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Cities 175 1972-73. Superesistcnce: Life and Death 213 1974-78. Supersimple: Elementary Architecture 228 Superstudio: Biographies 229 Superstudio: Exhibitions and Bibliography . Superarchitecture: to the Rescue! 1969-71. Monuments.11 Only Architecture Will Be O u r Lives Peter Lung and \Y/ill~ar~ Menkiig 31 Suicidal Desires Peter Long 53 The Revolt of the Object ~vrllifl~>r r~Ier1kir1g 65 Memories of Superstudio Cristiarro k r a l d o d i Frarrcia 73 A House of Calm Serenity Adolfo Na~alini 79 Journey to the End of Architecture Piero Frassirrelli 84 Reflected Architecture Superstudio: Historic Projects 95 119 1 9 6 6 6 8 . Superprojects: Objects.

Peter b n g Only Architecture Will Be Our Lives a ~ i dI V ~ l l t a mMenk~ng 111 thore years i t becarrrc uery clear that 10 contirrue t o dcsigr~ fiirrrrrr~re. pyrarrrids. . the errors ofnrarr arrd the bestiality of architecture. nrrtlhirs. those activities ofdesigrr adopting perhaps the theory ofrrrinirrral force i n a ~ e r r e m"process l of rrdrrctiorl".. t o order arrd abouc a l l t o affirtrr hrrrrrarrityi capacityfor acting accordir~gl o reasorr. suffic~entspace to explore ~ndlv~dual groups or speclfic actlons In greater deta~l'Though the many e ~ h ~ b ~ t l and o n sdustrated catalogues have done a respectable 1: .i: fi 11 . t o put thir~gs I I !Ij frrture irr w h i c l ~a l l arcl~itec~ure tuill be created w i t h a s i r ~ ~oct.r ruhich have irrdrrced rrran t o build dolrrrens.ob~ecrsarrd similar household decorariotrs ruas rro solutiorr t o problnrrs of liuirrg arrd 1101 euerr t o those of life. arrd cue12 less could i t serue t o save one's otun soul. I :: 11 .I $ ~ For those w l ~ o like .ever. ourrelues. are conuirrced that arcl~itecturcis one ofthefew wags t o realize cosrrric order on earth.. ho\r. I t becarrre clear that rro beautrfication or c o s ~ ~ ~ e~rui ce r entfficiio7t t o rerrredy the darlrage of tinre. The Corrfirruous Morrunrenr: Atr Arrhirec~ural Model for Total Urbanrzation. 196Y I J 5 I:. SUPERSTUDIO.ronl most g r a p h ~ caspects of these 1960s protagonists to today's pub11c The collect~veshows lack. it is a "rrroderate utopia" t o frrragirre a riear In . The oroblern therefore was that o f irrcreasirr~delac/~rrrenl frorrz . . le I frorrr a srrigle desrgn capable o f c l a r r ~ r n gonce arrd for a l l the rrrotiue. and bstly t o trnce (ultirrra ratio) n luhrre line rn the desert.

Part I features the nvo curators' essays exanlining SUPEIUTUDIO'S history within the Florentine context ("Suicidal Desires". Each group challenged and eventuallv cia. While it's evident upon examining the material presented here that their most renowned images describe the momentous steps in thc group's philosophical development. Since none of these takes place in the distant past. is whether the recent 1960s' revival emerging in the schools and in some of the more progressive of.' Scant little ning of the new millennium. 196G68: S U I ' E W ~ C ~ ~ I C C I U ~to 2. however. creating a monument to end all monuments. was deliberately intended to strip architecture of everything except its most naked living truth. 'l'he timing for this revived interest in the 1960s' counter-culture is not that arbitrary either: we are again at a point where the convergence of technology and consumeristn. 1972-73: SUI'ERexlsle~lce: Life and Death 4. and includes the retrospective testimonials and critical reflections from three of S U I ~ E I ~ T U Dnlembers: IO'S Adolfo Natalini. in its current socalled free market state is spinning steadily out of control: the small percentage of the global population still able to command evocative images. Part I1 is divided into the following four chapters: E the Rescue! 1. William Menking). though their current identities are not always transparently linked to their epic endeavours of youth. Roberto Maeris.$ P fices goes beyond mere fashion trends. 1969-71: SUI'Ellproj~ctr:Objects. Cities 3. For this reason we have decided to initiate an operation of recovery.' H A definitive and momentous transformation took place in the design and architectural environment by the late 1960s: the increasingly debilitating crisis in Modernist architecture would find some of its most laconic last acts played out on the drawing boards :. O n e of the most unexpected conclusions we as curators can draw from our invo~vementwith SUI'ERSTUDIO is just how conscious the group was from the outset of the historical importance of its investigations: SUPElUTUDlO maintains an impressive archive that from the start nieticulously docutnents the unfolding process of its critical research. ~reciselvhere in Florence. N o better moment. Cristiano Toraldo di Francia and Piero Frassinelli.that are far less familiar but entirely necessary in providing a more complete understanding of the group's oeuvre. Peter Lang). the series beginning in 1969 titled The Conlinuor~sMonumen~. their conscious withdrawal from the perverse system based on the con~mercialisationof popular demand. restituting in the process those projects and writings -critical texts and storyboards . Monuo1cnts. and an essay on s u ~ e ~ u r u ~ rpenultimate o's moment on the larger international sccne ("The Revolt of the Object". This publication has therefore been planncd and organizcd to seme as a portable reference focusing primarily on s u ~ e n s r u ~ r o ' s critical writings i ~ relation r to their better-known body of designs and architecture. Piero Frassinelli and Alessandro Magris were sewed to indoctrinate society into an irrelevant culture of con- rators were trusted with their time and given open access to their remaining collection of projects and library.12 iI job of d ~ s s e m l n a t l nand ~ consequently revlvlng the works of a predoni~nanrlvEuropean Rdd~calarchttecture movement over the last the world's apparently boundless resources is now having to fight to retain that dubious right. then. 1974-78: s u ~ > e ~ i ~ n Elementary ple: Architecture In Part I1 each chapter engages in a specific historical moment and providcs related documentation on SUI~E~STUDIO'S theoretical and '1 L 1 '1 ! 1 $: ! 1. to turn back the pages of history to that previous era when a similarly ample crisis ripped through rhe world economies: welcome to Italy in the understanding SUPEIISTUDIO'S provenance and the group's relationship to the many cultural currents evolving through the European avant-garde in the 1960s. 1 2 This publication is structured into two basic parts. s u l m STUDIO'S renouncement of architecture. these inlages can only partly convey the complete historical passage.i p 4 $: 13 4 . most of the original protagonists are still very active on the scene.spread its glacially translucent grid structures throughout entire regions of the planet enveloping buildings and entire cities. While clearly a thirty-year hiatus suggests a certain amount of aging many of the principal actors remain highIv enereetic and active in the field while their works remain tucked we are ironically trawling into a new kind of pop-~rpculture! What remains to be seen. And just as Italy's cconomic miracle mary materials from this period are simply hard to come by: This is particularly unfortunate for SUI'BKIUDIO who seem to have acquired the role as the Radical movement's cover-child.

The Radical bind between the groups does not necessarily imply that there were common denominators linking one to another. While this publication is nor intended to become a catalogue raisonnk on the works of SUI>ERSTUDIO. In- to Corretti.. another Radical player active at the time in Florence. This introductory essay will navigate through some of the peak episodes that mark SUPERSTUDIO'S architectural pro- the catchall phrase used to regroup the variety of tendencies that have aspired to shake off the liegemonic grip of modernist archius tecture in the 1960s. and local cultural wrangling. neodadism. misreading. whose works result from far deeper frustrations characterizing the profession in Europe. Radical architecture is an a m b i g ~ ~ omultive.. Here every atteliipt has been made to pair significant texts and storyboards to their corresponding architectural projects. we believe. it has been conceived as a work of consultation and reflection. Austria and Italy. albeit with continental distinctions. iconoclasm. Paolo Deganello and Massimo Morozzi chose the des- his exhibition manifesto. . conceptual architecture. was asked by the Jolly gallery in Pistoia to mount a second show of his paintings in November 1966. insists on giving the movelnent a more sinuously fluid radiance. one of the founding members of Archizoom. we the scenes.ere several contradictory positions regarding the role of ilrchitecrurc and design -let alone radical politics. nomadism. eclecticism. while devoting considerably less time to the msny provincial accents buried in the chaos of translation.In umbrella definition for the Radical architecture movement therefore remains. storyboards and photos. T h e weakness in establishing . lent term that suggests different and clearly contrasting meanings. encounters and exhibitions.ithin Florentine circle of visionary architects there \\. gave this impression on the breadth of Radical movement: "Today the term 'Radical' architecture assembles at the international level all of the eccentric experimentation with regard to the straight line of the profession: counterdesign. in the often-contradictory positions held by these distinctive activist groups. writing in 1973. the story of just how the two groups were founded is tied as much to circumstances as it was to a prescient vision.'" In effect.! practical responses. as clearly those who saw themselves as neodadists were not necessarily willing to also act as nomadisrs. Pettena's panoramic view of the movement correctly depicts the international exchanges. weaving the 111g o r ~ o ~experiments ir of the Californian Radicals to the more self-conscious language emerging in England. Finally Emilio Ambasz's conception for T h e Neru Dorncrtic Lorzdrcope makes the point that even \\. The goal is to publish the group's niost significant projects along with a related collection of images and their accompanying writings. primitive technologies.'' circle in the early 1960s. Andrea Branzi. Branzi's intent was to underscore just how insidiously the work of such a diverse num14 ber of subversive credos were penetrating the 1960s' mainstream The quickest link between the two groups SUPERSTUDIO and coming out of a particularly Florentine phenomenon that could."' Gianni Pettena. through publications.

The making and shaping of these objects were consistently related to bricolage techniques.. a "Machine for Vacations". using technology as an interface medium for architecture." describing the unfolding relationship benveen natural and artificial environments. a work that he himself has qualified as a work benveen "pop and the monumental". Fmssinelli's university research combined anthropology with architecture. Piero Frassinelli joined SUPERSI'UDIO in early April 1968. the unsuspecting user \vould find him or herself bccoming part of the critical process of the design. and as such producers of designs and objects that would be over-loaded with symbolism and poetic content. already developed as a form office. in that they attempted to create more than a semblance of a legitimate practice. and "tecnomorphic architecture". They were "super-operators". Andrea Bran28 and Masslmo Morozz." From these preliminary three categories developed the first major critical project proposed by SUPERSTUDIO:the Journey info theRea11n ojReason. From Kahn. SuPERSTuDIO laboured to establish three categories for future research: the "architecture of the monument". an illustrated storyboard created to serve as "maps for orientation . SUPERSTUDIO really only appears in some kind of recognizable form some time after the second show in Modena. The architecture of the image provoked an extensive visual experimentation into techniques and appliques.'~oraldodi Franciak thesis presented in 1968. Natalini immersed himself in the history of monuments.. adding his experience in working within the industrial design field. As SUPERSTUDIO'S designs confounded the sense of scale and objective significance. the Arno river overran its banks. while all the while seeking to enzlsperate the per" charged actions. influenced him to study Louis Kahn. The "super" code of conduct required that homes and offices of a prospecrive well-off clientele. it would take roughly a year for Adolfo Natalini and Cristi:mo Toraldo di Francia to collectively gather their forces to give a philosophical foundation to SUPERSTUDIO. or adaptations from outside industries. 2 6 progressive visions on man and his relation to the built environment. . The storyboard narrative. O n 4 November. such as . cinema and dada. pop art. In 1967 Roberto Magris entered the Bellosguardo office.December 196G Adolo Nalalnl. represented a dialectical investigation into technology and the evolving social realm.16 first date would have turned out to be catastrophic. lagging a bit behind Archizoom. such as collage. the "architecture of the image". assemblies from exisring manufactured productions. who knew of a place to rent on high ground. later developed with greater refinement in the competition for the Fortezza da Basso completed in 1967. This pictorial exege- /1 1 P~sloia. Shortly aftenvards they founded together the first SupERSTuDlo office at Via Bellosguardo 1. Natalini's thesis project on an art centre for Florence. begun in 1964 under the direction of Leonardo Savioli. a background that provided him with exceptional skills in writing and storytelling.ln Toraldo di Francis's university thesis set the stage for a scientific-based research. appropriating from diverse sources.'' Over the course of 1967. ICr#rliano Toraldo dl Francla 1s laklng the p ~ c ~ u r e l ! . an Italian national holiday. flooding Florence and the rest of the valley." In fact." In need of a dry place ro work. Natalini recounts how he found himself almost under water as he worked through the night on the graphics for the Modena exhibition poster. Natalini's 1966 thesis on the Palazzo dell'Arte served as the initial genesis for the group's work on the architecture of the monument. inspired the graphic-visual research behind the beguiling renderings that became the group's renowned signature. Natalini went to his friend Cristiano Toraldo di Francia. The second category. on the architecture of the image.

