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A TraditionalUnit Model

Enlightenment & Revolution

Avery Harrison
Education 315
12/13/2012

Table of Contents
Unit Objective.pg 3
Standardspg 4-5
Mini-unitspg 6-8
Entry Levels needed for successpg 9-18
Instructional phase.pg 19-66
Summative phasepg 66-83
Bibliography.pg 84

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I.

Unit Objective and Sub-objectives


Given opportunities to explore different aspects of the Enlightenment and 18th-19th
century Revolutions, a teacher-developed test, historical journals, group work and a
timeline, upon competition of a two week unit, ninth grade Social Studies students will
present the revolutionary ideas of the Enlightenment, and the political and social changes
to Europe and America..
1. Outline key characteristics of the Enlightenment and how the new ideas from this
movement influenced the American and French Revolutions. (knowledge level)
2. Describe main events, people, and ideologies of the Enlightenment and Revolution.
(comprehensive level)
3. Demonstrate the events and people from the Enlightenment in Europe and America as
well as the two revolutions that brought change to the political, economical, and social
aspects of society. (application level)
4. Analyze the changes in government, empire/state boundaries, and society after the two
wars were resolved.(analysis level)
5. Present a historical scrapbook of the American and French Revolution in chronological
order including major ideas, themes, events, and people. (synthesis level)

Knowledge:
Identify key terms and vocabulary relating to the Enlightenment and Revolutions
The student will recognize key historical figures who brought new changes in France and
America
Identify how philosophes influenced Enlightenment despots.
Recognize how the new Constitution reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment.
Describe the social structure of the Old Regime
Define the new ideas brought forth by the Enlightenment
Know the different types of government that emerged from this era

Comprehension:
Interpret John Lockes, Montesquieu, Thomas Hobbes, Mary Wollstonecraft, and JeanJacques Rousseaus writings and their influences in political thought
Explain the different social classes in industrialized Europe
Explain why Louis XVI called the Estates General
Infer how nationalism from the lower classes brought changes in the country
Describe the causes of the French and American Revolutions
Summarize how the Enlightenment affected the arts and literature

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Application:
Illustrate the expansion of the Napoleonic Empire
Summarize why Parisians stormed the Bastille
Use maps and primary documents to show the changes in French society
Report Locke, Montesquieu, Hobbes, Voltaire, and Rousseau spread of ideological thoughts
Analysis:
Compare the differences of the American and French Revolutions
Distinguish the structure of French and American society (social, political, etc.)
Investigate how Tale of Two Cities illustrates French society during the Revolution
Compare and Contrast French under Napoleon and after his reign
Synthesis:
Compose chronological information and events from the French and American society
Imagine how different politics, economics, and society would be without this era

Aligning National and State Standards


National Standards
National Standards for History, National Center for History in the Schools Basic Edition,
1996. 60-70,
Standards in Historical Thinking
Standard 1: The student thinks chronologically
Standard 2: The students comprehends a variety of historically sources
Standard 3: The student engages in historical analysis and interpretation
Standard 4: The student conducts historical research
Standard 5: The student engages in historical issues-analysis and decision-making

Era 7 World History:


STANDARD 1
The causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Standard 1A
The student understands how the French Revolution contributed to transformations of Europe
and the world.
7-12 Analyze how the Seven Years War, Enlightenment thought, the American Revolution, and
growing internal economic crisis affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France.
[Analyze multiple causation].
5-12 Compare the causes, character, and consequences of the American and French Revolutions.
[Compare and contrast differing movements, institutions, and ideas]

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7-12 Explain how the French Revolution developed from constitutional monarchy to democratic
despotism to the Napoleonic Empire. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and
duration]
5-12 Analyze leading ideas of the revolution concerning social equality, democracy, human
rights, constitutionalism, and nationalism and asses the importance of these ideas for democratic
thought and institutions in the 20th century. [Interrogate historical data]
7-12 Explain how the revolution affected French society, including religious institutions, social
relations, education, marriage, family life, and the legal and political position of women.
[Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Alabama Standards
Social Studies, Alabama Course of Study, Grade 9, Alabama State Department of
Education, 2004.

Social Studies (2004)


Grade(s): 9
World History: 1500 to present

Social Studies (2004)


Grade(s): 9
World History: 1500 to present

6.) Identify significant idea and achievements


of scientists and philosophers of the Scientific
Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment.
Examples:
Age of Enlightenment: philosophies
of Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau
7.) Describe the impact of the French
Revolution on Europe, including political
evolution, social evolution, and diffusion of
nationalism and liberalism.

Identifying causes of the French


Revolution
Describing the influence of American
Revolution upon the French Revolution
Identifying objectives of different
groups participating in the French
Revolution
Describing the role of Napolean as
Empire builder.

Arranging Sub-objectives in Mini-Units


Mini-unit 1: The Enlightenment Spreads
1. Outline key characteristics of the Enlightenment and how the new ideas from this
movement influenced the American and French Revolutions.
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Mini-unit 2: One the Rise of Revolution


2. Describe main events, people, and ideologies of the Enlightenment and Revolution.
Mini-unit 3: Radical Days and Need For Change
3. Demonstrate the events and people from the Enlightenment in Europe and America as
well as the two revolutions that brought change to the political, economical, and
social aspects of society.
Mini-unit 4: The Age of Napoleon
4. Analyze the changes in government, empire/state boundaries, and society after the
two wars were resolved.
Mini-unit 5: The End of an Era
5. Present a historical scrapbook of the American and French Revolution in
chronological order including major ideas, themes, events, and people.

The first mini-unit provides the historical background before and leading up to this
period. Students will be introduced to the structure of French society and some problems that
derived from their social system. The students are introduced to some of the ideologies and
Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the structure of American and French society. It helps
students start making connections to the influences of history around the world. They will be put
in five groups and research five different Enlightenment thinkers and record their findings.
The second mini-unit introduces the rise of new thoughts and the beginning of the lack
of support from the people to the government in America and in France. It includes two
webquests from the American and French Revolutions. Students will describe the rise of
nationalism from Enlightenment thinkers as well as the tensions between citizens and
government during this time period.
The third mini-unit challenges the students to think cognitively by comparing the cause
and effect of the French and American revolutions. It expands thought to a worldview and in
chronological order, so students can see what events were occurring around the same time in
history. The Declaration of Independence and Declaration of the Rights of Man will be
compared.
The fourth mini-unit illustrates and distinguishes the change Napoleonic government
brought after the collapse of the Old Regime in France. Students will view maps and political
cartoons from Europe and America to show the political and physical changes.
The fifth mini-unit will have students composing their knowledge from this time era into
a historical journal. They will be assigned into small groups to gather, collect, and display
information as well as propose how they saw society in France or in America. It will present
changes that occurred before, during, and after the Enlightenment and Revolutions.

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Structured Overview of the Unit

The
Enlightenment
Spreads

Age of Reason
philosophes
salon

End of an
Era

Enlightenment &
Revolution

The Age of
Napoleon

On the Rise
of
Revolution
Old Regime

Radical Days
and Need for

Change

American and
French
Revolution

Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette

Patriots

Bastille Day

ES

Congress of Vienna
Treaty of Paris

Napoleon
Bonaparte
The Grand
Empire

Declaration of
Independence

When the teacher begins the Enlightenment and Revolution unit, he/she will go over the timeline
on the bulletin board (see Section III: Pre-Instructional Activities) and explain how the structured
overview fall in chronological order. The teacher will also show this organizer at beginning/end
of the 5 mini-units to demonstrate what students have learned so that students can visually see
what knowledge they have obtained.

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Table of Content Specifications


Information/Facts:
The Enlightenment was a cultural movement from 1650-1800 in Western Europe and North
America that sought to discover natural laws and apply them to social, political, and
economic problems.
Some of the most influential philosophes, Enlightenment thinkers and lovers of wisdoms,
were John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Benjamin Franklin, Adam Smith,
and Mary Wollstonecraft.
Salons originated in 1600 and were the center for philosophes, writers, artists, and other
exchanged their ideas.
The American Revolution was fought from 17751783 against British rule in the American
colonies.
John Locke and Thomas Hobbes ideas on natural right and social contract influenced the
framers of the Declaration of Independence of 1776 and representative government.
Montesquieu published The Spirit of the Law in 1748 which introduced the principle of
democracy and separation of powers.
French society was divided into a social class system called the Old Regime which contained
three parts: the First, Second, and Third Estate prior to the French Revolution in 1787.
The French Clergy, who made up the First Estate, owned 10% of all the land and were
minority in the population.
The National Assembly, made up of Third Estate delegates, met in May 1789 on an indoor
tennis court to write a constitution that became known as the Tennis Court Oaths.
The Second Estate was the titled nobility of French society.
The Third Estate, also known as the general population numbered about 27 million people or
98% of population.
The bourgeoisie were in the Third Estate and represented the middleclass.
The storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 was the end of Louis XVIs tyranny and
became the symbol of the French Revolution.
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Napoleon dominated France and spread the French Empire to the Balkans and had allies in
Austria, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia from 1799 to 1815.

Concepts:
Enlightenment
salon
Laissez-faire
constitutional government
nationalism
tyranny
Revolution
Baroque

Tennis Court Oaths


social contract
bourgeoisie
monarchy
Old regime
Democracy
Ideology

Declaration of Independence
natural laws
National Assembly
republic
Bastille
philosophe

Relationships/generalizations:
American government was shaped by the ideals of Enlightenment thinkers such as
democracy, natural laws, and laissez-faire.
The oppressed groups, those without nobility, in France and America met in conventions to
propose a new form of government different from a monarchy.

Processes/procedures:
Planning, organizing, and carrying out historical journals through research, group work, and
class discussion
Formulating a time line
Learn and understand new thoughts of Enlightenment philosophes through group work and
class discussion.
Comparing and contrasting society before and after Revolutions and spread of the
Enlightenment .
II.
Determining Entry Skills
Cognitive:
1. Has studied Pre-Modern Europe in order to make the connection that Revolution brought
change in society economically, socially, and politically.
2. Familiar with the social, political, and economical changes from Medieval and
Reformation Europe and American history.
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Affective:
1. Is willing to share insights and experiences through their journals
2. Able to appreciated the differences in opinions and ideas of individuals throughout
history
3. Accepts responsibility for readings, class work, and group projects
Social:
1. Works in other groups to think critically, plan, organize, and present group projects
2. Respects and tolerates opinions and ideas of classmates and teacher
3. Is actively involved in classroom discussions and group activities
III.

Pre-Instructional Activities

Telling Students What They Will Be Learning:


Several days before the unit, the teacher will create a bulletin board. This will contain a
blank timeline that the class will fill in as they learn about the French and American Revolutions.
It will also contain the title of the unit, unit objective, structured overview, and various pictures
and information of key events and people from the era. To begin the Enlightenment and
Revolution unit, the teacher will explain he/she will assess objective of demonstrating
connections of French and American Revolution and Enlightenment by the unit test and
historical journal projects. The teacher will explain the knowledge and expectations that are
required for the unit. The teacher will then distribute a KWL chart asking what do students know
about revolution/enlightenment, what do they want to know, and what have they learned. All
students will be informed of readings and projects assigned throughout the unit.
Enlightenment and Revolution
Make history come alive through writings of historical journals!

