, her commitment to

public service, political life, and her gender. Her conviction of public service was

so elevated, that most of her difficult moments were the result of choosing it over

her private life (Thompson 135).

As reported by Thompson, she moved to America when she was eight

years old, became an outstanding elementary school student, and began to be

involved in politics. Three of the characteristics of Golda Meir were her

identification with the rectification of wrong, her focus on fundraising, and her

ability to persuade and organize.

In 1917, explains the author, she married Morris Myerson and become

actively involved in the Zionist movement. From this moment Golda started to

develop her political career. In 1921, she left for Palestine, leaving behind her life

in the US.

To be Jewish is to be a Zionist and to be a Zionist is to participate in the

creation of the Jewish State in Palestine. It was the sense of identity and

purpose that gave meaning and direction to her life and career, and she

clung to it even at the cost of physical emotional distress (Thompson 138).

The author explains how Golda was admired for her sincerity, her

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identification with communal and collective life, her capacity to solve problems,

her determination, and her ability to speak to large groups and meet with

common people (138-139).

Thompson describes how the years from 1923 to 1928 represented a

period of poverty and isolation. During this time she gave birth to two children

and accepted to live away from the Kibbutz in order to avoid problems with her

husband. The author explains the separation of Golda from her husband Morris

Meyerson, being one of the reasons Morris’ expectations of a more traditional

role and behavior from his wife, a person that was deeply committed with a public

life (140-141).

In 1928 she got a position as secretary of the Woman’s Labor Council of

the Histadrut. This position made her go back to her ideals, the birth of the

Jewish State and the creation of a new society. She succeeded at this position

and gained reputation, due to the institution’s need of her skills. According to

Thompson, she was concentrating more on practical issues, she was

representing her organization, and was traveling abroad as a representative of

Jews in Palestine (142).

At the same time Golda was taking part in the formation of the Mapai

Political Party. Her political career continued with a series of designations. First

she was elected head of the Political Bureau of the Jewish Agency in Jerusalem,

then she was named Minister of Labor, and in 1965 Foreign Minister. She was

well known for her confrontational style, her willingness to establish better

relations with third world countries, and her firm position when dealing with the

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arab-israeli conflict (Thompson 142-146).

According to Thompson, Golda decided to retire when she turned 70 from

the political arena. But this didn’t last longer, in 1970, Levi Eshkol Israel’s Prime

Minister suffered a fatal heart attack. Golda became again Prime Minister. In

1975, Golda announced her definitely retirement from Politics. She died three

years later of Leukemia (147-150).

As Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir played a critical role in the political life

of the Jewish State. She demonstrated characteristics of Leadership and Power.

She dedicated her entire life to pursue her vision, her dream: the birth of the

Jewish State and the creation of a new society. Her conviction, and character

were two of the drivers that helped her to successfully survive politics.

C. Simon Bolivar

Simon Bolivar was born in Caracas-Venezuela on July 24th 1783. He grew

up in a period where revolutions and reforms were taking place all over the world

in the form of international alliances, political innovation, or military glory. In more

than a way Simon Bolivar grew to represent the ideals and trends of this era

(Johnson 9).

According to Johnson, Bolivar concentrated his efforts in pursuing his

dream of liberty and many found in his figure the inspiration, becoming “El

Libertador” -The Liberator (11).

Johnson confirms the perception of Simon Bolivar as a leader, an

individual with special characteristics and many talents that liberated Bolivia,

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Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela from Spain. “Bolivar was a change-

marker. By keeping faith with his ideals and exhibiting rare qualities of

leadership, he ultimately moved his people to want freedom” (12).

Some of the characteristics that can be accounted as part of Bolivar’s

personality are his generosity (he donated all his fortune to the liberation cause),

his trust in men and in personal creative action (the loyalty shown by his

subordinates and their commitment to the liberation cause), his courage, and his

ability to work, fight, and communicate with all types of men (Johnson 12-14).

His personal charm disarmed his critics. His readiness to attempt the

heroic, inspired men to subordinate their conduct to the welfare of the

cause. A consummate orator, actor, and writer, Bolivar was able to divert

inspiration and heroism to wherever it was most urgently required: on the

battlefield or in the halls of Congress, to a Constitution, a treaty, or a battle

plan (Johnson 14).

Simon Bolivar was a figure that possessed the Positional and Personal

Power, combined with characteristics of Leadership. This ideal mix allowed him

to liberate five countries from Spain, and to commit thousands of people to his

cause. He had the skills, the preparation, the vision, the resources, and the

power, to start and convince others to fight for a shared cause.

