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TRAINING MODULE

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

TRAINING MODULE

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)


UNIT: 22

0
21/03/08
A
29/11/07
REV
DATE
TRAINING DURATION

Benoit Rabaud
Paul Walsh
Benoit Rabaud
Paul Walsh
PREPARED BY
CHECKED BY
VENUE

JB Guillemin
JB Guillemin
APPROVED BY

ATTENDANCE
ATTENDEES REQUIREMENTS
MODULE OBJECTIVES

INSTRUCTORS NAME/POSITION
SUMMARY/AGENDA

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TRAINING MODULE
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IMPORTANT

THIS TRAINING MODULE HAS BEEN PREPARED BY ARAMIS FOR THE DUNG QUAT
REFINERY.
THIS MODULE MUST BE RECOGNIZED AS A TOOL AND GUIDE ONLY. IT WOULD BE
IMPOSSIBLE TO ANTICIPATE AND PRESENT ALL POTENTIAL VARIABLES AND
PROCESS CONDITIONS THAT OPERATIONAL PERSONNEL MIGHT BE EXPOSED TO.
IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT THE READER ALWAYS AS CERTAIN THAT REFERENCE
MATERIALS UTILIZED, WHILE PERFORMING OPERATIONAL DUTIES, CONFORM AT A
MINIMUM TO THE LATEST ISSUE OF STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES, SAFETY
CODES, ENGINEERING STANDARDS, AND GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS.
SOME DESIGN FIGURES MIGHT NOT BE IN LINE DURING THE START-UP OF THE
REFINERY.

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TABLE OF CONTENT
SECTION 1 : GENERAL description ......................................................................................... 10
1.1.

Purpose of the Unit ............................................................................................... 13

1.2.

Basis of Design .................................................................................................... 15


1.2.1. Duty of Plant .............................................................................................. 15
1.2.2. Feed Characteristics ................................................................................. 15
1.2.2.1. Feed Composition & Capacity for production of degassed liquid
sulphur 15
1.2.2.2. Feed Composition and Capacity to Incinerator ............................ 16
1.2.2.3. Designed Feed Composition and Capacity for Production of
Degassed Liquid Sulphur........................................................................... 17
1.2.3. Product Specifications ............................................................................... 19
1.2.3.1. Degassed Liquid Sulphur Specifications ...................................... 19
1.2.3.2. Emissions from Incinerator ........................................................... 19
1.2.4. Utility/Power/Chemicals/Catalyst consumption.......................................... 19
1.2.4.1. Utility Consumption ...................................................................... 19
1.2.4.2. Catalysts & Chemicals ................................................................. 22

1.3.

Glossary of terms and Acronyms ......................................................................... 24


1.3.1. Acronyms .................................................................................................. 24
1.3.2. Glossary .................................................................................................... 27

SECTION 2 : Process Flow Description .................................................................................... 29


2.1.

Claus Section ....................................................................................................... 31


2.1.1. ARU Off Gas from Unit 19 & H2S Rich Off Gas from Unit 18 .................... 31
2.1.2. Combustion air feeding to Claus section ................................................... 31
2.1.3. Thermal Reactor and Burner ..................................................................... 32
2.1.4. Claus Waste Heat Boiler and 1st Sulphur Condenser ................................ 33
2.1.5. 1st Process Gas Reheater & 1st Catalytic Reactor ..................................... 33
2.1.6. 2nd Condenser, 2nd Process Gas Reheater & 2nd Catalytic Reactor .......... 34
2.1.7. 3rd Condenser, 3rd Process Gas Reheater & 3rd Catalytic Reactor ............ 34
2.1.8. Final Sulphur Condenser and Tail Gas Coalescer .................................... 36

2.2.

Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit .................................................................................... 36

2.3.

Sulphur Degassing Section .................................................................................. 37

2.4.

Incinerator Section ............................................................................................... 39

2.5.

DCS Printouts SRU Process Overview ............................................................. 39

SECTION 3 : Process control .................................................................................................... 44


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3.1.

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Control narrative & operating parameters ............................................................ 44


3.1.1. ARU Off Gas KO Drum A-2201-D-01 Pressure Control ............................ 44
3.1.2. H2S Rich SWS Off Gas KO Drum A-2201-D-02 Pressure Control............ 46
3.1.3. A-2201-D-01/02/03 Level Control .............................................................. 50
3.1.4. Thermal Reactor Combustion Air Control .................................................. 52
3.1.4.1. Main Combustion Air Flowrate to Thermal Reactor...................... 52
3.1.5. Trim Air Flow to Thermal Reactor Control by Tail Gas Analysis ................ 55
3.1.6. Quench Steam Flowrate Control ............................................................... 56
3.1.7. Combustion Air to Incinerator Flowrate Control (A-2201-H-01) ................. 58
3.1.7.1. Incinerator Residence Zone Temperature Control (A-2201-H-01) 60
3.1.8. Inter-Unit Controls & Interfaces ................................................................. 62
3.1.9. Operating Parameters ............................................................................... 62

3.2.

Instrument List ...................................................................................................... 62

3.3.

Main Equipment ................................................................................................... 63


3.3.1. Thermal Reactor........................................................................................ 63
3.3.2. Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01 ........................ 66
3.3.3. Catalytic Reactors A-2201-R-02/03/04 ...................................................... 73
3.3.4. Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit A-2201-TK-01 & Degassing Tank A-2201-TK-02
75
3.3.5. Incinerator A-2201-H-01 ............................................................................ 78
3.3.6. Blowers ..................................................................................................... 81

SECTION 4 : Safeguarding devices .......................................................................................... 85


4.1.

Alarms and Trips .................................................................................................. 85

4.2.

Safeguarding Description ..................................................................................... 85


4.2.1. Interlock UX-501 General ESD............................................................... 85
4.2.2. Interlock UX-502 Incinerator ESD .......................................................... 87
4.2.3. Interlock UX-503 Thermal Reactor ESD ................................................. 92
4.2.4. Interlock UX-504 A-2201-B-01 A/B Protection ....................................... 97
4.2.5. Interlock UX-505 A-2201-P-01 A/B Protection ....................................... 97
4.2.6. Interlock UX-506 A-2201-P-02 A/B Protection ....................................... 98
4.2.7. Interlock UX-507 A-2201-P-03 A/B Protection ....................................... 98
4.2.8. Interlock UX-508 Sulphur Degassing ESD ............................................. 99
4.2.9. Interlock UX-509 A-2201-P-05 A/B Protection ..................................... 100

4.3.

Safeguarding Equipment .................................................................................... 102


4.3.1. Pressure Safety Devices ......................................................................... 102

SECTION 5 : Fire & Gas Systems ........................................................................................... 105


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5.1.

Fire & Gas detection ........................................................................................... 105

5.2.

Fire Protection .................................................................................................... 108


5.2.1. Precautionary measures to avoid fuel gas explosions in Claus area....... 111
5.2.2. Precautionary measures to avoid sulphur burning .................................. 112
5.2.3. Extinguishing Sulphur Pit fires ................................................................. 112
5.2.4. Sulphur Fires ........................................................................................... 112

SECTION 6 : Quality control .................................................................................................... 116


6.1.

Sampling Analysis .............................................................................................. 116


6.1.1. Sampling Connections ............................................................................ 117
6.1.2. Sampling Frequency ............................................................................... 117
6.1.3. Safe handling of samples ........................................................................ 118
6.1.3.1. Handling of gas samples containing H2S ................................... 118
6.1.3.2. Handling of liquid sulphur ........................................................... 118

6.2.

On-line analysers ............................................................................................... 118

SECTION 7 : Causes and effect .............................................................................................. 121


7.1.

Cause & Effect Matrix: ........................................................................................ 121


7.1.1. Example from Cause and Effect Chart .................................................... 121
7.1.1.1. UX-502: Incinerator ESD ............................................................ 121

SECTION 8 : Operating practices ............................................................................................ 126


8.1.

Normal Operation ............................................................................................... 126


8.1.1. Operating conditions ............................................................................... 126
8.1.2. Combustion air / acid gas ratio and Thermal Reactor temperature ......... 135
8.1.3. Claus Reactors Temperatures in normal operating conditions ................ 136
8.1.4. Claus Reactors Temperatures during sulphur sweeping operations ....... 136
8.1.5. Incinerator temperature ........................................................................... 137
8.1.6. Process Variable Effect on Product Quality............................................. 137
8.1.7. Process Variable Effect on Sulfur Yield ................................................... 137
8.1.8. Sulphur Degassing Section ..................................................................... 138

8.2.

Start-up Procedure ............................................................................................. 138


8.2.1. Preparation for Initial Start-Up ................................................................. 139
8.2.2. Initial Start-up .......................................................................................... 140
8.2.3. Plant Re-start-up following a shutdown ................................................... 142
8.2.3.1. Quick restart of warm plant ........................................................ 142
8.2.3.2. Restart of cold plant ................................................................... 142

8.3.

Shutdown Procedures ........................................................................................ 143

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8.3.1. Planned Shutdown .................................................................................. 143


8.4.

Emergency Shutdown ........................................................................................ 145


8.4.1. Emergency Shut-down System Activation ............................................... 145
8.4.2. Power Failure .......................................................................................... 145
8.4.3. Lack of Feedstock ................................................................................... 145
8.4.4. Failure of Liquid Sulphur Export Line ...................................................... 146
8.4.5. Instrument Air Failure .............................................................................. 146
8.4.6. Steam Failure .......................................................................................... 146
8.4.7. Boiler Feed Water Failure ....................................................................... 146
8.4.8. Fuel Gas Failure ...................................................................................... 147
8.4.9. Combustion Air Blowers (A-2201-B-01A/B) Failure ................................. 147
8.4.10. Incinerator Combustion Air Blowers (A-2201-B-02AIB) Failure ............. 147
8.4.11. Dilution Air Blowers (B-2203A/B) Failure ............................................... 147
8.4.12. Off Gas K.O. Drum Pumps (A-2201-P-01A/B, 02A/B, 03A/B) Failure ... 148
8.4.13. Sulphur Circulation and Sulphur Pumps (A-2201-P-04A/B, 05A/B) Failure
148

SECTION 9 : HSE ................................................................................................................... 150


9.1.

Hazardous Areas................................................................................................ 150


9.1.1. Prevention of H2S and SO2 leaks ........................................................... 152

9.2.

Safety Equipment ............................................................................................... 152

9.3.

Specific PPE....................................................................................................... 152


9.3.1. H2S ......................................................................................................... 152
9.3.2. Sulphur Dioxide ....................................................................................... 153
9.3.3. Sulphur .................................................................................................... 153

9.4.

Chemical Hazards .............................................................................................. 154


9.4.1. Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity ........................................................................ 154
9.4.1.1. Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning ............................................. 154
9.4.1.2. Subacute Hydrogen sulfide Poisoning ....................................... 155
9.4.2. Sulphur Dioxide Toxicity .......................................................................... 156
9.4.3. Sulphur .................................................................................................... 157
9.4.4. Process gas and tail gas ......................................................................... 157

SECTION 10 : Reference documents index ............................................................................ 159


10.1. Operating Manual/ Licensor Documentation ...................................................... 159
10.2. Arrangement Drawings, Layouts and Plot Plans ................................................ 159
10.3. Process Flow Diagrams ..................................................................................... 159
10.4. Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams ................................................................ 159
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10.5. Equipment list ..................................................................................................... 160


10.6. Main Equipment Data Sheet............................................................................... 160
10.7. Instrument List .................................................................................................... 160
10.8. Cause & Effect Matrix ......................................................................................... 160
10.9. Safety Logic diagram .......................................................................................... 160
10.10.

Fire & Gas Cause & Effect Chart ............................................................. 160

10.11.

Fire & Gas Detectors Layout ................................................................... 160

10.12.

Fire Protection Layout.............................................................................. 161

10.13.

Hazardous Area Classification................................................................. 161

10.14.

MSDS ...................................................................................................... 161

10.15.

Vendors Documentation .......................................................................... 161

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DATE: 21/03/08

TRAINING MODULE

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)


UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description

Section 2 - Process Flow Description


Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 1 : GENERAL DESCRIPTION


The Sulphur recovery Unit (SRU) has been designed for the Bach Ho crude operation to convert
all suphur compounds present in the acid gas feed from the ARU and the SWS into liquid
elemental sulphur. First a part of H2S is burned and converted into SO2 while the remaining
reacts with SO2 to give elemental sulphur before being condensed. The produced liquid sulphur
is then degassed and cleared from dissolved H2S. Treated gas is finally incinerated to convert
the remaining pollutants into SO2.
The SRU is located at the south west of the area 4, next to the LCO HDT, ARU and SWS units.

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Figure 1: 2D Refinery Plot Plan


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Figure 2: 3D Refinery Plot Plan


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1.1. Purpose of the Unit


The scope of the Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) is to convert all sulphur compounds
present in the acid gas feeds into liquid elemental sulphur,
This unit consists of the following sections:
Section

Purpose

Sulphur Recovery (Claus)


Section

Section based on the Claus Process where the major scope is to


convert H2S into elemental liquid sulphur.
Section composed of a thermal stage (Thermal Reactor) followed
by 3 catalytic steps:
The purpose of the thermal reactor is to burn approx. 1/3 of the H2S
contained in the total acid gases feed with air to convert it into SO2.
(Reaction H2S + 3/2 O2 = SO2 + H2O)
The purpose of the catalytic converters is to make the remaining 2/3
of the H2S react with the produced SO2 to give elemental sulphur
(Reaction: 2 H2S + SO2 = 3/x SX + H2O)
In the Claus section, produced sulphur is also condensed.
The overall recovery of the Claus section is approx 96.5% at design
conditions.

Liquid Sulphur Storage


and Degassing Section

The scope of the Degassing Section is to ensure the liquid sulphur


degassing and to remove the dissolved H2S from the produced
sulphur, in order to avoid H2S local pollution (H2S desorbed from
liquid sulphur) and toxic/explosion hazards during sulphur handling.
With this section, H2S content in the liquid sulphur is decreased to
less than 20 wt. ppm (much below the explosivity of H2S with air)

Incinerator Section

The purpose of the incinerator section is to convert residual H2S


contained in the treated gas leaving the Claus section and the
degassing section into SO2 and to finally discharge the flue gas to
the atmosphere through the stack.
NH3 rich SWS off gas and CNU off gas are also incinerated here.

Sulphur Apron

The sulphur apron is where is collected the solid sulphur from the
degassing pit.

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SRU

Figure 3: Unit 22 - 3D Drawing


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1.2. Basis of Design


1.2.1. Duty of Plant
The SRU ahs been designed to recover sulphur from the following acid gas
streams:

ARU off gas (from unit 019)

H2S rich off gas (from unit 018)

The Incinerator Unit has been designed to directly treat the following acid gases:

NH3 rich off gas from SWS (unit 018)

CNU off gas (unit 020)

The Sulphur Degassing Section has been designed to treat the total sulphur
produced by the Claus Unit at design capacity.
The SRU is designed for a production capacity of 5 ton/day of produced degassed
liquid sulphur with a Sulphur Recovery Efficiency (SRE) of 95% minimum of the
sulphur entering the SRU.
The SRU can operate in steady conditions in the range of 50% to 100% of the
design conditions.

1.2.2. Feed Characteristics


The SRU has been designed to treat 2 feed cases of the BACH HO CRUDE:

Max Distillate Case

Max Gasoline Case

1.2.2.1. Feed Composition & Capacity for production of degassed liquid sulphur
1.2.2.1.1. ARU Off Gas FeedStock Specifications
Max. Distillate Case

Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

H2S

102.6

3.01

18.97

119.6

3.51

20.66

NH3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2O

16.5

0.92

5.77

19.0

1.05

6.21

Cyanide

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

CO2

511.4

11.62

73.24

531.4

12.08

71.11

N2

1.0

0.04

0.23

1.0

0.04

0.21
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Max. Distillate Case

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Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

CO

0.1

0.004

0.02

0.1

0.00

0.02

H2

0.3

0.15

0.94

0.3

0.15

0.87

C1

1.4

0.09

0.55

1.6

0.10

0.59

C2

1.1

0.04

0.23

1.1

0.04

0.22

C3

0.4

0.01

0.06

0.8

0.02

0.11

Total

634.8

15.87

100.00

674.9

16.98

100.00

1.2.2.1.2. SWS H2S Rich Off Gas Feedstock Specifications


Max. Distillate Case

Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

H2S

82.0

2.41

88.94

50.3

1.48

88.09

NH3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2O

4.8

0.27

9.96

3.1

0.17

10.12

Cyanide

0.7

0.03

1.10

0.7

0.03

1.79

CO2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

N2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

CO

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C1

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

Total

87.5

2.71

100.00

54.1

1.68

100.00

1.2.2.2. Feed Composition and Capacity to Incinerator


1.2.2.2.1. SWS NH3 Rich Off Gas FeedStock Specifications
Max. Distillate Case

Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

H2S

14.7

0.43

3.24

8.9

0.26

2.76

NH3

157.6

9.27

69.75

112.3

6.61

70.25

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SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

Max. Distillate Case

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Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

H2O

64.7

3.59

27.01

45.7

2.54

26.99

Cyanide

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

CO2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

N2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

CO

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C1

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

Total

237.0

13.29

100.00

166.9

9.41

100.00

1.2.2.2.2. CNU Off Gas Feedstock Specifications


Naphtenic /
Sulfidic Sour
(Mixed Crude)

Naphtenic /
Sulfidic Sweet
(Bach Ho Crude)

Phenolic Sour
(Mixed Crude)

Phenolic Sweet
(Bach Ho Crude)

Std Vol. Flowrate 22.5


m3/hr

29.3

Min

Min

H2O wt%

H2S wt%

53

28

RSH wt%

Fuel Gas wt%

40

60

93

93

In normal condition, NH3 rich off gas (from SWS, unit 18) and
CNU Off gas (from unit 20) are used as support fuel to achieve
750C inside the incinerator combustion chamber.

1.2.2.3. Designed Feed Composition and Capacity for Production of Degassed


Liquid Sulphur
The design feed rate of ARU off gas and H2S rich off gas is proportionally
increased from the given feed stock (Refer to section 1.2.2.1) to get 5
ton/day produced degassed liquid sulphur.

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1.2.2.3.1. ARU Off Gas FeedStock Specifications


Max. Distillate Case

Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

H2S

129.6

3.802

18.97

164.2

4.818

20.66

NH3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2O

20.8

1.157

5.77

26.1

1.448

6.21

Cyanide

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

CO2

645.9

14.676

73.24

729.6

16.578

71.11

N2

1.3

0,045

0.23

1.4

0.049

0.21

CO

0.1

0.005

0.02

0.1

0.005

0.02

H2

0.4

0.188

0.94

0.4

0.202

0.87

C1

1.8

0.110

0.55

2.2

0.137

0.59

C2

1.1

0.04

0.23

1.1

0.04

0.22

C3

1.4

0.046

0.23

1.5

0.050

0.22

Total

801

20.040

100.00

926.6

23.312

100.00

1.2.2.3.2. SWS H2S Rich Off Gas Feedstock Specifications


Max. Distillate Case

Max. Gasoline Case

Composition kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

kg/hr

kg-mol/hr

Mol%

H2S

103.6

3.039

88.94

69.0

2.026

88.09

NH3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2O

6.1

0.340

9.96

4.2

0.235

10.21

Cyanide

1.0

0.038

1.10

1.1

0.039

1.70

CO2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

N2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

CO

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

H2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C1

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C2

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

C3

0.0

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.00

Total

110.7

3.416

100.00

74.3

2.300

100.00

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1.2.3. Product Specifications


1.2.3.1. Degassed Liquid Sulphur Specifications
Component

Specification

Purity (as S) (wt %)

99.9 (dry basis)

Organics (wt %)

0.02 (dry basis)

Ashes (wt %)

0.04 (dry basis)

Water (wt %)

0.10

H2S content (wt.ppm)

10

Colour

Bright Yellow

1.2.3.2. Emissions from Incinerator


The emissions to the atmosphere from the incinerator must not exceed
the following limits as per the requirements of the Vietnamese Air Quality
Standard TCVN 5939 1995:
Component

Limit

500 max (dry basis)

2 max (dry basis)

SO2 (mg/m )
H2S (mg/m )
3

NOX (mg/m )

1000 max (dry basis)

CO (mg/m3)

500 max (dry basis)

Particulate in Smoke (mg/m3)


3

Dust containing silica (mg/m )


3

Ammonia (mg/m )

400 (dry basis)


50 (dry basis)
100 (dry basis)

The above specifications are only applicable in normal operation and not
in bypass condition).