French
Pictures

Structured overview of unit

facts

Giving Students Rationale for the Unit:

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facts
American
Pictures
Due
dates

The teacher will hand out a sheet of paper listing freedoms exercised in America and
France today. He or she will lead a discussion around questions such as: What are some of the
freedoms you cant imagine life without? Do you think citizens have always enjoyed these
freedoms? How do you think these ideas surfaced?
During this discussion, the teacher will be writing some of the answers on the board.
After these thoughts are talked about, the teacher will note that boldness from average citizens to
educated thinkers influenced how many nations have changed and how we came to be the United
States of America. Our many freedoms, government, economy and society evolved from ideas
found in the Enlightenment. It is important to study the works of the philosophes like Hobbes,
Locke, Montesquieu, etcbecause they influenced the birth of democracy which is part of our
nation today. We have our rights and freedoms like freedom of speech because of these ideals.
Just like the oppressed citizens in colonial America and France worked cooperatively, you will
also do many assignments in groups to learn from one another and help create your historical
journals. You will use your historical thinking skills (as supported in the National Standards for
Historical Thinking) to research, discuss, and thinking critically to complete your independent
and group assignments. These skills are something you have to use your whole life whether you
choose to attend college or have a job.
Reviewing Entry Behaviors:
Students will be divided up into groups with roles. The teacher will provide each group
with handouts about 5 different Enlightenment thinkers who influenced both American and
French ideals. Each group is to read the selections from the writings and must create a short
presentation displaying who the author is, when they wrote, who the targeted audience was, what
he or she believed, what ideals they shaped and what the students think they influenced. The
students will write pertinent information on the class timeline, and their visuals will be displayed
in the classroom for referral throughout the unit.
Providing a Structured Overview of the Unit:
The teacher will give the structured overview on a hand out (See Appendix A-1) for a
hard copy of the graphic organizer presented earlier. He/she will also direct attention to the
structured overview on the bulletin board. The 5 mini-units will be explained and the teacher will
answer any questions or concerns about the activities and assessments students will take part in
over the next 10 days. The teacher will distribute a note packet containing information necessary
to this unit plan (See Appendix A-2). Students are encouraged to keep the packet in their
notebooks to use and refer back to daily. The teacher will also hand out the guidelines for the
historical journals that are to be turned in at the end of the unit after the test. (Appendix A-3)
The teacher will also help outline dates and events to provide parameters for later when
students construct the timeline of events during this period which can be used as a visual tool for
the students projects. It will be covered during the unit test, but it will serve to display events in
chronological order and to make connections.
Building in Experiential Background:
The students will have many opportunities to have hands-on experience for constructing
their journals with many primary documents from the Enlightenment and Revolution Era. The
students will be placed in small groups where they will be assigned projects of historical figures
to present to the class. Students will also read different works from philosophes and read A Tale
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of Two Cities to give insight into the people of the time. Showing videos and pictures about the
French and American Revolution. Listening to music from the Les Miserables soundtrack which
was written about this era. Show maps of the two continents before and after the wars.

Reassuring Students:
The teacher will explain to students that the handouts, rubric, schedule of assignments,
and class work will help guide them to complete assignments to the best of their ability as well as
know what is expected. He/she will give confidence that students will be able to handle this unit
by modeling examples of students work from previous units and years as well as stating they
have excelled thus far. Foreshadowing how influential the era this unit is on to future history
classes will provide optimism. The teacher will also remind students that they have acquired
many of the skills needed for the projects and test and know the context of the era. The student
may face challenges throughout the unit, but the teacher will be available before and after school
to help students.

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Appendix A
Resources for Pre-Instructional Phase
A-1: Structured Overview of Enlightenment and Revolution Unit
A-2 KWL chart for notebook
A-3:guidelines for historic journals
A-4: key vocabulary terms

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Name: ___________________

Social Studies 9

Unit 3: Enlightenment & Revolution Overview


Hello historians! We are beginning a unit describing the various events and ideals from
the Enlightenment and American and French Revolution period (1600-1800). Here you
will find the structured overview of our unit which you may refer back to as we progress
further into history.
The
Enlightenment
Spreads

Age of Reason
philosophes
salon

End of an
Era

Enlightenment &
Revolution

The Age of
Napoleon

On the Rise
of
Revolution
Old Regime

Radical Days
and Need for

Change

American and
French
Revolution

Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette

Patriots

Bastille Day

ES

Congress of Vienna
Treaty of Paris

Napoleon
Bonaparte
The Grand
Empire

Declaration of
Independence

This unit contains five mini-units (blue ovals above) and will last about 11 days. Throughout the 2 weeks
of this unit, you will be researching and collecting data for a historic journal which you will complete,
turn in, and present at the end of 11 days. At the end of the unit, you will also be given a unit test covering
all the material of this unit.
Mini-unit: The Enlightenment Spreads- provides you with the context for the historic journals as you
learn about historical figures and begin to read Tale of Two Cities. (2 days)
Mini-unit 2: On the Rise of Revolution- gives background information that lead to the coming
Revolutions in France and America (3 days)
Mini-unit 3: Radical Days and Need for Change- provides you with contextual information of the civil
unrest felt with the emergence of the enlightened ideals. (3 days)
Mini-unit 4: The Age of Napoleon- demonstrates the changing political boundaries and power of France
which impacted the political, social, and economic aspects of society around the whole world. (1 days)
Mini-unit 5: The End of an Era- gives you the recap the ending of the Enlightenment era and
opportunity to make history and the changes socially, politically, and economically come alive by

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presenting your findings in your historic journals as well as demonstrate your critical thinking through a
unit test. (2 days)
The following assignments will be due on these dates :
Oct. 16- Quiz on Book the First of Tale of Two Cities
Oct 23- Map Quiz of Napoleon Empire
Oct. 26- unit test
Oct 27- complete historic journals are due
Oct 29- 2-3 minute presentation of historic journals

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Name:_________________
Unit 2 KWL chart

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Name:________________________

Enlightenment and Revolution


Historic Journals
Throughout this unit, we will be exploring many different classes of people in the United States and
France. Our class has just stumbled upon some fragmented, primary documents that help piece
together the thoughts, emotions, and actions of the people during this era. It is our job to take on
this role and recreate the missing pieces. Let your imagination run wild (and historically accurate!)
Historic roles:
American farmer
French peasant-(Third Estate)
American merchant
French student- (bourgeoisie)
American patriot
French nobility- (Second Estate)
Guidelines:
keep track of specific terms and historical figures that coincide with your role
create a scrapbook, journal, magazine, or newspaper article to display your information
create a story about the role you assume:
o name, family, location, education, experiences during the era.
end the journals by 1800.
a 2-3 minute presentation on your story.
You will be given a rubric and more specific instruction at the end of mini-unit #2 to assist you
in your research and project.

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Vocabulary for Unit:


natural law (p. 144)
social contract (p. 145)
natural right (p. 145)
philosophe (p. 145)
physiocrat (p. 148)
laissez faire (p. 148)
censorship (p. 149)
salon (p. 149)
enlightened despot(p. 150)
baroque(p. 151)
rococo(p. 151)
constitutional government(p. 155)
cabinet(p. 156)
prime minister(p. 156)
oligarchy (p. 156)
popular sovereignty (p. 159)
loyalist (p. 160)
federal republic(p. 161)
bourgeoisie (p. 167)
deficit spending(p. 168)
republic (p. 175)
suffrage(p. 176)
nationalism(p. 181)
secular(p. 182)
plebiscite(p. 183)
annex(p. 184)
blockade(p. 185)
guerrilla warfare(p. 187)
abdicate(p. 188)
legitimacy (p. 191)

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2012

Enlightenment & Revolution

Avery Harrison
Education 315
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12/13/2012

INSTRUCTIONAL PHASE
Mini-unit #1: The Enlightenment Spreads
6. Outline key characteristics of the Enlightenment and how the new ideas from this
movement influenced the American and French Revolutions.
a. The student will recognize key historical figures (writers and artists) who
brought new changes in France and America.

Directed teaching:
1. The teacher will use the structured overview of the unit to orient students to the first
mini-unit which is about the spread of Enlightenment into French and American political,
economic and social aspects of society. The teacher presents new vocabulary and
concepts in a PowerPoint presentation and lecture including salon, philosophe, Age of
Reason, natural law, baroque art, and key historical figures.
2. Teacher shows a short video of background information surrounding the Enlightenment,
and follows the video with a discussion of material students have been previously
assigned to read (pp. 144-153) and information provided through the watching the video.
Some of the questions include:
a. What is another name for the Enlightenment? Why do you think it is named this?
b. What are philosophes? What were the places they met to exchange ideas called?
c. How did these ideas challenge the Old Regime and monarchy?
d. What new things emerged from the Enlightenment?
e. Who are some of the most influential thinkers of this time?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Vkx7hNXE3Y
3. The different works and views of key Enlightenment thinkers will be examined by the
class through reading primary documents.
Guided Practice:
1. Teacher divides the class into 5 small, cooperative learning groups. Teacher then
distributes handouts with 5 different works from 5 different Enlightenment thinkers and
asks the students to read to themselves and as a group. The teacher will ask them to
answer the questions attached to the handouts.
2. Teacher asks class to write down five facts about the Enlightenment from the lecture,
video, or handouts. He or she calls upon each group
3. Teacher will encourage debate by asking questions about the 5 prominent thinkers. Some
of the questions may include but are not limited to:
a. Who do you see as the most influential in American society? in French society?
b. What would the world look like without these thinkers?
c. Was the old age of thinking or new age of thinking more influential?

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Independent Practice:
1. The teacher assigns reading Book the First for Tale of Two Cities and each student will
be responsible for reading assigned chapters and completing question packet that assesses
their reading. (Appendix B)
2. Students will be asked to recall previous knowledge on the old way of thinking. They will
answer questions and reflect in a journal that will be later used for the unit project.
3. Each student will be handed with a world map and will be asked to color and identify
where different Enlightenment thinkers were, so they can see where how vast the spread
of this new way of thinking was.
Formative Evaluation:
1. The teacher will quiz the students over reading Book the First of Tale of Two Cities to
assess the comprehension of their readings and how it relates to this time period.
a. grading criteria: Each correct answer is worth 1 point. Mastery in 13/15. To
receive full credit students must correctly answer and identify the multiple choice
questions pertaining to the novel. (Appendix B)
2. The teacher will grade the five groups on their poster presentation of their Enlightenment
thinker using a rubric.
a. grading criteria: rubric graded on a scale of 1-4 with one being needs
improvement and 4 being mastering the content. (Appendix B)
Differentiating Instruction

Re-teaching Activities
1. Students will create a timeline of the rise of Enlightenment as a class using materials
provided by the teacher. The groups they have been working in will each write an event on
the master timeline.
2. In small, cooperative learning groups, students will create a poster/visual presentation about
the works and lives of their assigned Enlightenment thinker and present their information to
the class.

Extension Activities
1. Vertical extension: students who excel can research information about salons in the
1700s. They would create an invitation on who they would invite and what they would
discuss and explain their rationale.
2. Horizontal extension: Students may select a philosophe and create a role-play in which
they would act out how the nations responded to their philosophe
Accommodations and Modifications:
1. Students who are visually or auditory impaired may have their seats moved up near the
front in order to see and hear student presentation, teacher lecture presentation, and the
Enlightenment video.

