Cities 175 1972-73. Monuments. Supersimple: Elementary Architecture 228 Superstudio: Biographies 229 Superstudio: Exhibitions and Bibliography . Superprojects: Objects.11 Only Architecture Will Be O u r Lives Peter Lung and \Y/ill~ar~ Menkiig 31 Suicidal Desires Peter Long 53 The Revolt of the Object ~vrllifl~>r r~Ier1kir1g 65 Memories of Superstudio Cristiarro k r a l d o d i Frarrcia 73 A House of Calm Serenity Adolfo Na~alini 79 Journey to the End of Architecture Piero Frassirrelli 84 Reflected Architecture Superstudio: Historic Projects 95 119 1 9 6 6 6 8 . Superesistcnce: Life and Death 213 1974-78. Superarchitecture: to the Rescue! 1969-71.

SUPERSTUDIO. t o put thir~gs I I !Ij frrture irr w h i c l ~a l l arcl~itec~ure tuill be created w i t h a s i r ~ ~oct. ourrelues. those activities ofdesigrr adopting perhaps the theory ofrrrinirrral force i n a ~ e r r e m"process l of rrdrrctiorl".ever.I $ ~ For those w l ~ o like . are conuirrced that arcl~itecturcis one ofthefew wags t o realize cosrrric order on earth. pyrarrrids. 196Y I J 5 I:.i: fi 11 . . ho\r.. the errors ofnrarr arrd the bestiality of architecture. I :: 11 .. nrrtlhirs.ob~ecrsarrd similar household decorariotrs ruas rro solutiorr t o problnrrs of liuirrg arrd 1101 euerr t o those of life. le I frorrr a srrigle desrgn capable o f c l a r r ~ r n gonce arrd for a l l the rrrotiue. The Corrfirruous Morrunrenr: Atr Arrhirec~ural Model for Total Urbanrzation. I t becarrre clear that rro beautrfication or c o s ~ ~ ~ e~rui ce r entfficiio7t t o rerrredy the darlrage of tinre. suffic~entspace to explore ~ndlv~dual groups or speclfic actlons In greater deta~l'Though the many e ~ h ~ b ~ t l and o n sdustrated catalogues have done a respectable 1: .r ruhich have irrdrrced rrran t o build dolrrrens. arrd cue12 less could i t serue t o save one's otun soul. it is a "rrroderate utopia" t o frrragirre a riear In .ronl most g r a p h ~ caspects of these 1960s protagonists to today's pub11c The collect~veshows lack. and bstly t o trnce (ultirrra ratio) n luhrre line rn the desert. t o order arrd abouc a l l t o affirtrr hrrrrrarrityi capacityfor acting accordir~gl o reasorr.Peter b n g Only Architecture Will Be Our Lives a ~ i dI V ~ l l t a mMenk~ng 111 thore years i t becarrrc uery clear that 10 contirrue t o dcsigr~ fiirrrrrr~re. The oroblern therefore was that o f irrcreasirr~delac/~rrrenl frorrz . .