1.2.4. Utility/Power/Chemicals/Catalyst consumption


1.2.4.1. Utility Consumption
The following describes the utility consumption of the SRU based on the
Estimated Utility Consumption Document:
8474L-022-CN-0003-001

Design Case Bach Ho

Note:
In the following subsections EXCEPT ELECTRICAL POWER:
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( ): Intermittent Producer/Consumer
+: Indicates Quantity Produced
-: Indicates Quantity Consumed

Service

Duty

Usage Factor

1.2.4.1.1. Electrical Power

BM-2203A

Motor for Dilution Air


Blower

200.0

148.00

155.60

BM-2203B

Motor for Dilution Air


Blower

200.0

148.00

155.60

A-2201-BM01A

Motor for combustion air


blower

22.00

17.00

18.10

A-2201-BM01AA

Motor for canopy fan

0.75

0.60

0.60

A-2201-BM01B

Motor for combustion air


blower

22.00

17.00

18.10

A-2201-BM01BA

Motor for canopy fan

0.75

0.60

0.60

A-2201-BM02A

Motor for incineration


combustion air blower

30.00

18.20

19.40

A-2201-BM02B

Motor for incineration


combustion air blower

30.00

18.20

19.40

A-2201-BM02A

Motor for incinerator


combustion air blower

45.00

32.00

34.00

A-2201-BM02B

Motor for incinerator


combustion air blower

45.00

32.00

34.00

A-2201-PM01A

Motor for ARU off gas


KO drum pump

1.50

1.40

1.50

A-2201-PM01B

Motor for ARU off gas


KO drum pump

1.50

1.40

1.50

A-2201-PM02A

Motor for H2S rich SWS


off gas KO drum pump

1.50

1.40

1.50

0.1

A-2201-PM02B

Motor for H2S rich SWS


off gas KO drum pump

1.50

1.40

1.50

A-2201-PM03A

Motor for NH3 rich SWS


off gas KO drum pump

1.50

1.40

1.50

0.1

Electrical Power (kW)


Item No.

Description

Rated
Power

Mech.
Consumed
Absorbed
Normal
Normal
Active
Power
Power

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Item No.

Description

Usage Factor

DATE: 21/03/08

Duty

REV: 0

Service

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

A-2201-PM03B

Motor for NH3 rich SWS


off gas KO drum pump

1.50

1.40

1.50

A-2201-PM04A

Motor for sulphur


circulation pump

3.00

3.00

3.20

0.1

A-2201-PM04B

Motor for sulphur


circulation pump

3.00

3.00

3.20

A-2201-PM05A

Motor for Sulphur Pump

5.50

5.50

5.90

0.1

A-2201-PM05B

Motor for Sulphur Pump

5.50

5.50

5.90

WS-2201

Welding Socket 1 (unit


22)

63.00

63.00

37.10

Electrical Power (kW)


Rated
Power

Mech.
Consumed
Absorbed
Normal
Normal
Active
Power
Power

1.2.4.1.2. Steam, Condensate & Boiler Feed Water

Description

A-2201

HP
STM

MP
STM

LP
STM

HP
cond

MP
cond

LP
cond

BFW
(T/h) Losses
(T/h)
LP
BFW

-0.3

-0.1

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.25

-0.8

(-0.4)

(-0.1)

(-0.4)

(0.4)

(0.1)

(0.25)

Steam (T/h)

Item No.

SRU Package

Condensate (T/h)

0.15

st

A-2201

1 start-up &
prior to shutdown

(0.15)

1.2.4.1.3. Cooling Water & Fresh Water


Item No.

Description

Cooling Water (m3/h)

Fresh Water (T/h)

A-2201

SRU Package

-3.2

-0.2

A-2201

Start-up & shutdown

(-3.7)

-(2.0)

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1.2.4.1.4. Instrument & Plant Air

Item No.

Description

Instrument
Air (Nm3/h)

A-2201

SRU Package

-103.4

A-2201

Start-up & shutdown [1]

(-161.6)

Plant Air (Nm3/h)


Continuous Intermittent
-400.0

Note:
[1]: Instrument air consumption is in the extreme case where all
control valves and on/off valves act together.

1.2.4.1.5. Nitrogen

Item No.

Description

A-2201

SRU Package

A-2201

Start-up & shutdown

Nitrogen Nm3/h
Continuous

Intermittent

-26.0
-138.0

1.2.4.1.6. Furnace & Boilers

Item No.

Description

A-2201

SRU Package

A-2201

Start-up & shutdown


Pilot Gas

Furnace & Boilers


Fuel Fired (MW)
-0.1
(-1.4)
-0.1

1.2.4.2. Catalysts & Chemicals


The catalyst used in the Claus Catalytic Reactors is Alumina-Titanium for
1st Reactor and only Alumina for 2nd and 3rd Reactors. The Claus catalyst
is easily available on the market, from Euro Support or Axens for
instance.
Claus reactors catalyst is supported on a layer of catalyst support with a
remarkable activity towards the Claus reaction.
The temperature of structural change of the catalyst is above 550 C (far
from the operating conditions of normal run and during plant heat-up).
Catalyst is very resistant to plant upset (the only exception is the plugging
by soot), but the following phenomena may decrease the activity:
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Thermal and Hydrothermal Ageing

Sulphate Poisoning

DATE: 21/03/08

In present case Euro Support has been chosen as preferred supplier. The
trade names are S-2001 for Alumina-based Catalyst, S-7001 for Titanium
Oxide Catalyst and 1/2" Ceramic Balls as active catalyst support.
Catalyst
Item

Description

A-2201-R-02

1st reactor
nd

Catalyst

Volume to be loaded (m3)

Alumina-based catalyst

0.94

Titanium oxide catalyst

0.94

A-2201-R-03

reactor

Alumina-based catalyst

1.32

A-2201-R-04

3rd reactor

Alumina-based catalyst

1.88

Catalyst Bed Support


Item

Description

Volume to be loaded (m3)

A-2201-R-02

1st reactor

0.28

A-2201-R-03

2nd reactor

0.20

A-2201-R-04

3rd reactor

0.28

When the SRU is processing a feed with the design feed quality, the
Claus catalyst life shall be minimum 2 years.

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1.3. Glossary of terms and Acronyms


1.3.1. Acronyms
COMPANIES/ORGANISATIONS
DQR
DQIZMB
EVN
FW
MOC
MOSTE
MPI
SRV
TPC

Dung Quat Refinery


Dung Quat Industrial Zone
Management Board
Electricity Authority of Vietnam
Foster Wheeler Energy Limited
Ministry of Construction
Ministry of Science, Technology
and Environment
Ministry of Planning and
Investment
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Technip Consortium

OTHERS
ACE

ADP
AER

Application Control Environment


Analyser Data Acquisition
System
Alarm Display Panel
Application Engineers Room

AI

Analyser Indicator

AIT

Auto Ignition Temperature

MCC
MCR
MCS
MOV
Control
System
MDF

AMS

Asset Management System

MIS

ANSI

American National Standards


institute

MMS

APC

Advanced Process Control

MMT

API
ARU
ASC

American Petroleum Institute


Amine Regeneration Unit
Analyser Speciality Contractor
American Society of
Mechanical Engineers

MOC
MOM
MOV

Minimum Maintained
Temperature
Madrid Operating Center
Minutes of Meeting
Motor Operated Valve

MP

Medium Pressure

MPT

Minimum Pressurization
Temperature

MR

Material Requisition

MRR
MSD
MSDS
MTBF
MTTR

Marshalling Rack Room


Material Selection Diagram
Material Safety Data Sheet
Mean Time Between Failures
Mean Time To Repair

ADAS

ASME
ASP
ASTM
ATM
BCS
BEDD
BFD
BFW

Analyser Systems Package


American Society of Testing
and Materials
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Blending Control System
Basic Engineering Design Data
Block Flow Diagram
Boiler Feed Water

MC

Marshalling Cabinet

MCB

Main Control Building


Motor Control Center
Main Control Room
MOV Control System
Main Distribution Frame
Management Information
System
Machine Monitoring System

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BL
BOM

Battery Unit
Bill of Materials

MTO
MTPA

BPC

Blending Properties Control

MVIP

BPCD

Barrels per Calendar Day

NACE

BPSD
BRC

Barrels per Stream Day


Blending Ratio Control

NCR
NDE

CAD

Computer Aid Design

NFPA

CALM
CBT

NHT
NIR
NPSH

Net Positive Suction Head

CCC
CCR
CCTV
CD

Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring


Commercial Bid Tabulation
Control Complex Auxiliary
Room
Central Control Complex
Continuous Catalytic Reformer
Closed Circuit Television
Chart Datum

Material Take-Off
Metric Tonnes per Annum
Multi Vendor Interface
Program (Honeywell)
National Association of
Corrosion Engineers
Non Conformance Report
Non Destructive Examination
National Fire Protection
Association
Naphtha Hydrotreater (Unit)
Near Infrared Spectroscopy

NPV
NTU
OAS
OJT

CDU

Crude Distillation Unit

OM&S

OSBL

Net Present Value


Naphtha Treater Unit
Oil Accounting System
On Job Training
Oil Movement and Storage
Control System
Oil Movement and Storage
automation
Operation Override Switch
Operations Planning and
Scheduling System
Outside Battery Limit

OTS

Operator Training Simulator

CCAR

CENELEC
CFC
CFR
C&I
CMMS
CNU

European Committee for


Electrotechnical Standardization
Chlorofluorocarbons
Cooperative Fuel Research
(Engine)
Control and Instrumentation
Computerized Maintenance
Management System
(Spent) Caustic Neutralization
Unit

OMSA
OOS
OPSS

PABX

CPI

Corrugated Plate Interceptor

PAGA

CSI
DAF
DAU
DCS

Control Systems Integrator


Dissolved Air Flotation
Data Acquisition Unit
Distributed Control System

PCB
PFD
PFM
PDB

DEA

Diethanolamine

PGC

Private Automatic Branch


Exchange
Public Address / General
Alarm
Printed Circuit Board
Process Flow Diagram
Path Find Module
Project Documents Base
Process Gas Chromatograph
(Analysers)

PHD

Plant History Database

DMDS
DMS

Detailed Environmental Impact


Assessment
Dimethyldisulfide
Document Management System

PI
PIB

DNV

Det Nork Veritas

PID

Plant Air
Process Interface Building
Piping and Instrument
Diagram
Project Implementation
Manual
Process Knowledge System
(Honeywell DCS)
Pipeline End Manifold
Planning
Project Management

DEIA

DPTD
DQMIS
DQRP
DVM
DWT

Design, Pressure, Temperature


Diagram
Dung Quat Management
Information System
Dung Quat Refinery Project
Digital Video Manager
Dead Weight Tonnes

PIM
PKS
PLEM
PLG
PMC

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SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

EL
EOR

ERP
ES
ESD
ETP
ETS
EWS
FDC
FAP

Equipment List
End of Run
Electronic Document
Management System
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Engineering Procurement,
Construction and
Commissioning
Enterprise Resource Planning
Ethernet Switch
Emergency Shut Down
Effluent Treatment Plant
Effluent Treatment System
Engineering Work Station
Feed Development Contract
Fire Alarm Panel

FAT

Factory Acceptance Test

FEL

Front End Loading

F&G
FIU
FIC

Fire and Gas System


Field Interface Unit
Flow Indicating Controller

FM

Factory Mutual (Approval body)

FOTC

Fibre Optic Termination Cabinet

EDMS
EMC
EPC

FTE
GC
GFT

Fail Safe Controller (Honeywell


ESD)
Fault Tolerant Ethernet
Gas Chromatograph
Ground Fault

HAZAN

Hazard Analysis Study

HAZOP

Hazard and Operability Study

HDT

Hydrotreater

HEI

Heat Exchange Institution

HHP
HGO
HIC
HP
HSE

High High Pressure (Steam)


Heavy Gas Oil
Hydrogen Induced Cracking
High Pressure
Health, Safety and Environment
Heating Ventilation Air
Conditioning
Instrument Air
International Civil Aviation
Organisation
Instrument Clean Earth

FSC

HVAC
IA
ICAO
ICE

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

PMI
PMT

Consultant
Positive Material Identification
Project Management Team

PO

Purchase Order

POC

Paris Operating Center

PP

Project Procedure

PPB
PPM
PRU
PWHT
QA
QC
RA
R&D

Parts per Billion


Parts per Million
Propylene Recovery Unit
Post Weld Heat Treatment
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Risk Analysis
Research and Development
Real Time Database
RDBMS
Management System
Residue Fluid Catalytic
RFCC
Cracking
RFSU
Ready for Start-Up
RLU
Remote Line Unit
ROW
Right of Way
Refinery Performance
RPMS
Management System
Resistance Temperature
RTD
Detector
Real Time Data Base
RTDB
(System)
RTU
Remote Terminal Unit
SAT
Site Acceptance Test
SBT
Segregated Ballast Tanks
Software Bypass Management
SBMS
System
Supervisory Control and Data
SCADA
Acquisition
SCC
Satellite Control Complex
Simulation Control
SCE
Environment
SCR
Satellite Control Room
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SE
Safety Earth
S&E
Safety & Environmental
SGS
Safeguarding System
SOE

Sequence of Events

SOR

Start of Run

SOW

Scope of Work

SP

Specification
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ICS

Integrated Control System

SPIR

IIP
I/O
IP

SPM
SR
SRU
STC

Construction Standard

IRP
IRR

Initial Interface Plan


Input/Output
Institute of Petroleum
Instrumented Protective
System
Interposing Relay Panel
Internal Rate of Return

Spare Parts and


interchangeability Record
Single Point Mooring
Scope of Supply
Sulphur Recovery Unit

STD
STEL

IS

Intrinsically Safe

SVAC

ISA
ISE
ISBL
ISOM

Instrument Society of America


Intrinsically Safe Earth
Inside Battery Limit
Isomerisation Unit

SWS
TAS
TBT

ITB

Invitation to Bid

TCF

ITP

Inspection and Test Plan

TCM

JB

Junction Box

TEMA

JCC

Jetty Control Complex

TGIF

JCR
JSD
JSS

Jetty Control Room


Job Specification for Design
Job Specification for Supply

TLCR
TLCS
TN

JVD

Joint Venture Directorate

TPS

KLOC
KTU
LAN
LCO
LCOHDT

Kuala Lumpur Operating Center


Kerosene Treatment Unit
Local Area Network
Light Cycle Oil
LCO Hydrotreater

TQM
TS
TWA
UFD
U/G

LDE

Lead Discipline Engineer

UL

Design Standard
Short Term Exposure Limit
Shelter Ventilation and Air
Conditioning
System (Analyser houses)
Sour Water Stripping (Unit)
Terminal Automation System
Technical Bid Tabulation
Temporary Construction
Facilities
Task Control Module
Tubular Exchanger
Manufacturers' Association
Temperature Gauge Indication
Facilities (Tankage)
Truck Loading Control Room
Truck Loading Control System
Transmittal Note
Total Plant Solution
(Honeywell)
Total Quality Management
Terminal Server
Time Weighted Average
Utility Flow diagram
Underground
Underwriter Laboratories
(Approval body)

IPS

LEL
LGO
LIMS

Lower Exposition Limit (F&G,


Analysers)
Light Gas Oil
Laboratory Information
Management System

UPS

Uninterruptible Power Supply

VDU

Visual Display Unit

VPU

Vendor Package Unit

LIS

Laboratory Information System

WABT

LLU
LP
LPG
LTU LPG

Local Line Unit


Low Pressure
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Treater Unit

WBS
WHB
YOC

Weight Average Bed


Temperature
Wash Breakdown Structure
Waste Heat Boiler
Yokohama Operating Center

1.3.2. Glossary
Refer to separate glossary.

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TRAINING MODULE

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)


UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description

Section 3 - Process Control


Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 2 : PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION

Figure 4: SRU Block Flow Diagram

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Figure 5: SRU Simplified Process Flow Diagram


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2.1. Claus Section


2.1.1. ARU Off Gas from Unit 19 & H2S Rich Off Gas from Unit 18
The ARU Off Gas (from Unit 19) and the H2S Rich Off gas (from Unit 18) are fed
to 2 dedicated KO drums (A-2201-D-01 & A-2201-D-02), provided with mist
eliminators, in order to separate acid condensate and all liquid carry-over coming
from upstream units. Indeed liquid carry-over is very dangerous to the life of
downstream equipment and to the correctness of operation.
2 dedicated pumps, A-2201-P-01 A/B & A-2201-P-02 A/B, send acid condensate
collected in A-2201-D-01 & A-2201-D-02 respectively to closed drain drum in unit
19 and unit 18 respectively. The pumps operate on level control of their respective
KO drum.
ARU Off gas from KO drum A-2201-D-01 is heated against HP superheated steam
in the ARU off gas preheater A-2201-E-01. The steam is fed to A-2201-E-01 on
temperature control of the ARU off gas at the discharge of the preheater. ARU off
gas is then fed to the burner of the thermal reactor A-2201-R-01 on flow control
reset by PIC-529 at the off gas outlet of A-2201-D-01. Part of the ARU off gas is
not fed to the thermal reactor burner but flows straight to the 2nd zone of the
reactor.
After being mixed with the off gas from A-2201-D-01 downstream of the ARU off
gas preheater A-2201-E-01, H2S rich SWS off gas from KO drum A-2201-D-02 is
fed to the burner of the thermal reactor A-2201-R-01 on flow control reset by PIC530 at the off gas outlet of A-2201-D-02..
Condensation in the separator downstream line is prevented by low pressure
steam tracing.
In case of the Claus section is temporarily out of operation, the ARU Off Gas and
the H2S Rich Off Gas are bypassed to the Incinerator (A-2201-H-01) via dedicated
lines from each K.O. drum.

2.1.2. Combustion air feeding to Claus section


Air required for acid gases combustion is compressed in the Combustion Air
Blower A-2201-B-01 A/B. The compressed air pressure at the blowers discharge
is controlled by PIC-545 which vent excess air to atmosphere.
A small fraction of the compressed air is used to strip H2S from produced sulphur,
inside the Liquid Sulphur Degassing Pit (A-2201 -TK-01).
Once compressed, combustion air is preheated in the Combustion Air Preheater
A-2201-E-02 against HP superheated steam in order to increase as much as
possible the adiabatic flame temperature in Thermal Reactor (A-2201-R-01). The
flow of steam to the preheater is temperature controlled by TIC-523 measuring the
temperature of the heated air at A-2201-E-02 discharge.
Then combustion air is fed to the burner of the thermal reactor A-2201-R-01.

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2.1.3. Thermal Reactor and Burner


Thermal Reactor (A-2201-R-01) and relevant burner are the most important items
in the Claus section and correct operation in that area is mandatory to assure
smooth run.
Combustion of acid gases is done under highly controlled condition, in order to
assure proper air feeding and, as a result, proper run conditions. All acid stream
flow rates are corrected for pressure and temperature and are controlled keeping
the header pressure at the constant value. Combustion air is managed in order to
assure proper flow rate.
The air fed to the main burner is exactly sufficient to accomplish the complete
oxidation of hydrocarbons and all the impurities (such as HCN) present in the total
feed gases and to burn approximately one-third of the total H2S to SO2
maximizing the overall sulphur recovery efficiency.
Burner is provided with a fuel gas gun and ancillaries to burn refinery fuel gas in
heating up conditions, when the unit is too cold to accept acid gas in safe
conditions. Fuel gas line is equipped with flow control system and shut down
valves. Air flow rate required for proper combustion is fed via ratio control, using
same criteria as for acid gas feeding.
The Thermal Reactor (A-2201-R-01) is a 2 zones reaction furnace, each zone
operating at different temperature:

In the 1st zone all combustion air, all H2S Rich Off gas and a fraction of
ARU Off Gas are burnt.
Combustion air flow rate present in flame area is relatively higher than the
required for Claus reactions, due to the by-pass of the part of ARU Off Gas
flow rate to the second zone. The resulting flame temperature is higher than
expected (regarding standard Claus reactions only) and in this way is
guaranteed flame stability and complete hydrocarbon and impurities
combustion.

In the 2nd zone the hot flue gas from the first zone and the remaining ARU
Off Gas are mixed. As the remaining ARU Off Gas is injected, temperature
is lowered and modifications in flue gas composition take place in order to
satisfy the overall heat and material balances.

Optimum temperature is achieved by-passing about 50% of ARU Off Gas to the
second zone at design flowrate.
The flue gas leaving then leaves the reactor and enters into the Claus Waste Heat
Boiler and Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01.
The temperature inside the first zone is approx. 1240C and the temperature of
flue gas leaving the reactor is approx. 900C.
The expected overall conversion of H2S to sulphur in the Thermal Reactor (A2201-R-01) is approx. 16.4% at design conditions (Max. Gasoline Case).

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2.1.4. Claus Waste Heat Boiler and 1st Sulphur Condenser


The Claus Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01 is a 5 passes
boiler producing saturated low pressure steam at 4.1 kg/cm2G:

pass I = 1st pass of WHB

pass II = 2nd pass of WHB

pass III = 1st sulphur condenser

pass IV = 2nd sulphur condenser

pass V = 3rd sulphur condenser

LP steam is generated shell side and delivered to the LP steam header. Produced
steam is controlled at 4.1 kg/cm2G by pressure controller PIC-555.
Boiler feed water is fed to the A-2201-SG-01 under level control of A-2201-SG-01
by LIC-514.
A-2201-SG-01 is equipped with the Claus Blow Down Cooler (A-2201-D-06), on
which service water is used in open circuit to cool the water blown down from A2201-SG-01. The water blown down is then discharged into oily surface water
sewer at a maximum temperature of 50C.
The combustion products leaving the Thermal Reactor A-2201-R-01 are sent into
the tubes and are cooled down to about 240C in pas ses I & II of the Claus Waste
Heat Boiler.
The process gas leaving the Claus Waste Heat Boiler is further cooled down to
about 162C in the 1 st Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass III). The sulphur
produced in the A-2201-R-01 is condensed in the tube side of A-2201-SG-01 pass
III and discharged by gravity to the sulphur pit (A-2201-TK-02) through its
dedicated sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05 A).