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2. Students with a specific learning disability may be provided with concept charts that
depict the main topics, may listen to the information instead of reading, and may type up
journal reflections instead of writing.

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Appendix B
B-1: Map of Enlightenment Thinkers
B-2
B-3 John Locke excerpt
B-4 Mary Wollstonecraft excerpt
B-5 Thomas Hobbes exercpt
B-6 Montesquieu excerpt
B-7 Rousseau excerpt
B-8 Rubric for group work
B-8 Quiz on Book the First
B-9 Answer key to quiz

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Name: _________________________________
Directions:

Date: _________

Based on the information from lectures, shade in and clearly label the countries
where Jean-Jacque Rousseau, Baron de Montesqieu, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Mary
Wollstonecraft resided during most of their lifetime. If two or more thinkers are from the same
region, shade in the same color but write their name in a different color. Then, answer the
question below.

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Excerpts from John Locke, Second Treatise on Government (1690)


CHAP. II.: Of the State of Nature.
Sec. 6. . . .The state of nature has a law of nature
to govern it, which obliges every one: and
reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind,
who will but consult it, that being all equal and
independent, no one ought to harm another in
his life, health, liberty, or possessions: for men
being all the workmanship of one omnipotent,
and infinitely wise maker; all the servants of one
sovereign master, sent into the world by his
order, and about his business; they are his
property, whose workmanship they are, made to
last during his, not one another's pleasure: and
being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in
one community of nature, there cannot be
supposed any such subordination among us, that
may authorize us to destroy one another, as if
we were made for one another's uses, as the
inferior ranks of creatures are for our's. Every
one, as he is bound to preserve himself, and not
to quit his station wilfully, so by the like reason,
when his own preservation comes not in
competition, ought he, as much as he can, to
preserve the rest of mankind, and may not,
unless it be to do justice on an offender, take
away, or impair the life, or what tends to the
preservation of the life, the liberty, health, limb,
or goods of another.
Sec. 8. . . . In transgressing the law of nature,
the offender declares himself to live by another
rule than that of reason and common equity,
which is that measure God has set to the actions
of men, for their mutual security; and so he
becomes dangerous to mankind, the tye, which
is to secure them from injury and violence,
being slighted and broken by him. Which being
a trespass against the whole species, and the
peace and safety of it, provided for by the law of
nature, every man upon this score, by the right
he hath to preserve mankind in general, may
restrain, or where it is necessary, destroy things
noxious to them, and so may bring such evil on any one, who hath transgressed that law, as may
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make him repent the doing of it, and thereby


deter him, and by his example others, from
doing the like mischief. And in the case, and
upon this ground, EVERY MAN HATH A
RIGHT TO PUNISH THE OFFENDER, AND
BE EXECUTIONER OF THE LAW OF
NATURE.
CHAP. IX. : Of the Ends of Political Society and Government.
Sec. 123. IF man in the state of nature be so
free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of
his own person and possessions, equal to the
greatest, and subject to no body, why will he
part with his freedom? why will he give up this
empire, and subject himself to the dominion and
controul of any other power? To which it is
obvious to answer, that though in the state of
nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of
it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to
the invasion of others: for all being kings as
much as he, every man his equal, and the greater
part no strict observers of equity and justice, the
enjoyment of the property he has in this state is
very unsafe, very unsecure. This makes him
willing to quit a condition, which, however free,
is full of fears and continual dangers: and it is
not without reason, that he seeks out, and is
willing to join in society with others, who are
already united, or have a mind to unite, for the
mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and
estates, which I call by the general name,
property.

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Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
1792
Excerpts from the Original Electronic Text based on the Everyman Library edition.

Wollstonecraft followed the early events of the French Revolution with great interest, and
in 1790 she published a book in support of it (and critical of Edmund Burke). Two years
later she published this, her most famous work, applying to women the liberal ideas of the
French revolutionaries. Most of her contemporaries found her book too radical, especially
when revelations of her private life allowed them to dismiss her as immoral and irrational.
Decades later, however, people turned to her ideas for inspiration and explanation. Thus A
Vindication of the Rights of Woman marks the beginning of the woman's rights movement
that ultimately led to modern feminism.
This excerpt is from the book's introduction and dedication. Talleyrand, to whom
Wollstonecraft dedicated her book, was among those revolutionaries demanding equality
for all French citizens. He is most famous for his later life as a wily diplomat in the
Napoleonic era. {1}After considering the historic page, and viewing the living world with anxious solicitude, the
most melancholy emotions of sorrowful indignation have depressed my spirits. . . . I have turned
over various books written on the subject of education, and patiently observed the conduct of
parents and the management of schools; but what has been the result?--a profound conviction
that the neglected education of my fellow-creatures is the grand source of the misery I deplore,
and that women, in particular, are rendered weak and wretched by a variety of concurring causes,
originating from one hasty conclusion. The conduct and manners of women, in fact, evidently
prove that their minds are not in a healthy state; for, like the flowers which are planted in too rich
a soil, strength and usefulness are sacrificed to beauty; and the flaunting leaves, after having
pleased a fastidious eye, fade, disregarded on the stalk, long before the season when they ought
to have arrived at maturity. One cause of this barren blooming I attribute to a false system of
education, gathered from the books written on this subject by men who, considering females
rather as women than human creatures, have been more anxious to make them alluring
mistresses than affectionate wives and rational mothers; and the understanding of the sex has
been so hobbled by this specious homage, that the civilised women of the present century, with a
few exceptions, are only anxious to inspire love, when they ought to cherish a nobler ambition,
and by their abilities and virtues exact respect. . . .
{2}Because I am a woman, I would not lead my readers to suppose that I mean violently to
agitate the contested question respecting the quality or inferiority of the sex; but as the subject
lies in my way, and I cannot pass it over without subjecting the main tendency of my reasoning
to misconstruction, I shall stop a moment to deliver, in a few words, my opinion. In the
government of the physical world it is observable that the female in point of strength is, in
general, inferior to the male. This is the law of Nature; and it does not appear to be suspended or
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abrogated in favour of woman. A degree of physical superiority cannot, therefore, be denied, and
it is a noble prerogative! But not content with this natural preeminence, men endeavour to sink
us still lower, merely to render us alluring objects for a moment; and women, intoxicated by the
adoration which men, under the influence of their senses, pay them, do not seek to obtain a
durable interest in their hearts, or to become the friends of the fellow-creatures who find
amusement in their society. . . .
{3}My own sex, I hope, will excuse me, if I treat them like rational creatures, instead of
flattering their fascinating graces, and viewing them as if they were in a state of perpetual
childhood, unable to stand alone. I earnestly wish to point out in what true dignity and human
happiness consists. I wish to persuade women to endeavour to acquire strength, both of mind and
body, and to convince them that the soft phrases, susceptibility of heart, delicacy of sentiment,
and refinement of taste, are almost synonymous with epithets of weakness, and that those beings
who are only the objects of pity, and that kind of love which has been termed its sister, will soon
become objects of contempt.
{4}Dismissing, then, those pretty feminine phrases, which the men condescendingly use to
soften our slavish dependence, and despising that weak elegancy of mind, exquisite sensibility,
and sweet docility of manners, supposed to be the sexual characteristics of the weaker vessel, I
wish to show that elegance is inferior to virtue, that the first object of laudable ambition is to
obtain a character as a hurnan being, regardless of the distinction of sex. . . .
{5}If, then, it can be fairly deduced from the present conduct of the sex, from the prevalent
fondness for pleasure which takes place of ambition and those nobler passions that open and
enlarge the soul, that the instruction which women have hitherto received has only tended, with
the constitution of civil society, to render them insignificant objects of desire -- mere propagators
of fools! -- if it can be proved that in aiming to accomplish them, without cultivating their
understandings, they are taken out of their sphere of duties, and made ridiculous and useless
when the short-lived bloom of beauty is over, I presume that rational men will excuse me for
endeavouring to persuade them to become more masculine and respectable.
{6}Indeed the word masculine is only a bugbear; there is little reason to fear that women will
acquire too much courage or fortitude. . .
{7}Women are, in fact, so much degraded by mistaken notions of female excellence, that I do
not mean to add a paradox when I assert that this artificial weakness produces a propensity to
tyrannise, and gives birth to cunning, the natural opponent of strength, which leads them to play
off those contemptible infantine airs that undermine esteem even whilst they excite desire. Let
men become more chaste and modest, and if women do not grow wiser in the same ratio, it will
be clear that they have weaker understandings. It seems scarcely necessary to say that I now
speak of the sex in general. Many individuals have more sense than their male relatives; and, as
nothing preponderates where there is a constant struggle for an equilibrium without it has
naturally more gravity, some women govern their husbands without degrading themselves,
because intellect will always govern.

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**********
TO
M. TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD
Late Bishop of Autun
{8}Pardon my frankness, but I must observe, that you treated [the subject of women's rights] in
too cursory a manner, contented to consider it as it had been considered formerly, when the
rights of man, not to advert to woman, were trampled on as chimerical--I call upon you,
therefore, now to weigh what I have advanced respecting the rights of woman and national
education. . . .
{9}It is then an affection for the whole human race that . . . leads me earnestly to wish to see
woman placed in a station in which she would advance, instead of retarding, the progress of
those glorious principles that give a substance to morality. My opinion, indeed, respecting the
rights and duties of woman seems to flow so naturally from these simple principles, that I think it
scarcely possible but that some of the enlarged minds who formed your admirable constitution
will coincide with me. . . .
{10}Contending for the rights of woman, my main argument is built on this simple principle,
that if she be not prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the
progress of knowledge and virtue; for truth must be common to all, or it will be inefficacious
with respect to its influence on general practice. And how can woman be expected to co-operate
unless she knows why she ought to be virtuous? unless freedom strengthens her reason till she
comprehends her duty, and see in what manner it is connected with her real good. If children are
to be educated to understand the true principle of patriotism, their mother must be a patriot; and
the love of mankind, from which an orderly train of virtues spring, can only be produced by
considering the moral and civil interest of mankind; but the education and situation of woman at
present shuts her out from such investigations. . . .
{11}Consider, sir, dispassionately these observations, for a glimpse of this truth seemed to open
before you when you observed, "that to see one-half of the human race excluded by the other
from all participation of government was a political phenomenon that, according to abstract
principles, it was impossible to explain." If so, on what does your constitution rest? If the
abstract rights of man will bear discussion and explanation, those of woman, by a parity of
reasoning, will not shrink from the same test; though a different opinion prevails in this country,
built on the very arguments which you use to justify the oppression of woman--prescription.
{12}Consider--I address you as a legislator--whether, when men contend for their freedom, and
to be allowed to judge for themselves respecting their own happiness, it be not inconsistent and
unjust to subjugate women, even though you firmly believe that you are acting in the manner
best calculated to promote their happiness ? Who made man the exclusive judge, if woman
partake with him of the gift of reason?