The surface of such hisroarams was homo- j/l I were also called 'the tombs of the architects'". nonetheless came in the shape of a riddle. S U P E ~ T U D I Oretrenched. SUPERSTUDIO called for people " to live l ~ k eone long protest ". s u P c n s T u D r o made yet another leap foniard. 19 .ha vfa ~ C I I L i these subvers~veobjects they reallzed " l n ~ t ~ a t ea dnew level of con sumerlsm. the 5 thousand varlat~onson the theme of the four leaned chalr. I i 1!11 - - 1 i! /!i/I! /I/ /I! !t! 111 . a morbid group critique.j I with the four members posing at its base. The image. environments and architecture. a catalogue of histograms of architmure with reference to a grid transportable in diverse areas or scales for the edification of a nature both serene and immobile in mhich we might finally recognize (re-know) ourselves. A sort of death wish so beautiful and entrancing that the message really didn't seem to matter.. and consequently another level of poverty" '"Havlng recoenlzed the futllltv of the strategy. From the catalogue of histograms followed effortlessly objects. furniture." !. "We prepared a catalogue of tri-dimensional non-contin"ous diagrams. Mantcllato olllce 1981 1 _ e m in had become powerful tool for all 11s bare slmJust l ~ k the pllclty. and an owl in the forefront gliding straight towards the viewer. abandoning the last vestiges of a market-driven architecture. . -. But all these things didn't matter much. aero I ' 1' I!. the addltlon of the histograms to the ij I i for other more pressing activities. to engage In a life long " be in Every object has a 4 pract~calfunctlon and a contemplative one and ~tIS the latter that evasion d e s ~ g n1s seeklng to potentlate Thus there 1s an end to the $ 19th-century myths of reason as the explanation of everything..suporr~d~o tn . erasing once and for all I plest a physlcal bar graph.. nor have they ever mattered much.

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h ~ c hthe philosopher Herberr Marcuse had alread) char.birrhu/ Ur. to thc <lcpicrlon of 3 sr~ence. should not be ~nterprete<l as n monulnent.~l.bur thcy know very death ~ n l anger. C'utrt~trr~utrr.y powcr. anti-futurisr :~ncltechnologicslly optimistic utopia . bilities. I1 . I.~r/ ~vasnor so cloakc<lin irony alld alnbigul.g . sleep an11 juy. u. . onc step ~t t i ~ n e As Natalini cmphasizc~l "By tht. n~ficnntthat (~JI'LRSIUUIO chose to represent sucl~3 non-repress~ve world in terms of an arcl~itecruret h ~ was t virtually invis~blc.nntive para<ligm.:$'~~.SUPLRSTUDIO.o e ~ ~ ~ ~ n : ~ c l .~lsoconfirms tl1.os aI)out blind fnitli in rcclinological salvntion and the looming cffccrr of the A m c r i c a ~ ~ i z ~ t ~ o n or) hobitants.~tIi ~ A~lolfoNat~linifollowed.~lse.Kenneth Frampton's interpretation of S U I ~ ~ K S ~picked ~ D I O up on a counter c ~ ~ l t umessage. surlLmrunro projecte<l n sllenr.\lutrdu's cultural c<litorduring tlicsc ycars wns l t ~ l o ZI . well 11131if they get off r l i e o b l ~ g ~ r rou:es o r ~ established by the InJchine.". ' . le f ~ c e din mirror-&ss. Dy thc elimination o i thc city.fictionIsndscape in which nature had been rcndcrcd benevolent '. to lack legibilirv turrnsrunro c<lnscio~~sly examined each u laycr ~n the proccss of <lesign 2nd arch~tcctureand butlt its alter. ~ I I 111s I commentary .\lotrdu. Thc inhi~bitnntsf ~ n dfood and (car. r~l that he recognized to be veiled bclou the image itself.g~nning from equal starting i)oinrs. destruction of objects. bfitrrmi. where v~siblc.totnlly uselcss an11 by clcs~gnauto-destructive" ' ~ ~ ~nllchncarer to the Frampton's read on \ u P r n r l ~ ocomes group's original intent.lr: I'rr~ttronitio. unltu and divide 3ccording to the ~ncolnprehensit.\lotrr~rnr. along the innumcrJbls routcs \vliich intersccr." Charles Jencks preferred to inrcrprct I%eCbt~trnt~utrr .ltions ilnposcd t. Once SUPLKS'rLDIO finlshcrl p r o d ~ l c ~ nthe lislicd a short uns~gneclreview on pagc 29 titlcd '12 Citti dcl futuro" ( I 2 cities of the future^. Natal~ni.I world from which consumer goods had !xen elilninated Their work varied from the projection of v ~ s ~t m ~ c n e t r n bmeg. ~ c t e r i r c das defit~lng11fe In tcrms of instruments .~ltcre<l spari.il form occupying an existing Ian~lscope. they will rncvitat>ly bc crushucl by 11s mach~nery."l'hc 21ternativc 1)rol)os3lsby Super-studio' appear in succusslon Inscd on ar! im~ginary. ' u .ten~por. exccpt ~nsome cast. sex n l ~ dhope.rro/thr.\lonr~t?ti9trt 35 3Jacobin ~rchitecture. By the e n J of work. appe~ringin the D ~ e l n b e rI971 I S S U ~of AD. 'l'he revieu~errum~rkccl. ' Bcyoncl the rule of thc perforrn~nceprinciple" noted Framp.rirtm.lnrl consumer gooJs. " According to Frnml)ron. . "'l'he i n h ~ b ~ t a nIlve t s ~n the machine endlessly drugged along Ijy conveyor bclrs.iml)oss~ble:lnJ playfid archirectu~"An i n r c w . Frampton may t. led by Adolfo Nntalinl. . ..". looking for n new freeeg~litarianm t e .\lyrticol RL.lvL.in any event. rthcy .i'The whole operation. we m a n tlic elin~in:~rion of the accumulation of formal strucd tures of power . \\.I. I1 . we mean the end of spcci:~lize~l on4 rcpcritive work Seen as an sewe~l:'' .here one might think of d c v i a ~ ~ n .c mean tlie destr~ctionof their artributes of 'srarus' 2nd the conr~ot.'.r to Italiar p ~ p e r s including .I 'Continuous Monument' as a mute ur.".reduced to the con<lirionof ncurro! and disposable elements) 2nd nor for objects.rcvo~utionorybu! despotic He failed ulrlrnately in recollciling tlic ironic self-cr~tquethat functione~lCIS a ~l~sorclering col~rrolmcclinnis~n Fur if Jencks was not convinced that the Monument's haunting mcss~gccoul<lbe so f."~~.lcprogrnmming o l the m ~ c h i n c .e suggesting. started in 1966 ~~y'~.~ e e 2 h D ' c " """e"" ' 'I ban sign and proclucing a scricr oivignertcs illustrating .the elimin~tionof thc clty 3s Ilier~rchy~ n social model.3 strangely .or. ' i t 15 s ~ g . ""' Lrlcr /or C'l.~l~rhs. l solnetimes also rcbcll~on. \!. so that we live w ~ t hobjects ..11 f i r .s .but instcnd J plisntom projection across. b~.~l cont~nuu:~~. by chutes and pneulnaric tubes from tllc time of birth to rhc rilnc of death The machine takes c ~ r of e cvc~thing.':"I ro produce a body of work which was more or less divided betwecn representing the form of . In \vIiich cveryone can reach <lifferenr gralles in the rlcveloprncnt of his possi.". 7hlr. ton."" g 7ir r9lve 7 ~ l r . 111ahnost evcry "lded" city the pre<lominant tlic~nuu. hncl sent our scvera1 dozcn copies of the 7ir.

T h e Disinril Mou. Calvino's short stories had a vast influence on the general public. I' 1 torical symbolisms associated with the making of monumental ar- V ? k f iijjl $jilt fi!ig (jp .~are the histogram objects that penetrate the galaxy.~iein which the real protegonis. SUPERS. co find architecture in one's olun life. sought to re-conceptualize the position of urchitecture altogether They discarded the role of the c r e n o r the d e signer." The images reproduced in the catalogue ore nine variations from their film project Life. SUI'ERSTUDIO'S incursion into the world of film begins far from earth: evcrvrhinn. desert landscapes and people in the act of fa- the effects arc indeed at times simplistic.i id pi ." A poetic re~niseerr sci. In the catalogue this image is the foil for another. ~ a . "from the moon to the planets is archi- "no intention of doing withoutn.what kind of influence would the svPEllsruD1o piece have had on Calvino if he had indeed read it in 1971 .ruolo began the production of its I background In one rnemorable scene w h ~ l ethe rhythlns are heard n~elodlcallvIn the backeround the astronauts. but nonetheless powerful precisely because the hypcr-gadgetry of space-capsule life is suddenly reduced to a tribal ritc. seen feedme on reconsideration of domestic space.I Though the connection remains speculative . In addi- titr~rorrsr M o . a reconsideration of thc relations between the process of design and the environment through . the group moved to espouse the complete reversal of the normative condition. Another cautionary tale? Also durine this time sulJaHs. SUIXI&UDIO. .UI'EIISTU!JIOoarticioated in thc Museum of Modern to remove all commercially driven clutter from the object. In 1972 I. not to mention a whole generation of architects. ~ e rindecorously i~ neutralized layers of gratuitous his- logue. o r the architecture: as in their FiueSuburbor~I'illos project. which took the form of a small plastic model. each super- Their ~ n s s f l o rplastic ~ lamp was selected by the show's c u n t o r Emilio Ambasz for the "Obiects" section of the exhibit. . beginning with the MOCIA show.In alter~lativemodel of existence".rUDIOcollage their slick drawings of satellites. to switch roles.the coincidence nonetheless renlains intriguing. urhich portrays a youthful sybarite world of nomadic pleasures not enslaved to designed objects of mass consumption but free to experience their a nostalgia precisely for primal knowledge on earth. repeated ro infinity in a cubed light box. the architect."She is depicted sadly marooned amid her appliances on r small grass island in the middle of a plane "wirhout any messages in bottles".'" This project. Instead. Srrpcrsurfnce and remain one of their outside this burdensome dichotomy. As they describe it is " .lroin.

no sequel truly possible...hat S L I ' E R ~ T U D ~ ~ brought to their phase of research was the intcrisivc desire not to repeat the forrnul~t h ~ would r onl) serve to prolorig the conuncr~ 1 3rnnrkct.lr) c building blocks ~hemsclvcs. was screened for the MO\IA exhibition TI>?Nero Do.oriented 1 cxplolt3tion of the deigrl profession Of course tlils would he hy riow irnposs~blcto persevere. liowcver. distributed recourses. usually when hchnviour 113s dreadYbeen entlrely codified. arid Intcrvenes only 31 3 ccrta~ripoint in tlic process. Bctr: I. d conternplntes the existence of rhc architect.Icfr srrs in motion such a level of dcstabtlization that there would in f.rn. 3 r d multiple uses.in inrensivc aca- Solo charr dcrnically founded stilrl) on the making of peasnnt tools and sheltcrj. of tre~nc. Edtica!to. Coriccivcd as :an experimental film opus.I tempts to rake arcliitccturc onto n dlffcrent philosophic~lplnte. by shifting llle ~ O C L I of S the11 resenrch on. 'rhc FILCF ! l ~ ~ d r ~ t ~Acts ~ ~ ~\\.rrt.t. the work of x P c u n r ) ~ oentered by fiar into 3 seconcl plirse ~ r wliicli i the group.~rrtrcLn~~drcapc ~n 1972. 26 strurncnts nccuratcly predisposrd to avold nny dev~arion 'rhc working-class holnc rcsernbles a st3tcly vllln in the sarnc 1t13y3s tlie dcsi<n of 3 Radical .~trr Alo~tIO?IPN~.111.r/.it.~rchitccturelnovemcnt. play. given the rnentir~griot just the style of life 111 the far renchcs of the Italian cour~tryslde. is what does In fact arcli~rccturclook likc \\.ndousscope ~ n vision. year: The illustr:~tedtcxts for thc Frfih Ftorda111e.in move freely 3cross the lsndscnpe rns~den clty of tlic mind' File Ftrndarnrtifol .energy conscrvntion. This tent~ttveanthropologicnl and ph~losophicalfound.r) were completed in f ~ l ~version.auld r e m a n ..iction poss. thv decisions on the Accepting his rolc.7l . furnishing answers to rigidly stated problems Even if 11s answers ..int-gnrdc architect f d s one of the nost r~gldlyhxed roles dike the young lover 111 p l . now.~o.ble :~fterwnrds. succeeded In cleansing ~ r c h i tccture of all so-rces of contamlnntlon The only quancl.11Act Death wns set to a slidc show a t t h nn audlo soundtrack. the W I I II ( . co~~tplrt on Iifc.r/e. a sliort-IivcJ but s~gri~ficont mcctlrlg of niirids bcrwccn rlic far flurig rncmbcrs of the Radical . never renl~zcdw:rhln r h ~ ss:lmc enselnble."" SUI'LIISTUD!~. the stor)boards for the I:r~cF I O I ~ ~ I I I Lwere ~ Nd~~ ~d ~/ c~t ~i cC ~ T In nnturc.r/c. a collage anllnntion with its flnnl scquencc filmcd outdoors in nature with n )oung couple.hut nlso the rigours of poverty. Rut it should be c l e x that \\.rlirough .' C P ~ L ~ I Iwns IOI~) shot IIVC ~n Florcncc the follo\v~n. Llke the one for T/>/.irchitect that of :~riacadernlc or re:~ction. the fundnrnen131 tliclncs of our lives. Their collecrivc s t r ~ t c g ~ ethough s. n SNpr. \vhcn you c3n expcrlencc 11 through merely I l v ~ n when ~ .:.1~1he ~lrnostno recourse to . orily I. Lo1 C.~to~ty. 7 1published In series in rtor) honrd forrnx. the nrchitcct bccolnes nccornplice to the rnachu~at~or~s of the system Then the av. Ct. It Iielpcd to dcvclop liantly creative i r i the use of rcc)cled matcri~ls. of course.hen ) o u have the chance ro hcgln all over.r~Co~tt~~tt.iry that \\.iriori of architccturc becomes the centre of our reductive process. one lnlght nrgue. nonetheless moved parallel with the S U I ~ C R \ur~ro's I sccond phase oiproduction.:r. reconsrirutcs thcmselves as best 3s the) cln. I\rcliitecturc relnains 3t the limit.ere t .rc project suggests some very inrerest~ngaltcrnntive p ~ h to s folio\\. ns Peter Lang polnts our in Su~cirlnlDesirss". The prolecr. you c. .n. St~prrrt~r/acc and Ccre.thc differcnce Ires only in the quantities i r ~ of ltv~nghnvc 31rc3dy hcen made. Carrhrllo published $I'PEIL%TL'DIO~ ttor y b o ~ r d s~ n texts d for t l ~ cF I I CF1~11da. The move cotr~cidedwith rhe co-tounding ot Global Tools 111 1973. After 1973. to t l ~ prlm. and Death. Renvecn 1972 2nd 1973.~ry nrcli~tcct. sUllEalulIto's rn3nifcsto states: "Architecture never touches the great thelnes. The resc3rcli and tcrial Cultt. ~ y s ~ .Ire nberr:lnt or evn.