While clearly a thirty-year hiatus suggests a certain amount of aging many of the principal actors remain highIv enereetic and active in the field while their works remain tucked we are ironically trawling into a new kind of pop-~rpculture! What remains to be seen. is whether the recent 1960s' revival emerging in the schools and in some of the more progressive of. William Menking). Monuo1cnts. was deliberately intended to strip architecture of everything except its most naked living truth. 1974-78: s u ~ > e ~ i ~ n Elementary ple: Architecture In Part I1 each chapter engages in a specific historical moment and providcs related documentation on SUI~E~STUDIO'S theoretical and '1 L 1 '1 ! 1 $: ! 1. 1969-71: SUI'Ellproj~ctr:Objects. 1 2 This publication is structured into two basic parts. in its current socalled free market state is spinning steadily out of control: the small percentage of the global population still able to command evocative images. This publication has therefore been planncd and organizcd to seme as a portable reference focusing primarily on s u ~ e n s r u ~ r o ' s critical writings i ~ relation r to their better-known body of designs and architecture. For this reason we have decided to initiate an operation of recovery. though their current identities are not always transparently linked to their epic endeavours of youth. Piero Frassinelli and Alessandro Magris were sewed to indoctrinate society into an irrelevant culture of con- rators were trusted with their time and given open access to their remaining collection of projects and library.12 iI job of d ~ s s e m l n a t l nand ~ consequently revlvlng the works of a predoni~nanrlvEuropean Rdd~calarchttecture movement over the last the world's apparently boundless resources is now having to fight to retain that dubious right. N o better moment.' Scant little ning of the new millennium. restituting in the process those projects and writings -critical texts and storyboards . ~reciselvhere in Florence. Each group challenged and eventuallv cia. And just as Italy's cconomic miracle mary materials from this period are simply hard to come by: This is particularly unfortunate for SUI'BKIUDIO who seem to have acquired the role as the Radical movement's cover-child. and includes the retrospective testimonials and critical reflections from three of S U I ~ E I ~ T U Dnlembers: IO'S Adolfo Natalini. 196G68: S U I ' E W ~ C ~ ~ I C C I U ~to 2. Part I features the nvo curators' essays exanlining SUPEIUTUDIO'S history within the Florentine context ("Suicidal Desires". these inlages can only partly convey the complete historical passage. creating a monument to end all monuments. Cities 3. 1972-73: SUI'ERexlsle~lce: Life and Death 4. the series beginning in 1969 titled The Conlinuor~sMonumen~. O n e of the most unexpected conclusions we as curators can draw from our invo~vementwith SUI'ERSTUDIO is just how conscious the group was from the outset of the historical importance of its investigations: SUPElUTUDlO maintains an impressive archive that from the start nieticulously docutnents the unfolding process of its critical research.that are far less familiar but entirely necessary in providing a more complete understanding of the group's oeuvre. Since none of these takes place in the distant past. their conscious withdrawal from the perverse system based on the con~mercialisationof popular demand.i p 4 $: 13 4 . Cristiano Toraldo di Francia and Piero Frassinelli. Roberto Maeris. Part I1 is divided into the following four chapters: E the Rescue! 1. and an essay on s u ~ e ~ u r u ~ rpenultimate o's moment on the larger international sccne ("The Revolt of the Object". however.' H A definitive and momentous transformation took place in the design and architectural environment by the late 1960s: the increasingly debilitating crisis in Modernist architecture would find some of its most laconic last acts played out on the drawing boards :. Peter Lang).spread its glacially translucent grid structures throughout entire regions of the planet enveloping buildings and entire cities. most of the original protagonists are still very active on the scene. s u l m STUDIO'S renouncement of architecture. then. 'l'he timing for this revived interest in the 1960s' counter-culture is not that arbitrary either: we are again at a point where the convergence of technology and consumeristn. While it's evident upon examining the material presented here that their most renowned images describe the momentous steps in thc group's philosophical development.$ P fices goes beyond mere fashion trends. to turn back the pages of history to that previous era when a similarly ample crisis ripped through rhe world economies: welcome to Italy in the understanding SUPEIISTUDIO'S provenance and the group's relationship to the many cultural currents evolving through the European avant-garde in the 1960s.