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{13}In this style argue tyrants of every denomination, from the weak king to the weak father of a
family; they are all eager to crush reason, yet always assert that they usurp its throne only to be
useful. Do you not act a similar part when you force all women, by denying them civil and
political rights, to remain immured in their families groping in the dark? for surely, sir, you will
not assert that a duty can be binding which is not founded on reason? If, indeed, this be their
destination, arguments may be drawn from reason; and thus augustly supported, the more
understanding women acquire, the more they will be attached to their duty--comprehending it-for unless they comprehend it, unless their morals be fixed on the same immutable principle as
those of man, no authority can make them discharge it in a virtuous manner. They may be
convenient slaves, but slavery will have its constant effect, degrading the master and the abject
dependent.
{14}But if women are to be excluded, without having a voice, from a participation of the natural
rights of mankind, prove first, to ward off the charge of injustice and inconsistency, that they
want reason, else this flaw in your NEW CONSTITUTION will ever show that man must, in
some shape, act like a tyrant, and tyranny, in whatever part of society it rears its brazen front,
will ever undermine morality. . . .
{15}The box of mischief thus opened in society, what is to preserve private virtue, the only
security of public freedom and universal happiness? . . .
{16}But, till men become attentive to the duty of a father, it is vain to expect women to spend
that time in their nursery which they, "wise in their generation," choose to spend at their glass;
for this exertion of cunning is only an instinct of nature to enable them to obtain indirectly a little
of that power of which they are unjustly denied a share; for, if women are not permitted to enjoy
legitimate rights, they will render both men and themselves vicious to obtain illicit privileges.
{17}I wish, sir, to set some investigations of this kind afloat in France; and should they lead to a
confirmation of my principles when your constitution is revised, the Rights of Woman may be
respected, if it be fully proved that reason calls for this respect, and loudly demands JUSTICE
for one-half of the human race.

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Thomas Hobbes
Chapter XIV Of the First and Second Natural Laws, and of Contracts
THE RIGHT of Nature, which writers commonly call jus natural, is the liberty each man hath to
use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature, that is to say, of his
own life; and consequently of doing anything which in his own judgment and reason he shall
conceive to be the aptest means thereunto. 1
By liberty is understood, according to the proper signification of the word, the absence of
external impediments; which impediments may oft take away part of a mans power to do what he
would, but cannot hinder him from using the power left him according as his judgment and reason
shall dictate to him.
2
A law of Nature, lex naturalis, is a precept or general rule found out by reason by which a man is
forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life or takes away the means of preserving the
same, and to omit that by which he thinks it may be best preserved. For, though they that speak of
this subject use to confound jus and lex, right and law, yet they ought to be distinguished;
because right consists in liberty to do or to forbear, whereas law determines and binds to one of
them; so that law and right differ as much as obligation and liberty; which in one and the same
matter are inconsistent.
3
And because the condition of man, as hath been declared in the precedent chapter, is a condition of
war of every one against every one, in which case every one is governed by his own reason, and
there is nothing he can make use of that may not be a help unto him in preserving his life against
his enemies, it follows that in such a condition every man has a right to everything, even to one
anothers body. And therefore, as long as this natural right of every man to everything endures,
there can be no security to any man, how strong or wise soever he be, of living out the time which
Nature ordinarily allows men to live. And consequently it is a precept or general rule of reason
that every man ought to endeavor peace as far as he has hope of obtaining it, and, when he cannot
obtain it, that he may seek and use all helps and advantages of war. The first branch of which rule
contains the first and fundamental law of Nature, which is, to seek peace, and follow it. The
second, the sum of the right of Nature, which is, by all means we can, to defend ourselves.
4
From this fundamental law of Nature, by which men are commanded to endeavor peace, is derived
this second law, that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far-forth as for peace and
defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things, and be contented
with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself. For as long
as every man holds this right of doing anything he likes, so long are all men in the condition of
war. But if other men will not lay down their right as well as he, then there is no reason for any one
to divest himself of his; for that were to expose himself to prey, which no man is bound to, rather
than to dispose himself to peace. This is that law of the Gospel: whatsoever you require that
others should do to you, that do ye to them. And that law of all men, quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri
ne feceris.
5

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To lay down a mans right to anything is to divest himself of the liberty, of hindering
another of the benefit of his own right to the same. For he that renounces or passes away his right
gives not to any other man a right which he had not before, because there is nothing to which every
man had not right by Nature; but only stands out of his way that he may enjoy his own original
right without hindrance from him, not without hindrance from another. So that the effect which
redounds to one man, by another mans defect of right, is but so much diminution of impediments
to the use of his own right original. 6
Right is laid aside either by simply renouncing it, or by transferring it to another. By simply
renouncing when he cares not to whom the benefit thereof redounds. By transferring, when he
intends the benefit thereof to some certain person or persons. And, when a man hath in either
manner abandoned or granted away his right, then is he said to be obliged or bound not to
hinder those to whom such right is granted or abandoned from the benefit of it; and that he ought,
and it is his duty, not to make void that voluntary act of his own; and that such hindrance is
injustice and injury as being sine jure, the right being before renounced or transferred. So that
injury or injustice, in the controversies of the world, is somewhat like to that which in the
disputations of scholars is called absurdity. For, as it is there called an absurdity to contradict
what one maintained in the beginning, so in the world it is called injustice and injury voluntarily to
undo that from the beginning he had voluntarily done. The way by which a man either simply
renounces or transfers his right is a declaration or signification, by some voluntary and sufficient
sign or signs, that he doth so renounce or transfer, or hath so renounced or transferred, the same, to
him that accepts it. And these signs are either words only or actions only, or, as it happens most
often, both words and actions. And the same are the bonds by which men are bound and obliged:
bonds that have their strength not from their own nature, for nothing is more easily broken than a
mans word, but from fear of some evil consequence upon the rupture.
7
Whensoever a man transfers his right or renounces it, it is either in consideration of some right
reciprocally transferred to himself, or for some other good he hopes for thereby. For it is a
voluntary act; and of the voluntary acts of every man the object is some good to himself. And
therefore there be some rights which no man can be understood by any words or other signs to
have abandoned or transferred. As first a man cannot lay down the right of resisting them that
assault him by force to take away his life, because he cannot be understood to aim thereby at any
good to himself. The same may be said of wounds, and chains, and imprisonment, both because
there is no benefit consequent to such patience, as there is to the patience of suffering another to be
wounded or imprisoned, as also because a man cannot tell when he sees men proceed against him
by violence whether they intend his death or not. And lastly the motive and end for which this
renouncing and transferring of right is introduced is nothing else but the security of a mans person
in his life and in the means of so preserving life as not to be weary of it. And therefore, if a man by
words or other signs seem to despoil himself of the end for which those signs were intended, he is
not to be understood as if he meant it or that it was his will, but that he was ignorant of how such
words and actions were to be interpreted.
8
The mutual transferring of right is that which men call contract.

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Modern History Sourcebook:


Montesquieu:
The Spirit of the Laws, 1748
Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (16891755), was a nobleman, a judge in a French court, and one of the
most influential political thinkers. Based on his research he developed a number of political theories presented in The
Spirit of the Laws (1748).
This treatise presented numerous theories - among the most important was respect for the role of history and
climate in shaping a nation's political structure.
It was for his views on the English Constitution, which he saw in an overly idealized way, that he is perhaps most
renowned.
In every government there are three sorts of power; the legislative; the executive, in respect to things dependent on
the law of nations; and the executive, in regard to things that depend on the civil law.
By virtue of the first, the prince or magistrate enacts temporary or perpetual laws, and amends or abrogates those
that have been already enacted. By the second, he makes peace or war, sends or receives embassies; establishes
the public security, and provides against invasions. By the third, he punishes criminals, or determines the disputes
that arise between individuals. The latter we shall call the judiciary power, and the other simply the executive power
of the state.
The political liberty of the subject is a tranquillity of mind, arising from the opinion each person has of his safety. In
order to have this liberty, it is requisite the government be so constituted as one man need not be afraid of` another.
When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there
can be no liberty; because apprehensions may anse, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws,
to execute them in a tyrannical manner.
Again, there is no liberty, if the power of judging be not separated from the legislative and executive powers. Were it
joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control, for the judge
would then be the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with all the violence of
an oppressor.
There would be an end of every thing were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people
to exercise those three powers that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and that of judging the
crimes or differences of individuals.
Most kingdoms in Europe enjoy a moderate government, because the prince, who is invested with the two first
powers, leaves the third to his subjects. In Turkey, where these three powers are united in the sultan's person the
subjects groan under the weight of a most frightful oppression.
In the republics of Italy, where these three powers are united, there is less liberty than in our monarchies. Hence
their government is obliged to have recourse to as violent methods for its support, as even that of the Turks witness
the state inquisitors, and the lion's mouth into which every informer may at all hours throw his written accusations.
What a situation must the poor subject be in, under those republics! The same body of magistrates are possessed, as
executors of the laws, of the whole power they have given themselves in quality of legislators. They may plunder the
state by their general determinations; and as they have likewise the judiciary power in their hands, every private
citizen may be ruined by their particular decisions.

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The whole power is here united in one body; and though there is no external pomp that indicates a despotic sway,
yet the people feel the effects of it every moment.
Hence it is that many of the princes of Europe, whose aim has been levelled at arbitrary power, have constantly set
out with uniting in their own persons, all the branches of magistracy, and all the great offices of state.
The executive power ought to be in the hands of a monarch; because this branch of government, which has always
need of expedition, is better administered by one than by many: Whereas, whatever depends on the legislative
power, is oftentimes better regulated by many than by a single person.
But if there was no monarch, and the executive power was committed to a certain number of persons selected from
the legislative body, there would be an end then of liberty; by reason the two powers would be united, as the same
persons would actually sometimes have, and would moreover be always able to have, a share in both.
Were the legislative body to be a considerable time without meeting, this would likewise put an end to liberty. For
one of these two things would naturally follow; either that there would be no longer any legislative resolutions, and
then the state would fall into anarchy; or that these resolutions would be taken by the executive power, which would
render it absolute.
It would be needless for the legislative body to continue always assembled. This would be troublesome to the
representatives, and moreover would cut out too much work for the executive power, so as to take off its attention
from executing, and oblige it to think only of defending its own prerogatives, and the right it has to execute.
Again, were the legislative body to be always assembled, it might happen to be kept up only by filling the places of
the deceased members with new representatives; and in that case, if the legislative body was once corrupted, the
evil would be past all remedy. When different legislative bodies succeed one another, the people who have a bad
opinion of that which is actually sitting, may reasonably entertain some hopes of the next: But were it to be always
the same body, the people, upon seeing it once corrupted, would no longer expect any good from its laws; and of
course they would either become desperate, or fall into a state of indolence.
The legislative body should not assemble of itself. For a body is supposed to have no will but when it is assembled;
and besides, were it not to assemble unanimously, it would be impossible to determine which was really the
legislative body, the part assembled, or the other. And if it had a right to prorogue itself, it might happen never to be
prorogued; which would be extremely dangerous, in case it should ever attempt to encroach on the executive power.
Besides, there are seasons, some of which are more proper than others, for assembling the legislative body: It is fit
therefore that the executive power should regulate the time of convening, as well as the duration of those
assemblies, according to the circumstances and exigencies of state known to itself.
Were the executive power not to have a right of putting a stop to the encroachments of the legislative body, the
latter would become despotic; for as it might arrogate to itself what authority it pleased, it would soon destroy all the
other powers.
But it is not proper, on the other hand, that the legislative power should have a right to stop the executive. For as
the execution has its natural limits, it is useless to confine it; besides, the executive power is generally employed in
momentary operations. The power therefore of the Roman tribunes was faulty, as it put a stop not only to the
legislation, but likewise to the execution itself; which was attended with infinite mischiefs.
But if the legislative power in a free government ought to have no right to stop the executive, it has a right, and
ought to have the means of examining in what manner its laws have been executed; an advantage which this
government has over that of Crete and Sparta, where the Cosmi and the Ephori gave no account of their
administration.
But whatever may be the issue of that examination, the legislative body ought not to have a power of judging the
person, nor of course the conduct of him who is intrusted with the executive power. His person should be sacred,
because as it is necessary for the good of the state to prevent the legislative body from rendering themselves
arbitrary, the moment he is accused or tried, there is an end of liberty.