2.1.5. 1st Process Gas Reheater & 1st Catalytic Reactor


The process gas leaving the 1st Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01) pass III is
heated up to 240C in the 1 st Process Gas Reheater (A-2201-E-03), by means of
superheated HP steam fed under temperature control by TIC-541 of the process
gas leaving the reheater, prior to being sent to the 1st Catalytic Reactor (A-2201R-02).
The process gas enters the A-2201-R-02 where the Claus reaction between H2S
and SO2 continues until equilibrium is reached at that condition, producing
elemental Sulphur.
Equilibrium temperature is approximately the temperature of process gas leaving
the reactor (A-2201-R-02), i.e. 321C at design con ditions (Max. Gasoline Case).

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2.1.6. 2nd Condenser, 2nd Process Gas Reheater & 2nd Catalytic Reactor
The process gas leaving the 1st Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-02) is fed to the 2nd
Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass IV). The sulphur produced in the A-2201R-02 is condensed in the tube side of A-2201-SG-01 pass IV and discharged by
gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK-02) through its dedicated sulphur seal leg
(A-2201-D-05B).
A mist eliminator device is provided on the outlet channel of the A-2201-SG-01
pass IV to remove the sulphur entrained as mist in the process gas.
The process gas leaving 2nd Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass IV) at 170C
is fed to the 2nd Process Gas Reheater (A-2201-E-04) to be heated up to 205C by
means of superheated HP steam fed under temperature control by TIC-539 of the
process gas leaving the reheater. The process gas then enters the 2nd Catalytic
Reactor (A-2201-R-03) where the Claus reaction between H2S and SO2
continues until equilibrium is reached at these conditions, producing elemental
Sulphur.
Equilibrium temperature is approximately 223C at d esign conditions (Max.
Gasoline Case).

2.1.7. 3rd Condenser, 3rd Process Gas Reheater & 3rd Catalytic Reactor
The process gas leaving the 2nd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-03) is fed to the 3rd
Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass V). The sulphur produced in the A-2201R-03 is condensed in the tube side of A-2201-SG-01 pass V and discharged by
gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK-02) through its dedicated sulphur seal leg
(A-2201-D-05C).
A mist eliminator device is provided on the outlet channel of the A-2201-SG-01
pass V to remove the sulphur entrained as mist in the process gas.
The process gas leaving the 3rd Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass V) at
162C is fed to the 3 rd Process Gas Reheater (A-2201-E-05) to be heated up to
190C by means of superheated HP steam fed under te mperature control by TIC540 of the process gas leaving the reheater. Heated process gas then enters the
3rd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-04) where the Claus reaction between H2S and
SO2 continues until equilibrium is reached under these conditions, producing
Sulphur.
Equilibrium temperature is approximately 193C at d esign conditions (Max.
Gasoline Case).

The .following DCS printout shows the catalytic reactors:

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2.1.8. Final Sulphur Condenser and Tail Gas Coalescer


The process gas leaving the 3rd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-04) at 193C is fed to
the tube side of the Final Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-E-06) for the final cooling
against boiler feed water (shell side), to recover sulphur produced in the A-2201R-04.
Cooling down has been maximized to decrease to the minimum the sulphur
present as elemental sulphur in the tail gas.
The sulphur produced is condensed in the tube side of A-2201-E-06 and
discharged by gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK-02) through its dedicated
sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05D).
The sensible heat of the process gas entering the Final Sulphur Condenser (A2201-E-06) vaporizes the BFW coming from the Steam Condenser (A-2201-E-07).
Produced steam is pressure controlled at 1 kg/cm2G (120C) by PIC-562 on the
A-2201-E-06 outlet line to the steam condenser, in order to ensure that in all
operating conditions, the tube temperature of A-2201-E-06 is always higher than
freezing point of sulphur, avoiding operating problems, but still as low as possible.
Steam fed to A-2201-E-07 is condensed against cooling water before being
returned to the final sulphur condenser.
For warm-up or turndown operations, to avoid sulphur solidification, LP Steam is
send to the shell of the Final Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-E-06) via a dedicated
sparger.
The process gas coming from the A-2201-E-06 is fed to the Tail Gas Coalescer
(A-2201-D-04) to remove any sulphur mist from the process gas. Condensed
liquid elemental sulphur is then sent by gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK-02)
via sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05D).
The tail gas leaving the Sulphur Coalescer (A-2201-D-04), at approx. 130C, is fed
directly to the Incinerator (A-2201-H-01).

2.2. Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit


The elemental liquid sulphur condensed in the 4 condensation steps is discharged by
gravity to the Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit (A-2201-TK-02) through the sulphur seal legs
(A-2201-D-05A/B/C/D).
Each sulphur seal leg has been provided with dedicated filter (perforated plate type) to
avoid plugging by catalyst and refractory dust. Sulphur seal legs are fully steam jacketed
and sized to avoid blow up of process gas in all operating conditions, also in case of
heavy upset.
Note that each sulphur seal leg has a dedicated manual, steam jacketed valve, to isolate
the items in case of scheduled maintenance and during the dry out operations. In no
other conditions the valve should be closed.
Sulphur pit is divided in two different sections, a non-degassed sulphur pit and a
degassed sulphur storage pit:

The non-degassed sulphur storage section, sized for about one day of production
of Claus section, is equipped with 2 fully steam jacketed sulphur pumps (A-2201P-04 A/B).
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A-2201-P-04 A/B transfer continuously the produced sulphur to the Liquid Sulphur
Degassing Pit (A-2201-TK-01).

The degassed sulphur storage section is sized for about one day of production of
Claus section and is equipped with two fully steam jacketed sulphur pumps (A2201-P-05 A/B) that transfer the degassed sulphur to the Sulphur Apron.

Sulphur pit operates under approx. -50 mmH2O (G). Air intake is sucked from A-2201TK-01 by the Pit ejector (A-2201-J-01 A/B) which is fully steam jacketed. Air is then
discharged to the Incinerator (A-2201-H-01).

2.3. Sulphur Degassing Section


Liquid sulphur leaving the Claus section may cause environmental and safety problems
due to the presence of H2S, which is partly physically dissolved and partly present in the
form of polysulphides (H2Sx).
On the average, liquid sulphur contains 250-300 wt.ppm H2S. During the transport and
storage the H2S will be released from the sulphur resulting in the creation of an explosive
mixture if the lower explosion limit of H2S in air exceeded. This limit ranges between 3.7
vol% H2S at 130C and 4.3 vol% H2S at ambient tempe rature.
The sulphur degassing process is used to strip liquid sulphur down to 10 wt.ppm
H2S/H2SX, which is the safe level top avoid exceeding of the lower explosion limit.
For this, process air from A-2201-B-01A/B is bubbled through the sulphur to decompose
the polysulphides and to release the physically dissolved H2S, without chemicals
addition. The degassing is carried out in the Liquid Sulphur Degassing Pit (A-2201-TK01) provided with suitable perforated plates to allow contact between not degassed
sulphur and stripping air.
The air bubbling through the sulphur decreases the partial pressure of H2S and induces
a vigorous agitation. Consequently a good contact between liquid sulphur and oxygen is
obtained, which accelerates the decomposition of polysulphides into H2S and S, strips
the dissolved H2S from the sulphur and oxidises a part of H2S to sulphur.
An additional amount of air (sweep air) is drawn into the Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit (A2201-TK-02) to ventilate the vapour space above the sulphur level and to keep the
H2Sconcentration below its lower explosion limit.
The stripped H2S is removed by the steam ejector (A-2201-J-01A/B) and sent to the
Incinerator (A-2201-H-01).
Degassed elemental sulphur then flows to the degassed sulphur storage section before
being pumped by A-2201-P-05 A/B to the sulphur apron.

The following DCS printout shows the sulphur storage pit and degassing section:

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2.4. Incinerator Section


The tail gas leaving the Claus section, as well as vent air from ejectors, are fed to the
Incinerator (A-2201-H-01) to burn the residual H2S. In order to meet the requirements on
the flue gas delivered to the atmosphere, dilution air from Dilution Air Blower (B-2203
A/B) is fed to the Stack.
In normal condition NH3 Rich Off gas (from Unit 18) and CNU Off gas (from Unit 20) are
used as support fuel to achieve 750C inside the co mbustion chamber. A refinery fuel
gas is used to guarantee the maintenance of the required temperature in case of NH3
Rich Off gas and/or CNU Off gas flowrate fluctuations.
NH3 rich SWS off gas is fed to the NH3 Rich Off Gas KO Drum A-2201-D-03, provided
with mist eliminator in order to separate NH3 condensate and all liquid carry-over coming
from NH3. The NH3 Rich Off Gas KO Drum Pumps A-2201-P-03 send any condensate
collected in A-2201-D-03 back to the closed drain drum in SWS unit. The pumps operate
on level control of A-2201-D-03.
The separated off gas from A-2201-D-03 is then sent to the combustion chamber of the
incinerator A-2201-H-01.
NH3 Rich Off gas and/or CNU Off gas or support fuel gas are burnt with combustion air
from the Incinerator Combustion Air Blower (A-2201-B-02A/B), operating at relatively
high air excess in order to achieve optimum flame temperature.
The Claus tail gas and the vent gas from pit ejectors (A-2201-J-01 A/B) are mixed with
hot flue gas, at controlled temperature, and all sulphur bearing compounds are oxidised
to SO2.
Expected residual H2S content is lower than 10 vol.ppm.
The combustion air is supplied by the Incinerator Combustion Air Blower (A-2201-B-02
A/B) and controlled as a ratio to the NH3 Rich Off gas, CNU Off gas and refinery fuel gas
flow.
If the Claus section is not in operation, all the ARU Off Gas and H2S Rich Off gas are
sent to the Incinerator Burner.

2.5. DCS Printouts SRU Process Overview


The following DCS printouts show the overview of the SRU process:

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UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control

Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices


Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 3 : PROCESS CONTROL


The following is a description of the main control loops of the SRU. For a detailed description of
the control loops and the controllers, refer to the control narrative, vendor document No. 8474L022-A3505-4110-300-003.
3.1. Control narrative & operating parameters
3.1.1. ARU Off Gas KO Drum A-2201-D-01 Pressure Control
This control system acts in order to maintain a stable pressure in the ARU off gas
KO drum feeding the thermal reactor when the SRU is in normal operation mode
(or the incinerator when the SRU is in bypass mode).
The pressure in A-2201-D-01 is controlled by 022-PIC-529 acting in split range
control on 2 control valves:

022-PV-529 controlling the ARU gas flow to the incinerator A-2201-H-01

022-FV-530 controlling the ARU gas flow to the thermal reactor A-2201-R01. In that case, PIC-529 is in cascade with FIC-530

In case of a pressure increase measured by PT-529 at the outlet of A-2201-D-01,


PIC-529 will 1st open the FV-530 by resetting the setpoint of FIC-530 via PY-529A,
while PV-529 will remain close. This is the low range case (0-50%).
If the pressure continue to increase (high range: 50-100%), then PIC-529 will open
PV-529 via PY-529B, while FV-530 remains open.

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Figure 6: A-2201-D-01 Pressure Control


Since in normal operation, the ARU off gas line to the incinerator is closed by a
cut-off valve 022-XV-516, the action of PV-529 valve opening has no effect in
mitigating the pressure increase. Therefore, the ARU off gas will be flared to the
sour flare by the control valve on the upstream unit (i.e.: Amine Regeneration).
In the same manner, during SRU bypass operation, the ARU off gas line to the
Thermal Reactor is closed by a cut-off valve 022-XV-505, therefore the action of
022-FV-530 valve opening has no effect in mitigating the pressure increase and
the ARU off gas will be flared to the sour flare header by the control valve on the
upstream (i.e.: Amine Regeneration).
There is only one operating mode during which both cut off valves are opened:
This is when the plant is in bypass mode with the incinerator receiving acid gases
and the SRU is to be re-started with acid gases. In this case, FV-530 is operated
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in manual mode (gradual opening) by acting directly on the controller FIC-530.


This cause a pressure decrease and PIC-529 controller output acts by closing
gradually PV-529 up to complete closure.
This way, gradual acid gas cut-in to the thermal reactor and acid gas cut-off the
incinerator are ensured.
3.1.2. H2S Rich SWS Off Gas KO Drum A-2201-D-02 Pressure Control
The pressure control of A-2201-D-02 is strictly the same than the pressure control
of A-2201-D-01:
This control system acts in order to maintain a stable pressure in the H2S rich off
gas KO drum feeding the thermal reactor when the SRU is in normal operation
mode (or the incinerator when the SRU is in bypass mode).
The pressure in A-2201-D-02 is controlled by 022-PIC-530 acting in split range
control on 2 control valves:

022-PV-530 controlling the H2S rich off gas flow to the incinerator A-2201H-01

022-FV-515 controlling the H2S rich off gas flow to the thermal reactor A2201-R-01. In that case, PIC-530 is in cascade with FIC-515

In case of a pressure increase the controller will first open FV-515 while PV-530
will remain close. Then PIC-530 will open PV-530, while FV-530 remains open.

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Figure 7: A-2201-D-02 Pressure Control


Since in normal operation, the H2S rich SWS off gas line to the incinerator is
closed by a cut-off valve 022-XV-516, the action of PV-530 valve opening has no
effect in mitigating the pressure increase. Therefore, H2S rich SWS off gas will be
flared to the sour flare by the control valve on the upstream unit (i.e.: SWS).
In the same manner, during SRU bypass operation, the H2S rich SWS off gas line
to the Thermal Reactor is closed by a cut-off valve 022-XV-501, therefore the
action of FV-515 valve opening has no effect in mitigating the pressure increase
and the H2S rich SWS off gas will be flared to the sour flare header by the control
valve on the SWS.
There is only one operating mode during which both cut off valves are opened:
This is when the plant is in bypass mode with the incinerator receiving acid gases
and the SRU is to be re-started with acid gases. In this case, FV-515 is operated
in manual mode (gradual opening) by acting directly on the controller FIC-515.

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This cause a pressure decrease and PIC-530 controller output acts by closing
gradually PV-530 up to complete closure.
This way, gradual acid gas cut-in to the thermal reactor and acid gas cut-off the
incinerator are ensured.

The following DCS printout shows the ARU off gas KO drum and the H2S rich
SWS off gas KO drum:

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3.1.3. A-2201-D-01/02/03 Level Control


The level in the KO drums A-2201-D-01/02/03 is controlled by LIC-503/504/505
on/off controllers with the starting/stopping of the KO drum pump A-2201-P01/02/03 A/B, respectively.
The control scheme is the same for these 3 KO drums:
For each of them, the level controller of the KO drum will start the duty pump when
the level increases to the upper setpoint and will stop the pump when the level in
the KO drum falls to the lower setpoint. For this to be effective, the duty has to be
selected in remote (at local selector) and auto operation (on the DCS).
In addition, if pump doesnt start at upper setpoint or doesnt stop at lower
setpoint, High and Low level alarms will be respectively displayed at DCS. The
pumps will also be tripped in case of low low level (refer to section 4 of the present
document).

The following DCS printout shows the NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum:

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3.1.4. Thermal Reactor Combustion Air Control


The task of the Burner Control System is to control the amount of combustion air
to the main burner and to provide smooth operation. According to the overall
operation when optimisation of sulphur recovery is the required goal (Claus Mode
operation) the control system ensures that the proper amount of the feed H2S will
be burnt in order to obtain the downstream Claus reaction as complete as
possible.
So, during Claus Mode operation, a too high or too low air flowrate will decrease
the sulphur recovery rate, and once a gas having an incorrect air/gas ratio has
entered the main burner, the resulting conversion loss cannot be compensated.
The correct amount of air is determined by two process variables: the feed gas
flowrate and the specific air demand of the feed gas, which depends upon the H2S
content and the content of other combustible components. The combustion air
control system must adjust the air flow according to these two variables.
The feed gas flowrate can vary quite fast; consequently the ratio control part of the
system must be very fast and accurate.
The variations of the specific air demand are normally much slower. Changes of
this demand are detected downstream the Claus reactors, by measuring the H2S
content in the tail gas. If this content shows a deviation from the desired value, the
Operator will adjust the desired air/gas ratio.

3.1.4.1. Main Combustion Air Flowrate to Thermal Reactor


The purpose of this control is to maintain correct combustion conditions
within the Thermal Reactor A-2201-R-01 by ensuring the correct ratio of
combustion air to acid gases or by ensuring the correct ratio of
combustion air to Fuel Gas during the fuel gas combustion. The control
scheme is a feed-forward air control system based on predetermined feed
gases compositions. Variations in acid gases compositions are handled
by the feed-back control signal from the tail gas analyzer to the trim air
control loop (see next paragraph).
Main combustion air flowrate is controlled by FIC-527 receiving its
setpoint from the combustion control system. FIC-527 setpoint is
determined by the flowrates of combustible gases in the following
manner:

Fuel Gas flowrate is measured by FIC-526 and the value is


multiplied by a proper Air/Fuel Gas Ratio in the block FY-554.
Air/Fuel Gas Ratio is assigned by a manual setting station HIC511. The output of the ratio function (or manipulated variable)
stands for the air quantity required to burn with a predetermined
ratio the Fuel Gas.

H2S Rich Off Gas flowrate to the thermal reactor 1st zone is
measured by FIC-515 and the signal enters the compensation
block FY-548. Then the compensated H2S Rich Off Gas flowrate
value from FY-548 is multiplied by a proper Air/ H2S Rich Off Gas
ratio in the FY-549 block. Air/ H2S Rich Off Gas ratio is assigned
by a manual setting station HIC-509. The output of the ratio block
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represents the air quantity required in order to burn with a


predetermined ratio the H2S Rich Gas.

ARU Off Gas flowrate to the thermal reactor 1st zone is measured
by FIC-530 and the signal enters the compensation flow block FY551. ARU Off Gas flowrate to thermal reactor 2nd zone is measured
by FIC-524 and the signal enters the compensation block FY-522.
The 2 compensated ARU Off Gas flowrates values are summed up
in FY-558 block, generating as output the total ARU off gas
flowrate. This value is then multiplied by a proper Air/ARU off gas
ratio in the FY-550 block. Air/ARU gas ratio is assigned by a
manual setting station 022-HIC-510. The ratio function output
represents the air quantity needed in order to burn with a
predetermined ratio the ARU Off Gas.

The 3 air flowrate contributions calculated above are summed up in


the FY-553 block and the resulting manipulated variable represents
the total air quantity needed to maintain correct combustion
conditions.

The output from FY-553 block is assumed as setpoint for FIC-527 which
regulates the main combustion air flowrate to the thermal reactor with FV527 accordingly.
In addition, FIC-527 receives a signal from FY-556 compensation block in
order to compensate the flowrate according to the actual conditions.

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Figure 8: Main Combustion Air Flowrate


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3.1.5. Trim Air Flow to Thermal Reactor Control by Tail Gas Analysis
The purpose of the controller is to control the efficient acid gas conversion within
the thermal reactor by monitoring the residual levels of H2S and SO2 in the tail
gas from the Claus Section.
The trim air flowrate permits to achieve he optimum H2S/SO2 ratio of 2:1 in tail gas
leaving the Tail Gas Coalescer A-2201-D-04.
The controller acts in feed-back control mode on the trim air control valve FV-022
and takes into account small deviations of acid gases composition with respect to
the predetermined one.

Figure 9: Trim Air Flowrate to Thermal Reactor

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Air demand signal is measured by 022-AT-501 and provides set point for
combustion trim air controller FIC-522. The later adjust the trim air flowrate with
FV-522 on the trim air line to the thermal reactor.
When the output value of the controller AIC-501 is less than zero, the setpoint of
FIC-522 is increased thereby opening the control valve. When the output value of
the controller AIC-501 is greater than zero, the setpoint of FIC-522 is decreased,
thereby closing the control valve.
022-AY-501 calculates the air demand of the Claus section expressed in terms of
the stoichiometric air required by the process, that is 2 x [SO2] [H2S]. When the
optimum H2S/SO2 content ratio of 2:1 in tail gas is achieved, then the air demand
calculated is zero and no control action is required. When the calculated air
demand is greater than zero (SO2 content 0.5 H2S content in the tail gas) it
means that there is an excess of air and the controller shall close the control
valve. Conversely, when the air demand is less than zero, there is deficient air and
the controller shall open the control valve.
The output of trim air controller 022-AIC-501, representing the desired air/gas
ratio, is a very important signal. Normally it varies between very narrow limits,
following the specific air demand of the feed gases. In order to avoid heavy
upsets, e.g. as a consequence of H2S analyser malfunctioning, this signal should
be limited slightly outside the normal operating range. Outside the expected range,
the controller 022-AIC-501 is switched automatically to manual mode and the
air/gas ratio control is operated in automatic mode, using the manual output signal
as the ratio set points. If required, these set points should be changed very slowly
and carefully.