erL. to its soundrmck.l: Di..i(.I rc~l. i n Arc11.115.lr "not . producerl by " lhrrl 248.un.th Dcyong plsced roo hlonumenrContinu 1969".. Dcnisc It B.~~irrbc. Roberto "'C. of arustic pracricer. Urban Foturc".dogue(Ilorrncc:iM&IM. i n T.. 80). the strict critical vision focused on their own roles in the much larger chain of production. rcprinted in /'I.~tely to un-design their surroundings like no other group before or after them.lli[~i iFlorcncu.. rcconsrirured ir. vr. coined by Ccrmnno CrLnr to describc .April 2001. Frb~nces Urunror 1rdns1.~bro. ~n1. rcnce: Ven~ll.t~~iuoto. ri.~a(no.) \rhole r n n ~ e 2002.rl~~pri~sfuc.thclla..If SUI~EWTUDIOhas succeeded in contributing to any particure it would be not so much lar lesson to inventing a f ~ ~ t uarchitecture. Dccember 1969). Dcyonp. in' ' 28 ic..rd 1 Kad?c~lr.~p t o o n ~ u c b n r c h i ~ e c ~ u r e . This is onc oi rlie srgumcncr developer1 in Peter Lnnx's essay "Sui. We are far enough along again to perform similarly criticnl interrogations and we hope as the editors of this project that SUPCRSTUDIO'S contribution may be to take another.~ h e r u r h o nbeliwc.r u ~ > ~'His~o.\ruolc tcrts from Radical community. 1974.. opniznble lungudgc" r n d rhdr ir encornpurred ".siuoto.r L. c r i t i c r ~look l at the objects that surround our lives.~g~/n.mg iMil.rgbigo/~/1~~computur screens. Brrnri strc>serlin .ru IY68-IY8Y. aut~t. 481. " {hid ".11~:Design and Archifoundcn in 1966. .18--19.~~ostn. dirbdndcd g~ncrrl..s.Riley.14). concetved ro displt~y primsrily thusis projec. Irrrerplioi~~~u~. D . Inrritut d i r r con.i.l'. The (%d. dr Ve. our.~. ed. This process of repeatedly and critically re-esamining the normal drifts and currents moving across the domestic landscapes has led them to design.I~chitcc~~~r(~.mg.mr rubdccicr rr chc Ava~ir-Gurdc. or perhaps more appropri.rerction of thc anti-archi... (no.c. cx..~~~nI~~ del.c 6 1 ~ ~ 1 Oadminirrcr : ixr current and 1Villi.~ (Filotrfilno. \vho. l e c t ~ r e l 6~ O he L PIIS\YCI 10 agon. Arcl~irccrrrriDnirm.my rmdly:oups a.l rion (Ne\r.d Anchor Uookr. mafizinm. inrcr!.' Nuvoncand R. X r 5 7 ) .t.r~clrrre .igbrg 0 tinuourMonluuc~~t".1<b.C. Thc cy o f aut'altiruolo rec D . l'ct~. 2002). 1972. Percr L ~ n y l i ~ ~ ~ l 0 f ~ u 1 ~ 1 3bucn. ~ i o r r n i Wr. Brrnzi. inturvieiv a. and requires further res~omcion.ir.lr. i r too A aut.sr~~.l e l i a n ro C n ~ l i r hfor thc qu~cklocriricire~hcmoveI C I ~ I ~ M ~ I > . .. Arch.~noTorsldo d i Fr.lvu. lb. the individual "pieces" as it would be the process itself.llion voice avcr. r m n i Print.G~rrdc. Orlztndini. :" I'erer b~. ~ f ~ r r ~r b c l l o r ~ w r d G i / ~ ~<.. ingly jumping onto the ~ i l ear the endless fondling 2002): 7'brCl~n.iblilun: Docu. L.Du.lnal.ttcd highly respec14 nnlong [he b l ~ i o ocnh~logue. 7 December 2002). 'The Con.lng. magazines. m.:~rr.e\..Jt~nuoryinternrrionsl journals and metx: 'IIo\r.elf i . 1973.Picro Fr. \/I/iria.r.1996).rrolc .Pcrrenu.tr. Redicale".\. Knrding~helrdlidnRroupa. ofiirelev. xrsms".r cent ~nrervieu. 2001). e x h i b i ~ i o l l " F o r n de~uileddircuns~on other excrmlc i n the orhcr on the contemporaly Icgil.Villcursulan.. : ' . ~ e ed. mucll emphasis on thc L.ICJIO~~~. 19).eshi. "Supcrr~udio: c u r e ir seldom gels builr. rm~rof~iDirp. i n VI b b g r i r joincd i n 1967..1 It~clical ' 'I'he ~ u m "lndicitl". I~L.ilh soundrrack.>n: CdiS.r.>nne.n. "lnrroducPeccr L.~. ' Sar. I4 Decembcr 2002) " For rhe lncn>hcrs o f 1982.lm Menkinx. cxh~hirlon tisenlenrr chsr ere increar.in rhc 1990s lo b c r ~ c r a bix rhcmc . sibly Ins h r r n ~ f uonly l bcMureurn o f Modern Arr (New York: . "M~.ngits ~pllyscc~l em- York: bodimenr.c writlngr \r.moricao f ciun".re dell.rr.~?rd:Arrr ?brc.ithour t ~ d ~ c r i h t h c s p e c ~ f i c r n .e.rrenirrri. 11).Aleaarndro Poli i n 1970. i n 1986. " A. : Pop-ups ure thole n. s u ~ r t a .er. !r. 1r.per/ior merabolis~r'influences re. Sourif. Ne\v York.iew wtrh Crnstl. xlng lirrle lnrerner rdver. o.com. 31). . Archr/c~!~.ir11 Adolfo h'. though il is porC. rrcbi~cc~urei~~.Lf\.lortr"l.rh. wcrc b. York: a!oat.llc. Sco~rBmunnndS~wcLen1' 011 lcfi rhc group in 1972.iUo.llogoe (Flo.rrro.i(/r. Rouillard. " rbrd 2.iez. ~r. hibir.rrcrrrr nalrnb..lncl. no erclliblay ZOO1 iBlrcclon....~rsinelliin 1968 mdicdcnle icir. hibirion cnr.lrcc. "Archicer~uia rccrurc 1960/75". tnenti di C. u t ~ ~ a m o ~ "Invendon o. m d Almsandm M a g r ~ s ~ ~ n"d Roben Vcnruri.

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32 Fascist regime contributed to the invention of Italian mass society. Private initiatives in housing were given a "free hand".. These themes informed the un- derlying critique that constituted the group's thoughts and actions from the initial founding in 1966 to thelate 1970s. 'rlie entire national university was put to test in the 1960s.whose beginnings are announced in the historical staging of the 1966 Superarchitectnre exhibit in Pistoia. a spectacularly personal inquiry and psychological confession on the existential state of cinema and society. As Siegfied Kracauer noted. SUl~ElaTUDlOelaborated on the grand themes of alienation. adequate service facilities like parks or parking lots. and thc more innovative faculties found themselves isolated if not removed from participating in the city's architectural and urban development.' The results were catastrophic.' In many aspccts SUI'ERSTUDIO was formed just as their name implied. therapy and the visceral fortns of suicide. as a "super-office". with sl>eculative buildings spm\rrling randomly through the urban peripheries and under reinforced buildings tragically collapsing in known high-risk earthquake zones.the six members of the group did not come from the same ideological background or belong to the same student tablished its characteristic identity. finds its inception in Florence's rebellious youth culture. "the more life is submerged. constructed a spiritually deprived vision of postlinked to a devastated landscape war Iraly that was her~neticall~ of smog-choked fiactories and polluted landscapes. creating in 1963 Eight and a Hnlf. in fact. cannot be linked to a specific student movetnent . precisely because the generation of students who completed their e d u ~ l t i o nthere were marked much differently than else- modernization. which unseals its withdrawnness and puts its pieces back in place."' Aesthetic manifestations depicting the general malaise of Italy's upwardly mobile classes and alieliated youth increasingly surfaced in the arts and in cinema by the mid-1960s. but the symptonls of estrangement among the post-war Italian middle classes bore the common traits of similar Western industrialized countries. a symbolic metaphor that would find its echo in the reflections on che builc environment among the young generation of architects who would form the nucleus of sUl%l<n'ut11(). whose laws were designed to promote private investments to the exclusion of all else. After La r l o b vita was released in 1960. neuroses. providing sufficient momentum behind the rise of a mass student culture. These are therefore the issues to follow in order to get to the heart of suPel?srumo's deeply internalized rebellion against architecture. Italians were becoming more mobile. the university administered itself as the pedantic gatekeeper of this very same cultural legacy. But these epic themes also can be seen to reflect tnore formulative life trajectories. Yet to understand SUI~LRSTUDIOit remains essential to understand the university climate that existed in Florence during the 1960s. That \vould be the accomplishment of the post-war governments. The story of SUPEilSTUDfO. only a siren-like song seems to penetrate the ambient stupor. as well as intergenerational conflicts. The primal recall remains an insidious reminder of a simpler past. Economic expansion came late relative to other European countries. The different directions.' This gradual slide towards social breakdown was brought into explicit view through the work of some of the country's most creative cinematographic artists. urith no co~itrolsplaced on land uses. The gro\\~ingprosperity within the Italinn society exposed ever-deepening rifts urithin the communities at large.. more enatnoured with their object world. pressured by students and many of thc faculties to renovate the archaic . rationalization. a design and architectural office that happened to have an extremely deep and foreboding sense of history and belligerent behaviour. As the characters move with empty gestures through Red Desert's world of manufactured sensations. the more it needs the artwork. Federico Fellini turned the camera on himself and his profession. SUPLRSTUDIO'S genesis. Michelangelo Antonioni in his 1964 film Red Desert. more urban. nor sufficient safety regulations to ensure proper building methods. but adapting to this new consumer-oriented lifestyle inevitably meant ruptures to traditional habits.' Over the course of their activities. but did not construct a mass consumer culture. During the 1960s the student population in the national university system doubled to half a nill lion students.

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while Leonardo Savioli's more timid Micheluc- Ricci. Ernesto Narhan Rogers took over Dornrrs from G i o Ponti in 1946 and then moved over to launch an improved Casabella-Corrtinuit in 1954 (the magazine remained under his direction until 1967). but it seems that each occasion was squandered by internecine quarrels among bitterly competing interests. O n e of the challenges was to re-evaluate and re-conceprualize a contemporary architectural style that could reconcile both Modernist and Neo-classical contaminarion from rhe Fascist period. Many younger Italian architects joined efforts with Zevi in reconstituting the Roman scene.. went largely unchallenged by the city's traditional planning strategists. heavily darnaged during the German wartime withdrawal on 4 August 1944. The MoveInent." In Manfredo Tafuri's opinion the ensuing proposals for the heavily damaged areas ". succeeded in promoting the development o f a n urban-scale hybrid Modernism combining labour intensive craft-work with advanced concrete frame technol~gies. through the sponsorship of IN. Adalberto Libera and Luigi Moretti among others.\-Casa. In 1947 the Milan Triennale opened its VIII edition featuring the most recent post-war developments in social housing and urban reconstruction.~ The urban fabric in and around Milan was heavily damaged during the drawn-out allied bombing campaigns. Milan's publication houses quickly became the principal platforms for national debates on the future of Modernist architecture. There are three kcy aspects that when collapsed together help explain the peculiar condition of Florence's conflictual artistic and architectural culture in the post-war period. T h e development of the city's regional master-plan. the State-subsidized housing authority. reconstruction proceeded quickly. Mario Kdolfi. developed an urbanistic architectural language that. The Lombard city was already predisposed to developing a Functionalist and Neo-rationalist style of architecture to plug the many damaged sites. for Architectural Studies (MSA) was founded in Milan in 1945 with the goal of opposing a traditional academic education. conceived with the participation of the Milanese members of CIAM. the third was the significance of the student activist lnovements in directly and indirectly contributing to reconstituting the School of Architecture into one of the most openly receptive . H e quickly established under the aegis of AI'OA the first "organic school" in Italy inspired largely by Frank Lloyd Wright. the second concerned the equally disappointing manner in which the city expanded to ~iieetthe growing populatio~iand manufacturing needs in rhe same period. did not gain much public support.if also least recognized -grounds for architectural commercial districts abandoned to more ad hoc rebuilding meth- Benedetto Croce.. Over thc next decade. Zevi's American connections and deep dedication to reforming Italian architectural culture had immediate impact on post-war debates.led to feeble and greatly colnpromised reconstruction of the histori- .36 gree. Florence would also have its opportunities to grab the centre of the debate. The first was the failed reconstruction of Florence's city centre. As the country's major economic centre.

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Scenes ments of artifacts from the river? sediment and painstakingly handling them like birds caught in an oil slick were emotionally stirring. but ultimately a setback to the cause. some reforms were achieved." Piero Frassinelli opined: ". performance artists like Allan tions threw the two events out of sequence.. now buried deep under metres of mud and debris. Students attending the School of Architecture in Florence in the 1960s had a much harder time finding work. the city's artistic community had been taking important steps towards building a receptive place for an alternative contemporary art culture. There would be little time for Archizoom and sUPER5'TUD10 to evolve between the two .. all-night sit- Kaprow. Maria Gloria Bicocchi's gallery Centrodiffusionegrafica on Piazza Saltarelli (later to become a d t a p e s 22. or protesting national policies.'" T h e students and the faculty engaged in a decade-long ideological battle over the substance of a contemporary architectural education and this critical discourse undoubtedly succeeded in recasting the fundamental issues of the Florentine school." Over the Ions term." But in less than a flash. whose entire economy functioned outside of major industries like Milan or the huge bureaucracies like Rome. the pre-eminent video centre featuring the likes of Bill Viola) was one of the first galleries to bring internationally acclaimed artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol. The planning for the first Superarcl~irecrr~re exhibition in Pis- the Arno valley as an enormous lake. students moved in smaller circles: but one event in 1966 would act to pull the \\thole architectural community together the past. With all the talented artisans and small manufacturing in a state of existence that was neither reliably authentic nor confurniture and leather luxury goods for the upper classes. Alessandro Mendini's land of "Good design" could be almost anywhere 42 If in fact Florence was hopelessly blocked by traditional conventions. And then of course there is the historically rich city of Florence. Florentines were gradually becoming acquainted with the most important players on the European art circuit. Without the distractions of the big city setting. others never came close. more events and experimental projects. dle class were incapable of seeing beyond the city's customary traditions.bly energetic. the sound artists from l3uxus.. The prolonged struggle for educational reform is to be credited with furnishing the powerful rhetorical ammunition exploited so proficiently by the Superarcbiterlure generation. assemblies. Florence was primarily an artisan-manufacturing centre with a very powerful shopkeeper middleclass.Radical architecture is born in the occupied university. One lives there and one sleeps there .. the point may in fact not have been whether the reforms to the university system ever were entirely successful. o r getting swept into working class struggles. with extensive meetings.

sentative medium itself, as it does from their subversive message.
SUPERSTUD~O
from beginning to end stripped architecture down
to i n most essential meaning.
SUI'ERSTUDIO requires additional levels of reading, precisely because there are degrees of deception constantly present in their elaborately assembled images and projects. Their highly seductive and
visually pleasing visions tend to veil a biting critique collaged just
below the surface. Each stage of their work is meant to eel back
another layer of social paralysis, of futile dreams and debilitating
social infrastructures. SUPERSTUDIOworked from positions of deep
familiarity, destabilizing from within each and every aspect of the
architectural discourse. Florence, as one of the most significant artistic destinations o n the 19th-century Grand Tour, finds itself transported in the work of SUPERSTUDIOinto a dimension of science fiction, history's other." Twelve Carrtionary Talesfor Christmas: Pren~o,ti!io~ts
of the M)~sticalRebirth of Urbanism, apart from its anti-utopian visions and very personal form of inquisitiveness, refuses
to celebrate the role of architecture and urban design in the construction of city lile.'" The exquisitely drafted sections, axonometrics and illustrations depicting the twelve cities reassure the

Piero Frassinelli, seem in the end to be much closer to a critique
o n the present than evocations for the future: the twelve scenes
unfold like exaggerated projections on some of o u r most common
obsessions, where consumer culture goes blind, bureaucracies go
mindless, high-technology pacifies. This may also be interpreted
as a critique of Americanization, a rising hen omen on in the contemporary Italian scene. The suggestive subtitle, "SUPERSTUDIO
evoke nvelve visions of ideal cities, the supreme achirvement of twenty thousand years of civilization, blood sweat and tears. The Final
Heaven of Man in possession of Truth, free from contradiction,
equivocation and indecision; totally and forever replete with his own
PERFECTION ...", implies just such a world specially made for you,
with no need to do anything except to find the button. The project was not really about anti-utopias, but was SUPERSTUDIO'S
stark
premonition on where contemporary trends were leading.
office had schizoFrom 1966 to 1973 the SUPERSTUD~O
phrenically advanced by pursuing o n one hand pragmatic and successlul furniture designs, train cars, residential and commercial
buildings (the group could count o n the industrial design experience of Roberto Magris), and on the other by progressively dissecting those very same projects to reduce the variations, to
streamline the waste, to eliminate all clutter. The process devel4s oped into a series of checks and balances, whereby the theory en-

trolled and modified. This is what Adolfo Natalini referred to as
"theory

+

practice

+

theory check", that ran into all sorts of

This may well have been an inevitable outcome for a research
project that began with the typological ordering of architectural
monuments, images and ambient technology; and gradually spread
farenough out to bring into its orbit a world of objects and buildings, of monuments and landscapes, until nothing remained untouched by its reductive powers. SUPERSTUDIOdutifully maintained

us want to change ... but also allow us to retreat back to the con,.
fort of our real homes, our heavy objects, our annoying lives.
But from 1973 on, coinciding with Adolfo Natalinii teaching
appointment at the School of Architecture in Florence, the group
moved in hvo different directions. It was a moment of deep reassessment. The individual members began working more independently on different types of projects, but also moved into the
academic research and teaching. Natalini's class, taught with the
assistance of Alessandro Poli, Cristiano Toraldo di Francia and Piero
Frassinelli, investigated the everyday use of objects in contemporary culture. Under the title of Ex~ra-UrbanMa~erralCukure,students were asked to return to their local family origins, and help
anthropologically document the material culture slowly disappearing in the countryside. Natalini's famed lectures on the walking stick -he boasts a large collection of handmade and manu-

48

The course in effect initiated a second phase in the SUPERSTUDIO
oeuvre; whereby there is a concerted attempt ro find a way to reconstruct the bare elements of a new architecture.
T h e anthropological research on primitive Italian peosanr culruse, its tools and shelters, was one of the few projects of its kind
going on during these years. Considcring the massive scale of the
fami exodus into the 1960s, the real risk, that has since proved
founded, was the permanent loss of a highly sustainable lowgrade human ecology. E s t ~ < r - U r b o1'4oter;ol
,~
C ~ ~ l t r ibears
re
little resemblance to the fanfare and hoopla created around the 1973
Global Tools symposium, which remaincd transfixed by consumer
culture. SUPERSTUDIOinitiated Histog~a171s,back in 1969, with the
intention of reducing design and architecture to a single threedimensional manipulation of surfaces. When SUPERSTUDIO began
its study on the design of silnple multi-functional utensils in 1973,
it w:~snot to design a better and more marketable product bur to
de
that were uniquely versatile.
find proven l ~ w - ~ r a technologies
The peasant farmer Zeno, in his native home in Tuscany, rebuilt a bent-wood chair from the turn of the century, piecc by
piece, over the course of about fifty years. Every reiteration presenled the chair's proportions and function, though each time thc
artifact was slightly modified. The goal of the research was to documenr and le:~rnfrom these extraordinary human experiences; but
this phase of SUIJEI(STUDI~'S research lacked the checks, balances
and earlier ironies that might have successfully lifted this project
back on to a more international platform. A broad overvie\\, of the
project including many examples drawn from tlie student research
was later mounted at the 1978 Venice Biennale to exhibit the category of Architecture, under the title of l'roject Ze11o. This strangely Heideggerian vision of the new world, a familiar revisiting of van
Gogh's contemplation on a pair of peasant shoes, suggests a project that nonetheless reconnects with the r e c l ~ r of
t ~ architecture.
SUI'ERSTUDIO also presented The WiJe o J L o t , consisting of a
welded iron table and moving tower designed to hold a fluid pouch
filled with water. A tube dripped water over five salt nloulds representing the historical stages of architecture: the pyrsmid, the
coliseum, the basilica, Versailles and the Villa Savoye. With time,
as in fact was the case, each of the salt moulds disappeared, a
demonstration on archirecture's inevitable dissolution. This project more than anything else physically embodied the dilemma of
;~rchitecture'sephemeral existence, \vith the additional tension
(hat such a delicately framed iron and s;llt structure produces by
sitting at the edge of Venice's Grand Canal. The artifact has since
been lost, but its idea lives on as the anti-monument dedicatcd to
the mother of all monuments.
The strange combination of professional practice and theoretical insurrectionism; of profitable industry contracts and sarcastic

I

assaults on consumerism; of global fame and peasant culture, are
the conflictual relationships in a body of research committed to
engaging mainstream society. Thc members of S U I ~ E R S T U Dhave
~~
sought t~ discover the way towards making a better society, made
up of individu:~lsresponsible to their communities, critically cog.
nizant of their natural resources and shared cultures.
The fundamental issues from the group's early beginnings Xrcere
all directed towards a c r ~ t i q i of
~ ea hegemonic modernization: N ~ .

If the architect cannot become architecture, is there anything left
but to take one's leave of the stage?

' P Ginsbow, ,I Hirtnn $
Corilc~,~pomn
lia(i8 (Lon.
rlon:l'cn~tlinhoks, 1990.

' D . Gi;~che~ri,
,l,ini SCI.
r.r,,lt, cr,anac;n 1" c/ti,,ai
(Pis% BTS. 2002. 191
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Dcg.er merropoby focu.inrcn~iew thcrchool ingcnectl nccd. and it \\.vork l o rlirrrncr rhcn?.ider rnnjie of topics.Milnn.". rei L%!ng. 287.391 '' Tornldo di Frzlncin m w rhc fight to do arvay with lhc expensive nmdclr us a sign rhnr much tnorc had to ch. fessorr wcrc n.ulello. nant politicxl class to have ' C a p o n e ~ r oinnd Fmcnrrilcfr the Iralian r c h w l ryr.nn.Grc~otti.rriirird (no.ar.c or escapist li~eri~rure dynamic. Ar. cember 20021. zoom and Supciscudio".bn:trdi n r ~ n l h arhich (he univcrriiy and ~ions. During the nr~cmblies[hey refused ro veuk bur chirped inrrei~d perrhcd on [he bcnchcr likes raosring birds.. LO deal with thc wpid 1r.ni.een I 4 and 15 M ~ r c h 19M. London.~r $vcll versity in 1963 ond 1901.iewrwith rcvcrnl members of Archimam and SUPERYTUDIO. 1990. interview with . 1991. chirct~ami~rliilrrn: 191019.. largcnumbcrof fore~jinrnlimr Arrbiiecl.lnoToraldodi And here \\. Crahell<r-Cot. H.m reaching arrir~antr. n. Bur they were prerenr e. c. Cnpobianco and C. 20021. inS0pee of chc Florcnce School of hrchi~ecrurcwnspublished i n the Florentine daily in Decembcroil966. rcncr war and remains counerhecirs'r. 1998. "V.irucc thc existing power structures within (he oni. v i d u ~ lmcmberr of the i ~ m u n d group. h4.oked them to occupy the rec~or'roffice on Plap Z I San Marco in 1964.\r i n f s c ~rhc cost o f [he proferrionally m ~ d etmodelr for thc (hesir proiecl. t\\.tr occupicd the rector's office.er districts blc having I n r professionto begin w i ~ h But accord . 35. 7 Deresponribiliry ofthe domi. n r c l ~ d c c l : ~ r ~ r h o ~ ~ ~ i n P i ~ ~ iiir n s r nor a prccire oblip.lfuri.i!i.inirric h c r locked i n the hitndr of rhe itngr IL?Nt~:tone.nr orld admission by btlr Press.o/l/nl.o~rs \ v i ~ b reridcnrisl Iproblcmr than rhc \lorking cli~rrcs.thcrc.>y 19M.79 IN. ~ r m i n such abandon and misery".ho nrc on.as ..p6n~oftheschwl'r populationduringthep~c. Cilrreri. "In inrcn. 191.287. '' IM.and i ~ ~ ~ d e ~ u ~ ~ c e r .toia fc. Rq. M.such . Perer Lang. inrcrvicw wirh Crirr h n o Toraldo d i Franch (Filottrnno.lecturc held nr thc FncoltB d i Firenzc i n orrarian ofthe faculry confcrence held i n Romc hc. 'lnccrvirra ia BrunoZNi".into su~cns-ruoro'sgroup tn. i n Gmhrllir-Co. rhopkeepcrr. war pcriod (500rrudcnrs ln 1958 to 1500 in 19661. 47. rc\. Pirzoilo and Di jcrts i o a Crirtina. '" "In 1968 rhe Iralii~n Schools of Archilecturc be- " Umnir.~nr and ~n~r. ~l>elirrrSt.ri.nnae: their demands were to opco the univeoicy ryrrcm co~?. ~ ~ i . 'I.ould relocatc rhe school inro (he pcriphcry running along the fwrhills on the RorcnccPni+l'ir. E. M Filer (no.iId Ino. " G l i Anni Qui~rnnvn'. a conrmverriril . 7 Dcccmbcr 19661. 1951.ar p a c lpse.~l\vayso f Franci.May 19W. 7 Decembcr 20021. According l o ~ h address c by SO Gori.as ~ h e rhe school's prcridenr. ami~h srbour lifly othcr students our dirporitlon reparore inridenccthen. Corrctti.lr a. Thesrliclc ourlined rhe tcnuour condicionr t?dngthe rchod after che flwd. Milan.. :' Toraldo d i France recalled that Ricri'r course had rhc r~udcntrwork on ftlll-rcnlc models.lrured ciwdboard ittian roproviderhcmu.to include rhe participstion ofrhcrmdentrin ar~demlcdecirionr. '' Leonardo Ricci. 287." "In his iwopural lerrurc for the new year. (Cin.~as part of the group 111. r. " h l i n ~ o r cFanfmi \\. 1221.\vi~hrnsrr . Florence drew xu- ns to upen tire thesis pro- \r.orking cl. r. M~rr. rirnrl. > ~ .ere [he issuer [hat pro\..l'ctcrLnnp. verri~y.tcb jii\. i n G ~ n h c l i u .:Thc \r. See Grispigni k i t . national-levcl policicisn Con. 0 yello\v bound meekly news-stand publi- and more could bc developed on each o i r h e indi. 1944dcncn O f the porriblc iuc198.7. and Tonddo d i Frenci. 401.lrian from Mondndari. Scicnce Ficrion be imporrant ro go deeper works ar o son o f alterna.brdFe.rhe olhcr grca. i n M .JerricaLcvinc tors thsc lily behind Fla~ n c e ' rgrowing ppulnriry.ore iaccorion \\. Dcripns b y Arch!. Cnrre". ingtoCrirri.rtnn. " On the agenda were r l o dcnrs' demilndr to reeon.from nII social clurrer.hlaric Therer Stauffcr laced Dranzi.R o m ~ c c . licr . lemi per una nuovn maggior~nza".t h a ~the city hsd l e s who sough[ f:~t. C o . 3MI.a trivis~lobrema~ion p h r . biunco.denrr from a v.. Capo.tppro.enlml: mentarion inro the cir?. becoming a sonofwish lirr for the then Preside G i ~ i r c ~G~oer i who lpropored n new rh. T. cdr.cn thc rchool'r pcnchsln~for precise ink drmingr.er)~one. lvlily 196-1.ing his or~cntionr lirer and bccnure rhc !pro.rc.auld cros-d. toia ilxir." R c o l t i dcl corrruire".I . 1%. Milan. with C r ~ t h n oT o r ~ l d odi ilndrhitr iiirno~theprecire Francid (Filortmno. \villing lo alloiv erperi.cd in C~rcrbel- i n Romc. the destiny ofFlo. i ~ ~ i (no. Genoa and thc South. ar well as r " Fontan2 (cit.~pler: Elecra Napoli.tri region from RcFSioCmilie. T h n e \>.znyof rhere godr rhe Florrntinc Radical were rhated. "Prab. "Diwomo agli 5. Aho see M .hat rhere w r n lack of this ii. war quite .ecnrible toercr)nne. 71. See Slauffcr (cil. foornore 37).

.

Ugo La Pietra and others were.' The arch scenes of Rome. This small Tuscan city.visionary drawings coming from the studios of young Florentines from 1966 on were an altogether different level of creation. and Austrians Raimund Abraham and Friedrich St Florian. Ugo La Pietra.' They suggested a fantastic architectural scene in Florence that made California seem very provincial and unimaginative. it is hard to imagine a small museum city like Florence as a centre of international thought on architecture. forever. It means to establish bonds. the galleries of New York and Dusseldorf. Gruppo Strum. Gianni Pettena.orld where architectural shifts and drifts are internationalized cquickly across cyberspace. as Doug Michaels puts it. Edu- ÿÿ be Webb Ratmund Abraham ~ d o l l oNarallni and Frledr ch St Florran 1970 stage for its penultimate moment on the international scene. and even the snlelly factories of the P o valleyMand "there [is] hardly an insistent or threatening local milieu of mainstream architects worth bothering about".. Achievetnet~tsand I'roblems ofltalia~rDe." It was the first to feature the young Florentines and none of the other visionary architectural draftsmen of the period: Cedric Price. Architecture IVitbout architect^ (1965) and just before Neru Dotne. image making and thought than mere product design.Rucker-Co. unlike anything being ~ r o d u c e din America at the time.~ The largest and most expensive exhibition in the history of MOMA. Venice and Milan were vibrant in their own ways. UFO." "What does that mean . but this small museum and university city was very much a hot spot in the late 1960s.sig~z. group 9999 and others. Thc Ncw Domestic Lndscape catalogue begins with a short discussion on domestication from Antoine d e Saint-Exupbry's Thl.. the best art and architecture book store in Italy Centro Di and Maria Gloria Bicocchi's out front gallery Centrodiffusionegrafica (later to become the important video tape gnllery art/tapes 22): Throughout the 1960s the seductively ironic and charged polemics of these Florentine architects were known in North h l e r ica through Italian magazines but SUPERSTUDIO did touch down in the United States at the Rhode Island School of Design for a moment in 1970... Its "strategist" Adolfo Natalini taught there for a semester with Archigrammer Mike Webb. "kick ass design" but more importantly they were "creative initiatives". for what you have domesticated. It had an architecture culture that revolved around one of Italy's most lively and politically engaged architecture schools. Archigram o r the Austrians: Coop Himmelblau. The Architecture and Design Department under Arthur Drexler created other important exhibits: Visiotra~~' Arch~tectrrre(1960). urbanism and design. : .r Little Pri~~ce: "You become responsible. The drawings of SUPESTUDIO. "Please domesticate me".Archizoom. Gruppo Strum.' It should be noted that during this period MOMA'S architecture department truly had its finger on the ~ u l s of e the moment. as Peter Cook reminds us. said the fox.. The exhibition and catalogue attempt to rectify this understand- sign culture.domesticated?" "It is an act too often neglected. is "a safe distance from Cape Canaverd. In today's \\.rtic Landscape." .it featured alongside a survey of contemporary Italian industrial and doniestic product design a SUPERSTUD~O Mimocvent/Microcrrvirontnetrt as well as projects by Archizoom.' This connection with the world outside Italy changed dramatically in 1972 when the Museum of Modern Art in New York under the direction of design curator Emilio Ambasz created an amazing exhibition and spectacularly beautiful catalogue titled Italy: The New Dornertic 54 Landscape. Haus.

domesticate me . attacks the work of sLJ~olU'l'L!~10 ing "liberation through irony [that] goes over the same ground covered by rlie utopias of the avant-garde of earlier years". "Men have no more time to understand anything. I I~by I modular housing industry. said the fox. in rhe spirit of polemical discourse. T h e history of modular housing is 56 er "conceive[sl of work as an autonomous acrivity responsibleonly to itself and does not question irs sociocultural context"..One must observe the proper rites ."" This call for design is quickly followed in the introduction with the disclaimer thar "design cannot solve all problems that precede its crearion and rhose that may arise f r o ~ nir"."I want to. instead they engage in a rhetorical operation of redesigning conventional objects with new ironic. In thc first ten- litical and philosophical action or complere \virhdrawal from the mean here designed environments like T o ~ oFl I ~ U I I S / JU~~.:~ The second group o r rhe reformists." They do not "invent substantially new forms. the little prince replied. "But I have not much time. regard their task as essentially a political one and therefore absrain from physical design of either objects or environments and channel their energies into the sraging of evcnrs and the issuing of polemical statements". ". thereby insuring most co~ilpellingapproach since it "corresponds to the preoccupations of a changing society".. I have friends to discover. urban decay. one hour from other hours. soriie of these designers "despairing of effecring social change through design. ~ n dsometimes self-deprecatory socio- tradictions and paradoxes of the firsr two groups. But there is no shop anywhere where one can buy friendship.. . and the pollution of tlie environmenr now cncounrered in all industrialized countries".icrions too often neglectedn. are given a chapter in the caralogue ro stare their position and critique those with whom they disagree about the production of objects.I great many things to understand. for and Archizoom for bcexample. and is what "rhe exhibition is .. simply refining "already established forms and f~nctions". the aesthetic quality of individual objects intended for private consumption [has] become irrelevant in the face of such pressing problems as poverty. to domesticate you?" asked rhe little prince.. If you want a friend." "What must 1 do.'" These absraining designers." When in society". "They re what make one day different from other days. said tlie fox. itre "morivated by a ~ r o f o u n dconcern for the designer's role in a society that fosters consumption as one mciins of inducing individual happiness. and ." "One only understands tlie things that one domesticates"." "What is a rite?" asked the little prince. and so \ve have no friends any more. very much". The catalogue essay by Manfredo Tafuri." If this were not cnough of a qualifier.. They buy things already made ar shops. "Those are . Ambasz then proclaims the irrelevance of objects: "for many designers." Furthermore.

It is a domestic product that appears in many Italian design concerns and their professional practices" can be placed togethwhich they work". the Castiglioni brothers' lamps. Ettore Sottsass' classic Valentine portable Olivetti typewriter. Massimo Vi- see much difference in concept beyond their marketing."These definitions seem flexible and loose because urn. The cat- DIO for their implications of more flexible patterns of use and arrange- to completely different categories." In the first "Objects" grouping selected for their formal and technical means are domestic designs by Joe Colombo. In "Objects" designs are seand finally "implications of more flexible patterns of use and arrangement". . Gaetano Pesce. The division of Italian design into three prevalent attitudes is followed in the catalogue by the two sections "Objects" and "Environments" that parallel and document the exhibition. Marco Zanuso and Richard Sapper's early television boxes.created a nine-panel project that arguably stands out as the iconic project from the exhibit. Vico Magistretti.

Italian conundrum and needs an explanation. Henri LeFebvre's The Explosio12. maniFesto-like seven-page Design Program of "environmental concepts" that he hoped would become physical designs.Marxism and the Fre11c11 Upheaval. offered them the opportunity to express design ideas that were closed off to them in the building sector. H Z I I I IEnvironnrer~!. thanks to its 'craftsmen' size. Howard Searles' N O I I . Moles and ~II The Manhattan text. sufficiently fixed to permit the re-enactment OF . The socalled 'Furniture industryyhas only t \ \ .UD~Odid believe For a titile that the luxury goods market. created by an extant artisanal Italian economy. "its super production of ideas is due to the condition of complete unemployment among architects." While SUI'ERSI. exhibition light sources.000 students." This essay originally published in Casabrlla seems gratuitous and his call that it inspire designers to "make incursions into i~iiaginaryrealms" is hardly necessary For groups like suPmsruuro. presents the island as an infrastructure that provides the Framework in which "all crystallized fragments rescued from the city ofmemory.. they evcntually canie to believe it was a deadend street." In tlie Desig~rProgram Ambasz presents his view that the probso lems of urban society are so severe that designers must be chal- anti-utopias are scvcrely criticized in the most po\verful text in The ri's preferred standards OF earlier avant-gardes. "Manhattan: Capital of the Twentieth Century" that all attempt to put contemporary problems OF the domcstic landscape in context for the designers..I" In thc second section of the exhibition "Environments" Arnbasz presents a detailed. constant aspects OF our individual and social memory". and all the Fragments envisioned For the city OF tlie imagination may dwell together in an ensemble. thcy decided. It \\." It is liberally sprinkled with quotes From Siegfried Giedion's T11e A r c l ~ i f e c t f ~orfe Transition. ." informed by W:ilter Benjamin insights." The Design Progra~~r includes minutely detailed programmatic considerations and options that include cost goals (economically available to "low to middle income Italian Families"). allo\\' itself an ample margin of little experiments". Ambasz's Princeton professor Abraham A. then by grace OF their aBinities".. little more than an "inducement to COLISUII~C". a list OF "general considerations" and a final separate essay. In the Florence School OF Architecture. if not by reason of thcir casual or historical relationships (since no reconstruction is hereby intended). Adolfo Natalini commenting on Italian architects involved in this sector has said.000 Firms (average number of employccs 4.8) and can thercfore. there are 6. ~Firms with more than 500 employees in more than 28. and architects in Italy are in charge OF only 25% of the total built volume of building.as. sincc they risk be- ."Based on chis detailed Design Progra~n each invited designer or group is asked to design "a domestic environment adaptable enough to permit the enactment OF different private and communally imagined new events.