Power/ No Leadership

a. Jefferson Davis

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Jefferson Davis was born on June 3rd 1808 in Kentucky, US. He came

from a family where military service and patriotism were highly valued. Davis

entered the Military Academy of West Point in New York, where he hold a good

academic record but his resistance to attend church and avoid prohibited

taverns, had an impact on his class position (Gale Research-Discovering US

History 2).

Davis enjoyed military life and soon was promoted to first lieutenant.

According to the author, his military career showed him “the habit of command

and the responsibility of authority” (Gale Research- Discovering US History 2).

In 1832 Davis meet Sallie Knox Taylor. Jefferson carries a difficult

courtship since Sallie’s father didn’t want for his daughter a husband related with

the military career. In 1835 Davis resigned from the army with the idea of a

promising civil career and decided to marry Sallie Knox Taylor. But Sallie dyed

three months later from Malaria (Gale Research- Discovering US History 2).

According to the author, this was a devastating time for Davis, but in 1845

Jefferson married Varina Howell. From the six children they had only two

survived the couple. After a few years and putting effort into a Plantation, Davis

decided to enter the political arena, winning in 1845 a seat in the congress (Gale

Research-Discovering US History 3).

In 1846 claims the author, Davis resigned his position in the Congress and

was elected colonel. He was known as a “strict disciplinarian who tolerated no

plundering in Mexico” (3). Davis became a hero during this period, and was

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appointed as senator in 1847. He was elected for the rest of the term remaining

in 1848 and reelected in 1850.

Davis always hoped for a military career and when he thought he could be

elected to command the newly formed military Confederate States of America, he

was elected President of the Provisional Government in 1861.

According to the author, “Davis demonstrated a marked inability to deal

with many basic needs. He did not inspire politicians, or the people, to set aside

parochial interests until independence was achieved; he was not able to bring

together all the limited resources of the embattled country; slaves were not

effectively used by the Confederacy; and financial instability and the lack of such

basics as food caused great suffering (…) In military affairs, the president’s

competence did not live up to his expectations. His insistence on protocol and his

inability to see errors led him astray” (Gale Research-Discovering US History 5).

After the war he was considered a conspirator in the assassination of

Lincoln. He was indicted for treason in 1866. His wife raised funds for a $100,000

bail and a “writ of habeas corpus” was entered. On December 6 1889 he died in

New Orleans, Lousiana.

Jefferson Davis was a figure with Positional Power, but no characteristics

of Leadership. At the same time he lacked of Personal Power. He possessed

skills, he was inspired by military life, but he didn’t hold any of the characteristics

of Leaders. Jefferson was not fighting for a vision, motivating others, or sharing

his power. Davis just desired a military career and he reflected this aspiration in

his personality and actions.

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b. Isabel Peron

According to Sara Weir, on 1974 Isabel Peron became the first woman to

achieve presidential power in America, after being elected Vice-President nine

moths before. She was the widow of Juan Domingo Peron. Her year and a half

presidency were a catastrophe. Finally she was removed by military forces form

her position. She was lacked the charisma and leadership qualities of Eva Peron.

“Isabelita, the understudy, lacked Evita’s brains, charisma and raw, driving

energy” (161-164).

She was born in 1931, in la Rioja-Argentina. Although there is not much

written information about her past, there wasn’t found any information of her

interest for politics. In 1961 she married Juan Domingo Peron in Madrid in a

secret ceremony (Weir 164).

She was qualified as incompetent and not a unifying force, her

performance as president has been seen as poor, and has even been held

responsible for the disappearance of more than six thousand Argentineans (Weir

164,166,172,173).

Isabel Peron is one of the best examples of a figure with Positional Power,

but lacking of Leadership characteristics, and no Personal Power. She didn’t

have the skills, the vision, the willingness to involve others, and these factors

were reflected in her presidency.

c. Corazon Aquino

Maria Corazon Simulong Cojuangco was borne in 1933. She was raised in

an well-educated and wealthy family. She married Benigno Aquino in 1954,

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when both were 21 years old. She dedicated the first years of her married life

to raise their children (Col 21-22).

According to Col, in 1986 after her husband’s assassination, Aquino

assumes the presidency of Philippine, developing a soft presidential style that

was criticized by many (14).

Although Aquino quickly became the symbol of the struggle, no one

in those early days thought of her as a potential leader. Nor did she

envisioned such a role for herself. She was never the political

neophyte that some of the pros took her for- at their peril. However,

she lacked such leadership qualities as experience, ambition, and

confidence, which other opposition personalities possessed in

excess (qtd. in Col 20).

