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Special Crime Investigation Reviewer

Special Crime Investigation Reviewer

Definition of Terms

Admission - Any statement of fact made by a party which is against

his interest or unfavorable to the conclusion for which he contends
or inconsistent with the facts alleged by him.

AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric

identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology
to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data.

Amateur Intermittent Offender - These types of robbers view themselves

as lifetime robbers and commits infrequent robbery offenses, often

Armed Robbery - This involves the use of weapons such as firearm, a

knife or other dangerous weapons.

Animus Lucrandi - means intent to gain, in Robbery.

Bienes Muebles - in Robbery, means personal property belonging

to another.

Arrest - The legal taking of a person into a custody in order that

he may be bound to answer for the commission of an offense.

Arrest Warrant - An order in writing issued in the name of the

Philippines commanding or directing a peace officer to arrest the
person described therein and brings it before the court.

The warrant of arrest is to be served within a statutory

period of 10 days.

The warrant of arrest validity continues unless:

1. Recalled by the issuing court
2. The respondent has been arrested
3. Respondent voluntary submitted himself

Arson - An act of willfully and maliciously damaging or destroying a

building or other property by fire or explosion.

Autopsy - known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, autopsia

cadaverum, or obduction, is a highly specialized surgical procedure
that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the
cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that
may be present.

Accused - A person whos case was forwarded to the office of the

prosecutor and filed in court.

Baseline - a method of locating object, particularly useful in in

large, irregularly shaped outdoor areas.

Confession - An express acknowledgment by the accused in a criminal

prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charged,
while admission refers to statements of fact not directly constituting
an acknowledgment of guilt.

Corpus Delicti - Latin for the body of the crime.

Crime - A generic term referring to many types of misconduct

forbidden by law.

Crime Scene - A venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event

has been committed.

Criminal - A person who is convicted by final judgment.

Criminalist - The officer responsible for recording a crime scene and

recognizing and preserving physical evidence.

Criminal Investigation - The collection of facts in order to accomplish

the three-fold aims to identify the guilty party, to locate the guilty
party and to provide evidence of his (suspect) guilt.

Criminal Investigator - A well-trained, disciplined and experienced

professional in the field of criminal investigation.

Criminal Law - One that defines crimes treats of their nature and
provides for their punishment.

Crime Scene - The geographical area where the crime was committed.

Crime Scene Sketch - A simple diagram that creates a mental pictures

of the scene to those who are not present.

Rough Sketch - The first pencil-drawn outline of the scene

and the location of objects and evidence within this outline.

DNA Profiling - (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic

fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist
in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles.

DNA Fingerprinting - is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic

information, called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), of a person's cells.

Early Techniques of Crime Investigation

Archimedes (287212 BC) invented a method for determining the

volume of an object with an irregular shape.

Book of Xi Yuan Lu - The first written account of using medicine

and entomology to solve criminal cases.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele - he devised in 1773 a method for detecting

arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses.

Henry Goddard - at Scotland Yard pioneered the use of bullet

comparison in 1835.

Alphonse Bertillon - was the first to apply the anthropological

technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating
an identification system based on physical measurements.

Sir William Herschel - was one of the first to advocate the use
of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects.

English Constable - early recorded professional criminal investigator.

Evidence - The means by which facts are proved.

Forcible Rape - Sexual intercourse carried out against a persons will

by the use of physical violence.

Four Basic Techniques That Can Be Used To Measure A Crime Scene

1. Rectangular/Coordinate System
2. Baseline/Station Line
3. Triangulation/Trilateration
4. Azimuth/Polar Coordinates

Azimuth - uses polar coordinates. This method requires two

people; one to hold each end of a tape measure. This type of

measuring convention is best suited for large open areas where
there might not be any fixed reference points. A known starting
point must be established in your scene which might require
pounding in a stake. That point is located by using a handheld
GPS (global positioning system). A large protractor or some
other type of board marked with a circle and degree increments
is used. The zero location on the board is oriented toward
magnetic north.

Triangulation - is a method that can be used when the scene

is irregularly shaped. Two control points are used for this

Highgrading selling

Information - The general term referring to the knowledge acquired

by criminal investigator from various sources. Data gathered by an
investigator from other persons including the victim himself and
other sources.

Instrumentation - The application of instrument and method of physical

science in the detection and investigation of crime.

Interview - The simple friendly questioning of people who have the

information officially needed by investigators.

Interrogation - The vigorous or aggressive questioning of person

suspected of having committed an offense or a person who is reluctant
or willing to make a full disclosure of information in his possessions,
which is pertinent to the investigation of a criminal case.

Investigation - The collection of basic facts establishing that a crime

has been committed and that some other person is responsible thereof.