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To prevent the executive power from being able to oppress, it is requisite, that the armies, with which it is intrusted,
should consist of` the people, and have the same spirit as the people, as was the case at Rome, till the time of
Marius. To obtain this end, there are only two ways, either that the persons employed in the army, should have
sufficient property to answer for their conduct to their fellow subjects, and be enlisted only for a year, as customary
at Rome: Or if there should be a standing army, composed chiefly of the most despicable part of the nation, the
legislative power should have a right to disband them as soon as it pleased; the soldiers should live in common with
the rest of the people; and no separate camp, barracks, or fortress, should be suffered .
When once an army is established, it ought not to depend immediately on the legislative, but on the executive
power, and this from the very nature of` the thing; its business consisting more in action than in deliberation.
From a manner of thinking that prevails amongst mankind, they set a higher value upon courage than timorousness,
on activity than prudence, on strength than counsel. Hence, the army will ever despise a senate, and respect their
own officers. I hey will naturally slight the orders sent them by a body of` men, whom they look upon as cowards,
and therefore unworthy to command them. So that as soon as the army depends on the legislative body, the
government becomes a military one; and if the contrary has ever happened, it has been owing to some extraordinary
circumstances. It is because the army was always kept divided; it is because it was composed of several bodies, that
depended each on their particular province; it is because the capital towns were strong places, defended by their
natural situation, and not garrisoned with regular troops. Holland, for instance, is still safer than Venice; she might
drown, or starve the revolted troops; for as they are not quartered in towns capable of furnishing them with
necessary subsistence, this subsistence is of course precarious.
Whoever shall read the admirable treatise of Tacitus on the manners of the Germans, will find that it is from them
the English have borrowed the idea of their political government. This beautiful system was invented first in the
woods.
As all human things have an end, the state we are speaking of will lose its liberty, it will perish. Have not Rome,
Sparta, and Carthage perished? It will perish when the legislative power shall be more corrupted than the executive.
It is not my business to examine whether the English actually enjoy this liberty, or not. It is sufficient for my purpose
to observe, that it is established by their laws; and I inquire no further.
Neither do I pretend by this to undervalue other governments, not to say that this extreme political liberty ought to
give uneasiness to those who have only a moderate share of it. How should I have any such design, I who think that
even the excess of reason is not always desirable, and that mankind generally find their account better in mediums
than in extremes?
From Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, vol. 1, trans. Thomas Nugent (London: J. Nourse, 1777), pp. 221-237,
passim.

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Jean Jacques Rousseau


The Social Contract
(1762)
Excerpts from the Original Electronic Text at the web site of The Constitution Society.

SUBJECT OF THE FIRST BOOK


{1}MAN is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others,
and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know.
What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer.
THE FIRST SOCIETIES
{2}THE most ancient of all societies, and the only one that is natural, is the family: and even so
the children remain attached to the father only so long as they need him for their preservation. As
soon as this need ceases, the natural bond is dissolved. The children, released from the obedience
they owed to the father, and the father, released from the care he owed his children, return
equally to independence. If they remain united, they continue so no longer naturally, but
voluntarily; and the family itself is then maintained only by convention.
{3}This common liberty results from the nature of man. His first law is to provide for his own
preservation, his first cares are those which he owes to himself; and, as soon as he reaches years
of discretion, he is the sole judge of the proper means of preserving himself, and consequently
becomes his own master.
{4}The family then may be called the first model of political societies: the ruler corresponds to
the father, and the people to the children; and all, being born free and equal, alienate their liberty
only for their own advantage. The whole difference is that, in the family, the love of the father
for his children repays him for the care he takes of them, while, in the State, the pleasure of
commanding takes the place of the love which the chief cannot have for the peoples under him. .
..

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THE RIGHT OF THE STRONGEST


{5}THE strongest is never strong enough to be always the master, unless he transforms strength
into right, and obedience into duty. Hence the right of the strongest, which, though to all seeming
meant ironically, is really laid down as a fundamental principle. But are we never to have an
explanation of this phrase? Force is a physical power, and I fail to see what moral effect it can
have. To yield to force is an act of necessity, not of will at the most, an act of prudence. In
what sense can it be a duty?
{6}. . . . If we must obey perforce, there is no need to obey because we ought; and if we are not
forced to obey, we are under no obligation to do so. Clearly, the word "right" adds nothing to
force: in this connection, it means absolutely nothing.
{7}. . . . All power comes from God, I admit; but so does all sickness: does that mean that we are
forbidden to call in the doctor? A brigand surprises me at the edge of a wood: must I not merely
surrender my purse on compulsion; but, even if I could withhold it, am I in conscience bound to
give it up? For certainly the pistol he holds is also a power.
{8}Let us then admit that force does not create right, and that we are obliged to obey only
legitimate powers. . . .

THE SOCIAL COMPACT


{9}I SUPPOSE men to have reached the point at which the obstacles in the way of their
preservation in the state of nature show their power of resistance to be greater than the resources
at the disposal of each individual for his maintenance in that state. That primitive condition can
then subsist no longer; and the human race would perish unless it changed its manner of
existence.
{10}But, as men cannot engender new forces, but only unite and direct existing ones, they have
no other means of preserving themselves than the formation, by aggregation, of a sum of forces
great enough to overcome the resistance. These they have to bring into play by means of a single
motive power, and cause to act in concert.
{11}This sum of forces can arise only where several persons come together: but, as the force and
liberty of each man are the chief instruments of his self-preservation, how can he pledge them
without harming his own interests, and neglecting the care he owes to himself? This difficulty, in
its bearing on my present subject, may be stated in the following terms:
{12}"The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole
common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself
with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before." This is the fundamental
problem of which the Social Contract provides the solution.

37 | P a g e

{13}The clauses of this contract are so determined by the nature of the act that the slightest
modification would make them vain and ineffective; so that, although they have perhaps never
been formally set forth, they are everywhere the same and everywhere tacitly admitted and
recognised, until, on the violation of the social compact, each regains his original rights and
resumes his natural liberty, while losing the conventional liberty in favour of which he
renounced it.
{14}These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to one the total alienation of each
associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each
gives himself absolutely, the conditions are the same for all; and, this being so, no one has any
interest in making them burdensome to others.
{15}Moreover, the alienation being without reserve, the union is as perfect as it can be, and no
associate has anything more to demand: for, if the individuals retained certain rights, as there
would be no common superior to decide between them and the public, each, being on one point
his own judge, would ask to be so on all; the state of nature would thus continue, and the
association would necessarily become inoperative or tyrannical.
{16}Finally, each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no
associate over whom he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over himself, he gains
an equivalent for everything he loses, and an increase of force for the preservation of what he
has.
{17}If then we discard from the social compact what is not of its essence, we shall find that it
reduces itself to the following terms:
{18}"Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the
general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of
the whole."
{19}At once, in place of the individual personality of each contracting party, this act of
association creates a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the assembly
contains votes, and receiving from this act its unity, its common identity, its life and its will. This
public person, so formed by the union of all other persons . . . [is called] Sovereign when active.

THE CIVIL STATE


{24}THE passage from the state of nature to the civil state produces a very remarkable change in
man, by substituting justice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they
had formerly lacked. Then only, when the voice of duty takes the place of physical impulses and
right of appetite, does man, who so far had considered only himself, find that he is forced to act
on different principles, and to consult his reason before listening to his inclinations. Although, in
this state, he deprives himself of some advantages which he got from nature, he gains in return
others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and developed, his ideas so extended, his feelings
38 | P a g e

so ennobled, and his whole soul so uplifted, that, did not the abuses of this new condition often
degrade him below that which he left, he would be bound to bless continually the happy moment
which took him from it for ever, and, instead of a stupid and unimaginative animal, made him an
intelligent being and a man.
{25}Let us draw up the whole account in terms easily commensurable. What man loses by the
social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to get and
succeeds in getting; what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of all he possesses. If we
are to avoid mistake in weighing one against the other, we must clearly distinguish natural
liberty, which is bounded only by the strength of the individual, from civil liberty, which is
limited by the general will; and possession, which is merely the effect of force or the right of the
first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title.
{26}We might, over and above all this, add, to what man acquires in the civil state, moral
liberty, which alone makes him truly master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is
slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty. But I have already
said too much on this head, and the philosophical meaning of the word liberty does not now
concern us.

THAT SOVEREIGNTY IS INALIENABLE


{27}. . . I hold then that Sovereignty, being nothing less than the exercise of the general will, can
never be alienated, and that the Sovereign, who is no less than a collective being, cannot be
represented except by himself: the power indeed may be transmitted, but not the will.
{28}In reality, if it is not impossible for a particular will to agree on some point with the general
will, it is at least impossible for the agreement to be lasting and constant; for the particular will
tends, by its very nature, to partiality, while the general will tends to equality. It is even more
impossible to have any guarantee of this agreement; for even if it should always exist, it would
be the effect not of art, but of chance. The Sovereign may indeed say: "I now will actually what
this man wills, or at least what he says he wills"; but it cannot say: "What he wills tomorrow, I
too shall will" because it is absurd for the will to bind itself for the future, nor is it incumbent on
any will to consent to anything that is not for the good of the being who wills. If then the people
promises simply to obey, by that very act it dissolves itself and loses what makes it a people; the
moment a master exists, there is no longer a Sovereign, and from that moment the body politic
has ceased to exist.
{29}This does not mean that the commands of the rulers cannot pass for general wills, so long as
the Sovereign, being free to oppose them, offers no opposition. In such a case, universal silence
is taken to imply the consent of the people. This will be explained later on

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Name:__________________________

Date:_________

Tale of Two Cities: Book the First Quiz


I. Character Match: Characters may be used more than once.
1. brings message from Tellson's B
2. wife of the wine-shop owner F
3. compassionate 17-year-old
C
4. King of France
G
5. takes daughter to her father E
6. once imprisoned in Bastille H
7. tells a daughter her father is alive F
8. former servant to a doctor
E
9. King of England
H
10. constantly knitting
F

A. Jarvis Lorry
B. Jerry Cruncher
C. Lucie Manette
D. Dr. Manette
E. Monsieur Defarge
F. Madame Defarge
G. Louis XVI
H. George III

II. Multiple Choice: Choose the BEST answer.


l1.The MAIN problem afflicting the citizens of St. Antoine is
A. disease
C. ignorance
B. poor housing D. hunger
12.Lorry's reply to the message he received on the Dover Road is
A. "See you in Paris." C."Recalled to life.
B. "I've been robbed." D. "Wait at Dover for Mam'selle.
13. When the doctor first sees his daughter, he immediately
A. wants to leave for London C. shows her a pair of shoes he made
B. recognizes her
D. asks if shes the gaoler's daughter
14.The spilled wine in the streets of Saint Antoine symbolizes
A. the coming Revolution C. the desperation of the people
B. spilled blood
D. all of these
15.The secret name used by members of the revolutionary society is
A. Jean-Claude
C. Jacques
B. Pierre
D. Paul