Ar</~dedsreDe~i~. i n an e.' M. not only arc the " Ibtd designerr fc.mic Lind. 'Art in ReI. c~tralo~oe. or to renounce irr o\vn idei~r~nnd " - !?~enrr. CnmbellN " D. '' l b ~ d20. ':Il~rd147. lelf ar mdicitl. 1990. i r no l o n ~ e r svirher ro be commercialized or rlienated. r . MohlA i n 1972. " lhid 245. itnd ' C w k k i t . 139- 46). Nnlnlini. ln Arnbarr. sires". 4. . 'l~sly: The ~ ~ o ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ r T h l . lhid. Perer Lnng. '-'lhiil 420.as therefore fated to give birth to new utopias" and that a "private leap into the sublimated universe of 'artificial ~aradises'has not proven prescient". ' Doug Michaels. i n nn cmstl conversation wirh the nurhor.I lighlwei~htstructure to cowr the uppcr and lower terraces o f rhe museum'r garden.an behnuiot~nl. (no.. [ecw but or informs all of their ~ h a u p h and ~ r motivarianr. " lhd. *' Ibid. " lbid 11 I. in thl. Celant'r 'Rndicill Archircaure". Tsfuri. scape".~rrdPmbbnrg/ltnl. Milas.Proclaiming it.tFing ian Dcrign (1972). ed. 2 January 2003. tionr from the ~IOMA l i bmry. Ribrd 139-210. See G. bilities of the design strategy. (cir.itcdurr: 11.~o". ' ' IbiJ " Ilnd :' lbid 2 I. 2 J.drm ilrchirecrure Archizoom and Supcntud 6 a . "All rhcnew 1r. placed on ~ I O M A ' S New Dornrrfic to us at the start of the 21st century. (cil. . castles or roads" but this h l l l Prerr.ttured i n this exhibit edunted 2%archi. " Anlbarr. 242: oriGinslly in "sul)Khnu~. rnadernlrrn ur Moh1. 3831.b u their ~ aim ofdireng. 49). bmlkinl: ~vlth.>r I t s rims Anre conmpruil .1iL1181 (C~~mbridgc. 1972. lb. "ihrd Hawmer.'^ A. e A r c h Ne\v i t e c ~ ~Domestic ~re Lnndolthe fleorfx Arts i n 1976. " lh~d. "'lhrd 421.I rh. *'lhld 21.Hirrog o/IrnIianArcl.d 13946. The next rnaior . ' Doug Michselr. but his belief was that SUI~BIISTUDIO'S"anti-utopian regression \\. "Suicidal De. Grnhrm.: The His text in the "Critical Articles" section of the catalogue is dense and insightful on 20th-century Italian design. 8/72.nrchirecrure exhibition after " lhirl 94. London." They did call for a \vorld "without cities. In the spirit of 1960s' polemical and protest culture SUPERSTUDIO. "lbid 143 "/bid. e c c .tnuary 2003. mail conl8enstton*irh the author. u how thnt heralded I'orr. bur remained un- "lbid. The Neru Do.thc prcrenl l i o n a. Rcnzo P m o devlrcd . ~hemsclver from. Icir. 469).lrion to Architecu~re/ Arrhitcrturc i n Relatton to " A r n b ~ ~ rerl. " Ibrd 147.I. 380). " Ibld 148.. " Ihid.. 242).

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Thus a series of guerrilla warfare actions are born, violence is
imposed and suffered ... this is which creates the need for a "strategy for living", i.e. a series of practical rules, first-aid manuals, welltried methods for smoothing over discord and bringing back
peace and calm. Living strategy is substantially a method for
reaching the self-consciousness of horno bobitons through a series
of spiritual exercises. And certainly every "manual of spiritual
exercises for serene living" must suggest the abandonment of all
desire to be always "in fashion" or the desire to be always stylish, or amusing, or to be liked at once: that is, it advises an immediate abandon of false problems, manias, hysteria.

74

The Egyptians and the Etruscans used to put household objects in their tombs: today also most houses are the tombs of objects. Objects become museum-ified very quickly, and are kept,
it doesn't matter whether for a long or short time, with all the dusty
eternity of useless ornaments. If the purpose of furnishing is to
permit human relationships, e\,erything we have about us must
always and only be a witness to our mental o r emotional relationships: a series of objects to keep like messages in bottles,
about our public and private histories.
But the important thing is to keep ourselves free from fear rep r d i n g memories: the important thing is to keep control of the
situation, with all its possibilities for change, for abolishing or conserving. Each operation, each variation, must however take place
without drama, because usually nothing is bettered or worsened,
just changed. In the field of variability, much is talked (too much
perhaps) of mobile space, consumable space, transformable space.
There is the search for metabolisms and cinetization, an architecture of "mobility, functionality, usability" is substituted for an
architecture of "firmitas, utilitas, venustas".
At any rate, there is an effort to move what is still, without trying to stop that \vhich is moving too much.
is not that of searching for a house which imiThe
tates movement, which follows the man who mo\,es, lives, con-

sumes, dies; the great problem is that of finding a house above
passion, a house of calm serenity, a house for all seasons. We already move about enough ourselves to rendcr the architecture variable, changing its relationships with the passing of time, with the
changing of the seasons and life.
Modern furnishing is like a great race (from one exhibition to
another, from shop to magazine) towards the most beautiful, the
newest, the most functional.
But to come in first o r last has no importance if the whole race
is wrong, and the race of consumerism is definitely wrong.
Thus, the thing to d o is not to take part in the race, but to get
out of it as soon as possible, and to isolate oneself apart to col-

The problem is not to furnish roorns.
and not even to propose objects both amusing and perishable ...
The problem is to furnish deserts,
to awake consciousness from long, dogmatic sleep,
and force backward the monster created by the sleep of reason.
Once, silver was used for protection against vampires
and werewolves;
now we use marble, chrome, mirrors and rare roots
against similar nightmare creatures,
but now it is easier to distinguish them because they are
nightmares in daylight,
born, under fancy lights, lampshades and appliques,
floating on blow-up cushions, boxed into modular,
transformable coffins; but at the same time it is also more
difficult, because now they frighten no-one (or almost):
a policy of progressive narcosis encourages them,
and the illusion of well-being feeds them.
The pass-word is still let yourself go,
let yourself be guided by Big-brother-\\rho-knowsmore-than-you,
above all because Big Brother
is himself a civilized person,
\\'ha understands perfectly that one cannot argue about taste
and everyone has his o\vn personality,
and so everyone has the right
to choose for himself when it comes
to slipcovers for the car,
the lamps for the TV set and the seat-cover
(or better still, the three-piece set) for the WC ...

g

131
1 1

O n e has the lrnpresslon of a serles of hard, s h ~ n pleccs
~ n ~ of

I

We don't ~nrendto lanore u ~ s s ~ o or
n ades~res,or detdch ourselves

1

and d e s ~ r efor t h ~ n g sthemselves

they wllIgrow In the ddrk u n t ~ they
l
become trlump

wastc to be avoided is that of intelligence.

object made with the instruments of reason, appe

w:c,ln

ogmm or cube, and to p l ~ n them
t
In sltt~ng-rooms,bedrooms, on

!
11

~maelne-itelnotv and then we can beam to fill 11, slowly,

I\!:

1

'+

fprrion: the comolementnriness from the fact that. together, thev

serrcs of dctrons w ~ t h o u tvtolettce, rcndlng to rnnlnrarn non cornm u n ~ c d t ~ nsystems
g
closed, dnd at the same tlme to state a slngle
ldca of a serene and exact way of 11fe

around it as images. This is a kind of living with n o great adventures. which makes its choices without haste. constructine a form

!

of the oresent. that of Le Corbus~er.Mtes. ~ i e u e rMart
,
Srarn, Adl-

already brllllantly passed all tests, ~ n c l u d ~ nthe
g hdrdesr of dl],
And there 1s other furn~tureon the way to belonging to the

There are uleces of furn~turem chrome and mlrror, s h ~ n ymetal

lit!

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of architecture. a2 My search for architecture now appears to me like that of the Graal. plain and hill architectures. theory" of architecture and art. down to the roots of human doing. the "inventors" of something out of nothing. like in the fdm on the "invisible man". examining it with their bulgiig eyes and an expression of contempt: 'What is it good for?"' Victor Hugo. an "invisible" architecture (in the sense of the "invisible man"). The bourgeois dressed in their Sunday best walking by the elephant of the Bastille would say. and of specific. this time an individual one. from men "bare" of knowledge and experience. Bernard Tschumi Florence. gone through. "Oh unexpected usefulness of the useless! Charity of great things! Bounty of giants! This outsize monument. an architecture in which the outside arises from the inside. December 2002 f 2 P ' . That is why I say I did not find it. an anthill architecture for men (of course just the opposite of a phalanstery!). the few who. the great. of steam or in the rain: pouring rain (like in Rashornon!) that Gavroche sought cover from in the elephant of the Bastille. far from being a zigzagging course without a real destination. on the verge of revealing its outline in a puff of dust. of its impossibility to be authentic and to serve Man. sedentary owners of land. of the Philosopher's Stone. the true. of cultivation. had become an urchin's shell: the lad had been accepted and taken in by the colossus. And therefore architectures the outside of which could be utilized. In other words that another journey began here. we followed the ancient and modern nomadic "gatherers". to let itself Once we reached this place. Indeed I fail to see it. as was often reproached us. uncorn/ortable. The first example of an architecturehon architecture that en- come an architect. To the only mental place where we might have been able to find (maybe!) the magic formula for the Invention of the New Architecture. of its ambiguous aesthetic-artistic ambition. I say "I believe" because I might even have found it without realizing it! I understand that this is not a very credible claim. the Phoenix. still had the brilliant prerogatives of chilAs you can clearly see. out of flotsam. already institutionalized cultures. perhaps apish but resolute./r. all so sweet weight of mass culture or because they are drop-outs from it. it has grown close to me. Les MisPrables. touched. And I believe I did not find it. Instead I always sought a "skinless" architecture. either because they have not yet collapsed under the cozy. from one branch to the other. to not work. but I shall try to explain. made use of just like the inside. the only "improvisers" of design. down to where Architecture is without Architects. our journey. was according to me remarkably consistent and logical. we realised however that this search was no longer the business of the SUPERSTUDIO but of each one of us. First of all let us see what I did NOT want to find: I did NOT want to find a fashionable architecture. warm.I did NOTwant to find a monumental architecture. at our disposal. that had contained one of the emperor's thoughts. I1 An architecture can be consciously negative. Book VI.l architecture. ready to reveal itself. A descent. even if I have a feeling that. straight out of the inner life of the men who live in it. 1 I I did NOT want to find a bmur. It was there. of town-planning. Leaving aside the "cultivators". it can be intentionally designed to be rmpleasat~t. I was more and more convinced of its instrumentality with respect to social and economic forces. In the course of this critical ~ h a s e to discern the birth of objects and of architecture starting from the primordial.

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Archi~ec~ure and Mo~rrrrnen~ 2. constructed on a critical re-evaluation of their educational experiences and tied to the contemporary architectural and design culture in Florence. Roberto Magris. Many of their core theoretical and representational concepts they later developed originated in this earliest phase benveen 1967 and 1968. that attempted to translate the group's theoretical and ideological concerns into "practical" projects. A Caralogue of Villas (196748). Archr~ec~rrre and I~noge 3. We recognize this first brief period to be the Slrperarchitecrurephase in the group's evolution. The office began with Adolfo Natalini. Simultaneously. from their first offices in Via Bellosguardo 1. and after April 1968 Piero Frassineh. . The period benveen 1966 and 1968 represents the group's early developmental stage. Benveen 1967 and 1968 three main themes were identified for further investigation: 1. Techtlo~norphicArchirpcrure These three categories were subsequently synthesized in three major theses: I~luenriorrDesign and Evasion Des~g~i (1967).]ourrrey into the Real111of Reaso~r( 1 9 6 8 4 9 ) and the development of a "single design". Cristiano Toraldo di Francia. the group organized a fully professional architectural and design office.1966-68 Superarchitecture: to the Rescue! The first chapter deals with the newly consrituted group SUPERSTUDIO following their debut announced at the December 1966 S~perarchilecllrreexhibition in Pistoia. an intensive initiation to the world of architecture that paralleled the early development of Archizoom.

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' aluew~ollad ~ rnonulluoa e Waql aloufi! ol a ~ q ~ r s oaqd A ~ MAUP u61a101 6~83np~lu8 10 hoaql aql uo .PIPS uaaQAPealle uo!lom olul qasq uG8rap lo r r a l o ~ d req qlnw or q ? ~ w \ ~ n o q e r a r o q aql ind aM(rual01 'rufilr 'rl!rualn] 31qn3 aql ul srll o q ~ a s o q lol'~aqle1 l anq o l l a p ~ oul Gu>q~amo~ paau h o ~ e f i r i q o ~'alq~ssod o rl rlql puv a n t i e q ~ogle Gulaar pup (Ijasrt l l n p o ~ d '6~8qiea~q uo a u Aluo ~ r l l a ~ l u a l r l sales r aql) d a q pue a101I P ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I U ~ ~ ~ ~ I r l ~ a l q o~ u a l r l x a ulo~jua~sdrucll sdeiir Alme~Gale!~do>ddeaqi 01 m r ~ a l l olualrAsaq1 I P ~ I fiutaar pup A1lqfi116ull3ol qGnoua 81 11 pueq laqlo Irnll mr8luol rle*tmalpur) alq#nana.aq.adra PUP all!xall re aq II!M "a41 ame2aq 01 uaql u6lrap uolreq uo!Ienl!r 10 araql ale elepaql .O w l e sol qllrnrafiew~pue aql AICJPIY plnoqs a ~ l l a l q nrlql r uo peaye GuloG ri wr~joqwArq l l ~ p a f i ~ e q'12.alled6u!Alddnr A q ~ o Pue anol lo1 rralun 6ulqllue op la6ual lelll lanamq laqwamal plnoqs 1euo813unlAllel~laodale 1941~llnpodd ou IlPUSaM ePlOl WnSlnS qG14 "M adoq lnoql!MPUP laS!ldlns 6~lAlddn~Aq .la q 1 1 1.lru.ufilrap uolsena~aq 01 r ~ a m r u eaql p u ~pue j r6u~q!6uzap l l a m ~ euaql l ~ arn o l u j u l e q 101 slliualn aql uo!re>w111eau0 (rlral aauprrleuay "8 .lay] $8 fiulq~lueuodml u q l r 6 u q i uo aAeq 11eqs a M bland Aephana l o pllnq 01 pialle u e ? o q ~ r l c l ~ o m q!cm .o.no lo r u a r ~ e ~ r a p s6qqmlrip m luopaloq pue A ~ ~ p d n l sra~~alsAlu io aroql puelrrauaqll pue a6lml lram 3ql lo auordsqlad'.an11 noA ralem leqlhlaod aql r! 11.l$ Aephana u~efie r.e3pueoqrelurzdnrrc aql leql l l e l aqi leql leadde PlnoMII la!^^^ tamnruol-iadAq aql pup ul!saa uo!guanul pua ul!saa uo!seA3 .walqo>d )no 01 slamrue llnn pup rell!n llems l ~ u a w l r e d el2OlQ an. r l r n p l d m o l a 411M1~0llel3~n~ap10 s!sA~eue101 a u l l ')!?a pup aluonua 'worloq p u e d o ~lo rrarn aql lie fiu~nlonu~ rueawrlql OUYI~M hlaod q l l 6ulhll ~ arodlnd ruoner8pul an6enqlf~'rallomam . ~ I I D M ) P~pueq ~ auo all1 ua uo8rrnlrlp puoAaq mou $1 sale)or puepunor rl pllom laa. SAc*~lepuc laqlelal wa41 qli* Aeld sAe~lolom aql uo'remau~. e re Aluo S I ~ I aar UP. uol~. 'jelauafi "8 6ulmoq fiu~p!onelo .no allxoxa l j l ~ l a q l ~ I I Arlmlqo ~ luairAs aql olul s a t p q n q l o u .u61sap aqduomoo.Ino!neqaq lo ru. "MU .o an~le~ado lanl3 PIP SarUOlr 11119 101a ~ ralllr~ l p a l u m padlda(a(~eiedueaplpnj e pue an~iew. p e aua an~leldwaiuale we la d q r u e w r l ~ e l l ouirnal l e ~Gnolql uo119unl(e.ol a6e1r el .aa8lv "8 uana lo e ! p e ~ ~ v ~ u u o t ~ r u r l d aql r a rsuareal arrlrmod e "I all IW raapuo8IenleS la s q ~ ~ m h n ~ u a ~oql .~ur awld aMr13npo~dufilrap leql a l l l ~ oslsodu6!s j re w a r pue ' a l l l ~ e l ~ ~ ~ ~ e m o ~ q ~ ) r a ~ a d o i d ~ o raql u ajar A3uafie aql$ ( u ~ .o!laly 01uo!iuane m o qxunr o~ 6uli11saslaio'~nowag! SUM I OU I I pue SUIUI~Sc amolaq pue'uo!lelauan pue rfiu~qljorpuq Ile y1tmpa1181 aq maql fiulx11~101u8odaql at la6 am 1111 ~ I ~ S I O M I O 1381q0 ue 10 'a3ed~ U ~ ~ I ~ ~ I S ~ ~ U I O10I U'113alqojosp~11( O~ waql lam 6uldd8~1rarjarrna pull ul alnluanpe ue aq Aew I3alqo ue puv lle 411MpaAeld aq ol awe6 D la rain.no buqem "006 01 'ranlasmo U O I I ~ I ~ ~ ~ I U Daql I lo1 swool pue aleunuol aioql wo. Allua~~n.uejq m o l l ~ ~ a re t l l alq@~6euem 6 jralddlq sql lo auo aslls!nble-uou all1 u16aqol lael u! paau a M ruealp lo uam lo) d ~ i u e m n ~lowuollPZll!All ~ uoiac2t(t. e :lralold 6uol auo st repha. r ro6louue3 ~ m aql ~ dIrql pue'rplralaeq noA1eql fiulaar lng laraaql Ile uo~aqlaqm pajuanul uqlo plnoqr 6u:qIhana I S ~ I ~ ~ P ~aqlaqhruoA ~ ~ e l n ~ l puv u e d 11 r~.lalllPa pallajal aM qllynr Pue uollerruowap e SeGuI~as10 a! uale~adolo rapow aql jo IS#] aql 'lralalul 6ulrnolc lo 'uollualle ol r6uo1aquolle~ador!ql leql l l ~ l ~U!I?~JII~.rrau~realpAepharaapena araql .ado pup 6uluusld le sql plane aa "PI 'apnl!lle 111~1139aql $ 1 1uamaG~fiuas8p ~mllllcd anlllall e fiulqellq 'Aem11q1 UI AlUO lo rauol~arok e a PUP 6uluund raoanbmau aql 'ufilrap uolsiln3 .) aqt 6ulpu8l pue Alanllean 10 rlaumo pue S I U P I ~ ~ P ~ W U ~n l aul Gu~n!l~o auo r! malqo~daqt ' u a q l j ~ lo) rPlQMlaq10 u .arcdojd 01 awo3 uaql aq! pue q ~ npaqs~~qelra ~l am '(Ala~>orluanllle aql 10 SIIPJII~ losuoluod pa1e~a6a)arjoslam oq1)q)n~ilo ra8lodouou l e a ~ 6 a qAq l PUP s. PUP luanul lsnm ampup qfinoua la6uol 0" . aql aql Ajddnr noA'are?puo?ar aql ul pue may1 YllM an11 ~ ~ ' r a r ~ ~10d l n s ul'rlagem~adnso q ~~ ! ' E J P ~ PUO u! 111q u ! q ~aq arn aqlol wag) rlndlain llnl Pue lnlasn amaslaq~n2Pam0103 hl!2 aql u! orlelnq 'ran8l lallwed llems q 3 ~ a pue 'asn lerlanlun 10 r l ~algo .uollelado pue alent~dlo r u m 6ullomr all! uo pnna.)l~ede a r n e x q rl Guluarreuadaax 01916ulql lueuodlu~ alnlluinl rre16-Gu1loolpue sp~lue~Ad rlql IIV ssauliealpAepha*a qltmael aql.ufi#iap je~~lrnpul. IDIOI q ~ n ~ ol qslh* a~ 13allalul aql la rql!ll 'rlnolmlq6!~qul paladlualrlp lo a1rqM lea. ol 6u8h1 pue -poqlaur walsh'aql lo uollelraluollno Ell IP IPUOIPII aq~puehlaod qln'l l e sallodouau 61q fiu~unrsiluo~l.alr pue radeqr auredporae l u a < ~ ~ l l n r .u6#rap. 2 G e loo~dq>oqrA1116no~oql slmlqo 6ullr!ra ue ul .

design objects A r c / ~ ~ t e c t r ~the r e . from Europe to the United States and Japan. en~ployingcollage. ' % & a / - OFcao4i~ JmeC #'/&a h 16 Superprojects: Objects. Almost all the conceptual production was intended for catalogues. the monument. Y W . The professional "officc" continued its design activities. Hrrtogrdms (architecture of objects. Monuments. while entering into one of its most creatively engaged and controversially subversive periods. Cities This chapter surveys SUPERSTUDIO'S most provocative period from 1969 to 1971. &~Z%& ‘ . nor restored) 2. ~ n e n ~ b of from 1970 to 1972) 3. Euclue Ideal Cities (architecture of cities. . the city.I.first film to be produced and I~rterpl~~netaty e r the group by suIJensTuolo. storyboards and literary narratives. The Corrtitruorrs Monrrmmt (storyboard. ~vithAlessandro Poli. March 2003) Each of these three categories represents a concise theoretical engagement on one of the following disciplines in design and architecture: the object. architecture magazines and exhibitions. architecture and the city. with an audio-slide show. The most srriking images produced in the period found wide distribution internationally. with an audio-slide show to be re-enacted and recordcd in conjunction with the London exhibition. It was during these years that the group generated its most renowned body of work.1969-71 /Lmc. After successfully formulizing a critique on design. the u s of conceptual projects through group produced a ~ r o d i ~ i o set an innovative use of multi-media techniques. 1.

