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MATERIAL BALANCE

LOOP REACTOR
General Equation:
nC2H4

(CH2-CH2) n

where n: 2
2C2H4

(CH2-CH2) n

C4H4

C2H4 C2H4

Presence of Hydrogen in the inlet of loop reactor (reactant), thus:


C4H4 + H2

C2H4 C2H4

C4H4 + 2H2

C2H4 C2H4

Balance the equation:

Stream 3

Stream 7

A = F

B= 27581.59 kg/hr
Loop Reactor

0 kg/hr Ethylene

26202.51 kg/hr Polyethylene

0 kg/hr Hydrogen

827.447 kg/hr Ethylene

275.816 kg/hr Isobutane

137.908 kg/hr Hydrogen

137.908 kg/hr 1-Hexene

275.816 kg/hr Isobutane


137.908 kg/hr 1-Hexene

For the comonomer and diluent chemical which are 1-hexene and isobutene have equal
mass flowrate of inlet and outlet. This is due to the equation involved in the loop reactor are only
ethylene and hydrogen. The rest were comonomer and diluents chemical are used just to enhance
the process of polymerization.

Table 1.1: Extend of Reaction Method for Loop Reactor


Component

i= o +

Ethylene

27029.96

-1

827.447= o-

Hydrogen

52542.93

-2

-2

137.908= o- 2

1-hexene

137.908

137.908

Isobutene

275.816

275.816

Polyethylene

+1

26202.51=

= 26202.51

Ethylene:
i= o +
827.447 = o +
827.447 = o + 26202.51
o = 27029.96 kg/hr
Hydrogen:
i= o +
137.908 = o - 2
137.908 = o 2(26202.51)
137.908 = o 52405.02
o = 52542.93 kg/hr
TOTAL (Inlet), A = 01 + 02 + 03 + 04
= 27029.96 + 52542.93 + 137.908 + 275.816
A = 79 986.61 kg/hr

FLASH CHAMBER

The unreacted diluent (Isobutane), any monomer vapors (ethylene) and all co-monomer
(1-hexene) recovered in flash vessel typically condensed and reused in polymerization process.
Meanwhile hydrogen was completely used in this flash chamber. The product leave the flash
chamber was polyethylene contain 98% purity and small excess ethylene.

Table 6.2: Inlet and Outlet Composition of Flash Chamber


Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No. 7)

Outlet Stream (No.8)

Outlet Stream (No.9)

Ethylene

0.03

0.68

0.02

Isobutane

0.01

0.22

1-Hexene

0.005

0.10

Hydrogen

0.005

Polyethylene

0.95

0.98

Stream 8, T = 417.90 kg/hr


284.17 kg/hr Ethylene
91.94 kg/hr Isobutane
41.79 kg/hr 1-Hexene

Stream 7, F = 27581.59 kg/hr

Flash Chamber

2602.51 kg/hr Polyethylene


827.45 kg/hr Ethylene

Stream 9

275.82 kg/hr Isobutane

B = 27163.69 kg/hr

137.91 kg/hr 1-Hexene


137.91 kg/hr hydrogen

26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene


543.27 kg/hr Ethylene

Overall Mass Balance:


F = T + B
(F) = (T) + 27163.69 kg/hr

Species Balance of Ethylene:


To find mass flowrate for Stream 8:
F (0.03) = T (0.68) + 27163.69 kg/hr (0.02)
0.03F = 0.68T + 543.274 kg/hr
0.03 (T+27163.69) = 0.68T + 543.274 kg/hr
0.03T + 814.910 kg/hr = 0.68T + 543.274 kg/hr
814.910 kg/hr 543.274 kg/hr = 0.68T 0.03T
271.636 kg/hr = 0.65T
T = 417.90 kg/hr
To find mass flowrate for Stream 7:
Stream 7 = Stream 8 + Stream 9
F = T + 27163.69
F = 417.90 + 27163.69
F = 27581.59 kg/hr

Inlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 7):

i) Polyethylene:
= 0.95 x 27581.59 kg/hr
= 26202.51 kg/hr

ii) Ethylene:
= 0.03 x 27581.59 kg/hr
= 827.45 kg/hr
iii) Isobutane:
= 0.01 x 27581.59 kg/hr
= 275.82 kg/hr

iv) 1-Hexene:
= 0.005 x 27581.59 kg/hr
= 137.91 kg/hr

v) Hydrogen:
= 0.005 x 27581.59 kg/hr
= 137.91 kg/hr

Total Inlet Mass Flowrate (Stream 7):