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Mini-Unit #2: On the Rise of Revolution


2. Describe main events, people, and ideologies of the Enlightenment and Revolution
a. Identify key terms and vocabulary relating to the Enlightenment and Revolutions
Directed teaching:
1. The teacher will introduce the structured overview of the mini-unit up to this point and
use a direct approach to teaching. The teacher will use a powerpoint presentation to
describe the tensions between citizens and government and illustrate the formation of
Americas and Frances Declarations. The teacher will also remind students of their Tale
of Two Cities readings.
2. The teacher will play a song from Les Miserables as students enter class to capture
attention. After the song is finished, the teacher will hand out copies of the lyrics to I
Dreamed a Dream. The teacher will explain the Les Miserables is a play by Victor Hugo
that was written after the Enlightenment but shows the struggles people endured during
periods of revolutions in France. Students are encourage to take notes since this would
benefit them on this historical journals.
3. The teacher will introduce the French and American Revolutions as well as the need for
change which was demonstrated by the two important documents. (Appendix C)
Guided Practice:
1. The teacher will assign students to write a short essay in their journals describing how a
character in the novel Tale of Two Cities is being impacted by revolution. The teacher
will model an example.
2. The teacher will arrange the desks into a Socratic seminar setting. He or she will then
guide students in a discussion of what the song I Dream a Dream means. They will be
asked:
What words stand out to you?
What is this person going through?
How would you respond to this song?
Does this apply to your person for your historic journal?
3. The teacher will assign students into pairs and then will lead class into the computer lab
for a webquest over the French Revolution.
Independent Practice:
1. Students will read Book the Second of Tale of Two Cities and will record their opinions
in their historic journals.
2. The students are required to read pages 158-166 in the textbook. They are compare and
contrast their findings from the webquest and their reading from Tale of Two Cities
Formative Evaluation:
1. The students will turn in their webquests at the end of the class period. They will be
graded by a rubric.
grading criteria : the rubric is grade on a scale of 1-4 with 4 being proficient and 1
for need improvement. (Appendix C)
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Differentiating Instruction
Reteaching Activities
1. Students will create a timeline illustrating the events that occurred in America and France
and compare the events.
Extension Activities
1. Vertical extension: students who excel on this mini-unit may create a powerpoint
presentation of research pertaining to the Old Regime. They can compare it to an earlier
type of government studied thus far.
2. Horizontal extension: students can create their own song of a citizen in the Third Estate
during the class. They may type up lyrics and have someone help create a multimedia
artifact.
Accommodations and Modifications:
1. Students may bring in their own technology to type the webquests. They may also bring
in headphones to listen to the song
2. The teacher can differentiate the web quest for students who have a specific learning
disability and move at a slower pace. The teacher can lessen the load of information as
well as extend the deadline a day.

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Appendix C
C-1 I Dreamed a Dream Lyrics
C-2 French Revolution Webquest
C-3 Rubric to Webquest

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I Dreamed a Dream
There was a time when men were kind
When their voices were soft
And their words inviting
There was a time when love was blind
And the world was a song
And the song was exciting
There was a time
Then it all went wrong
I dreamed a dream in times gone by
When hope was high
And life worth living
I dreamed that love would never die
I dreamed that God would be forgiving
Then I was young and unafraid
And dreams were made and used and wasted
There was no ransom to be paid
No song unsung
No wine untasted
But the tigers come at night
With their voices soft as thunder
As they tear your hope apart
And they turn your dream to shame
He slept a summer by my side
He filled my days with endless wonder
He took my childhood in his stride
But he was gone when autumn came
And still I dream he'll come to me
That we'll live the years together
But there are dreams that cannot be
And there are storms we cannot weather
I had a dream my life would be
So different from this hell I'm living
So different now from what it seemed
Now life has killed
The dream I dreamed.

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1. Break into groups of three or four.


2. As a group, research what groups and types of people made up each of the three
estates found in France before the Revolution.
3. After you are familiar with each estate, choose one to examine the events of the
French Revolution through the eyes of.
4. Use the links below to research causes, events, and the various forms of government
that were created duirng the French Revolution. Pay particular attention to how each of
these affected the estate you are a member of.
5. Create a PowerPoint presentation describing your invovlement in different events,
your support of Revolutionary ideas, and how you were affected by the new
governments. You should include at least 3 causes, 3 events, and 3 governments.
6. You will present your PowerPoint to the rest of the class upon completion.

The following links are a great way to get you started, but feel free to use any other
websites you think are helpful.
The sections labeled "Causes of the French Revolution" and "Overview" are especially
helpful:
http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/year8links/frenchrevolution.shtml
Great overview with links to definitions, places, events, and people:
http://faculty.ucc.edu/egh-damerow/french_revolution.htm
These three websites are very detailed, but contain good information on the people of
each estate the causes and events of the French Revolution:
http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html
http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture12a.html
http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture13a.html
The "explore" tab links to a great article about counter-revolutionaries. Also provides
many images for the PowerPoint:
http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/
A VERY detailed outline of the French Revolution:
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/virtual/core4-7.htm
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Group members:____________________________
_________________________________________

Evaluation Rubric
Beginning 1

The estate and Demonstrates little to


no understanding of
how it was
who made up the
affected
selected estate and
how it was affected
by the French
Revolution.

Developing 2

Very Good 3

Exemplary 4

Scor
e

Demonstrates some
understanding of who
made up the selected
estate and how it was
affected by the
French Revolution.

Demonstrates good
understanding of who
made up the selected
estate and how it was
affected by the
French Revolution.

Demonstrates
%25
excellent
understanding of who
made up the selected
estate and how it was
affected by the French
Revolution.

Causes

Does not describe or


address any of the
causes of the French
Revolution.

Describes or
addresses ONE of the
causes of the French
Revolution.

Describes or
addresses TWO of
the causes of the
French Revolution.

Describes or addresses %25


THREE of the causes
of the French
Revolution.

Events

Does not describe or


address any of the
events of the French
Revolution.

Describes or
addresses ONE of the
events of the French
Revolution.

Describes or
addresses TWO of
the events of the
French Revolution.

Describes or addresses %25


THREE of the events
of the French
Revolution.

Governments Does not describe or


address any of the
governments of the
French Revolution.

Describes or
addresses ONE of the
governments of the
French Revolution.

Describes or
addresses TWO of
the governments of
the French
Revolution.

Describes or addresses %25


TWO of the
Ggovernments of the
French Revolution.

Total Score: %100

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Mini-unit #3: Radical Days and Need for Change


6. Demonstrate the events and people from the Enlightenment in Europe and America as
well as the two revolutions that brought change to the political, economical, and social
aspects of society.
a. Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the
Rights of Man
b. Summarize why Parisians stormed the Bastille
Directed Teaching
1. The teacher will introduced the structured overview for this mini-unit and use a direct
approach to teaching. The teacher will use a powerpoint presentation to explain the
radical days of France and the American Revolution.
2. The teacher will play a documentary clip of the storming of the Bastille and will lead the
class into a discussion. The discussion will be centered around Americas Independence
Day (July 4) and Frances Independence Day (July 14). Questions will include =
Guided Practice:
1. The teacher will assign students into cooperative learning groups and have them write a
role-play. They will take on the role of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI and act out their
decisions and actions under the Old Regime. Students will present their skit to the class.
2. The teacher will lead students in a discussion of the significance of Bastille Day. They
will be asked to compare and contrast Americas Independence Day to Bastille Day.
Independent Practice:
1. Each student will have their own Venn Diagram and copies of the Declaration of
Independence and Declaration of the Rights of man which the teacher has handed out.
(Appendix D).
2. Students will write in journals about living France during the Old Regime and
participating in the storming of the Bastille. They will be asked:
What events lead to the Bastille Day? Why was there so much tension?
What would it feel like to be a peasant during this time?
What do you predict the French citizens will do for government without a monarchy?
Formative Evaluation:
1. Students work on their Venn Diagram and turn in at the beginning of Mini-unit 4
grading criteria: students will be graded for completion as well as correct key
information. 8/10 is mastery. (Appendix D)
Differentiating Instruction
Re-teaching activities
1. Students will take on the role of an American patriot and write a letter to a friend in
France. The student will describe events happening in America during this time period.
48 | P a g e

Extensions:
1. vertical extensions: students who excel on the material in this mini-unit can create their
own country and government if they were facing revolution. They have to make a type of
declaration or constitution and explain their reasoning for choosing the goals of
government.
2. horizontal extension: Students can create an artifact about their own Independce Day
traditions. They can create powerpoint or write an essay of what freedoms they enjoy and
how being under the British monarch or French Old Regime would limit the freedoms
enjoyed today.

Appendix D
D-1: Venn Diagram
D-2 Declaration on the Rights of Man
D-3 Declaration of Independence

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Name:_________________________________ Date:______________ Period:___________

Declaration of Independence

Declaration on the Rights of Man


Both

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Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (August


1789)
The Representatives of the French people, organized
in National Assembly, considering that ignorance,
forgetfulness, or contempt of the rights of man are the
sole causes of public miseries and the corruption of
governments, have resolved to set forth in a solemn
declaration the natural, inalienable, and sacred rights
of man, so that this declaration, being ever present to
all the members of the social body, may unceasingly
remind them of their rights and duties; in order that
the acts of the legislative power, and those of the
executive power, may at each moment be compared
with the aim and of every political institution and
thereby may be more respected; and in order that the
demands of the citizens, grounded henceforth upon
simple and incontestable principles, may always take
the direction of maintaining the constitution and
welfare of all. In consequence, the National
Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme
Being, the following rights of man and citizen:
Articles:
1. Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions can be based
only on public utility.
2. The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and
imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to
oppression.
3. The sources of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation; no body, no individual
can exercise authority that does not proceed from it in plain terms.
4. Liberty consists in the power to do anything that does not injure others; accordingly, the
exercise of the rights of each man has no limits except those that secure the enjoyment of
these same rights to the other members of society. These limits can be determined only by
law.
5. The law has only the rights to forbid such actions as are injurious to society. Nothing can
be forbidden that is not interdicted by the law, and no one can be constrained to do that
which it does not order.
6. Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part
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personally, or by their representatives, and its formation. It must be the same for all,
whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in its eyes, art equally eligible to
all public dignities, places, and employments, according to their capacities, and without
other distinction than that of their virtues and talents.
7. No man can be accused, arrested, or detained, except in the cases determined by the law
and according to the forms it has prescribed. Those who procure, expedite, execute, or
cause arbitrary orders to be executed, ought to be punished: but every citizen summoned
were seized in virtue of the law ought to render instant obedience; he makes himself guilty
by resistance.
8. The law ought only to establish penalties that are strict and obviously necessary, and no
one can be punished except in virtue of a law established and promulgated prior to the
offense and legally applied.
9. Every man being presumed innocent until he has been pronounced guilty, if it is thought
indispensable to arrest him, all severity that may not be necessary to secure his person ought
to be strictly suppressed by law.
10. No one should be disturbed on account of his opinions, even religious, provided their
manifestation does not upset the public order established by law.
11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights
of man; every citizen can then freely speak, write, and print, subject to responsibility for the
abuse of this freedom in the cases is determined by law.
12. The guarantee of the rights of man and citizen requires a public force; this force then is
instituted for the advantage of all and not for the personal benefit of those to whom it is
entrusted.
13. A general tax is indispensable for the maintenance of the public force and for the
expenses of administration; it ought to be equally apportioned among all citizens according
to their means.
14. All the citizens have a right to ascertain, by themselves or by their representatives, the
necessity of the public tax, to consent to it freely, to follow the employment of it, and to
determine the quota, the assessment, the collection, and the duration of it.
15. Society has the right to call for an account of his administration by every public agent.
16. Any society in which the guarantee of the rights is not secured, or the separation of
powers not determined, has no constitution at all.
17. Property being a sacred to and inviolable right, no one can be deprived of it, unless
illegally established public necessity evidently demands it, under the condition of a just and

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prior indemnity.

