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Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.

Gonzalez & Woods


www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

The term morphology refers to the description of the properties of


shape and structure of any objects. Operations of mathematical
morphology were originally defined as operations on sets, but it
soon became clear that they are also useful in the processing tasks
of the set of points in the two-dimensional space. Sets in
mathematical morphology represent objects in the image. It is easy
to see that the set of all background pixels of binary image is one of
the options for a full description.
Mathematical morphology is used to extract some properties of the
image, useful for its presentation and descriptions. For example,
contours, skeletons and convex hulls. Also morphological methods
are used in the preliminary and final image processing. For
example, morphological filtering, thickening or thinning.
19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Reflection and translation

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Basic Operations: union, intersection, complement, difference


Input Images
B

C =AB

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

C =A B

C = Ac

C = A\B

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Structural Element
The input data for the mathematical
morphology are the two images: the
processed image and a structural
element.
Typically, a structural element is much
smaller than the processed. The shape of
the structured element can be arbitrary,
as long as it can be represented as a
binary image of a given size.

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

The structural element, S, is applied to all pixels of binary image.


Every time the origin of the structural element is combined with a
single binary pixel, the entire structural element is wrapped and
subsequent alteration of the corresponding pixels of binary image.
The results of logical addition is written into the output binary image,
which was originally initialized to zero.

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Erosion
For erosion, the structural element passes through all pixels of the
image. The pixel corresponds to the reference of the structure element
is turned on if the entire structure element falls with foreground area
(pixels).

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Erosion examples

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Erosion examples
Image (486486) eroded using
squared structured element of
size 1111, 1515, 4545,

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Dilation example

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Hit-or-Miss Transformation

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Boundary Extraction

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

Hole Filling

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods

Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed.


Gonzalez & Woods
www.ImageProcessingPlace.com

Chapter 9

Morphological Image Processing

19922008 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods