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Pure Substance: Matter that contains only one type of particle throughout the sample.

It has consistent chemical and


physical properties. It is only composed of elements and compounds
Examples: Pure Water (H2O), Pure Salt (NaCl), Pure Sugar (C12H22O11), Diamond, Pure Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Element: A pure substance made up of only one type of atom that cannot be broken down into simpler kinds of matter
by any means. They are the simplest (not smallest) form of matter. Elements can exist in the form of an atom (made up
of the same kind of atoms) or the more stable molecule form (made up of pairs of bonded atoms (oxygen atoms [O] vs.
oxygen gas [O2]))
Examples: Oxygen (O), Potassium (K), Carbon (C), Gold (Au), Copper (Cu)

Atom: The smallest particle of an element that retains the identity of the element. It consists of a nucleus and an
electron cloud. Any elements can exist as an atom
Examples: helium atoms, gold atoms, oxygen atoms, carbon atoms

Compound: A pure substance made up of two or more different atoms that are chemically bonded in a fixed ratio.
Compounds can always be broken down by chemical change into simpler kinds of matter. All compounds are molecules
Examples: H2O (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide), NaCl (salt), C2H6O (ethanol)

Molecule: The smallest discrete particle of a molecular compound that has one or more shared pairs of electrons in
one or more covalent bonds. A combination of two or more atoms (can be same or different) that are chemically
bonded in a fixed ratio. All compounds are molecules. Molecules can always be broken down by chemical change into
simpler kinds of matter
Examples: H2O (water), O2 (oxygen gas), CO2 (carbon dioxide), He2 (helium gas)

Mixtures: Combination of two or more pure substances that are not chemically bonded in which they retain their respective
identities in the mixture. They can be separated by physical means

Homogeneous Mixtures: A mixture that has its components spread evenly throughout (not just visually)
Examples: Metal Alloys (brass, steel, white gold), Coffee and Cream, Tea, Perfume

Solutions: A homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes (minority) dissolved in a solvent (majority). The
solute, solvent, and the resulting solution can be solids, liquids or gasses.
Examples: Brass, Iced Tea, Carbonated Water, Air (oxygen and nitrogen), Water Vapour, Salt Water

Heterogeneous Mixtures: A mixture that does not have its components spread evenly throughout (not just visually).
Also called mechanical mixtures
Examples: Oil and Water, Trail Mix, Nuts and Bolts

MATTER
PURE SUBSTANCES
Elements
Atom
Form

Molecule
Form

Pure Sample
Form

MIXTURES
Compounds

Mixture
Form

Molecule
Form

Pure Sample
Form

Homogeneous
Mixture
Form

Heterogeneous
(Mechanical)

Physical Change: A physical change does not produce a new substance, but a change in form or state of matter (melting
[solid-liquid], freezing [liquid-solid], vaporization [liquid-gas], condensation [gas-liquid], sublimation [solid-gas], desublimation
(deposition) [gas-solid]). It may also occur when substances are mixed, however does not chemically react. Physical changes
are reversible
Examples: Melting an Ice Cube, Formation of Dew, Smashing a Bottle, Chopping Vegetables, Mixing Sand and Water,
Sublimating Dry Ice, Dissolving Sugar into Water

Physical Properties: Properties in which you can determine through your five senses or measure by other means without
changing its chemical composition. Intensive and extensive physical properties can be both divided into subgroups of
qualitative and quantitative properties

Intensive Properties: Aspects of matter that remains constant


Examples: Density, Odour, Colour, Conductivity, Malleability, Lustre, Hardness, Boiling Point, Melting Point, Absorption,
Brittleness, Fluidity, Luminance, Solubility, Luminance, Temperature
Extensive Properties: Aspects of matter that changes if the amount of the substance changes
Examples: Mass, Volume, Length, Weight
Qualitative Properties: Aspects of matter that can be described but not measured
Examples: Colour, Odour, State of Matter, Texture, Lustre, Malleability
Quantitative Properties: Aspects of matter that can be measured and assigned a value with units
Examples: Density, Volume, Mass, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Solubility, Viscosity, Hardness, Conductivity

Chemical Change: A chemical change produces a new substance through chemical reaction, for example through
combustion. Chemical changes are irreversible
Examples: Formation of Rust, Burning Wood, Cooking an Egg, Baking a Pizza, Photosynthesis, Mixing Acids and Bases (like
hydrochloric acid [HCl] and sodium hydroxide [NaOH]), Digestion in the Human Body, Using Soap

Chemical Properties: Properties in which you can only determine through changing its chemical composition, producing a
new substance
Examples: Toxicity, Reactivity with Other Substances (e.g. water, oxygen, acids/bases, other chemicals), Flammability,
Combustibility, Oxidation, Radioactivity, Chemical Stability, Formation of New Chemical Bonds

Subatomic Particles: Particles smaller than an atom. There are three subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
An atoms nucleus houses the protons (positively-charged) and neutrons (no charge), and electrons (negatively-charged) orbit
outside of the nucleus. Every atom must at least have one proton
Democritus (400 BC)
First proposed the atomic theory (everything is made up of atoms which each
have a different size/shape; cannot be divided; founder of atomic
materialism

John Dalton (1803)


Created the billiard ball model in which the atom is a small, hard,
indestructible sphere; proposed worlds first atomic theory (everything is
made up of atoms which cannot be destroyed or further separated; atoms of
the same element have distinctive properties throughout; when atoms are
combined, compounds are created)

Joseph John Thomson (1897, 1904)


Discovered the electron; all atoms are made up of electrons (1897)
Created the plum pudding model consisting of small negatively-charged
electrons inserted in a large circle of positive-charged matter (1904)

Robert Andrews Millikan (1909)


Performed oil drop experiment to find the charge of one electron

Ernest Rutherford (1911)


Created the planetary model in which negatively-charged electrons orbit a
positively-charged nucleus (protons/neutrons not yet discovered)

Niels Bohr (1913)


Created the Bohr-Rutherford model; quantized electron levels; negativelycharged electrons orbit a positively-charged nucleus at different energy levels;
for electrons to jump between levels, they must absorb a quantum

Ernest Rutherford (1918)

James Chadwick (1932)

Discovered the proton

Discovered the neutron

Chemical Reaction: The process that occurs when two or more substance combine to produce a chemical change
Chemical Equation: An equation used to describe the steps of chemical reaction
Reactants: The starting substances that combine to create a chemical reaction
Products: The substances that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction Rate: The speed at which a chemical reaction occurs
Activation Energy: The external energy that has to be added in order for a chemical reaction to occur
Catalyst: A substance that helps a chemical reaction to occur (lowers the activation energy), but does not participate in the
reaction itself

Law of Conservation of Mass: States that matter is neither created nor destroyed in any chemical reaction. The number of
reactant atoms will be the same as the number of product atoms of a chemical reaction

Ionic Bond: Formed when electrons transfer between atoms because of attraction between oppositely charged ions (polar)
Covalent Bond: Formed when atoms share electrons (nonpolar)
Net Electric Charge: Can be positive charge or negative charge. Atoms with net electric charge are ions because they have a
different number of electrons than protons. It is found by subtracting the number of protons by electrons
Examples: O10+ = 10 electrons removed
N3- has a negative charge, because 3 electrons are gained. In a neutral nitrogen atom, there are 7 electrons. N3- has gained 3
electrons, so there are 10 electrons.
N+ has a positive charge, because an electron is lost. In a neutral nitrogen atom, there are 7 electrons. N+ has lost an electron,
so there are 6 electrons.

Atomic Number: Is equal to the amount of protons in an atoms nucleus. In an ordinary atom, the number of protons equals
the number of electrons. This means that the atom has no net electric charge, since the protons and the electrons all balance
out

Atomic Mass: The average mass of numerous forms of the element (isotopes) based on natural occurrence. Elements with
more isotopes can have higher atomic mass

Mass Number: The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. All mass numbers are constant, and can typically
found by rounding the Atomic Mass to the nearest one.
Periodic
Table of
Elements

Standard
Atomic
Notation

11

Na
Sodium
22.99

23
11

Na

In the Periodic Table of Elements


The Atomic Number is displayed on the top. It shows the amount of protons in the
atoms nucleus
Next is the Atomic Number is the abbreviated Symbol of the element
After that, the full name of the element is shown
At the very bottom, the Atomic Mass is shown. This represents the average mass
of the element
You would write this with the Mass Number as a superscript on the top-left side of the
abbreviation, and the Atomic Number as a subscript on the bottom-left side.
*Please note that there is a difference between an elements Atomic Mass and its Mass Number

Isotope: Another form of a same element that has the same amount of protons but a different amount of neutrons. Isotopes
are often radioactive, and have a higher atomic mass than the element in its natural form
Example: 13C = Carbon isotope with mass number 13 (called carbon-13), 8Li = Lithium isotope with mass number 8
Standard Chemical Notation 1

x
y

He

Standard Chemical Notation 2

-z

14
7

Isotope Chemical Notation

-3

15

Chemical Symbol: He2 (helium gas)


Mass Number: x
Atomic Number: y
Net Electric Charge: (-z)
Protons: y
Neutrons: x - y
Electrons: y + (-z)

Chemical Symbol: N (Nitrogen)


Mass Number: 14
Atomic Number: 7
Net Electric Charge: -3
Protons: 7
Neutrons: 7
Electrons: 4

Chemical Symbol: N (Nitrogen)


Mass Number: 14
Atomic Number: 7
Net Electric Charge: None
Protons: 7
Neutrons: 7+1
Electrons: 7

This is a helium gas molecule (two atoms of


chemically combined helium). It has z less
electron than normal, causing it to have y z net electric charge. It has an Atomic
Number of y and a Mass Number of x.

This is a nitrogen atom. It has three


more electrons than normal, causing
it to have -3 net electric charge. It has
an Atomic Number of 7 and a Mass
Number of 14.

This is a nitrogen atom isotope. It has


a mass number of fifteen and has
more one more neutron than normal.
Otherwise, it has the same amounts
of protons and electrons as a normal
nitrogen atom.

w
x

w - Mass Number
x - Atomic Number
y - Net Electric Charge
z - Chemical Symbol

# of protons = x
# of neutrons = w - x
# of electrons = x + y

20
10

3-

Ne

This is a neon atom with net


electric charge of negative three.
It has an Atomic Number of 10
and a Mass Number of 20. It has:
10 protons, 10 neutrons, and 13
electrons.

Atom: The smallest particle of an element that retains the identity of the element. It consists of the nucleus (which accounts
for nearly all of its mass) and an electron cloud. Neutrons and protons are held together by the strong force, which overcomes
the natural repulsion of multiple protons. An atom has no charge as a whole, and is mostly made up of empty space. Atoms
are placed in the Periodic Table based on their size and number of valence electrons (their structure). Atoms with larger group
numbers are denser because there are more protons and electrons, and this creates a stronger attraction between the two
charges, so the electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus, making the atom more compact (less empty space)

Proton: A positively charged subatomic particle found in all atoms. It is represented by the Atomic Number
Neutron: A subatomic particle with no net electric charge. It is found in all atoms except for hydrogen. It can be determined
by subtracting the mass number (number of protons and neutrons) rounded to one by the atomic number (number of protons)

Electron: A negatively charged subatomic particle found in all atoms. They orbit the neutron in an electron cloud at specific
energy levels (electron shells). Absorbing a certain amount of energy (quantum) causes an electron to move to a higher
energy level (further away from the nucleus). The valance electrons are usually responsible for chemical reactions

WEIGHTS: neutron > proton > electron

Shell 3

Shell 2

Shell 1

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Group 5

Group 6

Group 7

Group 8

The closer you get to the minimum


and maximum capacity of an electron
shell, the more reactive the elements
become. Group 1 and Group 7 are
most reactive, because they are at
most risk of gaining or losing another
electron

1
2
Elements 1 - 18 are placed in the Periodic Table base on their
H
He
number
of
valence
electrons
(electrons
in
their
outmost
shell)
Hydrogen
Helium
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
11
13
14
16
17
18
12
15
Na
Al
Si
S
Cl
Ar
Mg
P
Phosphorus
Sodium Magnesium Aluminum
Silicone
Sulfur
Chlorine
Argon
Most Reactive
Least Reactive
The group number corresponds to the number of valence electrons; the row number corresponds to the number of electron shells

Metals: An element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and ductile, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. All metals
except for mercury are solid at room temperature (found in Groups )

Non-Metals: An element that is not shiny, malleable, or ductile, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Non-metals
usually exist in solid or gas form at room temperature, except for bromine, which is a liquid

Metalloids: An element that shares some properties of metals and some properties of non-metals

Groups: A vertical column of atoms in the Periodic Table. There are eighteen columns in the table
Periods: A horizontal row of atoms in the Periodic Table. There are seven rows in the table

Name
Alkali
Metals

Location
Group 1
(except
hydrogen)

AlkalineEarth
Metals

Group 2

Transition
Metals

Groups
3 - 16

Halogens

Group 17

Noble
Gasses

Group 18

Properties
Low melting and boiling points, very soft
(can be cut with knife). Relatively low
densities. Highly reactive with oxygen
and water (produces hydroxides, which
are alkaline). Low ionization energy.
High luster, malleability, ductility. Good
conductor of heat and electricity
Similar to Alkali Metals. Highly reactive
(less reactive than alkali metals). Will
combust in air if heated
Fairly unreactive. High melting and
boiling points. Very hard and malleable;
good conductor of heat and electricity.
Their valence electrons are present in
multiple shells. Exhibit many oxidation
states. Low ionization energy.
Non-Metals. Low melting and boiling
points. Highly reactive and very
corrosive. Brittle when solid. Poor
conductor of heat and electricity.
Inert gasses. Exist as odourless,
colourless gasses at room temperature.