The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription


IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political
bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the
separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent
respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to
the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their
Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just
powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes
destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to
them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that
Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly
all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than
to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of
abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under
absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide
new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and
such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The
history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless
suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has
utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those
people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them
and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the
depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his
measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions
on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the
Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;
the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and
convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws
for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and

53 | P a g e

raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.


He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing
Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and
payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people,
and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and
unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit
on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an
Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit
instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the
Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for
us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against
us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our
people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death,
desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled
in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their
Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their
Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants
of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our
repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus
marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to
time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to
their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred
to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and
correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must,
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold
the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

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We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress,
Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in
the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare,
That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are
Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them
and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent
States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce,
and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support
of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge
to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor

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Mini-unit #4: The Age of Napoleon


7. Analyze the changes in government, empire/state boundaries, and society after the
two wars were resolved
Directed teaching:
1. The teacher will go over the structured overview of the mini-unit and use a direct
approach to teaching. The teacher will use a PowerPoint presentation to demonstrate
Napoleon Bonapartes rise to power and expansion of the French Empire. The changes in
the boundaries of France and the political, economical, and social changes will be
introduced. The teacher will then use discussion to assess what students know about the
changing empire.
2. The teacher will show a map of the Europe before and at the peak of the Napoleonic
Empire. (See Appendix E)
3. The teacher will show 10 minutes of the video: Napoleons Rise to Power and discuss
how Napoleon came to power. Some questions raised by the teacher will include:
How did Napoleon become involved in French rule when he originally despised
the country?
What made him stand out as a leader?
What were some of Napoleons goals for the French Empire?
What made Napoleon unpopular with the French?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LquhSEdVfK8
Guided Practice:
1. The teacher will have students define and write out the meanings of keywords in their
note packet. (earlier Appendix A)
2. Looking at the map that shows the expansion of the Napoleon Empire, the teacher will
call upon students to identify how the expansion of borders changed the structure of
government, economy, and society.
3. After watching the short video of Napoleon, students will be divided up into two sides:
In favor of Napoleons Empire and Opposed to Napoleons Empire. Students will be
paired with partners who are in favor and who oppose. There will be a class debate which
the teacher will moderate. (Appendix E)
Independent Practice:
1. The students will finish reading Tale of Two Cities and write down the differences of the
Old Regime and Napoleon Empire.
2. Each student will color and identify their maps of the locations where Napoleon
expanded and locate battles he fought using guerilla warfare.
3. The students will be asked how Napoleons reign impacted France and America and will
record their research and opinions for their historical journals which will be completed
for homework.
Formative Evaluation:
1. Students will be asked to identify the expansion of the Napoleon Empire. This will also
be on their unit test (Appendix E)
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Grading criteria: The quiz will be graded with 10 as the highest level of proficiency. For
each are defined correctly, the student will be awarded one point.
2. The students will participate in a debate where they will be either in favor or opposed to
Napoleons rule.
Grading criteria: the students will be graded by peer evaluation. 5 is the highest level of
proficiency. (Appendix E)
Differentiating Instruction

Re-teaching Activities
1. Students will create a timeline of the rise of Napoleons Empire and describe his
challenges and triumphs and a leader. Then as a class, the teacher will locate the dates on
the bulletin board timeline.
2. Students can design a poster of propaganda for support or opposition of Napoleon as
emperor.

Extension Activities
1. Vertical extension: students who excel can research and write a 2-3 page paper about how
ideals from the Enlightenment shaped Napoleons motives as well as the successes and
failures of his reign.
2. Horizontal extension: students may select propaganda from Napoleons Empire reign (in
favor or against) and videotape themselves giving a debate over their assigned opinion.
Accommodations and Modifications:
1. Students who are visually or auditory impaired may have their seats moved up near the
front in order to see and hear student presentation, teacher lecture presentation, and the
Napoleon video.
2. If a student as a speech impairment, they may write or type a short paragraph of being in
favor or against the Napoleonic reign.

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Appendix E
E-1 Map of Napoleon Empire/Key
E-2 Map quiz of Napoleon Empire
E-3 peer evaluation for debate

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Name:______________________

Date:________

Napoleon Empire Map Quiz


Directions: Locate the following places and events on the map:
Waterloo (1815)
French Empire
Austria
Denmark

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Austerlitz (1805)
Prussia
Spain

Trafalgar(1805)
Corsica
Kingdom of Naples

Name:_________________
Date:__________________
Partner:________________________

Debate: Napoleon Reign


1. Your partner was attentive and respectful of your opinion.

______/5
2. Your partner made clear, logical arguments opposing your opinion.

______/5
3. Your partner participated in the class debate

______/5
4. List any comments about your partner:

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Mini-unit #5: The End of An Era


5. Present a historical scrapbook of the American and French Revolution in chronological
order including major ideas, themes, events, and people
a. Compose chronological information and events from the French and American
society
Directed teaching:
1. The teacher will introduce the structured overview of the final mini-unit and use a
direct approach to teaching. The teacher will use a Powerpoint presentation to
describe the end of the Enlightenment and Napoleon Empire.
2.
Guided Practice:
1. The teacher will go over in detail how the students should conclude their historical
journals as the reign of Napoleon concludes. The teacher will lead the class in a
discussion and allow them to collect the final information needed.
2. Students will be placed into small, cooperative groups. They will take on the role of
members of the Congress of Vienna. They will propose their own resolutions and agenda
for balancing power in France. (see Appendix F)
Independent Practice:
1. Students will construct their timeline of events that lead to the downfall of Napoleon
which they will incorporate into their alternate assessment.
2. Students will read pages 182-191 in their textbook and answer questions 11-17 on p. 192.
Formative Evaluation:
1. Students will be graded on their group work over the Congress of Vienna.
Grading criteria: this will be worth a total of 10 points. Students will be graded on
participation and completion of assignment. 8/10 is mastery.
Differentiating Instruction

Re-teaching Activities
1. Students will explain the changes of government of 18th-19th century France and what
brought about those changes.
Extension Activities
1. Vertical extension: Students who have demonstrated a proper understanding of the miniunit will create a powerpoint of the impact of Napoleon on France and the United States./
Accommodations and Modifications:
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1. Each student will be able to access the notes, rubrics, and powerpoints on the school
website, so that they may complete work and use information for their journals at home
on their own time.
2. The teacher will allow students to speak their answers from the textbook assignment if
they have difficulty writing and answering questions.

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Appendix F
F-1: Group Assignment

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Group members:_____________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Congress of Vienna
You are the newest members of the Congress of Vienna! Please answer the following questions
as you write your proposal for a balanced government. Be creative but be realistic!

1. What are the current problems France is facing?

2. What are the goals for the Congress?

3. Should France reinstate a monarch? What is the best form of government and what
philosophe advocated for that belief?

4. What are some challenges you will face once you come plan your goals?

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Post-Instructional Phase
IX. Summative Evaluation
Written Test: The Enlightenment and Revolution traditional unit will be assessed with a
traditional teacher-developed test. The test will be cumulative. Each item on the Table of Content
Specifications for the unit will be assessed, using varied testing formats such as multiple choice,
fill in the blank and short answer.
Rubric Outline:
Multiple Choice: ______/50
Short Answer: ______/ 20
Essay: _________/20
Maps: _________/10
Alternative Assessment
The Enlightenment and Revolution unit will also include an alternative assessment to
challenge the student and ensure they have mastered the application level of knowledge.
Throughout the mini-units, students have been paired in small groups reading information about
people during the Enlightenment and Revolution Era in both the United States and France. They
have also helped construct a timeline to display the order in which these events occurred.
At the beginning of the unit, the teacher has distributed a handout and a rubric clearly
displaying the
The students will have the entire unit to be working on their project. They will be given a form
explaining the process at the beginning of the Enlightenment and Revolution unit (See Appendix.
G)
The historic journals will be 70 points. The teacher will have a rubric that includes the
requirements needed to receive the highest possible credit as well the lowest possible credit.
Students will be given an American or French citizen (of the poor, wealthy, or educated class)
and write a few journal entries about living in the era. They will use the timeline to help with the
chronological flow of ideas.
The students will be graded by a teacher-developed rubric as well as a peer-evaluation form for
the presentation to evaluate the students performance worth 25 points. The students will be
graded based off their professionalism, creativity, and knowledge of their role. (See Appendix G)
The peer evaluation, worth 5 points, will give students the opportunity to give constructive
criticism and encouragement to their peers. They will rate their peers from 1-4 on different
categories and will write down a list of facts that were most appealing to them. Worth 5 Points

66 | P a g e

Appendix G
G-1: Guideline for Alternate Assessment
G-2: Rubric for Alternate Assessment
G-3 Peer evaluation
G-4: Unit Test
G-5: Unit Key

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Enlightenment and Revolution


Historic Journals
Throughout this unit, we will be exploring many different classes of people in the United States and
France. Our class has just stumbled upon some fragmented, primary documents that help piece
together the thoughts, emotions, and actions of the people during this era. It is our job to take on
this role and recreate the missing pieces. Let your imagination run wild (and historically accurate!)
Historic roles:
American farmer
American merchant
American patriot

French peasant
French student
French nobility

Guidelines:
keep track of specific terms and historical figures that coincide with your role
create a scrapbook, journal, magazine, or newspaper article to display your information
create a story about the role you assume:
o name, family, location, education, experiences during the era.
end the journals by 1800.
a 2-3 minute presentation on your story.
You will be given a rubric and more specific instruction at the end of mini-unit #2 to assist you
in your research and project.

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Story Writing : Historical Journals


Student Name:

________________________________________

Title Page

Title page has a


graphic or fancy
lettering, has the title,
author\'s name,
illustrator\'s name,
and the year.

Title page has the


title, author\'s name,
illustrator\'s name,
and the year.

Title page has the 3


of the 4 required
elements.

Title page has fewer


than 3 of the required
elements.

Introduction

First paragraph has a First paragraph has a A catchy beginning


\"grabber\" or catchy weak \"grabber\".
was attempted but
beginning.
was confusing rather
than catchy.

Accuracy of
Facts

All facts presented in Almost all facts


Most facts presented There are several
the story are
presented in the story in the story are
factual errors in the
accurate.
are accurate.
accurate (at least
story.
70%).

Characters

The main characters


are named and
clearly described in
text as well as
pictures. Most
readers could
describe the
characters
accurately.

The main characters


are named and
described. Most
readers would have
some idea of what
the characters looked
like.

The main characters


are named. The
reader knows very
little about the
characters.

It is hard to tell who


the main characters
are.