pile 'nnaq p a ~ u l o naql ~e aldlllls l o ' s a n ~ l l ~ qllqm'alualrlra 03 '$all 1~3113s1uhr aql lo UOllJnllrap ue lo1 s1eu61r'ruemr~tello rfieil a l l paul~apam sa!l)ej (laueal.I 10 aldlau~~d aqI q l q a u l pue:ra!l~l~q~rrod rlq ja luaudolanap tin) aql pui) plnoqr auobana 4114" U! Alalmr Lsua!lnlona~'ma" e aq ~l~mamanbarual 1~>86ojaq1 ' u e m p alnleu aql 01 u6!a~ol'AIA~IP fiu~~eua~le us re uaas ' y ~ o m a e ~ ~ ~ a d a ~ pue panlrlladr lo pua aql ueam am 'porn lo pua aql hg 'rlulod 6~81relr Ienba q1m 6uluul6aq ' r a l l ~ l ~ q ~ r r o d $1410luawdolanap aql u! rape161ualalllp q l e a ~up3 auahana q r q ul~ alelr ue~le~lleGa aaq mau e l o q3~earu! lapom l p ! m pue hqllela1q e SO h1!1 aql10 uo!leulmlIa aql 'lamod 10 ~ a j n l l n lleuloj l ~ aql l a uol~elnmnmeaql l o uol~eu~lu~l a ueam a~ 'h113 aql l o uolleulmlla aql hg 'nlalqo 101lou pus (rluamala alqerodr~ppue lennau l o uol11puo2 aq! 01 pampa. Aluo aq IIIM paau IIIM am rllalqo ail1 wnnlen e q l ! raneqr ~ m lo auo alrlrsam PUP ~o813allal 'q6noql ualjo or banal uollei6a1u1 101 aleleql ' s ~ o ~ rren qlnr rllalqo ul ra!l ~a6usphluo a q mnwlulw r ~ ~ r u a1e386em ln e 01 ruolle~adoampal am'uo~lenlsa~ r r a l l o a m ' a m ma1 e 4 1 1 ~ alnlorqr rl! rplrmol uo 1anu81u03 alq8ssod sl a111qllqm UI PUO a w a s W I O I .fiulllanal.rpaau $14ol 6~1p. a q ~ papualul A~~IBJIP.maql qllqm 6ul~nparoq! ale q6no~t11 a6 01 ho~lr ap01 lua6)n ramomq 11uaql seq 13aIqo aql q x t l IaPOqd~Omelam ~ 'paqaeaj aq hcm a y l 'Allleal l o alua~~adra uollsnllom 6u!hllapun aql la lenomar llal!p pue Allleal lo lillol D awo3aq 0. s jo ued $1 le!~rlalo>da q l o ~h1111q8sramr aesra~6ord)!a41 r r e l l Su!lnl aql hq parodold riapow jo uolrsa~dra 841 rlsqmAr rnlelr are nx!qo q 'OLU~PUOI 01 luawalnpu~hla~am$1 u6mp e -1041palllrel~o w 0 (rpaau eau fiupnpu! m a 'rpaau Lelund jo I '(q1191q19~1 AlJanod puolar p r: PUB 0 ~ 0 l q ssa11118n) 3 ulewal l l ! rl!sualn ~ aql 'pueq auo aql uo snql ruo!Ielado aldm!s q sl~suajn 'sassel3 6u!lnl aql hq parodm!.qi a a ~ q at(.!qm ul palean $ 1 pare pasol.ome'auobana 01 'ra!llledP1 rlq 01 ~UIPIO~IO 'auobana WO.fiu~psagano.or m m ajo~ ralxqan aql sno~. $11lo1 bl "el am 13aIq0 ue l o luqu!ql. ruo!lle qllqm rrauarlel jo amq.l~uo.adnr re 'a3ue3lllu6lr nl ja ualllnllrap aql 'malrAs aq! 01 13a!qo aql pu!q qllqm (apelmdr aql l o ved lelluarra us ~ ~ I ~ M ' S Uspell O I UPUO ~ salljed 1ew1od 6~1pnpu!. am a 6 w ! ar8leu~alleaql 1q611ol am03 AOM 1141 UI 'SUOII~UIWIIUOI ~noln~p!~ 'A~lpom' a ~ r a r u o'an86 l 'wlo]susll lo 311aqled 'molepuelr lrow p(naw 'me 01 paau aql re r6utq1 aqj alnll~rqnrhem am 'er.sllnpo~dII! ale q6noql llarll ralenladlad pup r13e qa~qm]h18!1os 110a6moqUI 'p'oqao Ant) 01 6u8p~omsa s ~ p u e q l ~ a ~ sum!^ 'Su!unsuol 'fiu~mpoldloh s a! ~ "8 hla8zor Axuo11n1ona~D 10 ~ o ~ l l n ~ ~ r u o l a q l a w n d olul ~ n aq d plnoqr . hldwa ue 'lr!xa o l $areal awnruol iabeq3 10 100q 01 luawa2npul ue S O ullsap uaw aql rl ralelr alelpa~lalull o booq1 uo~ldwnruol-uo~llnpo~d a q l laqlla ~ a l l o01 ran!leualle 10 sall snoll8~1)aq110 uoll810qeaql lea13ou seq pus (llau! aleu!wlla 01) PuaAaq'arn pue uo8llnpold uaamlaq eplxnr I!umolol a6elnol lua1~8jjnr r d ~ q r u o ~ ~loe luo!l>nrlruom8 a~ aneq IOU raop hla83or e uaw aqI q6nolql % 6 r u j o 'rraupanerlo luanbal) ramolaq r8soqd~owelayy 'qlhm 10 sanlen aql qllm papeolal 51 11 'I! saop lo . { 1 ~ 6 'f-2 1 ou 'ulu~pallriiqod lanelo) a q d allo ul hclr o l 'rpemou amolaq ol arooql am 11 'lnoqe PalIrF3 aq Allsea ue3 q31qr ' n ~ a l q o'allsual2sletl> I#atll lr6uome qleap lo aruar rlql areq q2.INeIlr. 9 woll salt amleu 10 alrlr P S~JO"OI hwapual s rc ralnllnns lewloj 10 UO~IOU!UII~ aql -Aluo a x o ~auo Aq puelaua6 uaaq B A P 10261 ~ a ~ . e no ]raw! l o boaql aql lo. aql lo rralold l u a ~ a l da q l r~roqd~omPlam $11 q~oa. o ja uot~.alqo ue oluo fiulueam l o .: 1.al 1el1601oqlhrd a111 q6no~q1pallala Apealle a ~ e qam q l i w OI IPII~SIP 10 h6alelir leg1 l o lled rl1. 10 salnqr~lls.ray] ja uorlannap aql "raw a n rlm!qo l o uolllnllrap aql hg palmuuo~Alarol3rluana a l e y l o m ) ~a)~emaddel!paql pue aq1p uollPulu!la aql 'rllalqo 10 u08lmnrap a q l x m .ruorn lo uo~sra~dxa saaluelen6 Gu!mla~'~0!13e 183160111 pue monu!luolr!p q6noql rlql pus '. s q $1~ qxem aql ul 'PI~M paPualrlp 'aualor alom e r! ~01181hlr lrsl aql UOII~P anlsens ue (a6emt ue 10 adoq aql hllea~rl q11qmJ 101 rlvllno aql alrdald hluo up.) rlla!qo qllm anll aA$ lcql os'lamod ul aroql hq parodmt r u o ~ ~ s l o u uaql o ~pue .uoil~nllrualal.~ P I ~ U O ~ ~aql J~W a11qh'mql ala1dmo3~1aq1 pull ue.n.o)bnlual r rlql u! alnllnl pue hlalmr ul ra6ueql aql (Ie moq aar uel am'hlaroll 8001am11 qrlqqnt lo rulelunow lo s~!sq3I!wala Inl#lneaq6u1u61sap hq dn pua l)!m am 'ar<rmaqlg'hlal3os ul II~II~II~ aql lo y'om aql jo (adaq e lo) eapl us lnoql!m 'aml!ulnl u61sap01 lo'u6lrap a~nllwnllnoqe alqlrrod $1 u ~ u ! qIOU ~ op aM ~I~JMOI .qn.an-aa!d pue q3n1'10111m D 10 alej~ns841 uo amllna ua ra~mjng aql lo a l ! l l s ~ d sc 'AIMQIS 'q. aql'r!rhleue q6noiql uollpn!lom u a ~ ~ s ~ ~ u n1r8.

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and almartaluay.one has eue. but everybody maginpi hlrn to be happy because he never orders anflhing. ~ n d ~ c a t ~the n ggroundcovered Lookat the perlectclly that producer Factory 4 miles wide and 100 yardr high lhke the clly 8 1 contlnuourly producer The Grand Fartory explo~Lr the land and the underground maler8als of the terrllory 11crosses. Ihe cltlzenr that lump the Ilghlr. the lerhaaal 8nnovat8onr. whoivant lo lake them along. from 11s back end The Grand Factory mover loward at a speed ol Iloot 2 112 ~nrherpel hour The plan of the rlly IS bared on a chequer-board of roads perpend8cular and parallel to llle Grand Factory. llfe ~ l e from r planlcullurer andantma1 breedlng The perieclon of (he mechanlrm IS such !ha1 the add~t~onatquanttt~er ol energy and rnaller brought ~nby h e Ilghr.l~ke everyone else. each one of which has a dtarneler 32 fcet less than theane beneah Each level IS 8 feel high. ~ h a t ~wllllrn r. wh~ch flllr the cavern 1toccup8er. The Ville-Mechina Habiles The clly 8s a machine. alter thlr penod. squarer. putl8ng the). and ale 29 y x d r rvlde roclenjr rejects. all ~nhab~tants of the citq. never needs anything It Is sad that Ihe cupola has plied up hew and lherolerl~tqtothe lerm~tqollhelr llghlr Aclually. ~ t ' r not pars8ble to trallrmll impulses to tha 8nltab1tants01 levels ye1 lurther dhvn nor lo ~nhab~tanoolone's wmlevel. but na. Ninlh City. ~ t i a k e r * from the outrldeivorldanly some rays 01 runllghl. lhar Is. are at ad~rartrantagel The lnhabllanls 01 Iho hlgherl levels who have very lew orders. nor rtlll less lo those llvlng a b u e Theorel8cally. apprenlly. damage clly property. the never-before. Its p~peltner.unt#l~tieaiherground level. connecung rods..al flred tlmer. lhe delr8tur and rubble that the rtly leaves belllnd 11 It Ir ~norder lo prerent the rillzens bemg reduced to such a despelale slate that lrom tllelr eallterl age they are lnrulralcdiv~lhthe ronrepl lhal everyone's g!ealertder~remust ativayr be a nnv house.where the mhab~tanlrl a m [he land. ordering Ihothlngs theyneed b m t h o r e l ~ v ~ n g beneath-he lnhabllanlr obta~n evewhing they require Eachderlle parser from coilrdmalor l o r 0 ordlnalor "nu1 It leaches the lowest levels. ca-ordinator.?Ihemorl urelul means of cllmblnglnalurally ~ndiu. surrounded bya canal 600 feet w ~ d eI1 lr lormedaf MOc~rcular levolsane above the oher. he thought of rumng the inhab~lantrlo thetr clry Now. new hourer and 11 8s in lart a city lhke any olher The only Ihng 8s that rt has been governed by the same mayor lor45 yearr The rearan lor h ~ long r stay ~nofftce IS rfmplo he has an er~ept~onally g o d idea Insteadof trying to rult Ihe city lo Its Inhab~lantr. receive. 111s porriblelorelure to obey Iheofderr comng fromtlle mhab8enIr of the llmr abave.raundrog the cupala. through the. gardens.000 leel. wandall other med~aronl~nually advert~reIhe marvellous novetller af the new houses. 261 x 261 yards.ivo~kadmanulactureabteclr to ral~rtylhedemands01 the Inhabilanr of the upper levels Twice aday. 11opens up a recllon for a few seconds to admit the I ~ c k yone. heads (ma lheopenrngr gwng on lo the central space. mador Insane w~lhgoodrlocontnbule to tile grealer prosperlly of our graat counlryand Ihe bcuer forluner olour well-loved rhareholderr parallel road next to them 8n 3 days The grealert arplrauon of everyclslen 1 5 to move more and more ohen 8nlo ~nd#v~duals. compla~nabout the unpunclual~tqofthe buses or !he lark oftvalerat the timer 11s most needed.conveyorbells. 118s h e p8ler 01 bodler lhal prowd. ruch a large mach~nethat not even 11s lnhabllanls knmv 11s rze. bulthe sense of gu1ltder8v8ng from lhls rebellton srogreal and provokes ruch lnlenre monlal rullerlnri rhalonlva l e w u n bear ~ t l olong i Throughth8i ryrlem-lhal~r.here mamellourly arrarts all that 11requres for tho ronrtlurLion 01 the clly The Grand Farlorydevourr shreds of urelorr nature and unformed m~noralsa1 11sfront end and emllr recllons of completely folmed clly. which apparently has noopenlng at all 118s sad lhal 11one tauihcr a paillculal spa1 on ltr surface. oblectr.eme.lr t<anrlormed rile machine producer ferl~ltierr . nolh~ng strange aboul~r11has rseelr.ged l r m the ("pala la jell the others about 11. thmgr are rlanlng logo really well.way one looks. a>rand water became rurplur Any residue. and from . lharedethraned On the terrace ru. es are ever fewer Aclually. Conlcal Tanaced City The clly rlrer ~nthe mcdrlof a groat plain. stretch away out of rqhtrh~cheve. by chutes and pneumatic tuber The marlllne ISrcll-ruffoent.11ghL grey and foggy. each rccerr8ve level has 13 doors less The 5Wlh level has only 13doorr.45 yearr later.dualrwllh lam~l~pr. lrom the lhoure for more lhan four yearr after 11s conrlrucl#on.500doorr. anflhtnr) that d~er.The mart myrler8our querlron rr what happens la the prev80ur mhab~lantrof the cupola. roll dare to wander amongst Ihe rulnr.wkrng 1118 mlll~on~ n l ~ a b ~ t aon n tar rlde lllraugh valloyi and hlllr. and $1I S for thsa fearon lhal the nervrpaperr. In the c~aumlerencewall of each level are daatr 2 1 7 feet A1 giound level there are 6. meif. 11recreawr.reen romlo!lr What cobid be mole f a r r # n ~ l # nand g fearruring than the rperlarle of the famlher that dally drive up the perpendcular raadr tn lhe rpeclal grounds andcongralulater you' What hourcould be happier than when you enter your ncu home and . ready for use. and erperlally thore on the very hlghert.iulth anellon.000 leel. as soon as a cit~zencomm~o some 159 . lhur the lotal height 8s 4. City ol Order Thlr c t y has. while llle d~ameter01 the lorverl level lr 16. a programme af diearns emlned by the man lhvlng ~n the cupola at the lop No one knows how the man l#v#ng ~n the cupola Ilver. who have none at all.Its rows of gear-mechan~rmr. air andwaler nch with the mlneial raltr 01 Ihe eanh 11 looks after 11slnhabllanlr by elabaratlng and rynthtr\i<ngIhe subslancer or~g~nally placed ~nI. the roads reparato rquaro blorkr. and above walls IS 16 leet The mar8mum dlstare behveen !he Iworad~alwalls and the helghtol the room IS 7 In through bran impulseslooneor more ~nllab~tanls Ineveimore Lllan Iue at the same amel lhv~ngoo the level beneath theone onwhch 86 owner Ises. a body has never bean laund . rom~nually endeavour to gel 8nto 1he rupala.Tenth City.Eighth Clty.. ~nthe dim hall.and lhore walls have never beenreen The mhabllantr ltve m Ls machine endlessly dragged along by conveyor bells.

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