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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GROUP AND

INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE, PERSONALITY


TYPE AND WELL-BEING
Kassie Legate
Danielle Kunkel
Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Corinne Enright
University of Wisconsin-Platteville

BACKGROUND

Correlational and interventional studies (reviewed by Grant,


Wardle and Steptoe 2009), have consistently shown that
increased levels of physical activity benefit psychological wellbeing and life satisfaction.
Extroversion has been found to be strongly related to participation
in sports and the desire for competition within sports and games
(Chen, Wang, & Cheng, 2007).
Recreational sports enthusiasts scored higher in extroversion
than non-athlete controls (Davis & Mogk, 1994). The same effect
was not found for elite athletes. Davis and Mogk suggest that elite
athletes particularly in individual sports may not evidence higher
extroversion because of the long hours of solitary and repetitive
training that is required for successful competition.

HYPOTHESES

Higher levels of physical activity will be associated with


higher levels of well-being.
Introverts will report less participation in physical activity
than will extroverts.
Extroverts will show a preference for group and
organized physical activity, such as a school team or
community organized team, while introverts will show a
preference for informal and individual sports.
Higher levels of physical activity will be more strongly
related to psychological well being for extroverts
(particularly those participating in team sports) than for
introverts because participation serves a social as well
as physical need for extroverts.

PARTICIPANTS
Students recruited from the General Psychology courses
offered at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville
There were a total of 208 students in our study with a
mean age of 19, although their ages ranged from 18 to
39
57% were male, 43% were female
60% of the participants currently participate in sports or
had within the past year

MATERIALS

Physical Activity, Healthy Habits, and General Questions


Assessment questionnaire, which was created by the principle
investigators. It is comprised of various questions to measure
general participant characteristics, their level of physical activity,
and their health-related habits
Ryff's Scale of Psychological Well-Being, which is an 18 item
scale that measures multiple facets of psychological well-being
including self-acceptance, positive relations with others,
autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal
growth
Eysenck's Personality
Inventory(Extroversion/Introversion),which measures personality
characteristics through two scores. The 'E score' measures
extroversion, while the 'N score' measures neuroticism.

DESIGN

2 (Personality: introvert vs. extrovert) X 2 (Sports team


vs. individual preference) X 2 (Sex male vs. female)
ANOVA used to analyze the relation between
Personality, Type of Sport participation, and measures of
Psychological Well Being for males and females

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS


Consistent with Grant et al.s research, participants who
reported working out regularly indicated higher Well-Being
scores (M = 72.79, S = 6.58) compared to those who did not
work out regularly (M = 67.90, S = 10.21; t (185) = 3.94, p <
.001); (F (1, 185) = 3.94, p < .001).
Astoundingly, in our present findings, we discovered that
males are more likely to participate in sports than females
(Chi-square (1) = 5.34, p = .021).

Table 1
Percentage of Male and Female Participants in Team and Individual
Sports
Team

Individual

Total

Males

80.5%

19.4%

56.8%

Females

76.5%

23.5%

29.8%

Total

78.5%

22.8%

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS CONT

We also found that males who participated in individual


sports (M = 75.54, S = 6.29) had higher well-being
scores than those who participated in team sports (M =
70.62, S = 8.25); F (1, 66) = 4.04, p = .048, eta squared
= .06).
For females the differences in Well-Being scores
between individual and team participants approached
significance (F (1, 40) = 3.74, p = .06, eta squared =
.086).
The direction of the differences was opposite than was
found for malesfemales who participated in team
sports reported higher well-being (M = 73.63, S = 6.93)
than those who participated in individual (M = 66.73, p =
15.03).

TABLE 2
Sports Participants and Well-Being Scores
Team

Individual

Males

70.62
(8.25)

75.54
(6.29)

Females

73.26
(6.93)

66.73
(15.03)

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION CONT


Inconsistent with our expectations, there was no
difference in well-being between participants who
reported participating in sports within the past six
months to those who did not.
Also inconsistent with our expectations, and
contrary to Chen et al., there was no relationship
between introversion and extroversion scores and
preference for individual or team sports.
There was also no difference between sports
participants and non-sports participants in relation
to their extraversion/introversion scores.

Table 3
Introversion/Extraversion and Well-Being scores for Male and Female
Sports Participants and Non-Participants
Participants

Non-Participants

Males
Intro/Extra

11.32
(2.03)

11.48
(1.80)

Well Being

71.63
(8.04)

69.55
(7.25)

Intro/Extra

11.70
(2.27)

11.60
(2.08)

Well Being

71.63
(9.83)

71.26
(7.49)

Females

LIMITATIONS

Many of our surveys were not fully completed due to a photocopying


error.
Our population consisted mostly of freshman students who only had
the opportunity to base their experiences from high school, where
opportunities for team sports are primarily available.
Very few females who competed in sports participated in our study.
Few participants were in individual sports or had even participated in a
sport.

FURTHER RESEARCH
Recruit more people who participated in individual
sports
Recruit a wider age range of participants
Recruit more female participants
Further analyze specification or types of working
out

REFERENCES

Davis, C. & Mogk, J. (1994). Some personality correlates of interest and excellence in sports. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 25, 131-143.

Eime, R. M., Harvey, J. T., Sawyer, N. A., Craike, M. J. Symmons, C. M., Polman, R. C. J., & Payne. W. R. (2013). Understanding the contexts of
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Eysenck's Personality Inventory (EPI) (Extroversion/Introversion). Heinemann Educational Publishers. (2004).

Grant, N., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2009). The relationship between life satisfaction and health behavior: A cross-cultural analysis of young adults.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 259-268. doi:10.1007/s12529-009-9032

Hauser, R., Pudrovska, T., & Springer, K. (2005). Socioeconomic status, health, and psychological well-being: Findings from the Wisconsin
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Monaghan, S. (2012, August 3). High School Sports Participation Achieves All-time High. National Federation of State High School Associations.
Retrieved from http://www.nfhs.org/content.aspx?id=7495

Scheier, M. F. (Composer). (1985). Life orientation test. [Web Article]. Retrieved from
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The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF (2013). Retrieved from
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