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6.013/ESD.013J Electromagnetics and Applications, Fall 2005

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6.013 - Electromagnetics and Applications

Fall 2005

Lecture 15 - Dielectric Waveguides


Prof. Markus Zahn

November 3, 2005

I. TM Solutions

From Electromagnetic Field Theory: A Problem Solving Approach, by Markus Zahn, 1987. Used with permission.

We are considering solutions with

=0
y

(xd) ej(tkz z)

x d

Re

A2 e

j(tk
z)
z
Ez (x, z, t) =
Re
(A1 sin(kx x) + B1 cos(kx x)) e
|x| d


+(x+d) j(tkz z)
x d
Re A3 e
e
kx2 + kz2 = 2

(in dielectric)

2 + kz2 = 2 0 0

(in free space)

For propagation in the dielectric and evanescence in free space


kz2 = 2 kx2 = 2 0 0 + 2
kz2 < 2 , kz2 > 2 0 0 2 0 0 < kz2 < 2

A. Odd Solutions [Ez (x, z, t) = Ez (x, z, t)]

(xd)

A2 e
z (x) = A1 sin(kx x)
E

A2 e(x+d)

xd
|x| d

x d

Ex jkz E
z = 0
E
x
jk
(xd) x > d
z

A2 e
x =

jkz A1 cos(kx x) |x| < d

E
k

jkxz

A2 e(x+d)
x < d

= H H
x = 0, H
z = 0
E
t

z
1
E
y =
x
H
jkz E
j
x
j
(xd) x d
0

A2 e
=
j
kx A1 cos(kx x) |x| d

0 A2 e(x+d)
x d
Boundary Conditions
Ez (x = d+ ) = Ez (x = d ) A1 sin(kx d) = A2
0

j
j
Hy (x = d+ ) = Hy (x = d )
+
A2 = + A1 cos(kx d)
kx

A1
1
kx 0
0 kx
=
=
=
tan(kx d)
A2
sin(kx d)
cos(kx d)

Critical condition for a guided wave occurs when = 0. At this point


kx d = n, kz2 = 2 0 0
n 2
d

+ 2 0 0 = 2 2 =

(n/d)2
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
0 0

For real frequencies ( 2 > 0), > 0 0

B. Even Solutions [Ez (x, z, t) = +Ez (x, z, t)]

(xd)

B2 e
z (x) = B1 cos(kx x)
E

(x+d)
B2 e

xd
|x| d
x d

x
E
z = 0
jkz E
x

jk
(xd) x > d
z

B2 e
x =
jkz B1 sin(kx x)

E
|x| < d

jkxz
(x+d)
x < d
B2 e
2

j
(xd)
0

B2 e
j
y =

H
kx B1 sin(kx x)

j
(x+d)
0
B2 e

xd
|
x| d

x d

Boundary Conditions
Ez (x = d+ ) = Ez (x = d ) B2 = B1 cos(kx d)
j0
j
Hy (x = d+ ) = Hy (x = d )
B2 =
B1 sin(kx d)

kx
B2

0 kx
= cos(kx d) =
sin(kx d) =
cot(kx d)
B1
0 kx

Critical Condition: = 0 kx d = (2n + 1) , kz2 = 2 0 0


2

2
2

(2n+1)
2d

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

0 0

II. TE Solutions
A. Odd Solutions

(xd)

A2 e
z =
A1 sin(kx x)
H

A2 e(xd)

xd
|x| d

x d

= Hx + Hz
Hx jkz H
z = 0

H
x
z

x
jk
(xd)
z

A2 e
x =

jkz A1 cos(kx x)
H
k

jkxz

A2 e(x+d)

=
E
E
x = 0, E
z = 0

H
t

y = jkz H
x Hz
jE
x

j
(xd)
0

A2 e

Ey = j
kx A1 cos(kx x)

j
(x+d)
0
A2 e

x>d
|x| < d

x < d

xd
|x| d

x d

Boundary Conditions

j
j
y (x = d+ ) = E
y (x = d )
E
A2 = A1 cos(kx d)
kx

Hz (x = d+ ) = Hz (x = d ) A2 = A1 sin(kx d)
A2

0 kx
= sin(kx d) =
cos(kx d) =
tan(kx d)
A1
0 kx

B. Even Solutions

z
H

x
H

y
E

(xd)

xd
B2 e
=
B1 cos(kx x) |x| d

B2 e(x+d)
x d
jk
(xd) x > d
z

B2 e
jkz
=
kx B1 sin(kx x)
|x| < d

jkz
(x+d)
x < d
B2 e
j
(xd)
0

xd
B2 e
j
=
kx B1 sin(kx x) |x| d

j0

B2 e(x+d) x d

j
j
y (x = d+ ) = E
y (x = d )
E
B2 = B1 sin(kx d)
kx

z (x = d+ ) = H
z (x = d ) B2 = B1 cos(kx d)
H
B2

0 kx
= cos(kx d) =
sin(kx d) =
cot(kx d)
B1
0 kx