primitive technologies. writing in 1973. T h e weakness in establishing .'" In effect. while devoting considerably less time to the msny provincial accents buried in the chaos of translation. another Radical player active at the time in Florence. nomadism. storyboards and photos. gave this impression on the breadth of Radical movement: "Today the term 'Radical' architecture assembles at the international level all of the eccentric experimentation with regard to the straight line of the profession: counterdesign. one of the founding members of Archizoom. it has been conceived as a work of consultation and reflection. as clearly those who saw themselves as neodadists were not necessarily willing to also act as nomadisrs.. we believe. neodadism. the story of just how the two groups were founded is tied as much to circumstances as it was to a prescient vision. was asked by the Jolly gallery in Pistoia to mount a second show of his paintings in November 1966. Paolo Deganello and Massimo Morozzi chose the des- his exhibition manifesto.ithin Florentine circle of visionary architects there \\. insists on giving the movelnent a more sinuously fluid radiance. through publications. Andrea Branzi. In- to Corretti. While this publication is nor intended to become a catalogue raisonnk on the works of SUI>ERSTUDIO. in the often-contradictory positions held by these distinctive activist groups. whose works result from far deeper frustrations characterizing the profession in Europe. we the scenes."' Gianni Pettena.! practical responses. iconoclasm. albeit with continental distinctions. lent term that suggests different and clearly contrasting meanings. Radical architecture is an a m b i g ~ ~ omultive. and local cultural wrangling. eclecticism. This introductory essay will navigate through some of the peak episodes that mark SUPERSTUDIO'S architectural pro- the catchall phrase used to regroup the variety of tendencies that have aspired to shake off the liegemonic grip of modernist archius tecture in the 1960s. conceptual architecture. Pettena's panoramic view of the movement correctly depicts the international exchanges. .'' circle in the early 1960s. The goal is to publish the group's niost significant projects along with a related collection of images and their accompanying writings. Here every atteliipt has been made to pair significant texts and storyboards to their corresponding architectural projects. weaving the 111g o r ~ o ~experiments ir of the Californian Radicals to the more self-conscious language emerging in England. misreading. Branzi's intent was to underscore just how insidiously the work of such a diverse num14 ber of subversive credos were penetrating the 1960s' mainstream The quickest link between the two groups SUPERSTUDIO and coming out of a particularly Florentine phenomenon that could.ere several contradictory positions regarding the role of ilrchitecrurc and design -let alone radical politics.. Austria and Italy.In umbrella definition for the Radical architecture movement therefore remains. Finally Emilio Ambasz's conception for T h e Neru Dorncrtic Lorzdrcope makes the point that even \\. encounters and exhibitions. The Radical bind between the groups does not necessarily imply that there were common denominators linking one to another.

cinema and dada. an Italian national holiday. adding his experience in working within the industrial design field. it would take roughly a year for Adolfo Natalini and Cristi:mo Toraldo di Francia to collectively gather their forces to give a philosophical foundation to SUPERSTUDIO. influenced him to study Louis Kahn.December 196G Adolo Nalalnl.'' Over the course of 1967. This pictorial exege- /1 1 P~sloia. the unsuspecting user \vould find him or herself bccoming part of the critical process of the design. assemblies from exisring manufactured productions. Natalini's thesis project on an art centre for Florence. The storyboard narrative. such as collage. Shortly aftenvards they founded together the first SupERSTuDlo office at Via Bellosguardo 1. ICr#rliano Toraldo dl Francla 1s laklng the p ~ c ~ u r e l ! . Natalini recounts how he found himself almost under water as he worked through the night on the graphics for the Modena exhibition poster. a "Machine for Vacations". in that they attempted to create more than a semblance of a legitimate practice. lagging a bit behind Archizoom. and as such producers of designs and objects that would be over-loaded with symbolism and poetic content. The second category. on the architecture of the image." From these preliminary three categories developed the first major critical project proposed by SUPERSTUDIO:the Journey info theRea11n ojReason. who knew of a place to rent on high ground. 2 6 progressive visions on man and his relation to the built environment. They were "super-operators". pop art. a background that provided him with exceptional skills in writing and storytelling. while all the while seeking to enzlsperate the per" charged actions. The "super" code of conduct required that homes and offices of a prospecrive well-off clientele. inspired the graphic-visual research behind the beguiling renderings that became the group's renowned signature. Andrea Bran28 and Masslmo Morozz. the "architecture of the image".ln Toraldo di Francis's university thesis set the stage for a scientific-based research. the Arno river overran its banks. such as ." In need of a dry place ro work. Piero Frassinelli joined SUPERSI'UDIO in early April 1968. . Natalini went to his friend Cristiano Toraldo di Francia. Fmssinelli's university research combined anthropology with architecture.. appropriating from diverse sources. and "tecnomorphic architecture". represented a dialectical investigation into technology and the evolving social realm.16 first date would have turned out to be catastrophic. In 1967 Roberto Magris entered the Bellosguardo office. already developed as a form office.. a work that he himself has qualified as a work benveen "pop and the monumental". Natalini's 1966 thesis on the Palazzo dell'Arte served as the initial genesis for the group's work on the architecture of the monument. begun in 1964 under the direction of Leonardo Savioli. or adaptations from outside industries.'~oraldodi Franciak thesis presented in 1968. O n 4 November. later developed with greater refinement in the competition for the Fortezza da Basso completed in 1967. using technology as an interface medium for architecture. an illustrated storyboard created to serve as "maps for orientation . From Kahn." In fact. Natalini immersed himself in the history of monuments." describing the unfolding relationship benveen natural and artificial environments. SuPERSTuDIO laboured to establish three categories for future research: the "architecture of the monument". As SUPERSTUDIO'S designs confounded the sense of scale and objective significance. The making and shaping of these objects were consistently related to bricolage techniques. SUPERSTUDIO really only appears in some kind of recognizable form some time after the second show in Modena. The architecture of the image provoked an extensive visual experimentation into techniques and appliques. flooding Florence and the rest of the valley.