With the pass of time she gained experience and became more

comfortable with her position. Her main goal was to revenge the death of her

husband, and to save her country from the men that did it (21). But comments

started to shadow her presidential period. People started to notice she was more

concentrated in fighting “the dictator”, instead of be working and developing plans

for the people of Philippines. Due to her lack of skills, her programmed plan of

action failed.

Corazon Aquino a woman with the legal power, but lacking the skills and

the character needed to be a leader. One of the reasons for her failure was the

absence of vision. Apparently, her only goal was to revenge the death of her

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husband. After the death of “the dictator” responsible for it, Aquino was left with

no plans or reasons to keep governing.

d. Benazir Bhutto

According to Nancy Anderson, Benazir Bhutto was born in Pakistan in

1953. She graduated from Harvard University as cum laude in 1973. Even

though she was a woman, her parents raised her in a relatively free environment.

Benazir’s father was executed by General Mohammed Zia, when she was 25

years old (Anderson 41,44,46).

In 1986 Benazir went back to Pakistan and decided to run for Prime

Minister defying her father’s executor. She knew a lot of her popularity came from

her father’s sad ending and it was her strategy to emphasize her role as the

daughter of the martyr (52).

Benazir Bhutto received a series of critics related with the way she

conducted herself. She was seen as arrogant and as a person that didn’t take

criticism. She was accused of not having an agenda, and that her only goal was

to fight Zia, the murdered of her father, by transforming it as a cause of the

people. However, it is important to point out that Bhutto was pursuing power in a

Muslim country, where the role of women is diminished (Anderson53-54).

She was dedicated to her cause and government, but she was

inexperience, and she was not able to gain the sympathy of the military sector of

her country, after Zias death. After becoming Prime Minister she made promises

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to the people, she was not able to keep. She was accused of nepotism and seen

as an ineffective, weak, arrogant, and inexperienced leader (Anderson 59,61).

Despite the fact Benazir Bhutto was a Prime Minister in a Muslim country,

she didn’t have the characteristics of a leader. She had the Positional Power, but

missing the necessary skills, character, and vision made her failed in her journey.

As Aquino, Bhutto was basing her plans in making a personal revenge a

national plan, and didn’t work to have a vision that embraced the majority of the

people of her country.

2. No Power / Leadership

a. Jane Addams

She was born in 1860 in Cedarville, Illinois and was the daughter of John

Huy Addams. A man that implanted on Jane the ideas of democracy, equality,

and equal opportunity (Gale Research-Discovering US History).

According to the “Hanbook of American Women’s History”, Jane Addams

was “a pioneer in the settlement house movement, social worker, and peace

advocate, was among America’s most influential reformers” (8). In 1889 she

founded her Hull House settlement in Chicago, which major role was to serve the

poor people of the neighborhood and also served as a center for social reforms.

Addams was decided to challenge the traditional role of women. Educated

women became the target of Addams, who trhough her writing and speaking,

encouraged them to quit their domestic duties and started to be involved with

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social activism. After a while Addams reunited around the Hull House many

reformers, the majority women, who felt identify with her ideas and moral issues.

They became leaders of national campaigns for protective labor legislation

for women, for elimination of child labor, for factory inspection laws, and

for women’s suffrage (Gale Research-Discovering US History 5).

During the times of World War I, Addams became a pacifist, position that

diminished her popularity during these years. She believed in the “harmony of

interests” among countries and nationalities, being possible to establish a

relationship based on cooperation. In 1915 with the help of other women she

founded the Women’s Peace Party.

In 1931 she was awarded the Nobel Peace Price in recognition of “fifty

years of social activism and service”(Handbook of American Women’s History 8).

She died in May 1935 of cancer in Chicago.

Jane Addams was a woman who wanted to do significant actions through

her life, but the society in which she lived placed on women a role of submission,

familiar life, and sanctity. She was a woman with characteristics of leadership,

committed to a vision, but who lacked the legal power to transform into reality

those changes she greatly wanted.

b. Susan Anthony

She was born in 1820 in Massachusetts and grew under Quaker education.

Her father transmitted the values of discipline and self-confidence. Her family

supported the abolitionist and women’s rights movements. She started a career

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as a teacher, not because she wanted, but for the limited choice women had at

that moment of time. After teacher for more than a decade she finally found her

north, reform. At the end of the civil war she started to fight for women’s right to

suffrage, this became her lifetime goal. Politics became a major part of her life,

sometimes lacking of a permanent home (Handbook of American Women’s

History 31).