3.1.6. Quench Steam Flowrate Control


This control is design to gradually increase and maintain correct combustion
temperature within the thermal reactor by feeding steam as a tempering medium
in a suitable ratio to fuel gas.
Quench steam flowrate is controlled by FIC-025 receiving its setpoint from the
combustion control system.
FIC-525 set point is determined by the fuel gas flowrates in the following manner:
Fuel gas flowrate is measured by FIC-526 and the process value is multiplied by a
proper Steam/Fuel Gas ratio in the FY-555 block. Steam/Fuel Gas ratio is
assigned by a manual input setting station HIC-512. The output of the ratio block
represents the steam quantity needed in order to temper the combustion
temperature in the thermal reactor.
The output from 022-FY-555 block is assumed as setpoint for FIC-525 which
regulates the flow of steam to the thermal reactor with FV-525.
The following DCS printouts show the thermal reactor, waste heat boiler and
sulphur condenser section:
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3.1.7. Combustion Air to Incinerator Flowrate Control (A-2201-H-01)


The control system is designed to maintain stable and adequate combustion
conditions within the incinerator. Combustion air flowrate controller FIC-539
setpoint is determined by the flowrates of combustible gases in the following
manner:

Fuel Gas flowrate is measured by FI-535 and the value is multiplied by a


proper Air/Fuel ratio in the FFY-535 block. Air/Fuel ratio is assigned by a
manual setting station HIC-504. The manipulated variable represents the
air quantity needed in order to burn with a predetermined excess air the fuel
gas.

CNU Off Gas flowrate is measured by FI-538 and the value is multiplied by
a proper Air/CNU Off Gas ratio in the FFY-538 block. Air/CNU Off Gas ratio
is assigned by a manual setting station HIC-506. The manipulated variable
represents the air quantity needed in order to burn with a predetermined
excess air the CNU Off Gas.

NH3 Rich SWS Off Gas flowrate is measured by FI-518 and the value is
multiplied by a proper Air/ NH3 Rich SWS Off Gas ratio in the FFY-518
block. Air/ NH3 Rich SWS Off Gas ratio is assigned by a manual setting
station HIC-505. The manipulated variable represents the air quantity
needed in order to burn with a predetermined excess air the NH3 Rich
SWS Off Gas.

The 3 contributions calculated above are summed up in the FFY-539B


block and the resulting manipulated variable represents the total air quantity
needed to burn the combustible gases in order to result the desired degree
of oxygen excess in the tail gas.

The output from FFY-539B block is then compare to the thermal reactor
temperature (with the output from TY-560B) in the high signal selector FFY-539A,
which selects the greatest signal to reset the setpoint of FIC-539. FIC-539 controls
the air flowrate from the combustion air preheater to the thermal reactor with FV539.
FIC-539 is reverse acting: The valve FV-539 opening will be decreased when the
process variable of FIC-539 increases.

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Figure 10: Control of Combustion Air Flowrate to Incinerator

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3.1.7.1. Incinerator Residence Zone Temperature Control (A-2201-H-01)


The control system is deigned to maintain stable and adequate
temperature conditions within the incinerator.
Incinerator residence zone temperature is controlled by TIC-560 acting in
split range control on 2 control valves:

TV-560 controlling the fuel gas flow to the incinerator (In the low
range (0-50%) signal output from TIC-560)

FV-539 controlling the air flow to the incinerator (In the high range
(50-110%) signal output from TIC-560). In this case, TIC-560 is in
cascade with FIC-539.

When the temperature increases, the controller output first closes TV-560
by means of TY-560A while TY-560B output remains zero. In this
condition the controller action is ignored on FIC-539 set point and FV-539
valve remains in its position determined only by the setpoint based on
combustible gases air requirement, as described previously.
If the temperature rise continues until TV-560 is fully closed, then TY560B output is increased and the controller action enters the FFY-539A,
thus contributing to the setpoint of FIC-539.

The following DCS printout shows the incinerator section:

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3.1.8. Inter-Unit Controls & Interfaces


There are no inter-unit controls in the SRU.

3.1.9. Operating Parameters


For operating conditions of the SRU refer to the following Process Flow Diagrams:
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-001 Claus Section Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-002 Incineration Section Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-003 Claus Section Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-004 Incineration Section Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-005 Heat & Material Balance Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-006 Heat & Material Balance Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-007 Heat & Material Balance Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-008 Heat & Material Balance Max Gasoline

3.2. Instrument List


Refer to attached extracted instrument list: Unit 022 extracted instrument list.xls

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3.3. Main Equipment


3.3.1. Thermal Reactor
The purpose of the thermal reactor is to accomplish the complete oxidation of
hydrocarbons and all the impurities (such as HCN) present in the total feed gases
and to burn approximately one-third of the total H2S to SO2.
The Thermal Reactor (A-2201-R-01) is a 2 zones reaction furnace, each zone
operating at different temperature:

In the 1st zone all combustion air, all H2S Rich Off gas and a fraction of
ARU Off Gas are burnt.

In the 2nd zone the hot flue gas from the first zone and the remaining ARU
Off Gas (about 50% of the total ARU off gas) are mixed.

The temperature inside the first zone is approx. 1240C and the temperature of
flue gas leaving the reactor is approx. 900C.
The Thermal Reactor Burner is combined burner type with two lances, one for
Fuel Gas combustion during plant heating up, turndown case, or during refractory
dry-out and the other one for acid gas combustion during normal operation.
The Reactor Burner has a lot of ancillaries to assure smooth and safe operation,
such as 2 flame scanners, ignitor, etc. A permanent low pressure steam line
(Quench) has been foreseen to moderate the flame temperature in the fuel gas
run. The steam requirement shall be approximately 6 kg/kg of fuel gas. The
quench steam flowrate shall be set by the operator to limit the adiabatic flame
temperature to 1400C max.
Reaction chamber is internally refractory lined to protect the vessel from high
temperature and it is equipped with one optical pyrometer and special
thermocouples to detect continuously the temperature in both reaction zones.
The expected overall conversion of H2S to sulphur in the Thermal Reactor (A2201-R-01) is approx. 16.4% at design conditions (Max. Gasoline Case).

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Thermal Reactor A-2201-R-01 Burner


Nozzle Data for Burner
Design Pressure (kg/cm2g)

5.2

Operating Pressure (kg/cm2g)

0.49

Design temperature (C)

343

Operating temperature (C)

250

Material:
Acid Gas Lance / Tip

Stainless Steel / AISI 310

Fuel Gas Lance / Tip

Stainless Steel / AISI 310

Burner Front Plate

Killed Carbon Steel

Burner Construction
Installation

Horizontal, flanged to the thermal reactor

Gas Tight Construction

Yes

Fuel Gas connection

Flexible pipe to allow gun withdrawal during


acid gas operation

Flame control

2 flame
amplifier

Max noise level

85 dB at 1 m distance

detectors,

each

complete

with

Thermal Reactor A-2201-R-01


Length (TL to TL) (mm)

2700

Internal Diameter (mm)

1290

Position

Horizontal

Design Temperature (Fuel Gas Firing only)(C)

1450

MIN/MAX Operating temperature (C)

Zone I: 1250/900

Zone II: 1250/850

Refractory
Bricks Group

Grade 28

Classification Temperature

1540C

Thermal Conductivity at 600C

0.34W/mC

CaO content

1% typ.

Fe2O3 content

1.5% max.

Alkalies content

2% max.

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Figure 11: Thermal Reactor Burner

Figure 12: Thermal Reactor

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3.3.2. Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


The Claus Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01 is a 5 passes
boiler producing saturated low pressure steam at 4.1 kg/cm2G in the shell side by
condensing sulphur in the tube side:

pass I = 1st pass of WHB

pass II = 2nd pass of WHB

pass III = 1st sulphur condenser

pass IV = 2nd sulphur condenser

pass V = 3rd sulphur condenser

For all the 5 passes, there is one pass per shell or per unit. They are all oriented
horizontally.
The tubes of each pass are plain tubes, made of killed carbon steel.
A-2201-SG-01 is provided with 2 mist eliminators at Pass IV and V outlets to
minimize the entrainment of condensed elemental sulphur with the process gas at
the outlet of the pass.

Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS I
Surface (m2)

7.5
Operating Conditions at Design Flowrate

Service

Shell Side

Tube Side

BFW / LP steam

Process Gas

Inlet

Outlet

Vapour (kg/hr)

Inlet

Outlet

1533.8

1533.8

455

Liquid (kg/hr)
Steam (kg/hr)

790.5

Water (kg/hr)

814.6

24.1

Temp.(C)

112

152

897

4.1

0.44

Press. (kg/cm2g)
Duty (kW)

245
2

Service heat transfer coefficient (W/m C):

66.1

Clean: 68.1

Construction of the shell


No. Passes per Shell

Shell Side: 1

No. of tubes:

Tube Side: 1

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Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS I
Tubes Diameter (mm)

7.62

Length (mm)

4500

Pitch

125 (SQUARE)

Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS II
2

Surface/unit (m )

11.9
Operating Conditions at Design Flowrate

Service

Shell Side

Tube Side

BFW / LP steam

Process Gas

Inlet

Outlet

Vapour (kg/hr)

Inlet

Outlet

1533.8

1533.8

240

Liquid (kg/hr)
Steam (kg/hr)

790.5

Water (kg/hr)

814.6

24.1

Temp.(C)

112

152

455

4.1

0.420

Press. (kg/cm2g)
Duty (kW)

107
2

Service heat transfer coefficient (W/m C):

51.6

Clean: 53.0

Construction of the shell


No. Passes per Shell

Shell Side: 1

Tube Side: 1

No. of tubes:

14

Tubes Diameter (mm)

5.54

Length (mm)

4500

Pitch

85 mm (TRIANGULAR)

Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS III
Surface/unit (m2)

15.7
Operating Conditions at Design Flowrate
Shell Side

Tube Side
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Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS III
Service

BFW / LP steam

Process Gas

Inlet

Outlet

Vapour (kg/hr)

Inlet

Outlet

1533.8

1504.4

Liquid (kg/hr)

29.4

Steam (kg/hr)

790.5

Water (kg/hr)

814.6

24.1

Temp.(C)

112

152

240

4.1

0.40

Press. (kg/cm2g)
Duty (kW)

37

Service heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 C):

65.7

162

Clean: 67.9

Construction of 1 shell
No. Passes per Shell

Shell Side: 1

Tube Side: 1

No. of tubes:

35

Tubes Diameter (mm)

2.77

Length (mm)

4500

Pitch

46 mm (TRIANGULAR)

Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS IV
2

Surface/unit (m )

16.2
Operating Conditions at Design Flowrate

Service

Shell Side

Tube Side

BFW / LP steam

Process Gas

Inlet

Outlet

Vapour (kg/hr)

Inlet

Outlet

1504.4

1356.6

Liquid (kg/hr)

147.8

Steam (kg/hr)

790.5

Water (kg/hr)

814.6

24.1

Temp.(C)

112

152

321

4.1

0.28

Press. (kg/cm2g)
Duty (kW)

171

84
2

Service heat transfer coefficient (W/m C):

75.8

Clean: 78.9
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Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS IV
Construction of 1 shell
No. Passes per Shell

Shell Side: 1

Tube Side: 1

No. of tubes:

36

Tubes Diameter (mm)

2.77

Length (mm)

4500

Pitch

46 mm (TRIANGULAR)

Waste Heat Boiler & Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01


PASS V
2

Surface/unit (m )

14.4
Operating Conditions at Design Flowrate

Service

Shell Side

Tube Side

BFW / LP steam

Process Gas

Inlet

Outlet

Vapour (kg/hr)

Inlet

Outlet

1356.6

1329.5

Liquid (kg/hr)

27.1

Steam (kg/hr)

790.5

Water (kg/hr)

814.6

24.1

Temp.(C)

112

152

223

4.1

0.173

Press. (kg/cm2g)
Duty (kW)

28

Service heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 C):

62.7

162

Clean: 64.8

Construction of 1 shell
No. Passes per Shell

Shell Side: 1

Tube Side: 1

No. of tubes:

32

Tubes Diameter (mm)

2.77

Length (mm)

4500

Pitch

46 mm (TRIANGULAR)

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Figure 13: A-2201-SG-01

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3.3.3. Catalytic Reactors A-2201-R-02/03/04


The purpose of the catalytic reactors R-02/03/04 is to convert H2S into gaseous
elemental sulphur by reaction between H2S and the SO2 formed in the thermal
reactor R-01 on the catalyst beds.
The reaction between H2S and SO2 produces elemental sulphur in each reactor
for as long as the equilibrium is not reached for the pressure and temperature
conditions within each reactor.
The reactors R-02, 03 and 04 are physically located in a unique vessel divided into
3 compartments.
The reactors vessel is equipped with an external MP steam coil operating at
250C and 14.1 kg/cm 2g.
A-2201-R-02

A-2201-R-03

A-2201-R-04

Service

1st catalytic reactor

2nd catalytic reactor

3rd catalytic reactors

Catalyst Volume (m3)

Alumina-based: 0.94

Alumina-based: 1.32

Alumina-based: 1.88

Titanium oxide: 0.94


I.D. (mm)

1900

1900

1900

Length (mm)

1375

1300

1375

Material:
Shell

Killed Carbon Steel

Heads

Killed Carbon Steel

Flanges

Killed Carbon Steel

Coils

Killed Carbon Steel

Beam

Killed Carbon Steel


Design Case Operating Conditions (Max. Gasoline)

Liquid Flow (kg/hr)

Vapour Flow (kg/hr)

1504.4

1356.6

1321.5

IN Press. (kg/cm2g)

0.33

0.21

0.09

OUT Press. (kg/cm2g) 0.28

0.173

0.05

IN Temp. (C)

240

205

190

OUT Temp. (C)

321

223

193

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Figure 14: Catalytic Reactors R-02/03/04

3.3.4. Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit A-2201-TK-01 & Degassing Tank A-2201-TK-02
The purpose of A-2201-TK-01 is to collect the liquid elemental sulphur at the outlet
of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and final sulphur condensers via sulphur seal legs (A-2201-D05A/B/C/D).
Each sulphur seal leg has been provided with dedicated filter (perforated plate
type) to avoid plugging by catalyst and refractory dust. Sulphur seal legs are fully
steam jacketed and sized to avoid blow up of process gas in all operating
conditions, also in case of heavy upset.
Note that each sulphur seal leg has a dedicated manual, steam jacketed valve, to
isolate the items in case of scheduled maintenance and during the dry out
operations. In no other conditions the valve should be closed.
Sulphur pit is divided in two different sections, a non-degassed sulphur pit and a
degassed sulphur storage pit, each sized for one day of production and equipped
with 2 steam jacketed transfer pumps.
Sulphur pit operates under approx. -50 mmH2O (G).
The purpose of the sulphur degassing tank A-2201-TK-02 is to reduce the H2S
entrained with liquid elemental sulphur to a safe level.
Both pits are made of concrete.

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Figure 14: Sulphur storage pit

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Figure 15: Sulphur degassing pit

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3.3.5. Incinerator A-2201-H-01


The duty of the incinerator and associated burner is to oxidize all sulphur bearing
compounds in waste gases (tail gas from sulphur recovery unit and vent air from
sulphur degassing pit) to sulphur dioxide prior to release to atmosphere. The
incinerator operates at 750C. In normal operation, this condition is obtained by
burning NH3 rich SWS off gas (coming from unit 18) and CNU off gas (coming
from unit 20) in the incineration burner.
The Incinerator Burner is equipped with dedicated lances for:

Fuel Gas

CNU Off Gas

NH3 Rich Off Gas

ARU Off Gas + H2S Rich Off Gas (Bypass Gas)

The Claus Section Tail Gas and the Vent Gas from Degassing Section are
injected just downstream of the flame via dedicated nozzles.
The fuel gas is fed into the center of the burner with a single tip.
If SRU is shut-down, the Incinerator is capable to receive the ARU OFF GAS and
the H2S RICH SWS OFF GAS. In this case these acid gases will be received into
the Incinerator Summer to ensure efficient mixing into the flame zone and
combustion of sulphur and its compound to sulphur dioxide.
During start-up operation firing will be supported by Fuel Gas. Sufficient excess air
must be used to limit effluent gas temperature.
The turndown capacity of the incinerator is 50% of Design capacity (2.5 T/D) for
tail gas from Claus Section and 50% of given capacity for NH3 rich SWS off gas
and for CNU off gas.
The incinerator is cylindrical and horizontally installed. The internal diameter of the
incinerator chamber is 1450 mm. The incinerator is connected to the stack A2201-SK-01 via a refractory lined duct
The incinerator burner is of the forced draft type. It is horizontally installed and
flanged to the incinerator. The air box is incorporated in the burner.
Incinerator Burner is equipped with several ancillaries in order to achieve smooth
and fully controlled run. It has a flame detection system with 2 flame detectors
having the pilot flame in view, able to originate plant shut down in case of flame
failure, pilot burner, cut off valves activated by emergency shut down system etc.
Burner management has been designed in order to accept only local light off
operation.
A forced draft pilot burner is provided for the main burner light off. The pilot is
continuously operated and releases approx. 70 kW of heat.

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SRU tail gas


1322
(kg/h)

1217

661

609

SRU tail gas


130
(C)

130

130

130

Vent Gas
(kg/h)

321

321

160

160

321

321

Vent Gas
(C)

145

145

145

145

145

145

ARU off gas


(kg/h)

926.6

801.7

ARU off gas


(C)

50

50

H2S rich off


gas (kg/h)

74.3

110.7

H2S rich off


gas (C)

90

90

Fuel Gas
(kg/h)

Fuel Gas
(C) [1]

45

43

Fuel Gas
M.W.

15.39

NH3 rich off


gas (kg/h)

23

14

15.39

15.39

15.39

15.39

15.39

15.39

167

237

84

118.5

167

237

NH3 rich off


gas (C)

90

90

90

90

90

90

CNU off gas


(kg/h)

19

19

19

19

CNU off gas


(C)

65

65

65

65

65

65

Combustion
air (kg/h)

2141

3229

2120

1820

7006

8082

90

750

Max. Distillate

SRU Bypass

Max. Gasoline

SRU Bypass

Start-Up / Hot
Standby
Operation

Max Distillate

Turndown
Operation

Max Gasoline

Turndown
Operation

Design operation
Max. Distillate

Design operation
Max. Gasoline

The following table displays the operating conditions of the incinerator according
to the operating case:

Page 79 of 161

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

Combustion
air (kg/h) [2]

2500

3594

Combustion
air (C)

36

36

36

36

Flue Gas
(kg/h)

3977

5032

3057

Flue Gas
M.W.

27.78

27.44

Flue Gas
(C)

750

750

7377

8420

36

36

36

2727

764

8521

9582

27.83

27.48

27.92

28.78

28.47

750

750

750

750

750

Max. Distillate

SRU Bypass

Max. Gasoline

DATE: 21/03/08

SRU Bypass

REV: 0

Start-Up / Hot
Standby
Operation

Turndown
Operation

Max Gasoline

Turndown
Operation

Design operation
Max. Distillate

Design operation
Max. Gasoline

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

Max Distillate

TRAINING MODULE

Notes:
[1]: If CNU and NH3 rich SWS off gas not available
[2]: If vent air from sulphur pit is not fed to the incinerator
Incinerator Operating Data
Firing Zone

Residence Zone

Design Pressure (kg/cm g)

0.1

0.1

Operating Pressure (kg/cm2g)

ATM

ATM

Operating Temp. MIN / NORM. / MAX (C)

750 / 1100 / 1500

650 / 750 / 850

Design Temp (casing) (C)

343

343

The expected pressure in the incinerator is slightly positive at maximum load

Page 80 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Figure 16: Incinerator A-2201-H-01

3.3.6. Blowers
There are 6 blowers in the SRU:

The Combustion Air Blowers A-2201-B-01 A/B provides the combustion air
necessary for the combustion reactions in the thermal reactor R-01

The Incinerator Combustion Air Blowers A-2201-B-02 A/B supply the


incinerator with the necessary air for burner operation

The Dilution Air Blowers A-2201-B-03 A/B ensure the emission limits are
satisfied at the stack outlet by diluting the flue gas at the incinerator outlet
with air.
Combustion Air Blowers A-2201-B-01 A/B

Number Required

2 (1 operating + 1 standby)

Manufacturer & Model

Robuschi & ES65/2P RVP 80 ATEX3

Blower Type

Rotary Compressor

Driver Type & Manufacturer

Electric Motor & ABB

Driver Rated Power (kW)

22

Driver Speed (RPM)

2930

Drive System

Direct Coupled

Accessories:

Inlet air filter


Page 81 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Combustion Air Blowers A-2201-B-01 A/B


Inlet, Discharge & Blow-off Silencers
PSV
Discharge Blow-off valve
Operating Conditions

MIN.

MAX.

RATED

Delivered Flow (Nm3/h)

79

549

604

Inlet Pressure (kg/cm2g)

ATM

ATM

ATM

Outlet Pressure (kg/cm2g)

0.6

0.6

0.6

Inlet Temperature (C)

36

36

36

Outlet Temperature

115

115

115

Speed (RPM)

2784

Estimated Absorbed Power (kW) 9.8

15.7

16.9

Incinerator Air Blowers A-2201-B-02 A/B


Number Required

2 (1 operating + 1 standby)

Manufacturer & Model

Not available

Blower Type

Centrifugal Fan

Driver Type & Manufacturer

Electric Motor, fixed speed

Driver Rated Power (kW)

Not available

Driver Speed (RPM)

Not available

Drive System

Direct Coupled

Accessories:

Inlet air filter


Silencer
Blowoff silencer
Outlet expansion joint

Operating Conditions

NORMAL

MAX.