KastleMeyer Test - is a presumptive blood test, first described in

1903, in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used to detect
the possible presence of hemoglobin.

Miranda Doctrine - The principle on the rights of a suspect against

forced self-incrimination during police interrogation.

Modus Operandi - Methods of Operation, Modes of Operation, Manner of

committing the crime.

Murder-Suicide - An act in which an individual kills one or more other

persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself.

Phenomena - A circumstance, event or occurrence as it actually

exists or existed.

Photography - The most reliable means of preserving the crime scene

or evidence.

Political terrorists - The use of force or the fear of force to achieve

a political end.

Power-Reassurance Rapist - The rapist who psychologically doubt his

masculinity and seeks to dispel this doubt by exercising power and
control over women.

Professional Robber - This characterized as having a long-term

commitment to crime as a source of livelihood, planning and organizing
crimes before committing them and pursuing money to support a particular

RA 7438 - An act defining certain rights of person under custodial


RA 8353 - The Anti-Rape Law of 1997.

RA 9514 - The Fire Code of the Philippines.

Rectangular - a method of obtaining measurement to locate an object

by making a measurement at right angles from each of two walls. Works
well for indoor measurements.

Special Crime Investigation - The investigation of cases that are

unique and often require special training to fully understand their
broad significance.

Spectrometry - modern detection method of alcohol and drugs.

Suspect - A person arrested for a crime.

Terrorism - The unlawful use of threat of violence against person or

property to further political or social objectives.

Three Fold Aim of Criminal Investigation

1. Identify the Perpetrator
2. Locate the Perpetrator
3. Provide Evidence

Triangulation - method of locating object where measurements are taken

from two fixed points at the scene to the object you desire to locate.


Introduction to Criminology
Prof. Pacifico
Philippine Criminal Justice
Prof. Jeffrey Bajita
Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Prof. Jeffrey Bajita
Human Behavior and Crisis
Prof. Pacifico
Seminar on Contemporary Police Prof. Pacifico
Police Organization and
Prof. Anthony
Administration with Police
Police Personnel and Records
Prof. Anthony
Patrol Operation and Police
C/Insp. Felino
Communication System
Industrial Security Management Prof. Jeffrey Bajita
Police Intelligence
C/Insp. Felino
Comparative Police System
Prof. Pacifico
Personal Identification
Dr. Alfredo Kahanding
Forensic Ballistics
Mr. Ronan Masacupan
Forensic Photography
Mr. Nick Guanco
Questioned Document
Prof. Antonio
P/Supt. Cenon Manalo
Forensic Medicine
Dr. Wilfredo Tierra
Forensic Chemistry and
Prof. Nicanor Cruz




Fundamentals of Crime Investigation C/Insp. Felino Bragado
Special Crime Investigation and
Prof. Anthony Mondejar
Investigation of Organized Crime
Fire Technology and Arson
Engr. Garry Lunas
Traffic Operations and Accident
P/Supt. Cenon Manalo
Drug Education and Vice Control
Prof. Jeffrey Bajita
E. CORRECTION (16 hours)
Correctional Philosophy and
Dr. Janet Padua
Probation and Parole (NonDr. Janet Padua
Institutional Correction)
Criminal Law (RPC, Book 1)
Atty. Makamasa Gapit
Criminal Law (RPC, Book 2)
Atty. Makamasa Gapit
Criminal Procedure
Atty. Makamasa Gapit
Criminal Evidence
Atty. Makamasa Gapit
Practice Court and Special Law
Atty. Molina
Case Analysis in Criminal Law
Atty. Molina
Criminal Jurisprudence and LEA
Review Staff
Criminalistics and CDI
Review Staff
Criminal Sociology and
Review Staff


Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation
Investigation - an inquiry, judicial or otherwise for the discovery and
collection of facts concerning the matters involved.
- it is the process of inquiring, eliciting, soliciting and
getting vital information, facts, circumstances in order to establish the