When she became part of the Woman’s Suffrage Movement, she worked

hard and continuously. She organized state and national conventions, collected

signatures for a petition to give women the right to vote and own property. In

1860 women had their first victory. They were allowed to “control their own

earnings and property, to enter into contracts, and to serve as the guardians of

their children” (Gale Research- Discovering US History 3). But women still had to

wait to be given the right to vote. However, Anthony’s strategy became a model

for feminist causes (3).

During 1868 and 1870, Susan was the editor of the Revolution as feminist

weekly, where issues such as prostitution and divorce were discussed. In 1872

after reading an editorial Anthony claimed the right to register in order to vote.

Other women followed Susan’s action, and converged at registration centers.

Almost three weeks later, she was arrested and taken to trial (Gale Research-

Discovering US History 4).

Susan Anthony didn’t live to see her dream come true, but at least she

was pleased with the number of changes that took place during her journey. She

died in 1906 in Rochester, New York (Gale Research- Discovering US History 5).

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As many other women in World’s History, Susan Anthony had the desired

to accomplish a better and more equal life for women in the United States. She

had two reasons for being a leader “perceived-inequity”, and the desired of being

better. Her gender impeded her achieving powerful formal positions. She was the

leader of a movement, with a long-term vision, the skills, and the motivation to

keep working for years. Even though she didn’t have Positional Power (she was

fighting for the opportunity to have it), her personality and expertise allowed her

to have Personal Power.

c. Walt Disney

Walter Ellias Disney was born in 1901 in Chicago, Illinois. The memories of

his childhood were not immensely happy, especially those related to his difficult

relationship with his father. Walter loved the country life, being in contact with

animals, and was fascinated with trains (Gale Research-Discovering US History

1).

When was fifteen and his family moved back to Chicago, he decided to

stay alone in Kansas City, where he worked and took art lessons. When the war

started Walter was anxious with the idea of going and wearing a uniform, but due

to his age the army rejected him. With false documentation, he finally got

accepted in the Red Cross and was send overseas, being an experience that

marked his character (Gale Research-Discovering US History 2).

While living in Kansas City the young Disney try a variety of jobs as

commercial artist and cartoonist, and his curiosity for filmed cartons was borne.

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At this point he met Ub Iwerks with whom Disney established a long relationship.

They “started a long and interesting, often troubling, relationship between the

consummate artist Iwerks and the consummate organizer and visionary Disney”

(Gale Research-Discovering US History 2).

Disney was married to Lillian Bounds in 1925, and started working on his

next project a mouse called Mickey. He wrote different stories around this

character and finally tried the incorporation of sound in one of his adventures. His

experiment revolutionized the film industry and was acclaimed as one of the

geniuses in this area. He was honored with Academy Awards in 1932,

1933,1935,1937, and 1939, while his studio was growing (Gale Research-

Discovering US History 3).

World War II and a labor union strike affected Disney’s studio during the

decade of the 40’s. Despite the negative environment of this period, the studio

still had success with characters such as Dumbo, The Three Caballeros, and

Bambi. Disney’s creativity was continuously being imprinted on his work. He

innovated by combining live action with his cartoons, doing documentaries, or by

using controversial topics. But his most important work was the creation of

Disneyland. “The fantastic success of Disneyland and the later Walt Disney

World (1971) in Florida stood as final testimony to Disney’s courage and vision”

(Gale Research-Discovering US History 4).

Disney continued to have a successful career with his projects and even

wining more Academy Awards, but his life came to an end in 1966. He died from

lung cancer. He was a man that was not afraid of expressing his thoughts, giving

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ideas, and putting his best effort on his work. He wanted to create smiles, and

probably give himself the childhood he was denied (Gale Research-Discovering

US History 5).

Walter Ellias Disney was a Business Leader, a visionary, who had skills,

perception, conviction, and character. He was an artist that didn’t need Positional

Power in order to achieve his goals; his Personal Power and Leadership

characteristics made him a successful businessman.

d. Gabrielle Chanel

She was borne in August 19, 1883 in Saumur-France. She started making

hats in Paris in 1910 taking her first steps into fashion. Gabrielle, better known as

“Coco” revolutionized women fashion with her “straight, simple, uncorseted, and

comfortable Chanel look”, she introduced the use of short hair for women, short

skirts, and created her famous perfume Chanel No.5. Coco challenged an

industry dominated by men, and took advantage of her own gender in order to

become a successful businesswoman (Gale Research-Discovering US History

1).

Coco’s rapid success cannot be explained merely by the chance

occurrence of puff wind. Her entrance into couture was a

deliberate, well-thought-out enterprise. Rich friend ready to help

her, jersey, the war: all these circumstances Coco exploited to the

utmost, following a plan conceived by someone intelligent enough

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to perceive the tendencies of an epoch and the underlying trends of

the present (Galante 40).