RATED

Delivered Flow (Nm /h)

2429

6077

6332

Inlet Pressure (kg/cm2g)

ATM

ATM

ATM

Outlet Pressure (kg/cm2g)

0.11

0.11

0.11

Inlet Temperature (C)

36

36 (MIN.:14)

36

36.1

37.5

Estimated Absorbed Power (kW) 15

Page 82 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Dilution Air Blowers A-2203 A/B


Number Required

2 (1 operating + 1 standby)

Manufacturer & Model

Not Available

Blower Type

Centrifugal Fan

Driver Type

Electric Motor

Operating Conditions

DESIGN

NORMAL

Total Dry Flow (kg/h)

176000

160000

Inlet Pressure (mmH2O)

ATM

ATM

Outlet Pressure (mmH2O)

300

250

Inlet Temperature (C)

36

36

Page 83 of 161

TRAINING MODULE
SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

TRAINING MODULE

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)


UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices

Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems


Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

Page 84 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

SECTION 4 : SAFEGUARDING DEVICES


4.1. Alarms and Trips
Refer to attached list: Unit 022 Alarms & Trips List.xls

4.2. Safeguarding Description


The Emergency Shutdown System (ESD) provides trips and interlocks for preventing or
controlling emergency situations which could give rise to hazardous situations leading to
injuries to personnel, significant economic loss and/or undue environmental pollution.
Uncontrolled loss of containment is prevented by the provision of pressure safety relief
valves and by the ESD system which automatically bring the relevant part of the Unit to a
safe condition.
Trip/interlock is composed of one or more initiators and one or more actions for
preventing hazards. Each trip/interlock shall be provided with a reset and an operational
override for start-up, where necessary.
In general, if interlock is invoked, the interlock action shall be held on until all initiators
have returned to the safe state and the interlock reset has been pressed.

4.2.1. Interlock UX-501 General ESD


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UXHS-501-A

002

Control room general ESD pushbutton

UXHS-501-B

002

Control room general ESD pushbutton (bypass)

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-101

1, 2

101

Dilution Air Blower B-2203A shutdown

MXS-102

1, 2

101

Dilution Air Blower B-2203B shutdown

UXA-501-A

1, 2

002

DCS trip alarm activated

UXA-501-B

1, 2

002

Control room trip alarm activated

Note:
ESD pushbutton UXHS-501 on Aux. Console in CCC has 2 contacts: UXHS-501-A
(CCC man contact) & UXHS-501-B (CCC ESD Bypass contact)
The following ESD printout shows the logic UX-501:

Page 85 of 161

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SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Page 86 of 161

TRAINING MODULE

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

4.2.2. Interlock UX-502 Incinerator ESD


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

UXHS-502-A

008

Control room ESD pushbutton

UXHS-502-B

008

Local panel ESD pushbutton

FXALL-534

008

Low low flow of combustion air

TXAHH-561

008

High high temperature of incinerator

BXALL-503-A/B

008

Flame failure (2 out of 2 voting system).


If at least one of the flame detectors confirms the presence
of the main flame, the only response of the logic system is
to close the LPG pilot gas cut-off valve 022-XV-515.

MGL-101/102

101

Dilution air blower B-2203-A/B stop (both machines stop: 2


out of 2 voting system)

BXALL-504

008

Pilot Flame Failure


Note:
Pilot flame failure causes only the closure of XV-515 in
case at least one of the main flame detectors confirms the
presence of the flame. Otherwise, total incinerator
shutdown will be initiated.

LXAHH-509

003

High high level in NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum A-2201D-03

10

LXAHH-501

002

High high level in ARU Off Gas KO drum A-2201-D-01

11

LXAHH-504

002

High high level in H2S rich SWS Off Gas KO drum A-2201D-02

12

FXAL-534

008

Low flow of combustion air purge. This cause is only active


during the air purge period.

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

UX-503

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 004
7, 8

Activation of Thermal Reactor ESD after a


delay of 20 min.

UX-508

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 011
7, 8

Activation of Sulphur Degassing ESD

XSY-512

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of CNU off gas cut-off valve XV-512


XV-512 can be open/closed from local
control panel via XHSO/C-512
Page 87 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

XSY-513

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8, 9

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Description
Closing of NH3 rich SWS off gas cut-off
valve XV-513
XV-513 can be open/closed from local
control panel via XHSO/C-513

XSY-514

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Activation of the Fuel Gas block & Bleed


Valve shutdown sequence:
Closing of Fuel Gas cut-off valve XV-514 [1]

XSY-557

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Activation of the Fuel Gas block & Bleed


Valve shutdown sequence:
Closing of Fuel Gas cut-off valve XV-557 [1]

XSY-558

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Activation of the Fuel Gas block & Bleed


Valve shutdown sequence:
Opening of fuel gas bleed valve XV-558 [1]

XSY-515

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Activation of the LPG block & Bleed Valve


shutdown sequence:
Closing of LPG cut-off valve XV-515 [1]

XSY-559

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Activation of the LPG block & Bleed Valve


shutdown sequence:
Closing of Fuel Gas cut-off valve XV-559 [1]

10

XSY-560

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Activation of the LPG block & Bleed Valve


shutdown sequence:
Opening of fuel gas bleed valve XV-560 [1]

11

XSY-516

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8, 10, 11

Closing of BYPASS cut-off valve XV-516


XV-516 can be open/closed from local
control panel via XHSO/C-516

12

MXS-513

008

Trip the incinerator combustion air blower


M-2201-B-02A

13

MXS-514

008

Trip the incinerator combustion air blower


M-2201-B-02B

14

FIC-539

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 008
7, 8

Override the combustion air control valve


FV-539. For this, FIC-539 is forced to
manual mode with output 50% to close FV539.
The air purge procedure is activated [2].

15

PIC-539

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of the NH3 rich SWS off gas control


valve PV-539 by forcing the controller PIC539 to manual mode and output 0%.

16

TIC-560

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of the fuel gas control valve TV560:


Page 88 of 161

TRAINING MODULE

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Description
Controller TIC-560 is forced to manual
mode at 50% to put TY-560-A in manual
mode at 0% in order to close TV-560.

17

12

Purge timer is reset

18

UXA-502-A

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

DCS trip alarm activated

19

UXA-502-B

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Control room trip alarm activated

20

UXA-502-C

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Local Panel Trip Alarm activated

Note:
[1]: The logic will open the main fuel gas and LPG pilot gas vent valves only if both
the cut-off valves are confirmed fully closed by their limit switches.
[2]: Air purge procedure:
A purge by means of air from Incinerator Combustion Air Blower (A-2201-B02A/B) is automatically started either when the shutdown chain is activated by the
initiators or when the SYSTEM RESET push button (022-UHSR-502) has been
pressed and the purge validity time mentioned here below is fully expired (preignition purge).
In both cases the logic system shall automatically: open the combustion air valve
022-FV-539 to the "air purge set point" acting on its controller 022-FIC-539.
As soon as the air flow rate exceeds the set point of 022-FT-534, the Logic shall
Illuminate the PURGE ON lamp at Local Panel 022-XL-530-B and start to compute
a 5 minutes purge time.
When the 5 minutes purge time is expired, the logic system shall:

De-illuminate the PURGE ON lamp at Local Panel 022-XL-530-B

Light the PURGE COMPLETED lamp at Local Panel 022-XL-53 1-B

Start to compute a 15 minutes purge validity time

In the event the next light-off attempt is not completed within the 15 minutes purge
validity time, the logic system shall illuminate the LIGHT-OFF TIME OUT lamp
(Local Panel) 022-XL-532-B.
Remarks:
i) The minimum air flow rate shall be continuously satisfied during the purge. In
case the air flow falls below the set-point of 022-FXAL-534 before the 5
minutes purge time is expired, the Logic shall reset the purge time counter and
light the PURGE LOW FLOW lamp at Local Panel 022-XL-534-B.
The time shall be automatically re-started by the Logic only when the minimum
air flow rate has been re-established.

Page 89 of 161

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REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

ii) If the validity time following a shutdown air purge is expired and the Incinerator
is still in shutdown condition (the SYSTEM RESET pushbutton 022-UHSR-502
has not been pressed), the logic system remains in shutdown condition waiting for
SYSTEM RESET. Otherwise, if the SYSTEM RESET pushbutton has been
pressed, but the ignition is not initiated within the 15 minutes of validity time, at the
end of the validity time the logic system activate the shutdown sequence.
Reset:
The incinerator ESD is reset via UHSR-502.

The following ESD printout shows the logic UX-502:

Page 90 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Page 91 of 161

TRAINING MODULE

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

4.2.3. Interlock UX-503 Thermal Reactor ESD


Initiators
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

UXHS-503-A

004

Control room ESD pushbutton [1]

UXHS-503-B

004

Control room ESD pushbutton (Bypass) [1]

UXHS-503-C

008

Local panel ESD pushbutton

MGL-101/102

101

Dilution air blower B-2203-A/B stop (both machines stop: 2


out of 2 voting system)

UX-502

002

Incinerator ESD

LXAHH-501

002

High high level in ARU Off Gas KO drum A-2201-D-01


(active only during acid gas operation, XV-505 opened)

FXALL-521

004

Low low flow of combustion air to the thermal reactor

FXALL-517

005

Low low level in waste heat boiler A-2201-SG-01

10

BXALL-501-A/B

004

Flame failure (2 out of 2 voting system)

11

PXAHH-551

004

High high pressure in the Thermal Reactor

12

LXAHH-504

002

High high level in H2S rich SWS Off Gas KO drum A-2201D-02

13

FXALL-523

004

Low low flow of ARU off gas to the thermal reactor

14

FXALL-528

004

Low low flow of N2 purge

Notes:
[1]: ESD pushbutton UXHS-503-A on Aux. Console in CCC has 2 contacts: UXHS503-A (CCC man contact) & UXHS-503-B (CCC ESD Bypass contact)
Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

XSY-501

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Closing of the H2S rich SWS off gas cut-off


valve XV-501.
XV-501 can be opened / closed from local
panel via XHSO/C-501

XSY-504

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Closing of combustion air cut-off valve XV504.

XSY-505

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Closing of the ARU off gas cut-off valve XV505.


Page 92 of 161

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DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

No.

Action Tag No.

XSY-507

Initiated by
initiator No:
11, 13

P&ID

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Description
XV-505 can be opened / closed from local
panel via XHSO/C-505

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Closing of the quench steam cut-off valve


XV-507
XV-507 can be opened / closed from local
panel via XHSO/C-507

XSY-508

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Closing of the fuel gas cut-off valve XV-508


[2]

XSY-555

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Closing of fuel gas cut-off valve XV-555 [2]

XSY-556

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

XV-555 can be opened / closed from local


panel via XHSO/C-508
Opening of fuel gas bleed valve XV-556 [2]
XV-556 can be opened / closed from local
panel via XHSO/C-508

XSY-509

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Nitrogen cut-off valve XV-509 opened to


purge the thermal reactor [3].

XSY-510

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Purge air cut-ff valve closed

10

XSY-516

2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 008
9, 10, 11, 13

Bypass cut-off valve XV-516 opened.


XV-516 will be opened only in case the
incinerator is in operation (XL-540 ON)
XV-516 can be opened / closed from local
panel via XHSO/C-516

11

14

Reset purge timer

12

FIC-515

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Controller is set to manual mode and output


0% to close H2S rich SWS off gas control
valve FV-515

13

FIC-527

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Controller is set to manual mode and output


0% to close combustion air main control
valve FV-527

14

FIC-522

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Controller is set to manual mode and output


0% to close air trim control valve FV-522

15

FIC-530

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Controller is set to manual mode and output


0% to close ARU Off Gas control valve FV530

16

FIC-525

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004

Controller is set to manual mode and output


Page 93 of 161

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SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
P&ID
initiator No:
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Description
0% to close Steam Control Valve FV-525

17

FIC-526

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Controller is set to manual mode and output


0% to close fuel gas control valve FV-526

18

FIC-524

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Controller is set to manual mode and output


0% to close ARU off gas control valve FV524

19

UXA-503-A

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

DCS trip alarm activated

20

UXA-503-B

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Control room trip alarm activated

21

UXA-503-C

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 004
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 13

Local panel trip alarm activated

Notes:
[2]: The logic will open the main fuel gas vent valve only if both the cut-off valves
are confirmed fully closed by their limit switches.
[3]: Nitrogen Purge Sequence:
A purge by means of nitrogen shall automatically start either when the shutdown
chain is activated by the initiators or when the SYSTEM RESET pushbutton (022UHSR-503) has been pressed and the purge validity time mentioned here below is
fully expired (pre-ignition purge).
In both cases, the logic system shall automatically open the nitrogen cut-off valve.
As soon as the nitrogen flow rate exceeds the set point 022-FXALL-528, the logic
system shall illuminate the PURGE ON lamp (Local Panel) 022-XL-521-B and
start to compute a 5 minutes purge time.
Once the 5 minutes purge time is expired, the logic system shall:

Close the Nitrogen cut-off valve 022-XV-509

De-illuminate the PURGE ON lamp (Local Panel) 022-XL-52 1 -B

Illuminate the PURGE COMPLETED lamp (Local Panel) 022-XL-522-B

Start to compute a 10 minutes purge validity time

In case the burner ignition trial is not completed within the 10 minutes purge
validity time, the logic system shall illuminate the LIGHT-OFF TIME OUT lamp
Page 94 of 161

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DATE: 21/03/08

(Local Panel) 022-XL-523-B. In this case another nitrogen purge is requested


before the burner ignition.
Remarks :
i) If the validity time following a shutdown purge is expired and the Claus section
is still in shutdown condition (the SYSTEM RESET pushbutton has not been
pressed), the logic system remains in shutdown condition waiting for SYSTEM
RESET. Otherwise, if the SYSTEM RESET (022-UHSR-503) pushbutton has
been pressed but BURNER ON status is not reached within the 10 minutes of
validity time, at the end of the validity time the logic system activate the all
shutdown sequence.
ii) The opening of 022-XV-509 is inhibited in case 022-PXAHH-551 is active
(Thermal Reactor high high pressure).
iii) The minimum nitrogen flow rate shall be continuously verified during the purge.
In case the nitrogen flow rate falls below 022-FXALL-528 set point before the
purge time is fully expired, the logic system shall automatically:

Reset the purge time counter

Illuminate PURGE LOW FLOW lamp (Local Panel) 022-FXALL-528-B

De-illuminate the PURGE ON lamp (Local Panel) 022-XL-522-B

The purge time counting shall be automatically re-initiated by the logic system only
when a minimum nitrogen flow rate (higher than 022-FT-528 set point) has been
reestablished.

Reset:
UX-503 can be reset by local reset pushbutton UHSR-503 when all initiators
become healthy except initiators 7 & 13.

The following ESD printout shows the logic UX-503:

Page 95 of 161

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REV: 0

DATE: 21/03/08

Page 96 of 161

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DATE: 21/03/08

4.2.4. Interlock UX-504 A-2201-B-01 A/B Protection


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

TXAHH-525

003

High high temperature of combustion air blower B-01-A

TXAHH-587

003

High high temperature of combustion air blower B-01-B

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-509

ALL

003

Combustion air blower A-2201-B-01-A


tripped

MXS-510

ALL

003

Combustion air blower A-2201-B-01-B


tripped

UXA-504

ALL

003

DCS Trip Alarm activated

Reset:
Once all the initiators are healthy, UX-504 can be reset via DCS software reset
pushbutton UHSR-504.

4.2.5. Interlock UX-505 A-2201-P-01 A/B Protection


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

LXALL-501

002

Low low level in ARU gas KO drum A-2201-D-01

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-501

ALL

002

ARU off gas KO drum pump A-2201-P-01A


is tripped

MXS-502

ALL

002

ARU off gas KO drum pump A-2201-P-01B


is tripped

UXA-505

ALL

002

DCS trip alarm activated

Reset:

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Once all the initiators are healthy, UX-505 can be reset via DCS software reset
pushbutton UHSR-505.

4.2.6. Interlock UX-506 A-2201-P-02 A/B Protection


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

LXALL-504

002

Low low level in H2S rich SWS off gas KO drum A-2201-D02

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-503

ALL

002

H2S rich SWS off gas KO drum pump A2201-P-02A is tripped

MXS-504

ALL

002

H2S rich SWS off gas KO drum pump A2201-P-02B is tripped

UXA-506

ALL

002

DCS trip alarm activated

Reset:
Once all the initiators are healthy, UX-506 can be reset via DCS software reset
pushbutton UHSR-506.

4.2.7. Interlock UX-507 A-2201-P-03 A/B Protection


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

LXALL-507

002

Low low level in NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum A-2201-D-03

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-507

ALL

002

NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum pump A2201-P-03A is tripped

MXS-508

ALL

002

NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum pump A2201-P-03B is tripped

UXA-507

ALL

002

DCS trip alarm activated


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Reset:
Once all the initiators are healthy, UX-507 can be reset via DCS software reset
pushbutton UHSR-507.

4.2.8. Interlock UX-508 Sulphur Degassing ESD


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

MGL-101/102

101

Dilution air blowers B-2203 A & B stopped (2 out of 2


voting system)

UX-502

Incinerator ESD (Time delay = 20 minutes)

LXALL-525

010

Low low level in liquid storage pit A-2201-TK-02

MGL-509/510

003

Combustion air blowers A-2201-B-01-A & B stopped

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-517

1, 2, 3, 4

010

Sulphur circulation pump A-2201-P-04A


tripped

MXS-518

1, 2, 3, 4

010

Sulphur circulation pump A-2201-P-04B


tripped

UHSC-521

1, 2, 3

011

Steam to ejector cut-off valve closed UV521 by forcing UHSC-521 to close position

UHSC-522

ALL

011

Degassing air cut-off valve UV-522 closed


by forcing UHSC-522 to close position

UHSC-523

ALL

011

Steam to degassing pit cut-off valve UV-523


closed by forcing UHSC-523 to close
position

UHSC-524

ALL

011

Sulphur to degassing pit cut off valve UV524 closed by forcing UHSC-524 to close
position

UXA-508

ALL

011

DCS trip alarm activated

Reset:
Once all the initiators are healthy, UX-508 can be reset via DCS software reset
pushbutton UHSR-508.

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4.2.9. Interlock UX-509 A-2201-P-05 A/B Protection


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

LXALL-526

010

Low low level in liquid storage pit A-2201-TK-02

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

Description

MXS-519

ALL

010

Sulphur pump A-2201-P-05A tripped

MXS-520

ALL

010

Sulphur pump A-2201-P-05B tripped

UXA-509

ALL

010

DCS trip alarm activated

Reset:
Once all the initiators are healthy, UX-509 can be reset via DCS software reset
pushbutton UHSR-509.

The following ESD printout shows the logics UX-504, UX-505, UX-506, UX-507,
UX-508 and UX-509:

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4.3. Safeguarding Equipment


4.3.1. Pressure Safety Devices
Over pressuring of the equipment occurs in many ways. The basic cause of power
pressure is imbalance in heat and material flow in the equipment or piping.
Pressure safety devices have been installed to protect and/or section against over
pressure.
Here is the list of the pressure safety valves found in the SRU:
TAG No.

Description

022-PSV
-525-A
022-PSV
-525-B
022-PSV
-527-A
022-PSV
-527-B
022-PSV
-532
022-PSV
-533
022-PSV
-535
022-PSV
-536
022-PSV
-523-A
022-PSV
-523-B
022-PSV
-540-A
022-PSV
-540-B
022-PSV
-543
022-PSV
-544
022-PSV
-556-A
022-PSV
-556-B
022-PSV
-556-C
022-PSV
-563-A
022-PSV
-563-B
022-PSV

Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Spring)
Relief Valve

Type
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV
RV

Location
PG FROM A-2201-D-01 TO
FLARE
PG FROM A-2201-D-01 TO
FLARE
PG FROM A-2201-D-02 TO
FLARE
PG FROM A-2201-D-02 TO
FLARE
CONDENSATE FROM A2201-P-01A TO B.L.
CONDENSATE FROM A2201-P-01B TO B.L.
CONDENSATE FROM A2201-P-02A TO B.L.
CONDENSATE FROM A2201-P-02B TO B.L.
PG FROM A-2201-E-02 TO
A-2201-R-01
PG FROM A-2201-E-02 TO
A-2201-R-01
PG FROM A-2201-D-03 TO
FLARE
PG FROM A-2201-D-03 TO
FLARE

PID:

Setting
(kg/cm2g)

002

5.9

002

5.9

002

7.7

002

7.7

002

6.0

002

6.0

002

7.7

002

7.7

003

1.0

003

1.0

003

3.5

003

3.5

RV

A-2201-P-03A PROT

003

RV

A-2201-P-03B PROT

003

RV

A-2201-SG-01 PROT

005

6.3

RV

A-2201-SG-01 PROT

005

6.3

RV

A-2201-SG-01 PROT

005

6.3

RV

SL FROM A-2201-E-06

007

6.3

RV

SL FROM A-2201-E-06

007

6.3

RV

SL FROM A-2201-E-06

007

6.3
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TAG No.

Description

-563-C
022-TSV
-556
022-PSV
-559
022-PSV
-602

(Spring)
Relief Valve
(Thermal)
Relief Valve
(Thermal)
Relief Valve
(Thermal)

DOC NO: 8474L-022-A5016-0000-001-012


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Type

Location

PID:

Setting
(kg/cm2g)

RV

A-2201-E-07 PROT

007

9.2

RV

A-2201-B-01-A VENT

003

0.65

RV

A-2201-B-01-B VENT

003

0.65

For further details, refer to the Flare Discharge Summary of the SRU: Doc. No. 8474L022-NM-0006-001.