Criminal Investigator - a public safety officer who is tasked to conduct

the investigation of all criminal cases as provided for and embodied under
the revised penal code, criminals laws and special laws which are criminal
in nature.
- a well trained, disciplined and
experienced professional in the field of criminal investigation.
Custodial Investigation - investigation conducted by law enforcement
officers after a person has been arrested or deprived of his freedom of
Neighborhood Investigation - one of the most crucial steps in kidnap
for ransom cases which is often overlooked. The objective is to identify and
interview in person all individuals in the area where the victim was
kidnapped or last known sighting area during the window of
opportunity.(last time seen until the time discovered missing.
Crime scene - a venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event
has been committed.
Corpus delicti - (latin for the body of the crime) - used to describe the
physical or material evidence that a crime has been committed. ex. corpse
of a murder victim.
Confession - is an express acknowledgement by the accused in a criminal
prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charge.
Admission - refers to statement of facts not directly constituting an
acknowledgement of guilt.
Organized criminal group - a structured group of three or more persons
for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one
or more serious crime or offenses.
Organized crime - a combination of two or more persons who are
engaged in a criminal or virtual criminal activity on a continuing basis for
the purpose of profit or power using gangland style to attain their purpose.
Physical evidence - evidenced addressed to the senses of the court that
are capable of being exhibited, examined or viewed by the court. This
includes but not limited to fingerprints, body fluid, explosives, hazardous
chemicals, soil/burned debris, bombs, electronic parts used in the
commission of the crime.
Victimology/victim profiling - a detailed account of the victims lifestyle
and personality, assist in determining the nature of the disappearance, the
risk level of the victim and the type of person who could
have committed the crime. Complete information regarding the victims
physical description, normal behavior patterns, the family dynamics and
known friends and acquintances should be obtained as soon as possible.
Miranda vs. Arizona - Ernesto Miranda had confessed to rape and

kidnapping, after two hour interrogation. Because the interrogators failed

to inform Miranda of his right to counsel and remain silent, his conviction
was overturned.
Waterboarding - refers to the practice of strapping a suspect to a board
with his or her head lowered, then the face is covered and water is poured
over it causing the suspect to gag and experience the sensation of
Chinese water torture - interrogation technique, repeatedly dripping
water on the forehead of the suspect. The goal is to drive the suspect to
near insanity thereby obtaining a confession.
Serial Killer - is someone who murders 3 or more people with "cooling
off" periods in between.
Police Blotter - is an 18" x 12" logbook with hard bound cover that
contains the daily register of all crime incident reports, official summary of
arrests and other significant events reported in a police station. A separate
police blotter shall be maintained for offenses requiring confidentiality like
violence against women and children and those cases involving a child in
conflict with the law to protect their privacy pursuant to RA 9262 (anti
violence against women and children act of 2004) and RA 9344 ( juvenile
justice and welfare act of 2006).
Actus Reus - proof that a criminal act has occurred.
Sketch - a rough drawing or painting, often made to assist in making a
more finished picture.
Types of Sketches
1. Floor plan (Birds Eye View)
2. Elevation Drawing
3. Exploded View
4. Respective Drawings
Allan Pinkerton - a Scottish american detective who created the
Pinkerton National Detective Agency, the first detective agency in the
US.Pinkerton foiled a plot to assassinate President Lincoln.
Rouges Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or photographs of
criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes.A compilation of
descriptions, methods of operation having places and names of criminal
and their associates.
Mugshot - is a photographic portrait taken after one is arrested.
Criminal investigation - it is the collection of facts in order to accomplish
the three fold aims:
3 Fold Aims Of Criminal Investigation

1. To identify the guilty party

2. To locate the guilty party

3. To provide evidence of his guilt

6 Cardinal points of investigation


What specific offense was committed

How the offense was committed
Who committed it
Where the offense was committed
When it was committed
Why it was committed

Tools of an investigator in gathering facts

1. Information - data gathered by an investigator and other
person including the victim himself and from:
1. public records
2. private records
3. modus operandi file
2. Interview - skillful questioning of witness and
3. Instrumentation - scientific examination of real
evidence, application of instruments and
method of physical sciences in detecting crime.
Phases of investigations
1.Phase 1 - identify the suspect through:
1. confession
2. eyewitness testimony
3. circumstantial evidence
4. associate evidence
2. Phase 2 - locate and apprehend suspect.
3. Phase 3 - gather and provide evidence to
establish the guilt of the accused.
Composition/Organization of an investigation team:


Team leader
Evidence Custodian
Composite illustrator/Artist

Equipment of an Investigator

1. Police line
2. Video camera
3. Voice recorder
4. Camera
5. Measuring device
6. Gloves
7. Flashlight
8. Fingerprint kit
9. Evidence bag
10. Evidence tag
11. Evidence bottles/vials
12. Investigators tickler

Investigators Tickler


Investigators checklist
Anatomical diagram form
Evidence Checklist
Turn-over receipt

Standard Methods of Recording Investigative Data:


Sketching crime scenes
Written notes (what you have seen/observed)
Developing and lifting fingerprints found at the crime scene.
Gathering physical evidence
Plaster cast
Tape recording of sounds
Video tape recording of objects
Written statement of objects and witnesses.

2 Kinds of Information
1. Regular sources - ex. citizen, company records
2. Cultivated sources - ex. paid informant

Interrogation or questioning witness or suspect who is reluctant to

divulge or reveal information with the goal of extracting a
confession or obtaining information while an Interview is simple
questioning of a person who cooperate with the investigator.