= 2614.01kg/hr + 827.45kg/hr + 275.82kg/hr + 137.91kg/hr + 137.91kg/hr
= 27581.59 kg/hr

Outlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 8):

i) Ethylene:
= 0.68 x 417.90 kg/hr
= 284.17 kg/hr

ii) Isobutane:
= 0.22 x 417.90 kg/hr
= 91.94 kg/hr
iii) 1-Hexene:
= 0.10 x 417.90 kg/hr
= 41.79 kg/hr

Total Outlet Mass Flowrate (Stream 8):


= 284.172 kg/hr + 91.938 kg/hr + 41.79 kg/hr
= 417.90 kg/hr

Outlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 9):

i) Polyethylene:
= 0.98 x 27163.69 kg/hr
= 26620.42 kg/hr

ii) Ethylene:
= 0.02 x 27163.69 kg/hr
= 543.27 kg/hr

Total Outlet Mass Flowrate (Stream 9):


= 26620.42 kg/hr + 543.27 kg/hr
= 27163.69 kg/hr

DRYER

The inlet components enter the dryer were polyethylene and excess ethylene. The
removal of moisture content for the product occurred here which it generally will remove about
0.2% to 0.5% moisture content by weight.

Table 6.3: Inlet and Outlet Composition of Dryer


Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No.9)

Outlet Stream (No.17)

Ethylene

0.02

0.02

Polyethylene

0.98

0.98

Stream 9

Stream 17

in = 27183.69 kg/hr

out = 27183.69 kg/hr


Dryer

26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene

26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene

543.27 kg/hr Ethylene

543.27 kg/hr Ethylene

Overall Mass Balance:


Since inlet stream equal to outlet stream, hence the mass flowrate of outlet component is
equal to mass flowrate of inlet component.

Stream 9 = Stream 17
in = out

Species Balance of Polyethylene:


in (0.98) = 27163.69(0.98)
0.98 in = 26620.42
in = 27163.69 kg/hr

Inlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 9):


i) Polyethylene:
= 0.98 27163.69
= 26620.42 kg/hr

ii) Ethylene:
= 0.02 27163.69
= 543.27 kg/hr

COMPRESSOR

Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No.8)

Outlet Stream (No.12)


Top

Outlet Stream (No.12)


Bottom

Ethylene

0.67

0.65

Isobutane

0.22

0.95

1-Hexene

0.1

0.35

0.05

Stream 12, Top


T = 398.62 kg/hr
259.103 kg/hr Ethylene
139.517 kg/hr 1-Hexene

Stream 8,
F = 417.90 kg/hr

COMPRESSOR

284.17 kg/hr Ethylene


91.94 kg/hr Isobutane
41.79 kg/hr 1-Hexene

Stream 12, Bottom


B =19.28 kg/hr
18.316 kg/hr Isobutene
0.964 kg/hr 1-hexene

Overall Mass Balance:


F=T+B
417.90 = T + B
T = 417.90 B

Species Balance of Ethylene:


284.17 = T (0.65) - B (0)
284.17 = (417.90 B) (0.65)
284.17 = 271.64 0.65 B
0.65B = 19.28
B = 19.28 kg/hr

To find T
T = 417.90 19.28
T = 398.62 kg/hr

HEAT EXCHANGER

Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No.12)

Outlet Stream (No.13)

Ethylene

0.65

0.99

1-Hexene

0.35

0.01

Stream 12, Top

Stream 13

A = 398.62 kg/hr

B = 398.62 kg/hr
Heat Exchanger

259.103 kg/hr Ethylene

394.63 kg/hr Ethylene

139.517 kg/hr 1-hexene

3.986 kg/hr 1-hexene

Overall Mass Balance:


Stream inlet = Stream Outlet
A= B

Stream 13

Ethylene: 398.62 kg/hr x 0.99


=394.63 kg/hr

1-hexene: 398.62 kg/hr x 0.01


= 3.986 kg/hr

VENT SCRUBBER

Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream
(No.13)

Outlet Stream (Top)

Outlet Stream (Bottom)

Ethylene

0.99

1.00

1-Hexene

0.01

1.00

Top Stream
T = kg/hr
139.29 kg/hr ethylene
Stream 13
A = 398.62 kg/hr
Vent Scrubber
394.63 kg/hr ethylene
3.986 kg/hr 1-hexene

Bottom Stream
B = kg/hr

Kg/hr 1-hexene

Overall Mass Balance:


Stream inlet = Stream Outlet
A = T + B
398.62 kg/hr = T + B

Species Balance of Ethylene


398.62 (0.99) = T (1.00) + B (0)
T = 394.63
394.63 = 398.62 - B
B = 398.62 394.63
B = 3.99 kg/hr

DISTILLATION COLUMN

Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No.12)

Outlet Stream (Top)

Outlet Stream (Bottom)

Isobutane

0.95

0.05

1.00

1-Hexene

0.05

0.95

Top Product
T = 1.02 kg/hr
0.969 kg/hr 1-Hexene
0.051 kg/hr Isobutane
Stream 12, Bottom

Distillation column

F = 19.28 kg/hr
18.316 kg/hr Isobutane
0.964 kg/hr 1-Hexene

Bottom Product
B = 18.26 kg/hr
18.26 kg/hr Isobutane

Overall Mass Balance


F=T+B
19.28 = T + B --- (1)

Species balance of Isobutene:


F (0.95) = T (0.05) + B (1.00)
19.28 (0.95) = (19.28 B) (0.05) + 1.00 B

18.316 = 0.964 0.05B +1.00 B


17.352 = 0.95 B
B = 18.26 kg/hr

To find T:
T = 19.28 B
T = 19.28 18.26
T = 1.02 kg/hr

PURGE COLUMN

The product and excess ethylene leave the dryer enter the purge column for removing
residual liquid from the polymer solids. The purge means is typically a nitrogen purge column
through which nitrogen gas is fed to remove accumulated liquid from polymer slurry. The excess
amount of ethylene as well as nitrogen will be recycled to purification column for further usage
in polymerization process.

Table 6.4: Inlet and Outlet Composition of Purge Column


Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No. Inlet Stream (No.
17)
10)

Outlet Stream
(No. 18)

Outlet Stream
(No. 11)

Ethylene

0.02

0.05

Polyethylene

0.98

1.00

1.00

0.95

Nitrogen

Stream 18, T
10322.21 kg/hr Nitrogen
453.27 kg/hr Ethylene

Stream 17, F1
26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene
543.27 kg/hr Ethylene

Purge Column

Stream 10, F2
Stream 11
10322.21 kg/hr Nitrogen

B= 26620.42 kg/hr
26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene

Overall Mass Balance:


F1 + F2 = T +B

Species Balance of Polyethylene:


F1 (0.98) + F2 (Polyethylene) = T (Polyethylene) + 26620.42(1.00)
Mass flowrate for Stream 17:
F1 (0.98) = 26620.42
F1 = 27163.69 kg/hr

Species Balance of Ethylene:


To find mass flowrate for Stream 18:
F1 (0.02) + F2 (ethylene) = T (0.05) + B (ethylene)
27163.69 (0.02) = 0.05T
T = 10865.48 kg/hr

Mass flowrate for Stream 10:


F1 + F2 = T +B
27163.69 + F2 = 10865.48 + 26620.42
F2 = 10322.21 kg/hr

Inlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 17):

i) Polyethylene:
= 0.98 27163.69
= 26620.42 kg/hr

ii) Ethylene:
= 0.02 27163.69
= 543.27 kg/hr

Inlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 10):


i) Nitrogen:
= 1.00 10322.21
= 10322.21 kg/hr
Outlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 18):

i) Nitrogen:
= 0.95 10856.48
= 10322.21kg/hr

ii) Ethylene:
= 0.05 10856.48
= 543.27 kg/hr

Outlet Mass Flowrate of Each Component (Stream 11):


i) Polyethylene:
= 26620.42 kg/hr

EXTRUDER

The final product which is polyethylene goes to the last equipment for pelletizing.
Extrusion process takes place where is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional
profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section.

Table 6.5: Inlet and Outlet Composition of Extruder


Component

Composition (weight/weight)
Inlet Stream (No. 11)

Finishing Stream

1.00

1.00

Polyethylene

Stream 11

Finishing Stream

in = 26620.42 kg/hr

out =26620.42 kg/hr


Extruder

26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene

26620.42 kg/hr Polyethylene

Overall Mass Balance:


Since inlet stream equal to outlet stream, hence the mass flowrate of outlet component is
equal to mass flowrate of inlet component.

Stream 11 = Finishing Stream


in = out

Inlet Mass Flowrate of Polyethylene (Stream 11):


= 1.00 x 26620.42 kg/hr
= 26620.42 kg/h