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TRAINING MODULE

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UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems

Section 6 - Quality Control


Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 5 : FIRE & GAS SYSTEMS


5.1. Fire & Gas detection
Refer to the following documents:
8474L-018-DW-1950-001

Fire & Gas Detector Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units

8474L-018-DW-1960-002

Escape Route Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units

8474L-018-DW-1514-201

Fire and gas Cause and Effect Chart Area 4

The following figures are extracted from the above document and focus on the SRU and
its close surroundings only.

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Figure 17: SRU Fire & Gas Detectors Layout

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Figure 18: Fire & Gas Detectors Layout Legend for AREA 4

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Figure 19: SRU Escape Route Layout

5.2. Fire Protection


Refer to the following documents:
8474L-018-DW-1933-001 Safety Equipment Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units
8474L-018-DW-1933-002 Fire Protection Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units
The following figures are extracted from the above document and focus on the SRU and
its close surroundings only:
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Figure 20: SRU Safety Equipment Layout


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Figure 21: Fire Protection Equipment Layout


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Figure 19: Fire Protection Equipment Layout Legend for AREA 4

5.2.1. Precautionary measures to avoid fuel gas explosions in Claus area


Before starting burners lighting trials it is recommended that the area around the
plant is tested with a flammable gas detector.
During an extended shut-down all fuel gas and acid gas lines should be spaded at
the SRU plant battery limit.
Before attempting to light or relight the fuel gas burners (Reaction furnace or
Incinerator) they must be purged.
The times settled in the lighting procedures (cycles, sparkling, waiting time and so
on) have been calculated to assure safe operation; no modifications are allowed
without the approval of the Start-up Leader.
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5.2.2. Precautionary measures to avoid sulphur burning


Sulphur burns exothermically with oxygen. In case of uncontrollable sulphur fire it
is possible to destroy the catalyst in Claus Section and to damage vessels,
refractory materials and paperwork either for the resulting high temperatures or for
the corrosive atmosphere due to the formation of SO3 during the sulphur
combustion.
Therefore whenever sulphur is present in the unit care must be taken to limit its
contact with oxygen.
During the plant heat-up steps in case of presence of liquid sulphur and when
operating with fuel gas, the fuel gas must be burnt stoechiometrically. During plant
heat-up the flue gas has to be analyzed to control that CO and O2 are contained
in the following safe limits.

O2 : 0.4vol.%max.

CO : 0.4 vol.% max.

The process equipment and pipes must not be opened to the atmosphere until the
sulphur is completely removed and the catalyst in the reactors is cooled below
150C; at temperature higher than 150C the liquid sulphur can auto ignite in
presence of oxygen.
5.2.3. Extinguishing Sulphur Pit fires
Snuffing steam shall be used in case of fire in the sulphur pit. This operation shall
be done at a safe distance from the pit by opening a LP steam valve. The steam
shall break the rupture disc and shall enter the sulphur pit. When the fire is
extinguished the steam valve shall be closed and a new rupture disc shall be
installed.
5.2.4. Sulphur Fires
All operating personnel must be aware of the possible areas susceptible to fire
and of the fire fighting procedures. In the event of a fire, Operators must comply
with the Refinery Emergency Procedures.
The spontaneous ignition temperature of sulphur in air is about 170C. When the
sulphur is ignited, it is difficult to extinguish it and it can re-ignite spontaneously. In
order to minimize the risk of sulphur fires all sulphur spillage must be removed as
soon as they occur.
When sulphur fires are extinguished with water a white toxic choking acidic fume
is released. This sulphuric acid vapor is extremely hazardous and inhalation or
contact with the skin should be avoided. While fighting a fire the fireman should
wear suitable breathing apparatus and stand on the windward side of the fire.
Care must be taken with the water used to extinguish a sulphur fire as this may
also be acidic.
After any sulphur fire a water hose must be trained into the fire area for a
reasonable time to prevent re ignition and to wash and remove any acidic water.
Sulphur fires can also be extinguished by smothering with some more sulphur, or
sand or earth. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers or steam smothering may also be
used.

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The following Fire & Gas System printout displays the F&G layout of the area 4 (units 18,
19, 20 & 22) and shows the alarms, detectors and F&G protection system located in this
area:

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TRAINING MODULE

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UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control

Section 7 - Cause & Effects


Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 6 : QUALITY CONTROL

6.1. Sampling Analysis


The control analysis procedures for the SRU include determination of the H2S and NH3
content of the plant feed gas, determination of the ratio of H2S to SO2 in the plant tail
gas and determination of sulphur purity.
The performance test procedures include determination of H2S and non acid gas
contents in the plant feed gas, determination of non acid gas, acid gas, H2S and SO2 in
the plant tail gas and on stack gas, calculation of sulphur vapors in plant tail gas and
determination of sulphur purity.
During H2S combustion the only parameters to be periodically checked are
concentrations of H2S and SO2 in the tail gas, to optimize the relevant ratios.
During plant start-up and shut-down, when fuel gas is fired in the plant, Orsat analysis or
Firyte test will be conduced to detect the O2 and CO content in the tail gas. Flue gas
analysis is normally required any time the rate of combustion is changed.
During heating of the unit by burning fuel gas, it is necessary to control the following:

Oxygen content

Carbon monoxide content

Soot presence

Sulphur presence

The first two parameters are important for safe unit operation; the third can be reduced to
a minimum when the first two give values advisable limits.
Carbon monoxide can be readily detected with calorimetric glass tubes. Soot presence in
the combustor flue gas can be detected by placing a piece of wet filter paper in contact
with the gas. It will turn black in the presence of soot.
Sulphur contained as a vapor can be detected by bubbling flue gases in a glass pot
containing water. In presence of sulphur a colloidal deposit is formed (light yellow color).
Such a test is particularly interesting towards the end of a sweeping sulphur operation, so
as to ascertain, if it has been fully removed.
Control of operating parameters is essential for efficient unit operation and to minimize
maintenance. It is not necessary to conduct daily analysis, but quick checks can be made
by Operators, if are necessary, particularly during start-up and shut-down of the unit.
For all the sampling procedures, refer to the chapter 12 of the licensor operating manual
doc. No. 8474L-022-ML-001.

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6.1.1. Sampling Connections


Connection Tag

Service

PID

SC-501

A-2201-SG-01 process gas to 3rd process gas reheater A2201-E-05

005

SC-502

A-2201-SG-01 process gas to 2nd process gas reheater A2201-E-04

005

SC-503

A-2201-SG-01 process gas to 1st process gas reheater A2201-E-03

005

SC-512

Blow down water from Claus blow down drum A-2201-D-06


to OWS

005

SC-506

Gas effluent from 1st reactor to A-2201-SG-01 pass IV

006

SC-507

Gas effluent from 2nd reactor to A-2201-SG-01 pass V

006

rd

SC-508

Gas effluent from 3 reactor to final condenser A-2201-E-06

006

SC-511

Tail gas from tail gas coalescer A-2201-D-04 to incinerator A2201-H-01

007

6.1.2. Sampling Frequency


The following frequencies are valid for normal, stable operation but can be
changed according to plant requirement. A typical schedule is:

H2S and hydrocarbons in ARU Off gas : once a week

H2S, NH3 and HC in SWS Off gas : once a week

Purity of product sulphur : once every two weeks

Chromatographic analysis of fuel gas : every day

H2S in liquid sulphur : every week

Analysis of H2S/S02 in the tail gas may be required every 2 hours during plant
start-up. Analysis of H2S/SO2 in the tail gas is continuously performed by the
analyzer. Chemical analysis will be used periodically to check the results of the
continuous analyzer. Sulphur purity analysis may be required more frequently
while the plant is being stabilized and some hours after plant start-up.
In heat-up/shut-down operations, the following analyses are required:

O2 content in combustor flue gas: Every hour (for at least for a period of
four hours). Analysis may be done with standard gas chromatographic, by
Orsat or calorimetric detectors.

CO content in combustor flue gas: Every hour (for at least eight hours - at
each start-uplshut-down). Analysis can be done with colorimetric detectors.

H2S in treated gas: Every six hours for two days.

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6.1.3. Safe handling of samples


All samples taken on SRU plant are considered to be hazardous and the sampler
must be experienced of sample taking and be aware of the hazards involved. The
sampler must wear suitable breathing apparatus and acid resistant gloves. The
equipment used must be gas tight and able to withstand temperatures up to
180C.
6.1.3.1. Handling of gas samples containing H2S
The acid gases are analyzed for H2S, H2, hydrocarbon and ammonia
concentration. The tail gas is analyzed to check the H2S (and SO2) and
to check the tail gas analyzer and the O2 analyzer. In order to purge the
acid gas sample line, the gas may be passed into a freshly prepared
strong caustic solution or sent to flare. The sample must be taken in an
airtight container that shall be stored in a fun cupboard when taken to the
laboratory for analysis. The sampler must wear breathing apparatus and
protective gloves and have an assistant at hand in case of emergency.
6.1.3.2. Handling of liquid sulphur
Sulphur collected from the sulphur pit or sulphur seals outlet will be hot,
about 140C and care must be taken to avoid burns a nd contact with the
skin. When taking a sample from the sulphur pit a rod with a cup on the
end is used. When standing on top of the pit taking a sample through the
inspection hole, the sampler must wear an anti-gas mask with suitable
filter for H2S protection.

6.2. On-line analysers


The plant is equipped with continuous analyzer for Claus tail gas (H2S and SO2) and a
NOx/SOx analyzer at the Incinerator Stack Gas - emission monitor.

Analyzer
tag

Service

Physical
property
analyzed

SO2 content
022AE/AT-501

Tail gas from tail gas


coalescer A-2201-D-04 to
incinerator A-2201-H-01
H2S content

022AE/AT-504

Flue gas from incinerator A2201 at stack outlet

SOx
(normal
operation)

Normal value of
analyzed
component

PID:

Max. Distillate:
0.2861 mole%
Max. Gasoline:
0.2802 mole%
Max. Distillate:
0.1431 mole%

8474L022A01034110300-007

Max. Distillate:
0.1400 mole%
Max. Distillate:
476.31 mg/Nm3
Max. Gasoline:
401.09 mg/Nm3

8474L022A01034110-

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NOx
(Bypass
operation)

NOx
(normal
operation)

DATE: 21/03/08

Max. Distillate:
2698.51 mg/Nm3

300-008

Max. Gasoline:
2966.44 mg/Nm3
Max. Distillate:
1158.0 mg/Nm3
MAX
Max. Gasoline:
1141.7 mg/Nm3
MAX

For more details on each analyzer, refer to the following data sheets:

For H2S/SO2 Tail Gas Analyser, refer to vendor doc. No. 8474L-022-A3101-4110300-017

For NOx/SOx analyser, refer to vendor doc. No. 8474L-022-A3101-4110-300-025

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TRAINING MODULE

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)


UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects

Section 8 - Operating Procedures


Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 7 : CAUSES AND EFFECT

7.1. Cause & Effect Matrix:


Refer to the following documents:
Cause and Effect Chart, Doc. No. 8474L-022-A3505-4110-300-002
Fire and gas Cause and Effect Chart for Area 4, Doc. No. 8474L-018-DW-1514-201-2
Note:
The cause & effect matrix Doc. No. 8474L-022-A3505-4110-300-002 details the safety
trips and protections evoked in the safeguards narrative in section 4 of this document.
The fire & gas cause and effect chart deals with all the fire & gas detection system in the
area 4 (units 018, 019, 020 and 022).
7.1.1. Example from Cause and Effect Chart
To better understand how the Cause & Effect Matrix can be interpreted, an
example is given, which details the information that can be extracted from a sheet
of the Cause & Effect Diagram. It shall be read in conjunction with the
corresponding sheet of the Cause & Effect Diagram.

7.1.1.1. UX-502: Incinerator ESD


Initiators:
No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description

UX-501

002

General ESD

UXHS-502-A

008

Control room ESD pushbutton

UXHS-502-B

008

Local panel ESD pushbutton

FXALL-534

008

Low low flow of combustion air

TXAHH-561

008

High high temperature of incinerator

BXALL-503-AB

008

Flame failure (2 out of 2 voting system)

8/9

MGL-101/102

101

Dilution air blower B-2203-A/B stop (both machines stop: 2


out of 2 voting system)

10

BXALL-504

008

Pilot Flame Failure


Note:
Pilot flame failure causes only the closure of XV-515 in
case at least one of the main flame detectors confirms the
presence of the flame. Otherwise, total incinerator
shutdown will be initiated.

11

LXAHH-509

003

High high level in NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum A-2201Page 121 of 161

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No.

Initiator Tag No.

P&ID

Description
D-03

12

LXAHH-501

002

High high level in ARU Off Gas KO drum A-2201-D-01

13

LXAHH-504

002

High high level in H2S rich SWS Off Gas KO drum A-2201D-02

14

FXAL-534

008

Low flow of combustion air purge. This cause is only active


during the air purge period.

Actions:
No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

UX-503

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 004
7, 8

Activation of Thermal Reactor ESD after a


delay of 20 min.

UX-508

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 011
7, 8

Activation of Sulphur Degassing ESD

XSY-512

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of CNU off gas cut-off valve XV-512

XSY-513

P&ID

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8, 9

Description

XV-512 can be open/closed from local


control panel via XHSO/C-512
Closing of NH3 rich SWS off gas cut-off
valve XV-513
XV-513 can be open/closed from local
control panel via XHSO/C-513

XSY-514

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of Fuel Gas cut-off valve XV-514 [1]

XSY-557

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of Fuel Gas cut-off valve XV-557 [1]

XSY-558

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Opening of fuel gas bleed valve XV-558 [1]

XSY-515

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of LPG cut-off valve [1]

XSY-559

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of Fuel Gas cut-off valve XV-559 [1]

10

XSY-560

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Opening of fuel gas bleed valve XV-560 [1]

11

XSY-516

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8, 10, 11

Closing of BYPASS cut-off valve XV-516


XV-516 can be open/closed from local
control panel via XHSO/C-516

12

MXS-513

008

Trip the incinerator combustion air blower


M-2201-B-02A

13

MXS-514

008

Trip the incinerator combustion air blower


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No.

Action Tag No.

Initiated by
initiator No:

P&ID

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Description
M-2201-B-02B

14

FIC-539

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 008
7, 8

Override the combustion air control valve


FV-539. For this, FIC-539 is forced to
manual mode with output 50%.
The air purge procedure is activated.

15

PIC-539

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of the NH3 rich SWS off gas control


valve PV-539 by forcing the controller PIC539 to manual mode and output 0%.

16

TIC-560

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Closing of the fuel gas control valve TV560:


Controller TIC-560 is forced to manual
mode at 50% to put TY-560-A in manual
mode at 0% in order to close TV-560.

17

13

Purge timer is reset

18

UXA-502-A

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

DCS trip alarm activated

19

UXA-502-B

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Control room trip alarm activated

20

UXA-502-C

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 008
6, 7, 8

Local Panel Trip Alarm activated

Note:
[1]: The logic will open the main fuel gas and LPG pilot gas vent valves
only if both the cut-off valves are confirmed fully closed by their limit
switches.
Reset:
Local reset pushbutton UHSR-502 resets all above actions except actions
1, 2 and 17.
The C&E chart also indicates the Maintenance Override Switches (MOS)
and Operation Override Switches (OOS) associated with the instrument
triggering the logic. These switches allow the operator to bypass the
conditions tripping the system, whenever this is required (testing,
maintenance).
In normal operation, these switches shall never be activated.
Instrument

OOS

MOS

UXHS-502-A

N/A

N/A

UXHS-502-B

N/A

N/A
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Instrument

OOS

MOS

FXALL-534

FHS-534-B

FHS-534-A

TXAHH-561

N/A

THS-561-A

BXALL-503-A

N/A

N/A

MGL-101

N/A

MHS-101-A

MGL-102

N/A

MHS-102-A

BXALL-504

N/A

N/A

LXAHH-509

N/A

LHS-509-A

LXAHH-501

N/A

LHS-501-A

LXAHH-504

N/A

LHS-504-A

FXAL-534

N/A

FHS-534-A

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UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures

Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 8 : OPERATING PRACTICES


8.1. Normal Operation
8.1.1. Operating conditions
The following is a narrative of the main process conditions of the SRU in steady
state and FOR THE BACH HO MAX GASOLINE CASE ONLY.
For a complete description of the Heat and material Balance & Operating
Conditions of the unit 022, refer to the following process flow diagrams:
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-001 Claus Section Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-002 Incineration Section Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-003 Claus Section Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-004 Incineration Section Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-005 Heat & Material Balance Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-006 Heat & Material Balance Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-007 Heat & Material Balance Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-008 Heat & Material Balance Max Gasoline
Normal operation Narrative

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Figure 20: Simplified PFD of the SRU (BACH HO MAX GASOLINE CASE)
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Figure 21: Simplified PFD legend and Utilities conditions


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ARU Off Gas from Unit 19 & H2S Rich Off Gas from Unit 18
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-002/003/004
927 kg/hr of ARU Off Gas is fed from the unit 19 to the ARU off gas KO drum A2201-D-01 at 50C and 0.6 kg/cm2g. The acid condens ate recovered in A-2201D-01 is pumped back to the battery limits by the duty ARU off gas KO drum pump
A-2201-P-01-A at 4.9 kg/cm2g via PG-531. This line is normally no flow (NNF) as
the condensate is pumped intermittently, on level control of the KO drum, back to
the unit 19.
74 kg/hr of H2S rich SWS off gas is fed from the unit 18 to the H2S rich off gas KO
drum A-2201-D-02 at 90C and 0.6 kg/cm2g. The acid condensate recovered by
the mist eliminator of the KO drum is pumped by the H2S rich SWS Off Gas KO
drum pump on duty, A-2201-P-01-A, back to the SWS at 4.8 kg/cm2g via PG-534.
This line is normally no flow (NNF) as the condensate is pumped intermittently, on
level control of the KO drum, back to the unit 18.
ARU off gas exits the KO drum A-2201-D-01 and flows to the ARU off gas
preheater A-2201-E-01 via PIC-529. In A-2201-E-01, ARU off gas is heated to
250C against 88 kg/hr of superheated HP steam. The duty of the ARU preheater
is 52 kW. Superheated HP steam is fed from the header to A-2201-E-01 via TV522.
The heated ARU off gas then flows to the thermal reactor A-2201-R-01 via TIC522, TI-526 and XV-505 before being split into 2 streams:
464 kg/hr of heated ARU off gas are fed to the 1st zone of the thermal reactor A2201-R-01 (reactor burner) via FV-530 and PG-552.
463 kg/hr of heated ARU off gas are fed to the 2nd zone of the thermal reactor via
FIC-524 and FV-524.
H2S rich SWS off gas exits A-2201-D-02 to be mixed with the heated ARU off gas
downstream of A-2201-E-01, via PIC-530, TI-521, FIC-515, FV-515 and XV-501.
Combustion air feeding to Claus section
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-003/004
Air required for acid gases combustion is compressed to 8.6 kg/cm2g in the
Combustion Air Blower on duty A-2201-B-01 A and flows to the combustion air
preheater A-2201-E-02 via PG-550, PIC-545 and TI-524. Excess air pressure is
vented to atmosphere at the blower discharge via PV-545 and a silencer.
Air pressure is monitored upstream the duty compressor by PG-696 and
downstream of it by PG-597.
A small fraction of the compressed air, 152 kg/hr, is sent to the Liquid Sulphur
Degassing Pit (A-2201 -TK-01), to strip H2S from the liquid elemental sulphur.

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A tiny fraction of the compressed air is also sent to the flame detectors and the
sight glass nozzles of the thermal reactor burner section via XV-510, PG-595 and
restriction orifices.
Once compressed, 533 kg/hr of combustion air is preheated to 253C in the
Combustion Air Preheater A-2201-E-02 against 44 kg/hr of HP superheated
steam. The duty of the preheater is 26 kW. The preheated combustion air flows
towards the thermal reactor A-2201-R-01 via XV-504 before being split into 2
streams to accurately adjust the flow of combustion air to the thermal reactor
according to the acid off gas flow (main combustion air) and to the H2S/SO2 ratio
in the Claus section tail gas (trim air):

The main combustion air flows through FIC-527 and FV-527

The trim air flows through FIC-522 and FV-522.

These 2 combustion air streams are then recombined and 533 kg/hr of
combustion air flows to the section 1 of the thermal reactor at 250C and 0.49
kg/cm2g, via PG-547 and PXA-551.

Thermal Reactor and Burner


Refer to P&ID: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-004
The Thermal Reactor (A-2201-R-01) is a 2 zones reaction furnace, each zone
operating at different temperature:

In the 1st zone all combustion air, all H2S Rich Off gas and a fraction of
ARU Off Gas are burnt. The temperature of this zone is approx. 1240C.

In the 2nd zone the hot flue gas from the first zone and the remaining ARU
Off Gas are mixed. As the remaining ARU Off Gas is injected, temperature
is lowered and modifications in flue gas composition take place in order to
satisfy the overall heat and material balances.