How the Suspect is Identified

1. Confession or Admission - is a declaration of an
accused acknowledging his guilt.
2. Eyewitness testimony

3. Circumstantial evidence
How circumstantial Evidence Obtained
1. Motive
2. Opportunity
3. Associative Evidence
Types of Interview
1. Informal (on the scene interview) - conducted by
police/investigator at the crime scene to get
description of criminal if seen.
2. Formal - interview conducted by the investigator
assigned to the case.
Types of Formal Interview
1. Normal - for willing or cooperative witness.
2. Group/Pretext Interview - for hostile witness or
witness who refuse to cooperate.
3. Follow Up - additional interview in addition to vital
points if necessary.
Qualifications of Interviewer
1. Salesman
2. Actor
3. Psychologist
Requisites of an Interview
1. Establish rapport
2. Forcefulness of personality
3. Breadth of interest
Setting of Interview
1. Background Interview - time and place of
interview are not a consideration except for busy
2. Routine Criminal Cases - interview should be
carefully planned. Busy person can be interviewed
at night, privacy is important.
3. Important Criminal Cases - should be conducted in
places other than the subjects home/office to
prevent him/her feeling confident. Investigator
should get interviewees respect.
4. Appropriate Time - General rule - (ASAP) as soon
possible while facts are fresh in the memory of
Methods of Crime Scene Search
1. Strip method - the area is blocked out in the form
of a rectangle. The searchers (3 person is good)
proceed slowly at the same pace along paths
parallel to one side of the rectangle.
2. Double Strip Search Method - modification of the
strip search method. The rectangle is traversed

first parallel to the base then parallel to a side.

3. Spiral Search Method - The searchers (3 person is
good) follow each other along the path of a spiral
beginning on the outside and spiraling in towards
the center.
4. Zone Search Method - one searcher is assigned
to each subdivision of a quadrant and then each
quadrant is cut into another set of quadrants.
5. Wheel Search Method - the area is considered to
be approximately circular. The searchers gather at
the center and proceed outward along radii or
spokes. Procedure is repeated several times
depending on the size of the circle and the number
of searchers.

strip search method

double strip search method

spiral search method

zone search method

wheel search method

Related Readings: Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation

1. Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation Reviewer 1
2. Drug Education Definition of Terms

Fundamentals Of Criminal Investigation Reviewer 1

Questions and answer


Crime scene investigation


In the world

1. America's most famous private investigator and founder of

Criminal Investigation.

A. Alec Nayhem
B. Allan Pinkerton
C. Thomas Byrnes
D. None of these
2. The first woman detective in the history of criminal investigation.
A. Kathleen Jacob
B. Candy Miles
C. Kate Wayne
D. Pines Hamilton
3. He was known to be the creator of the "bow street runners", a
group of police officers attached to the Bow Street Court, and not
in uniform, performing criminal investigative functions.
A. Henry Fielding
B. John Fielding
C. John Howard
D. Robert Peel
4. The founder and chief organizer of the London Metropolitan Police,
the Scotland Yard, which became famous police organization
in the world.
A. Henry Fielding
B. John Fielding
C. John Howard
D. Robert Peel
5. As a rule, do not touch, alter or remove anything at the crime
scene until the evidence has been processed through notes,
sketches and photographs, with proper measurements.This refers to
A. the golden rule in investigation
B. the number one SOP in investigation
C. the act of note taking
D. the act of crime scene preservation
6. An Englishman who published a handbook for Examining Magistrates
in Munich, Germany and advocated the use of scientific methods
in criminal investigation process.
A. Hans Gross
B. Thomas Byrnes
C. Alphonse Bertillon

D. Francis Galton
7. The SC ruled the illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible in
state criminal prosecutions in the famous case of
A. Miranda vs Arizona
B. Otit vs Jeff
C. Mapp vs Ohio
D. Milkey vs Wett
8. The continues accountability of persons handling evidences, and
having responsibility of taking care and preserving the evidences
from the time it was found until brought to court for presentation
is called
A. Chain of events
B. Key events
C. Chain of custody of evidence
D. Chain of command
9. In England, he was a buckle maker then a brothel operator; a
master criminal who became London's most effective criminal
investigator. He was the most famous Thief-Catcher in 1720s.
A. Alexander Macanochie
B. Jonathan Wild
C. Billy Cook
D. John Howard
10. What is the Latin term for criminal intent?
A. Mens Rea
B. Magna Culpa
C. Inflagrante Delicto
D. Mala Vise

Answers:Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation



7. C
8. C
9. B