Focus on
Assigned Topic

The entire story is


related to the
assigned topic and
allows the reader to
understand much
more about the topic.

Most of the story is


related to the
assigned topic. The
story wanders off at
one point, but the
reader can still learn
something about the
topic.

Some of the story is


related to the
assigned topic, but a
reader does not learn
much about the topic.

No attempt has been


made to relate the
story to the assigned
topic.

Organization

The story is very well


organized. One idea
or scene follows
another in a logical
sequence with clear
transitions.

The story is pretty


well organized. One
idea or scene may
seem out of place.
Clear transitions are
used.

The story is a little


Ideas and scenes
hard to follow. The
seem to be randomly
transitions are
arranged.
sometimes not clear.

CATEGORY

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No attempt was
made to catch the
reader\'s attention in
the first paragraph.

Illustrations

Original illustrations
are detailed,
attractive, creative
and relate to the text
on the page.

Original illustrations
are somewhat
detailed, attractive,
and relate to the text
on the page.

Original illustrations
relate to the text on
the page.

Illustrations are not


present OR they are
not original.

Grade: __________/70
Comments:

Grading Scale:
A: 63-70pts
B: 56-62pts
C: 49-54pts
F: 0-48pts

70 | P a g e

Name:_______________________
Peer Evaluation
Use this sheet and the back to write comments and notes over your peers presentation.
Include name, their position, their strengths, their weaknesses and something unique
they contributed to your knowledge.

Student Name & historical role

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Presentation Grade out of 25

Name:______________________________

Date:___________

Unit 2 Test: The Enlightenment & Revolution


Directions: Circle the correct answer
Section 1: The Enlightenment Spreads (2 points each)
_____ 1.The principles of checks and balances and separation of powers were put forward by
A. Mary Wollstonecraft
B. Diderot
C. Montesquieu
D. Rousseau
______2. Government and church officials fought against Enlightenment by:
A. teaching old ideas
B. setting up a new social order
C. burning books
D. making reform illegal
_____3. What was the personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the
Enlightenment in the 1700s?
A. realism
B. baroque
C. rococo
D. finger paint
______4. Philopsophes were the group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply new methods of
science and reason to the improvement of society.
A. True
B. False
______ 5. What did Mary Wollstonecraft advocate during the Enlightenment?
A. women should vote
B. womens duty should be to her family
C. women should be involved in politics
D. women should be writers
______6. Which of the following is true of the physiocrats?
A. They rejected laissez faire in favor of mercantilism.
B. They rejected mercantilism in favor of laissez faire.
C. They rejected both mercantilism and laissez faire.
D. They focused on social reform.

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_____ 7. Who stated, In order to have liberty, it is necessary that the powers of the government be
separated.
A. Montesquieu
B. Ben Franklin
C. Hobbes
D. Locke
_____8. Which of the following is a true statement about European peasants during the

Enlightenment?
a. Their life changed greatly.
b. Most moved to the cities.
c. The Enlightenment had little effect on their life.
d. They acquired material wealth

Match each term with the correct statement below.


a. baroque
d. salon
b. oligarchy
e. social contract
c. laissez faire
____ 9.An agreement by which people give up their natural state for an organized society
____ 10.A policy that allows businesses to operate without government interference
____ 11.A government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people
____ 12.A social gathering in which artists and thinkers exchange ideas
____ 13. A grand and complex artistic style

Section II. On the Rise of Revolution


_____15. Who was the British king that imposed taxes and ruled the American colonies?
A. Louis XVI
B. George I
C. George III
D. James I

_____16. Who were the colonists who supported Britain?


A. Loyalist
B. Patriots
C. Philosophes
D. Bourgeoisie

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_____17. The patriots opposed a ____________ for government and favored ____________ in which the
voices of the people are the foundation.
A. social contract; tyranny
B. monarchy; democracy
C. Estate; republic
D. democracy; monarchy
_____18. What year was the Declaration of Independence founded?
A. 1781
B. 1812
C. 1774
D. 1776
_____19. Who were the bourgeoisie?
A. the middle class of French society
B. the nobility and aristocrats of France
C. peasants
D. French politicians

Short Answer: (20 points, 5 points each)


20. What was the patriots intent for participating in the Boston Tea Party of 1773?

21. Describe the structure of the Old Regime in France.

22. What was the Estates General?

23. What did the National Convention seek to abolish and why?

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Section III. Radical Days and Need for Change (2 points each)
______24. During the Reign of Terror, Robespierre tried to:
A. execute all French nobles
B. restore the Catholic church
C. crush all opposition to the revolution
D. reinstate the monarchy
______25. In 1793, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were
A. returned to the throne
B. exiled to Russia
C. saved from the mob by Lafayette
D. beheaded
______26. The Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of
A. Catherine the Great
B. Thomas Hobbes
C. George III.
D. John Locke
______27. The Declaration of the Rights of Man stated that
A. all men were born free and equal in rights
B. all male citizens had the right to vote
C. male and female citizens were equal before the law
D. all citizens had to pay equal taxes
_____28. What group formed during the Tennis Court Oaths in 1789?
A. Third Estate
B. National Assembly
C. Congress
D. Parliament
_____29. What day did Parisians storm the Bastille?
A. July 4, 1776
B. April 27, 1793
C. June 14, 1789
D. July 14, 1789
_____30. What type of government did the Constitution of 1791 set up?
A. democracy
B. theocracy
C. limited monarchy
D. absolute monarchy

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Section VI. The Age of Napoleon (10 points)


Directions: Label the countries that made up the peak of the Napoleonic Empire.

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Section V. The End of an Era (20 points)


Essay : In a well-developed essay, describe the impact the Enlightenment Era made on
French Society or American society (social, political, physical, etc). Address key
historical figures and vocabulary used throughout this unit. In your conclusion, write in
your opinion how different the world might look without the spread of Enlightenment
and the start of the Revolutions. You may use this paper or use your own sheet of
notebook paper provided by the teacher.
Circle topic: American or French

77 | P a g e

Name:______________________________

Date:___________

Unit 2 Test: The Enlightenment & Revolution

KEY
Directions: Circle the correct answer
Section 1: The Enlightenment Spreads (2 points each)
_____ 1.The principles of checks and balances and separation of powers were put forward by
E. Mary Wollstonecraft
F. Diderot
G. Montesquieu
H. Rousseau
______2. Government and church officials fought against Enlightenment by:
E. teaching old ideas
F. setting up a new social order
G. burning books
H. making reform illegal
_____3. What was the personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the
Enlightenment in the 1700s?
E. realism
F. baroque
G. rococo
H. finger paint
______4. Philopsophes were the group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply new methods of
science and reason to the improvement of society.
C. True
D. False
______ 5. What did Mary Wollstonecraft advocate during the Enlightenment?
E. women should vote
F. womens duty should be to her family
G. women should be involved in politics
H. women should be writers
______6. Which of the following is true of the physiocrats?
E. They rejected laissez faire in favor of mercantilism.
F. They rejected mercantilism in favor of laissez faire.
G. They rejected both mercantilism and laissez faire.
H. They focused on social reform.

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_____ 7. Who stated, In order to have liberty, it is necessary that the powers of the government be
separated.
E. Montesquieu
F. Ben Franklin
G. Hobbes
H. Locke
_____8. Which of the following is a true statement about European peasants during the

Enlightenment?
a. Their life changed greatly.
b. Most moved to the cities.
c. The Enlightenment had little effect on their life.
d. They acquired material wealth

Match each term with the correct statement below.


a. baroque
d. salon
b. oligarchy
e. social contract
c. laissez faire
__c__ 9.An agreement by which people give up their natural state for an organized society
__e__ 10.A policy that allows businesses to operate without government interference
__b_ 11.A government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people
__d__ 12.A social gathering in which artists and thinkers exchange ideas
__a_ 13. A grand and complex artistic style

Section II. On the Rise of Revolution


_____15. Who was the British king that imposed taxes and ruled the American colonies?
E. Louis XVI
F. George I
G. George III
H. James I

_____16. Who were the colonists who supported Britain?


E. Loyalists
F. Patriots
G. Philosophes
H. Bourgeoisie
_____17. The patriots opposed a ____________ for government and favored ____________ in which the
voices of the people are the foundation.
E. social contract; tyranny
79 | P a g e

F. monarchy; democracy
G. Estate; republic
H. democracy; monarchy
_____18. What year was the Declaration of Independence written?
E. 1781
F. 1812
G. 1774
H. 1776
_____19. Who were the bourgeoisie?
E. the middle class of French society
F. the nobility and aristocrats of France
G. peasants
H. French politicians

Short Answer: (20 points, 5 points each)


20. What was the patriots intent for participating in the Boston Tea Party of 1773?
Answers will vary: need to include opposing taxes.

21. Describe the structure of the Old Regime in France.


Answers will vary: need to include Estates

22. What was the Estates General?


Answers will vary: need to include Louis XVI and cahiers of grievances

23. What did the National Convention seek to abolish and why?
needs to include: monarchy, corruption

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Section III. Radical Days and Need for Change (2 points each)
______24. During the Reign of Terror, Robespierre tried to:
E. execute all French nobles
F. restore the Catholic church
G. crush all opposition to the revolution
H. reinstate the monarchy
______25. In 1793, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were
E. returned to the throne
F. exiled to Russia
G. saved from the mob by Lafayette
H. beheaded
______26. The Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of
E. Catherine the Great
F. Thomas Hobbes
G. George III.
H. John Locke
______27. The Declaration of the Rights of Man stated that
E. all men were born free and equal in rights
F. all male citizens had the right to vote
G. male and female citizens were equal before the law
H. all citizens had to pay equal taxes
_____28. What group formed during the Tennis Court Oaths in 1789?
E. Third Estate
F. National Assembly
G. Congress
H. Parliament
_____29. What day did Parisians storm the Bastille?
E. July 4, 1776
F. April 27, 1793
G. June 14, 1789
H. July 14, 1789
_____30. What type of government did the Constitution of 1791 set up?
E. democracy
F. theocracy
G. limited monarchy
H. absolute monarchy

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Section VI. The Age of Napoleon (10 points)


Directions: Label the countries that made up the peak of the Napoleonic Empire.

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Section V. The End of an Era (20 points)


Essay : In a well-developed essay, describe the impact the Enlightenment Era made on
French Society or American society (social, political, physical, etc). Address key
historical figures and vocabulary used throughout this unit. In your conclusion, write in
your opinion how different the world might look without the spread of Enlightenment
and the start of the Revolutions. You may use this paper or use your own sheet of
notebook paper provided by the teacher.
Circle topic: American or French

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Bibliography:
Print sources:
Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. New York, NY: New American Library, Print.1942.
Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynore., Esler, Anthony., Beers Burton F. World History Connections to
Today: Modern Era. Pearson Prentice Hall: 2002. p 164-194.
Declaration of Independence, 1776.
Declaration on the Rights of Man, 1789.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathian,1660.
Locke, John. Second Treatise on Government, 1690.
Montesquieu. The Spirit of the Laws, 1748.
Rosseau, Jean-Jacques, The Social Contract, 1762.
Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication on the Rights of Women, 1792.
Websites:
http://zunal.com/evaluation.php?w=4350
http://www.populationme.com/All/Literature/ATaleOfTwoCitiesStudentPacket.pdf
Maps :
http://www.historyofwar.org/Maps/europe1812.gif

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