Optimum temperature is achieved by-passing about 50% of ARU Off Gas to the
second zone at design flowrate.
1533 kg/hr of flue gas then leaves the reactor at 0.44 kg/cm2g and 897C and
enters into the Claus Waste Heat Boiler and Sulphur Condensers A-2201-SG-01.
The expected overall conversion of H2S to sulphur in the Thermal Reactor (A2201-R-01) is approx. 16.4% at design conditions (Max. Gasoline Case).
Claus Waste Heat Boiler and 1st Sulphur Condenser
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-005/009
815 kg/hr of boiler feed water is sent from the header to the Claus Waste Heat
Boiler and 1st sulphur Condenser A-2201-SG-01 via LV-514. 791 kg/hr of LP
steam is generated shell side and delivered to the LP steam header at 4.1
kg/cm2g and 152C, thru PIC-555, FI-531 and PV-555.
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24 kg/hr of blow down from A-2201-SG-01 is sent to the Claus Blowdown drum A2201-D-06, where is cooled against a 130 kg/hr of service water circulated to the
blowdown drum in open circuit. Both water streams are then discharged to the oily
water sewer at 50C max via TG-537.
The combustion products leaving the Thermal Reactor A-2201-R-01 are sent into
the tubes and are cooled down to about 240C in pas ses I & II of the Claus Waste
Heat Boiler. The process gas leaving the Claus Waste Heat Boiler is further
cooled down to about 162C in the 1 st Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass
III).
29 kg/hr of sulphur produced in the A-2201-R-01 is condensed in the tube side of
A-2201-SG-01 pass III and discharged by gravity to the sulphur pit (A-2201-TK-02)
through its dedicated sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05 A).
The entire line of condensed sulphur from the 1st sulphur condenser to the sulphur
seal leg A-201-D-05-A and the seal leg are steam jacketed with LP steam from the
header
Level in A-2201-SG-01 is controlled by LIC-514 and is monitored locally by LG515/516.
1st Process Gas Reheater & 1st Catalytic Reactor
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-005/006
1504 kg/hr of process gas leaving the 1st Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass
III) at 162C flow to the 1 st Process Gas Reheater A-2201-E-03, via TI-536 and
SC-503. In A-2201-E-03, the process gas is heated up to 240C against a flow of
35 kg/hr of HP steam.
The process gas line from the 1st sulphur condenser is steam traced until the 1st
process gas reheater.
The duty of A-2201-E-03 is 60 kW. HP steam is fed from the header to A-2201-E03 via TV-541. HP condensate exits the reheater at 253C towards the HP
condensate header.
Downstream of A-2201-E-03, 1504 kg/hr of reheated process gas flow to the 1st
catalytic reactor A-2201-R-01 at 240C and 0.33 kg/ cm2g, thru TI-583, TG-582
and TIC-541.
The process gas enters the A-2201-R-02 where the Claus reaction between H2S
and SO2 continues until equilibrium is reached at that condition, producing
elemental Sulphur.
Equilibrium temperature is approximately the temperature of process gas leaving
the reactor (A-2201-R-02), i.e. 321C.
The temperature inside A-2201-R-03 is monitored via TI-542/543/544.
2nd Condenser, 2nd Process Gas Reheater & 2nd Catalytic Reactor
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-005/006/009
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The process gas leaving the 1st Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-02) is fed to the 2nd
Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass IV) at 321C v ia TI-553 and SC-506.
148 kg/hr of sulphur produced in the A-2201-R-02 is condensed in the tube side of
A-2201-SG-01 pass IV and discharged by gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK02) through its dedicated sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05B).
The entire line of condensed sulphur from the 2nd sulphur condenser to the
sulphur seal leg A-201-D-05-B and the seal leg are steam jacketed with LP steam
from the header.
1356 kg/hr of process gas leaving 2nd Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass IV)
at 170C is fed to the 2 nd Process Gas Reheater (A-2201-E-04), via a mist
eleiminator at the sulphur condenser channel outlet, TI-535 and SC-502.
In A-2201-E-04 the process gas is heated up to 205C against 25 kg/hr of HP
steam. The process gas line from the 2nd sulphur condenser is steam traced until
the 2nd process gas reheater.
The duty of the reheater is 15 kW. HP steam is fed form the header to A-2201-E04 via TV-539 and HP condensate exits the reheater at 253C towards the HP
condensate header.
1356 kg/hr of process gas then flows to the 2nd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-03) at
0.21 kg/cm2g and 205C thru TI-584, TG-554 and TIC- 539. In the 2nd catalytic
reactor the Claus reaction between H2S and SO2 continues until equilibrium is
reached at these conditions, producing elemental Sulphur.
Equilibrium temperature is approximately 223C.
The temperature inside A-2201-R-03 is monitored via TI-545/546/547.
3rd Condenser, 3rd Process Gas Reheater & 3rd Catalytic Reactor
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-005/006/009
The process gas leaving the 2nd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-03) is fed to the 3rd
Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass V) at 223C vi a TI-552 and SC-507.
27 kg/hr of sulphur produced in the A-2201-R-03 is condensed in the tube side of
A-2201-SG-01 pass V and discharged by gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK02) through its dedicated sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05C).
The entire line of condensed sulphur from the 3rd sulphur condenser to the sulphur
seal leg A-201-D-05-C, as well as the seal leg, is steam jacketed with LP steam
from the header.
1330 kg/hr of process gas leaving the 3rd Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-SG-01 pass
V) at 162C is fed to the 3 rd Process Gas Reheater (A-2201-E-05). In A-2201-E05, the process gas is heated up to 190C by means of 20 kg/hr HP steam. HP
steam is fed from the header to A-2201-E-05 via TV-540 and HP condensate exits
the reheater at 253C to the HP condensate header.

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1330 kg/hr of heated process gas then flows to the 3rd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201R-04) at 190C and 0.09 kg/cm2g via TI-585, TG-555 and TIC-540. IN the 3rd
catalytic reactor, the Claus reaction between H2S and SO2 continues until
equilibrium is reached under these conditions, producing Sulphur.
Equilibrium temperature is approximately 193C.
The temperature inside A-2201-R-04 is monitored via TI-548/549/550.
Final Sulphur Condenser and Tail Gas Coalescer
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-006/007/008/009
The process gas leaving the 3rd Catalytic Reactor (A-2201-R-04) at 193C is fed to
the tube side of the Final Sulphur Condenser (A-2201-E-06), via SC-508 and TI551, for the final cooling against boiler feed water (shell side).
8 kg/hr of sulphur produced is condensed in the tube side of A-2201-E-06 and
discharged by gravity to the Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK-02) through its dedicated
sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05D).
The entire line of condensed sulphur from the final sulphur condenser to the
sulphur seal leg A-201-D-05-D, as well as the seal leg, is steam jacketed with LP
steam from the header.
44 kg/hr of vaporized BFW exits the final sulphur condenser at 121C and flows to
the steam condenser A-2201-E-07, via PIC-562 and PV-562, where it is cooled
down against 3227 kg/hr of cooling water. Spent cooling water exits the A-2201-E07 at 39.2C to the cooling water return header. Th e duty of A-2201-E-07 is 27
kW.
Cooled BFW is then returned to the final sulphur condenser A-2201-E-06 via TG558. The level in A-2201-E-06 is monitored remotely via LI-522 and locally via LG520 and LG-521.
1322 kg/hr of process gas coming from the A-2201-E-06 is fed to the Tail Gas
Coalescer (A-2201-D-04), via TI-559, to remove any sulphur mist from the process
gas. Condensed liquid elemental sulphur is then sent by gravity to the Sulphur Pit
(A-2201-TK-02) via steam jacketed sulphur seal leg (A-2201-D-05D).
1322 kg/hr of tail gas leaves the Sulphur Coalescer (A-2201-D-04) at approx.
130C and 0.02 kg/cm2g and flows directly to the I ncinerator (A-2201-H-01), via
AE-501 and SC-511.
Liquid Sulphur Storage & Degassing Pits
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-009/010/011
212 kg/hr of liquid sulphur collected in the 4 seal legs are sent by gravity at 145C
to the non-degassed sulphur storage section.

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18 kg/hr of sweep air is drawn into the Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit A-2201-TK-02
(non-degassed sulphur section) via FI-541 and through a steam jacketed line.
Nitrogen for bubbling is introduced inside the non-degassed liquid sulphur storage
section via 2 steam jacketed nozzles. Temperature in this section is monitored via
TI-570 and TI-571.
Sulphur pit operates under approx. -50 mmH2O (G). Air intake is sucked from A2201-TK-01 and A-2201-TK-02 through a steam jacketed line by the Pit ejector A2201-J-01 A (fully steam jacketed). The pit ejector is fed with 150 kg/hr of LP
steam from the header via UV-521, FG-544 and PG-588.
321 kg/hr of air is then discharged to the Incinerator (A-2201-H-01), via a steam
jacketed line, at 145C and 0.01 kg/cm2g.
Liquid sulphur is pumped by the sulphur circulation pump on duty A-2201-P-04 A
to the sulphur degassing pit A-2201-TK-01, via PG-581 and UV-524, by means of
a steam jacketed line.
In the sulphur degassing pit, 152 kg/hr of process air from A-2201-B-01A/B is
bubbled through the sulphur by means of perforated plates. Process air is
introduced into the degassing pit, via UV-522 and FG-545, by means of 2 steam
jacketed lines.
The temperature in the degassing pit is monitored remotely via TI-576, TI-577 &
TI-578.
Degassed elemental sulphur then flows by gravity to the degassed sulphur
storage section through a steam jacketed line with 3 inlets.
From the degassed sulphur storage section, 212 kg/hr of sulphur is pumped by the
sulphur pump on duty A-2201-P-05 A at 145C and 2.0 kg/cm2g to the sulphur
apron via PG-589 and through a steam jacketed line.
Incinerator Section
Refer to P&IDs: 8474L-022-A0103-4110-003/008 & 8474L-022-PID-0021-101
132 kg/hr of tail gas leaving the Claus section at 130C and 0.02 kg/cm2g, as well
as 321 kg/hr of vent air from the pit ejectors at 145C and 0.01 kg/cm2g, are fed to
the Incinerator (A-2201-H-01). The tail gas is fed to the incinerator via a steam
traced line, while the vent air is fed through a steam jacketed line.
In order to meet the requirements on the flue gas delivered to the atmosphere,
160000 kg/hr of dilution air from Dilution Air Blower on duty B-2203 A is fed to the
Stack via PG-101.
In normal operating conditions, NH3 Rich Off gas (from Unit 18) and CNU Off gas
(from Unit 20) are used as support fuel to achieve 750C inside the combustion
chamber:

19 kg/hr of CNU off gas from the unit 020 are fed to the incinerator burner
at 65C and 0.5 kg/cm2g, via XV-512.

927 kg/hr of NH3 rich SWS off gas is fed to the NH3 Rich Off Gas KO Drum
A-2201-D-03. The condensate recovered by the mist eliminator of the KO
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2201-P-03-A, back to the SWS at 4.9 kg/cm2g via PG-542. This line is
normally no flow (NNF) as the condensate is pumped intermittently, on level
control of the KO drum, back to the unit 18.
The separated off gas from A-2201-D-03 is then sent to the combustion
chamber of the incinerator A-2201-H-01 via PIC-539, FI-518, PV-539, XV513 and PG-569.
8 kg/hr of fuel gas is also fed from the fuel gas header to the combustion
chamber, via FT-535A, TV-560, XV-514 and XV-557, to guarantee the
maintenance of the required temperature in the incinerator.
2141 kg/hr of Combustion air is compressed by the incinerator combustion air
blower on duty A-2201-B-02-A and is fed to the combustion chamber of the
incinerator A-2201-H-01 at 36C and 3.3 kg/cm2g via PG-573, TI-562, FIC-539,
FV-539 and HV-562. Any air excess pressure is vent to atmosphere at the blower
discharge via FV-536 and thru a silencer.
The Claus tail gas and the vent gas from pit ejectors (A-2201-J-01 A/B) are mixed
with hot flue gas, at controlled temperature, and all sulphur bearing compounds
are oxidised to SO2.
Expected residual H2S content is lower than 10 vol.ppm.
The operating conditions of the stack are as per the following:
Flue gas flowrate: 163978 kg/hr
Temperature: 57C
8.1.2. Combustion air / acid gas ratio and Thermal Reactor temperature
During the acid gas operation the flame temperature will become considerably
higher than normal if the hydrocarbon content of acid gas increases and/or if more
air than necessary is sent to the Reaction Chamber.
A quick check of H2S/S02 ratio may be achieved by observing the temperature of
the process gas in first condenser separation. Higher temperatures mean that
more H2S than expected is burned to SO2.
H2S/S02 ratio must be in any case higher than 1; that is to say tail gas must
contain unburned residual hydrogen sulphide.

In case of H2S excess (ratio H2S/S02 higher than 2), the only problem is a
small decrease in plant efficiency.

In case of prolonged operations with rate lower than 1, catalyst life is


considerably reduced due to the superficial sulphanation of the catalyst.

If H2S is absent, SO3 formation may occur. The higher is the free oxygen
content, the higher is SO3 content. When water is present (in process gas it
is always present) sulphur trioxide easily reacts giving sulphuric acid which
is highly corrosive for carbon steel parts.

It is to be noted that more far is the H2S/S02 ratio from 2 and less will be the
reaction heat developed in the reactor. For plant run at design conditions, such an
increase is as high as 49C for the first reactor a nd 12C for the second reactor.
Operator shall always control temperature trends in the reactors, together with
values indicated by laboratory analyses or analyser results. In case of
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considerable discrepancy, it is recommended to check. In principle, the


thermocouple values are the more reliable.
Because it is possible to have the same flame temperature with different air/gas
ratios (refer to the section 3.3.3.1 of the licensor operating manual), the only
operational parameter to be used to operate the SRU plant is the Claus tail gas
analysis.
During the normal acid gas operation no quench steam has to be used for
moderating the flame temperature, unless in case of upset conditions (i.e.
acid gas with very high hydrocarbons content).

8.1.3. Claus Reactors Temperatures in normal operating conditions


Since sulphur is a reaction product, the best would be to reduce its content in feed
gas to reactors as much as possible to emphasise H2S conversion. Sulphur
quantity in the feed gas to the reactors is conditioned by the working pressure in
condenser (steam side) and therefore allowable cooling temperature and achieved
sulphur condensation.
However, steam produced pressure is conditioned by user needs, and therefore,
cannot fall under a predetermined limit. At plant design conditions LP steam
pressure is 3.6 kg/cm2g.
In principle, if the Claus reactor inlet temperature is kept higher than stated values,
the sulphur dew point approach increases, while the sulphur yield decreases.
On the contrary, with lower Claus reactor inlet temperatures, the sulphur dew point
approach becomes lower, while sulphur yield increases.
The limit sulphur dew point approach considered for unit design is 15 C min.
The optimum inlet temperature of reactors (with the scope to reach the best
H2S/S02 conversion to sulphur) is the one that achieves the maximum
temperature difference between reactors inlet and outlet.

8.1.4. Claus Reactors Temperatures during sulphur sweeping operations


Even if the reactors are operated according to the given instructions, it is possible
that some sulphur condenses on the catalysts.
In order to overcome sulphur condensation, the Claus reactors inlet
temperatures shall be increased as much as possible (the best approach
should be of additional 10 20C) for about 24 hou rs every month. In this
way, the liquid sulphur present on the catalyst shall evaporate and the initial
conditions of run shall be restored (Sulphur sweeping operation).
This special run can be performed every time when the catalyst activity decreases
or the pressure drop increases.

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During this run the efficiency in the sulphur recovery of the plant shall be a little
lower than during the normal run.

8.1.5. Incinerator temperature


The normal Incinerator combustion chamber temperature is 750C and the oxygen
content in outlet flue gas is minimum 2 mol% in order to achieve good oxidizing
conditions to burn NH3.
Claus catalyst de-activation can have the consequence of producing a tail gas rich
of unreacted H2S; the hydrogen sulphide contained in the tail gas shall therefore
burn in the Incinerator combustion chamber and there will be an abnormally high
flame temperature.
It is important to note that in case of Incinerator shut down for high
temperature the tail gas shall continue to be sent to the incinerator for some
minutes.

8.1.6. Process Variable Effect on Product Quality


The quality of sulphur produced in a Claus plant is normally very good, as the
content of non-sulphur material is very low.
The only impurity that can be present in noticeable quantity is carbon. Carbon can
be originated from bad combustion of fuel gas during plant heating up period, or
during normal plant operation with acid gas (containing abnormally high quantity of
hydrocarbons), or in case of operation with strong process air deficiency.
The sulphur produced in the Claus plant is saturated with H2S and contains
sulphur polysulphides. In case of bad operation of the degassing system, the H2S
and polysulphides contained in the product sulphur could be remarkably higher
than normal with peaks of 200 - 250 wt.ppm in case of prolonged degassing
upsets of the degassing system and with Claus section in normal operation.

8.1.7. Process Variable Effect on Sulfur Yield


The following conditions will decrease the sulphur yield (refer to section 3.3.1 of
the licensor operating manual for more information):

Lower H2S concentration in the acid gas

Higher hydrocarbons content in the acid gas

Higher ammonia content in the acid gas

Higher steam content in the acid gas

Higher CO2 content in the acid gas

Incorrect air/acid gas ratio

H2S content in tail gas outside recommended limits (H2S/S02 ratio 2:1)

Poor acid gas combustion in the burner


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Higher Claus reactors inlet temperature

Higher produced steam pressure in A-2201-SG-01

Catalysts fouled or poisoned or deactivated

8.1.8. Sulphur Degassing Section


Here are some important considerations about this section:

H2S is an extremely poisonous gas. Utmost care must be taken to avoid


exposure to it. In special circumstances protective masks should be worn.
During normal conditions in the degasification process only traces of SO2
are present.
Sulphur fires in the pit can form large quantities of SO2, which is very
poisonous. It is important to keep the over pressure (if possible) in the
degasification pot.

Above 160C, degassed sulphur undergoes a change i n molecular


structure, which is characterised by a viscosity increase in a small
temperature range. This will stop the stripping process and may damage
the sulphur pumps. The temperature in the degassing and pumping
compartment should therefore always be kept below 150C.

If the stripping air is interrupted for too long the off-spec sulphur will be
pumped to storage.

For more information on the process variables and the operating conditions of the SRU
during normal operation, refer to the chapter 3.3 of the licenser operating manual doc.
No. 8474L-022-ML-001.

8.2. Start-up Procedure


The following will present the main steps of the start-up procedure without detailing the
procedure to perform each action. For a detailed description of the start-up procedures,
refer to specific procedures into the SRU Operating Manual doc. No. 8474L-016-ML-001.

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8.2.1. Preparation for Initial Start-Up

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8.2.2. Initial Start-up


The difference between first and the other start-ups is the presence of sulphur in
the plant. When sulphur is present, the plant heating-up has to be performed by
burning fuel gas in stoechiometric conditions in the main burner; this is not
necessary when no sulphur is present, as it happens for the first start-up.
The start-up consists in heating-up the plant by fuel gas combustion; when the
temperature of certain parts of the unit reaches desired values, the plant can be
switched to acid gas.

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8.2.3. Plant Re-start-up following a shutdown


After the sulphur (Claus) unit has been on stream and then shut-down, the method
used for start-up will depend on the circumstances under which the Claus unit was
shut down, the length of time it was shut down, and its existing conditions.
Unless all sulphur in the plant was completely removed during the shutdown, the
plant (in particular the Claus reactors) may contain trapped sulphur in some
locations that will burn if contacted with the air at a high enough temperature.
Permanent damage to plant equipment by overheating could result. Whenever the
plant is being re-started, all temperature should be monitored particularly those in
the reactors. If a temperature begins to rise rapidly, the unit should be shut down
and cooled off with nitrogen purge.
8.2.3.1. Quick restart of warm plant
If the plant has been shut down for a short time and no air has been
admitted, it can be quickly restarted, maintaining the catalytic section on
stream. In this case, the restart-up will be carried over using fuel gas in
stoichiometric combustion and the switch to ARU Off gas will be done
only when the minimum acceptable temperature is reached (refer to
section 6.3.1 of the licensor operating manual doc. No. 8474L-022-ML001).
If the plant was shutdown by the Emergency Shutdown System, it is
necessary to be sure the problem has been corrected.

Make a complete check of the unit including proper water level in


the Waste Heat Boiler/Sulphur Condensers.

Make sure all air and feed gas valves are shut.

Proceed with the start-up according to the initial start-up sequence.

8.2.3.2. Restart of cold plant


If the plant has been shut down long enough for the refractory and
catalysts to cool and sulphur was not removed from the Claus catalyst
beds, the start-up procedure must be modified to prevent the combustion
of sulphur as well as reactors temperatures are increased. The sulphur
present on the Claus catalyst must be evaporated and swept from the
catalyst without allowing actual combustion to take place, which would
result in damage to unit equipment.
Maximum O2 = 0.4 vol% can be tolerated in the hot gas flowing in the
Claus section.
In fact every time when some sulphur is present in the plant, the
combustion of fuel gas has to be performed in stoichiometric conditions,
in order to avoid damages of the catalyst contained in the Claus reactors
(containing sulphur). Stoichiometric combustion conditions are defined as
to burn H2 and hydrocarbon contained in the fuel gas to CO2 and H2O,
with no excess oxygen in the flue gas. During the stoichiometric
combustion of fuel gas it is necessary to moderate the flame temperature
by using steam as quench agent.
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Note that an incorrect (not stoichiometric) operation during fuel gas


combustion, in plant heating up stages could be dangerous due to the
possibility of carbon formation (oxygen deficiency) and to the presence of
excess oxygen in the flue gas.
In the first case, oxygen deficiency, the carbon black formed during the
fuel gas combustion can plug and/or deactivate the reactors catalyst; in
the second case, excess of oxygen, the sulphur present in the equipment
unit can burn with localized increase of temperature. To avoid any of the
above mentioned risks it is suggested to start-up the plant according to
the procedure for hot condition.