Trends in Reactivity
As you go down the group:
- Melting/boiling points decrease
- Their densities increase
- They become softer
- They become more reactive

Elements
Lithium, Sodium,
Potassium,
Rubidium, Cesium,
Francium

Beryllium,
Magnesium,
Calcium, Strontium,
Barium, Radium
Titanium, Iron,
Cobalt, Nickel, Zinc,
Copper, Silver, Gold,
Tungsten, Mercury,
Platinum etc.
As you go down the group:
- Their melting/boiling points - increase
- Colour becomes darker
- Melting/boiling points increase
- Densities Increase

Fluorine, Chlorine,
Bromine, Iodine,
Astatine
Helium, Neon,
Argon, Krypton,
Xeon, Radon

As you move from right to left, or from up to down on the


Periodic Table, the Atomic Size increases
As you move down, the number of electron shells increase,
which means the valence electron now occupies a higher
energy level. This means that it is further away from the
nucleus, and because of this, the atom is larger.
As you move to the left, there is a decreased attraction
between the valence electrons and the protons in the nucleus,
which makes the atom larger and less dense.
As you move down on the Periodic Table, the atomic reactivity
increases. Since the valence electrons are at a higher energy
level, they are further away from the nucleus, and are more
reactive. For example, potassium is more reactive than
sodium, because potassiums valence electron is further away
from the nucleus and can be lost more easily.

Ion: An atom or molecule with a net electric charge because of the loss or gain of one or more electrons
Anion: A negatively-charged ion
Cation: A positively-charged ion
Chemical Bond: A stable chemical link between two atoms, which holds them together. The compounds formed by chemical
bonding will always have a neutral charge (i.e. two alkali metals cannot bond together)
Ionic Bond: A polar chemical bond formed through the attraction of metallic cations and non-metallic anions. They
only occur between a metal and a non-metal, and will never occur between two metals
Ionic Compound: A compound formed through the attraction between a metal and a non-metal, in which the
non-metal attracts the electrons of the metal, and forms a metallic cation and a non-metallic anion

Covalent Bond: A nonpolar chemical bond formed through the sharing of electrons. They only occur between nonmetals. Also called a molecular bond.
Covalent Compound: A compound formed through the sharing of electrons between non-metallic elements.
Also called a molecular bond

Electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself. Electronegativity increases moving right
across a period (there is a greater electrons), and decreases moving down a group (more electron shells creates more
distance between the valence electrons and the nucleus, so it is harder for the proton to attract electrons). This is why
fluorine is more reactive than chlorine and carbon

Ionization Energy: The amount of energy required to remove an electron (ionize) from an atom. Ionization energy decreases
moving left across a period (the fewer protons and electrons result in a lower attraction force, so it requires less energy), and
increases moving up a group (the smaller distance between the nucleus and the valence electrons mean a greater force is
required to ionized the atom)

Combining Capacity: The absolute value of electrons gained or lost to achieve an octet. The combining capacity can range
from zero to four, and can be determined by subtracting the number of valence electrons from the total amount of electrons
in the shell. Combining capacity is also known as the valence

Octet Rule: States that atoms will always try to lose, gain, or share electrons to achieve an octet (a full electron shell)
Ionic Compounds
- Strong attraction between molecules
- Good conductor of heat and electricity
- High boiling and melting points
- Exists as a solid (crystal lattice) in room temperature

Covalent (Molecular) Compounds


- Weak attraction between molecules
- Poor conductor of heat and electricity
- Low boiling and melting points
- Can exist in all three states in room temperature

ATOMIC DIAGRAMS
Bohr-Rutherford Diagram

Structural Diagram

Lewis Dot Diagram

Prefix
monoditritetrapenta-

Number
1
2
3
4
5

Prefix
sextaseptaoctanonadeca-

Number
6
7
8
9
10
|

- Displays electrons
- Displays # of bonds
- Displays electrons
In a covalent bond, remember that the number of bonds (single, double, triple)
will always equal the combining capacity! (NN; O=O; F--F; PP; S=S; Cl--Cl etc.)
ATOMIC MODELS
Bohr-Rutherford Model Ball-and-Stick Model

Space Filling Model

- 2D Representation
- Shows electrons

- 3D Representation
- More accurate than B-a-S

- 3D Representation
- More accurate than BR

Electric Charge to Chemical Formula


Be2+ + N3- Be3N2 Ca2+ + O2- Ca2O2
Mg2+ + Cl- MgCl2 K+ + P3- K3P
Ti4+ + O2- Ti2O4
Y3+ + S2 Y2S3
You always switch around the charges to find the
chemical formula! Remember to put +/- after the
number! (i.e. DO NOT PUT -2/+4; DO PUT 2-/4+)