According to Galante, Coco owed her triumph to her skills, talent, sense of

timing, and courage to fight prejudices in taste (64). She was friend of artists and

poets, Coco was in contact with the outside world an its changes. She dedicated

her entire life to a define goal and no one could take her away from it (172-173).

Coco Chanel was a visionary, a woman that challenged the fashion

industry of her time. She imposed a style of dressing and looking that was not

consonant with the ideal of a feminine figure. She was a leader, with motivation,

skills, and perception; possessing the character and the conviction necessary to

fight for her ideals. Gabrielle was an expert in fashion, and in visualizing the

future trends of the artistic world.

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IV. Conclusions and Recommendations

Determining a relationship between Power and Leadership, was one of

the purposes of this study. As explained in chapter IV, Power is related to

Leadership in more than one way. The interactions that can emerge from these

two variables are mainly three: individuals with Power and Leadership

Characteristics, individuals with Power and no Leadership characteristics, and

individuals with no Power and having Leadership characteristics. The “Triangle of

Leadership and Power” is a visual help to identify these possible combinations.

From the definitions of Power (Positional, Personal) and Leadership

(Transformational) used in this study further combinations can be inferred.

In order to verify if these combinations were real, the lives of historic and

business figures were analyzed. Evidence was searched in order to verify if the

figure possessed or lacked the characteristics bounded to each concept. Eight

historic and two business figures were analyzed. The historic performance of

each of these individuals resulted as expected. Leaders with Power had better

opportunities to achieve their goals and be committed to their vision. Margaret

Thatcher, Golda Meir, Simon Bolivar, had the power, resources, ideas, and the

credibility, necessary to be successful according to the theory analyzed for this

study. They had a vision that was well founded, and shared by others.

Individuals with Power, but no characteristics of Leaders performed as

expected. In general, history has qualified Jefferson Davis, Isabel Peron,

Corazon Aquino, and Benazir Bhutto as not very successful governors. They had

the required Positional Power, but they didn’t have the characteristics of

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Leadership required to be successful in their positions. Isabel Peron, Corazon

Aquino, and Benazir Bhutto didn’t have a vision. They had goals, and desires of

revenge, but they didn’t have a vision shared by those that surrounded them or

the people they were governing. To be a Leader is necessary to have more than

the power given by title. Jefferson Davis was a different case. His dream was to

be a military and this was reflected in his authoritative style. Davis just wasn’t

highly motivated to be a civil leader.

Finally, individuals with characteristics of Leaders, but no Positional Power

as Jane Addams, Susan Anthony, Walt Disney, and Gabrielle Chanel, are going

to be fighting for the realization of their vision. The cases of Addams and

Anthony, would probably be the best examples. Prepared women that wanted to

have a more active role in society, but it was denied just because of their gender.

Many women identified themselves with the cause of Addams and Anthony,

becoming their individual fights a common one. They were striving to achieve

Positional Power. They were productive leaders, but probably had been more if

they had had in their hands the required Positional Power to make things change

a little bit faster. Walt Disney and Coco Chanel were business leaders. Each

made an impact in the respective area, the film and fashion industry. Both were

visionaries, people ahead of their time, who convinced others to follow their

dream. They had skills, motivations, and courage, to accept criticism and still

stand for their beliefs. They held Personal Power, and learned to deal with the

lack of Positional Power.

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After analyzing each figure a number of issues became evident. First, in

many cases external conditions such as wars, difficult economic times, death,

make leaders bloom. Of course internal characteristics and qualities would have

a major importance, but in many cases the occurrence of an unexpected event

triggered the development of the future leader. Second, having a general vision

that survives time or events appears to be a decisive factor in the success or

failure of the leader. Third, the characteristics admired in leaders could change

according to culture. Factors such as gender, marital status can influence the

credibility of the leader.

The recommendations that resulted from this study to managers are

• to identify if any of the three combinations analyzed in this study are

present in the organization, in order to take specific actions that will

allow that individual to achieve higher levels of productivity.

• to identify the ways Power is being used in the organization. Is it

Integrative (involving and motivating people), Destructive (creating

enemies or discordance), or Productive (developing a learning and

creative environment)?

All individuals have a relevant skill, something they do at their best, and one

of the functions of managers should be to identify it and help that individual to

develop that skill.

For future researchers it would be interesting to analyze the way Power

and Leadership are defined in other cultures, and if gender, marital status, and

age, have an effect on Power and Leadership.

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