8.3. Shutdown Procedures


8.3.1. Planned Shutdown
The planned shut-down is normally carried out when an acid gas leak is detected,
or an inspection is needed on some equipment, or maintenance works are
required, or much simpler if the acid gas feed is no longer available at SRU plant
battery limits.
Whichever is the case of planned shut-down the first action to carry out is to
remove sulphur in Claus section.
Sulphur is condensed and absorbed in the pores of the Claus catalyst during
normal operation, leading to a temporary deactivation of the catalyst activity as
discussed. In addition, sulphur fires may rise on if the catalyst is exposed to air at
temperatures higher than 180C. Finally, sulphur wi ll solidify during the plant cooldown preceding the main burner shut-down.
Due to the above consideration, sulphur shall be removed from the plant prior to
proceeding with the cool-down.

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8.4. Emergency Shutdown


Emergencies must be recognized and acted upon immediately. The operators and
supervisory personnel should carefully study in advance, and become thoroughly familiar
with, the proper steps to be taken in such situations. Some of the emergency conditions
described here will not only result in a unit shutdown, but if the situation is not handled
properly, can lead to serious damage to the unit.
It is strongly recommended that the emergency procedures and the automatic shutdown
systems be understood by all persons involved in the operation. In general, the objective
of the emergency procedures is to avoid damage to unit.
8.4.1. Emergency Shut-down System Activation
The Thermal Reactor Burner shut-down shall be initiated by pressing any of the
following push buttons:

Control Room ESD push button 022-UXHS-503-A/B

Local Panel ESD push button 022-UXHS-503-C

The Thermal Reactor Burner shut-down shall be also initiated by General ESD
push button (022-UXHS-501) from Control Room.
The emergency shut-down activation should be decided by the Operators shift
supervisor only.
The SRU plant shall be re-started if the initiator generating the shut-down is no
longer active; the normal shutdown procedures shall be followed if the acid gas
operation cannot be restarted immediately.

8.4.2. Power Failure


Effects

All machineries will shut in case of electric power failure

Consequences

The plant shall trip for combustion air low flow rate and/or for
flame failure

Actions

The cause of the electrical fault shall be found out as soon as


possible to allow a restart-up when the plant is warm

8.4.3. Lack of Feedstock


Effects

The pressure in the system will decrease

Consequences

Sulphur production will stop and care should be taken that all
sulphur is removed from the Claus section to avoid sulphur fires

Actions

In case of a short interruption of the acid gas feed to the unit,


the unit should be maintained on hot stand-by. If the lack of feed
is for a planned period, the shut-down of the SRU plant should
be performed
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8.4.4. Failure of Liquid Sulphur Export Line

Effects

Sulphur will no longer be exported and the level in the degassed


sulphur pit (A-2201-TK-01) will rise

Consequences

Sulphur production might have to be stopped by a planned


shutdown of the sulphur plant

Actions

If sulphur export can not be restored in a short period or if the


levels in the Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit (A-2201-TK-02) and the
Degassed Sulphur Pit (A-2201-TK-01) are high, the SRU plant
should be shut-down.
Note that the total combined sulphur storage capacity of the two
sulphur pits is approximately 2 days of sulphur production.

8.4.5. Instrument Air Failure


Effects

All control valves shall move to their safe position

Consequences

The plant shall trip for air and/or acid gas low flow rates or for
flame failure

Actions

The cause of the instrument air failure shall be found out as


soon as possible to allow a restart-up when the plant is warm

8.4.6. Steam Failure


Effects

Heating system shall be no longer in operation

Consequences

Sulphur solidification will occur thus leading to plugging


problems

Actions

The most common cause of the steam failure is the low


pressure; LP steam pressure control loop shall be checked

8.4.7. Boiler Feed Water Failure


Effects

The liquid level in the boilers shall drop

Consequences

Plant shutdown shall occur due to low liquid level in the waste
heat boiler

Actions

The general utilities generation system shall be checked by


dedicated operating personnel;
the SRU Operators can temporarily increase the set-point of the
boiler pressure controllers just below the relief valves set-points
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and reduce the firing rate to the burners to have a little more
time to correct the problem.

8.4.8. Fuel Gas Failure


Effects

The fuel gas header pressure shall drop

Claus section shut-down shall occur due to flame failure during


Consequences fuel gas operation; anyway due to the shut-down of Incinerator
(after a delay time)
Actions

The plant restarts after Fuel Gas pressure adjustment

8.4.9. Combustion Air Blowers (A-2201-B-01A/B) Failure


Effects

The Blower in operation trip

Consequences

Claus shut-down for combustion air low low flowrate (FXALL521)

Actions

Claus can be restarted using the spare blower. The failed


blower can be putted in maintenance during plant operation,
intercepting discharge line.

8.4.10. Incinerator Combustion Air Blowers (A-2201-B-02AIB) Failure


Effects

The Blower in operation trip

Consequences

Incinerator shut-down for combustion air low low flowrate


(FXALL-534)

Actions

Incinerator can be restarted using the spare blower. The failed


blower can be putted in maintenance during plant operation,
intercepting discharge line

8.4.11. Dilution Air Blowers (B-2203A/B) Failure


Effects

Both operating blowers trip


Thermal reactor shut-down for dilution air blower both machines
stop (022-MGL-101/102, 2oo2)

Consequences Incinerator shut-down for dilution air blower both machines stop
(022-MGL- 101/102, 2oo2).
Sulphur degassing section shut-down for dilution air blower both
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machines stop (022-MGL-101/102, 2oo2).


Sulphur production will stop and care should be taken that all
sulphur is removed from the Claus section to avoid sulphur fires
Actions

In case of a short interruption for maintenance, the unit will be


maintained on hot stand-by. If the long period is required, the
shutdown of the SRU plant should be performed

8.4.12. Off Gas K.O. Drum Pumps (A-2201-P-01A/B, 02A/B, 03A/B) Failure
Effects

The Pump in operation trip

Consequences

Spare pump will be started to continue Off Gas K.O. drum


condensate unloading operation

Actions

The failed pump can be putted in maintenance during plant


operation, intercepting discharge line

8.4.13. Sulphur Circulation and Sulphur Pumps (A-2201-P-04A/B, 05A/B) Failure


Effects

The Pump in operation trip

Consequences

Spare pump will be started to continue liquid sulphur transfer


operation

Actions

The failed pump can be putted in maintenance during plant


operation, intercepting discharge line

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UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE

Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 9 : HSE
9.1. Hazardous Areas
Refer to the following documents:

8474L-018-DW-0051-001 Plot Plan SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units

8474L-018-DW-1920-001 Hazardous Area Classification Plan


SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units

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Figure 22: Abstract of the Hazardous Area Classification Diagram for AREA 4
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9.1.1. Prevention of H2S and SO2 leaks


It is strictly forbidden, without an authorization issued by the appropriate Refinery
Safety Authority to flange, unflange or conduct any kind of maintenance to
equipment in physical contact with H2S and SO2.
Very strict controls on the toxicity of the working area must be carried out,
particularly during the first start-up, and from time to time, during normal operation.
During the first start-up the gaskets of all connections on lines containing H2S
must be tested using filter paper soaked with lead acetate, which turns black in the
presence of H2S gas. All leaks must be immediately eliminated.
The alarm level for the H2S automatic analyzer in the plant area must be set at 10
ppm.
It is advisable to carry on spot checks on the toxicity of working area by means of
Drager tubes.
The operating personnel must be well trained in the use of the safety devices
available for the unit. All safety equipment must be readily available and
periodically checked to ensure their reliability.
All valves and flange connections in contact with H2S and SO2 must be regularly
checked for tightness.

9.2. Safety Equipment


Refer to: 8474L-018-DW-1933-001 Safety Equipment Layout for SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU
units, in section 5 of the present manual.
9.3. Specific PPE
All personnel involved in chemical handling related work in the SRU must wear the
specific PPE required. Moreover, all personnel shall be read and understand the MSDS
of the chemicals they will handle before proceeding to work.
9.3.1. H2S
The best method for prevention of H2S poisoning is to stay out of areas known or
suspected to contain it. The sense of smell is not an infallible guide as to the
presence of H2S, for although the compound has a distinct and unpleasant odor
(rotten eggs), it will frequently paralyze the olfactory nerves to the extent that
the victim does not realize that he is breathing it. This is particularly true of
higher concentrations of the gas.
Fresh air masks or gas masks suitable for use with hydrogen sulfide must
be used in all work where exposure is likely to occur. Such masks must be
checked frequently to make sure that they are not exhausted. People who must
work on or in equipment containing appreciable concentrations of H2S, must wear
fresh air masks and should work in pairs so that one may effect a rescue or call for
help should the other be overcome.
As mentioned above, the atmosphere in which people work should be checked
from time to time for appreciable concentrations of H2S.

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REMEMBER - JUST BECAUSE YOUR NOSE SAYS IT'S NOT THERE, DOESN'T
MEAN THAT IT IS NOT.
PPE recommendation for protection against H2S:
Ventilation
Respiratory
Protection

Use adequate ventilation to control exposure below recommended levels


For concentrations exceeding the recommended exposure level, use
NIOSH/MSHA approved air purifying respirator.
If conditions immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) exist, use
NIOSH/MSHA approved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
equipment.

Eye
Protection

For splash protection use chemical goggles and face shield

Skin
Protection

Gloves and coveralls of rubber or neoprene construction if liquid contact could


occur. Avoid unnecessary skin contamination with material

9.3.2. Sulphur Dioxide


PPE recommendation for protection against SO2:
Respiratory
Protection

A NIOSH/MSHA approved air-purifying respirator equipped with acid


gas/fume, dust, mist cartridges for concentrations up to 20 ppm. A powered
air-purifying respirator with acid gas cartridges up to 50 ppm. A full-facepiece
air-supplied respirator for concentrations 100 ppm

Skin
Protection

Heavyweight coveralls, safety boots and insulated impervious (i.e., neoprene,


PVC) gloves

Eye
Protection

Tight-fitting chemical goggles and face shield

Other PPE

Impervious gas-tight overall body protection depending on exposure. Safety


showers and eyewash fountains should be installed in an area not likely to be
affected by a release of SO2 and near storage and handling areas. Insulated
gloves should be worn if liquid contact is anticipated

9.3.3. Sulphur
PPE recommendation for protection against Elemental Sulphur:
Respiratory
Protection

Dust-type respirators shall be provided for dusty conditions. Breathing


apparatus must be available for emergency use in case of fire.

Skin
Protection

Workers whose skin may be sensitive to sulphur dust should button collars, roll
sleeves down, and gather trousers at the ankle. Gloves may be helpful

Eye
Protection

Dust-tight goggles with plastic or rubber frames may be helpful in dusty


conditions

Other

Hard hat and safety shoes. Fire-retardant fabric is recommended. Sulphur


impregnated clothing should not be worn.
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For More information, refer to the MSDS attached in the section 9.6 of the licensor
operating manual doc. No. 8474L-022-ML-001.

9.4. Chemical Hazards


It is of the utmost importance that all employees involved in this unit read and understand
the MSDS of the chemical they will handle before proceeding to work. No work or
operation should be allowed to commence before all employees involved in chemical
handling related work have demonstrated knowledge of the health hazards they my face.

9.4.1. Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity


Classification:

Hydrogen sulfide is both an irritant and an extremely poisonous gas. Breathing


even low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can cause poisoning.
Hydrogen sulphide at concentrations greater than 500 ppm is highly toxic and can
cause immediate death. Since the most parts of process streams have H2S
content greater than 10,000 ppm, the unit must be completely gas tight and leaks
repaired immediately when occur. It can be lethal to under-estimate an H2S leak.
H2S acts by deadening nerve endings including those associated with smell. At
concentration greater than 20 ppm it is no longer possible to smell the gas, thus
greatly increasing its hazard.
No work should be undertaken on the unit where there is danger of
breathing H2S, and one should never enter or remain in an area containing it
without wearing a suitable fresh air mask.
9.4.1.1. Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning
Breathing air or gas containing more than 500 mol-ppm H2S can cause
acute poisoning and possibly be fatal.
Symptoms of Acute Poisoning

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The symptoms of acute H2S poisoning are muscular spasms, irregular


breathing, lowered pulse, odor to the breath and nausea. Loss of
consciousness and suspension of respiration quickly follow.
Even after the victim recovers, there is still the risk of edema (excess
accumulation of fluid) of the lungs which may cause severe illness or
death in 8 to 48 hours.
First Aid Treatment of Acute Poisoning
Move the victim at once to fresh air. If breathing has not stopped, keep
the victim in fresh air and keep him quiet. If possible, put him to bed.
Secure a physician and keep the patient quiet and under close
observation for about 48 hours for possible edema of the lungs.
In cases where the victim has become unconscious and breathing has
stopped, artificial respiration must be started at once. If a Pulmotor or
other mechanical equipment is available, it may be used by a trained
person; if not, artificial respiration by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation must
be started as soon as possible. Speed in beginning the artificial
respiration is essential. Do not give up. Men have been revived after more
than four hours of artificial respiration.
If other persons are present send one of them for a physician. Others
should rub the patient's arms and legs and apply hot water bottles,
blankets or other sources of warmth to keep him warm. After the patient is
revived, he should be kept quiet and warm, and remain under observation
for 48 hours for the appearance of edema of the lungs.
9.4.1.2. Subacute Hydrogen sulfide Poisoning
Breathing air or gas containing H2S anywhere between 10 to 500 molppm for an hour or more may cause subacute or chronic hydrogen sulfide
poisoning.
Symptoms of Subacute Poisoning
The symptoms of subacute H2S poisoning are headache, inflammation of
the eyes and throat, dizziness, indigestion, excessive saliva, and
weakness. These can be the result of continued exposure to H2S in low
concentrations. Edema of the lungs may also occur.
First Aid Treatment of Subacute Poisoning
Keep the patient in the dark to reduce eyestrain and have a physician
treat the inflamed eyes and throat. Watch for possible edema.
Where subacute poisoning has been suspected, the atmosphere should
be checked repeatedly for the presence of H2S by such methods as
testing by odor, with moist lead acetate paper, and by Tutweiler H2S
determination to make sure that the condition does not continue.

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9.4.2. Sulphur Dioxide Toxicity


Classification:

Sulphur dioxide is a colorless, non-flammable gas. In the presence of mist or


water this gas forms sulphurous acid. The gas has a sour taste. It irritates the
respiratory tracts because it forms with the water present sulphurous acid and
further sulphuric acid.
At low concentrations it irritates the mucous membranes.
The toxic effects vary to some extent with individual susceptibility. A certain
immunization to SO2 is possible, to a maximum of 30 to 50 ppm. Human beings
can withstand a maximum of 20 ppm, without adverse effects. Higher
concentrations can give the victim a pale appearance, cause an unpleasant taste
in the mouth, and can even make the gustatory nerves insensitive. Additional
effects are loss of appetite and constipation.
SO2 Health Hazards Summary:
Vapors are extremely irritating to throat, mucous membranes and upper
respiratory tract. Short exposures to concentrations as low a 1 ppm may
produce a reversible decrease in lung function.
Inhalation of higher concentrations causes hoarseness, pain and a feeling of
pressure on the chest and bronchitis. It is sometimes impossible to speak or to
swallow.
Inhalation

Concentrations as low as 5 ppm have produced constriction of the bronchiole


tubes.
Very high concentrations cause acute bronchitis, tightness of the chest, and a
quick start of perturbance of consciousness. Suffocation can cause death
quickly. SO2 also causes an increase of hemoglobin in the blood.
Severe overexposure may result in pulmonary edema, permanent lung injury
or death.
The effects of pulmonary edema which include coughing and shortness of
breath may be delayed for hours or days after exposure.

Ingestion

Not applicable. Since material is a gas at room temperature, ingestion is


unlikely to occur
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Liquid sulfur dioxide can cause frostbite and skin burns.


Skin

Sulfur Dioxide converts to sulfurous acid in moist environments, which may


cause skin irritation. This acid etches the human tissue.
Mildly irritating at low concentrations of 5.4 ppm.

Eyes

Moderate to severe irritation above 8 ppm. Liquid sulfur dioxide can burn the
eye and permanently affect vision.

Long Term
Exposure

Dental caries, loss of fillings, gum disorders and the rapid and painless
destruction of teeth may result from over-exposure.

9.4.3. Sulphur
Sulphur Health Hazards Summary:
Inhalation

Sulphur dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the respiratory passages

Ingestion

Solid sulphur is virtually non-toxic. It can be taken internally in fairly large


doses without injury

Skin

In some individuals, sulphur dust has an irritant action, which may be


aggravated by perspiration or moisture

Eyes

Sulphur dust in the atmosphere has a highly irritating effect upon the human
eye. Therefore the need of wearing safety goggles when working in an
atmosphere where dust contaminates the air cannot be overemphasized.
Note:
Sulphur dust clouds will ignite at a temperature of approximately 190C.

9.4.4. Process gas and tail gas


Process gas and tail gas have a variable composition. However it is always
composed of strong acid and toxic gases. H2S contents may easily exceed 1% in
Claus Section, if everything is proceeding in the best possible way.

For More information, refer to the MSDS attached in the section 9.6 of the licensor
operating manual doc. No. 8474L-022-ML-001.

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UNIT: 22

Course Content:
Section 1 - General Description
Section 2 - Process Flow Description
Section 3 - Process Control
Section 4 - Safeguarding Devices
Section 5 - Fire & Gas Systems
Section 6 - Quality Control
Section 7 - Cause & Effects
Section 8 - Operating Procedures
Section 9 - HSE
Section 10 - Reference Document Index

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SECTION 10 : REFERENCE DOCUMENTS INDEX


10.1. Operating Manual/ Licensor Documentation
8474L-022-ML-001

SRU Operating Manual

10.2. Arrangement Drawings, Layouts and Plot Plans


8474L-018-DW-0051-001

Plot Plan SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units

8474L-018-DW-1960-001

Escape Route Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units

10.3. Process Flow Diagrams


8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-001 Claus Section Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-002 Incineration Section Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-003 Claus Section Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-004 Incineration Section Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-005 Heat & Material Balance Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-006 Heat & Material Balance Max Distillate
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-007 Heat & Material Balance Max Gasoline
8474L-022-A0102-4110-300-008 Heat & Material Balance Max Gasoline
10.4. Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-001 Interconnecting and distribution piping
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-002 ARU and H2S rich SWS off gas KO drums
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-003 NH3 rich SWS off gas KO drum
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-004 Thermal reactor
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-005 Waste Heat Boiler and Sulphur Condensers
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-006 Catalytic Reactors
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-007 Final Condenser
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-008 Incinerator
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-009 Sulphur Seal Legs
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-010 Sulphur Pit
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-011 Sulphur Degassing Box
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-012 Combustion control
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-013 Utilities distribution
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-014 Utilities distribution
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-015 Utilities distribution
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-016 Utilities distribution
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8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-019 Utilities distribution


8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-020 Utilities distribution
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-021 Distribution Manifolds
8474L-022-A0103-4110-300-022 Recovery Manifolds
8474L-022-PID-0021-101

Dilution Air Blowers

10.5. Equipment list


Refer to the attached equipment list of unit 022:
Unit 022 Extracted Equipment List.xls
10.6. Main Equipment Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-007 Thermal Reactor Process Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-008 Incinerator Process Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-009 Catalytic Reactors Process Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-011 WHB and Sulphur Condensers Process Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-025 Incinerators Air Blowers Process Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-028 Liquid Sulphur Storage Pit Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-029 Liquid Sulphur Degassing Pit Data Sheet
8474L-022-A1001-4110-300-034 Combustion Air Blowers Process Data Sheet
8474L-022-SP-1040-200

Dilution Air Blowers Data Sheet

10.7. Instrument List


Refer to attached extracted instrument list of unit 022:
Unit 022 Extracted Instrument List.xls
10.8. Cause & Effect Matrix
8474L-022-A3505-4110-300-002-1

10.9. Safety Logic diagram


8474L-XX-XXXX-XXX

10.10. Fire & Gas Cause & Effect Chart


8474L-018-DW-1514-201
10.11. Fire & Gas Detectors Layout
8474L-018-DW-1950-001 Fire & Gas Detector Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units
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10.12. Fire Protection Layout


8474L-018-DW-1933-002 Fire Protection Layout SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units
10.13. Hazardous Area Classification
8474L-018-DW-1920-001 Hazardous Area Classification SWS/ARU/CNU/SRU units
10.14. MSDS
Refer to the following MSDS in the chapter 9.6 of the licensor operating manual, doc. No.
8474L-022-ML-001:

A-2201-R-02/03/04 Catalyst

10.15. Vendors Documentation


N/A

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