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Genetic Engineering

Human Application
Agriculture Application

Describe the structure of DNA.


Nucleotides linked end to end in two strands twisted
in a double helix.
Nucleotides contain a phosphate group, a sugar
molecule, and one of the four bases.

Adenine pairs with Thymine


Guanine pairs with Cytosine

Why is the genetic code said to be


universal?

It is nearly the same in every living thing

The process of altering the genetic makeup of


an organism.
Involves Recombinant DNA DNA made from
two or more different organisms by
connecting or reconnecting DNA.

Recombine

Achieved by the use of vectors- an agent that


is used to carry the gene of interest into
another cell.
Viruses, yeast, and plasmids

Plasmid- circular DNA molecules that can


replicate independently of the main
chromosomes of bacteria.

Step 1 Cutting the DNA


Restriction enzymes- bacterial enzymes that
recognize and bind to specific short sequences of
DNA.
They act like scissors by cutting the DNA between
specific nucleotides within the DNA sequence.

Step 2
Combining DNA fragments of gene of interest and
the DNA fragment from the vector.

Uses an enzyme called Ligase. Acts like


glue or tape.
Step 3
Cloning- many copies of the gene of interest are
made each time the host cell reproduces.

Step 4
Screening- method used to detect which bacteria
have the vector and which ones do not.

Southern Blot
Electrophoresis- technique that uses an
electric field within a gel to separate
molecules by their size.
Probe- radioactive or fluorescent RNA or DNA
strands that can bind to gene of interest.

The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project is a research project


started in 1990 to identify all the base pairs of
the human genome.
Genome = all the genes in the DNA of
a species.
In 2003, 13 years later, the genome was
published.

The Genome project provided some surprising


findings:
Less than 2% of human DNA codes for proteins.
The human genome contains fewer than 40,000
genes, considerable less than the 120,000
different types of mRNA molecules.

Genetic Engineering
Human Application
Agriculture Application

Identification of markers for genetic disorders


that help determine individuals that are carriers.

Advances in developing gene therapy.

Better vaccines.

Recombinant proteins for research and therapy.

Many genetic disorders result when the bodys


cells do not produce critical proteins.
Genetically engineered proteins are used to treat
these conditions.
Insulin for type 1 diabetes

Factor VIII, a blood clotting factor used to treat one


type of hemophilia.
Interferon for viral infections and cancer.

Vaccine- solution containing all or part of a


harmless version of a pathogen (disease
causing microorganism)
Vaccines cause the bodies immune system to
produce antibodies.
Should that particular pathogen enter the
body, the antibodies will attack and kill it.

The traditional method of vaccine preparation has


the danger that the pathogen may not be fully
disabled and may cause the disease anyway.

Genetically Engineered Drugs/ Vaccines


Using genetic engineering the genes that encode
the surface proteins of the pathogen can be
inserted into the DNA of a harmless virus.
Vaccines for Herpes II (genital)
and hepatitis B are now being
made through genetic engineering.

No two individuals have the same DNA,


except identical twins, so DNA technology
can be used to identify individuals and
relationships.

1. DNA is cut with restriction enzymes.


Because the places restriction enzymes can
cut DNA depend on the DNA sequence, the
lengths of DNA restriction fragments will
differ between two individuals.
2. Electrophoresis is run

Using samples of DNA from blood,semen,


bone, or hair forensic investigators can
identify a suspect or victim in criminal
investigations.
It can also be used to identify genes that
cause genetic disorders.

Genetic engineering techniques have been


used to produce crop plants that are:
Tolerant of drought conditions
Resistant to the weed-killer,
glyphosate (sold under the trade name
Roundup)
Resistant to insects
More nutritious

Use of glyphosate resistant crops may lead to


resistant weeds.
Plants with genes to improve nutrition may
cause allergic reactions in some people.
Genetically engineered crop plants may
interbreed with wild plants.

Genetically engineered bacteria are producing


animal hormones that stimulate growth and
increase milk production.
Human genes have been added to the genes
of farm animals to get them to produce
medically useful proteins in their milk.
Such animals are called transgenic.
Transgenic = organisms that have DNA from
another species

Since the successful cloning of Dolly, many


other animals have been cloned. However,
only a few survive for long
The problem lies in a process called genomic
imprinting
Occurs during the development of sperm
and egg cells.
Insures that the right combination of genes
is turned on or off during early
development