.. s u P c n s T u D r o made yet another leap foniard. and consequently another level of poverty" '"Havlng recoenlzed the futllltv of the strategy. -. 19 . The surface of such hisroarams was homo- j/l I were also called 'the tombs of the architects'". furniture. Mantcllato olllce 1981 1 _ e m in had become powerful tool for all 11s bare slmJust l ~ k the pllclty. S U P E ~ T U D I Oretrenched. nonetheless came in the shape of a riddle. to engage In a life long " be in Every object has a 4 pract~calfunctlon and a contemplative one and ~tIS the latter that evasion d e s ~ g n1s seeklng to potentlate Thus there 1s an end to the $ 19th-century myths of reason as the explanation of everything. nor have they ever mattered much. But all these things didn't matter much.. the 5 thousand varlat~onson the theme of the four leaned chalr.j I with the four members posing at its base. From the catalogue of histograms followed effortlessly objects. a catalogue of histograms of architmure with reference to a grid transportable in diverse areas or scales for the edification of a nature both serene and immobile in mhich we might finally recognize (re-know) ourselves.. a morbid group critique." !. A sort of death wish so beautiful and entrancing that the message really didn't seem to matter.ha vfa ~ C I I L i these subvers~veobjects they reallzed " l n ~ t ~ a t ea dnew level of con sumerlsm. The image. and an owl in the forefront gliding straight towards the viewer. abandoning the last vestiges of a market-driven architecture. I i 1!11 - - 1 i! /!i/I! /I/ /I! !t! 111 . environments and architecture. erasing once and for all I plest a physlcal bar graph. the addltlon of the histograms to the ij I i for other more pressing activities. "We prepared a catalogue of tri-dimensional non-contin"ous diagrams. aero I ' 1' I!. SUPERSTUDIO called for people " to live l ~ k eone long protest ".suporr~d~o tn .

.

. ' Bcyoncl the rule of thc perforrn~nceprinciple" noted Framp.~tIi ~ A~lolfoNat~linifollowed. " According to Frnml)ron. to lack legibilirv turrnsrunro c<lnscio~~sly examined each u laycr ~n the proccss of <lesign 2nd arch~tcctureand butlt its alter. b~. we mean the end of spcci:~lize~l on4 rcpcritive work Seen as an sewe~l:'' . looking for n new freeeg~litarianm t e . hncl sent our scvera1 dozcn copies of the 7ir.\lotrr~rnr. 7hlr." Charles Jencks preferred to inrcrprct I%eCbt~trnt~utrr .totnlly uselcss an11 by clcs~gnauto-destructive" ' ~ ~ ~nllchncarer to the Frampton's read on \ u P r n r l ~ ocomes group's original intent. Natal~ni.fictionIsndscape in which nature had been rcndcrcd benevolent '. unltu and divide 3ccording to the ~ncolnprehensit.nntive para<ligm.but instcnd J plisntom projection across. ton. they will rncvitat>ly bc crushucl by 11s mach~nery. ~ c t e r i r c das defit~lng11fe In tcrms of instruments .reduced to the con<lirionof ncurro! and disposable elements) 2nd nor for objects.~l.SUPLRSTUDIO. le f ~ c e din mirror-&ss. "'l'he i n h ~ b ~ t a nIlve t s ~n the machine endlessly drugged along Ijy conveyor bclrs. ' u . I1 . to thc <lcpicrlon of 3 sr~ence. should not be ~nterprete<l as n monulnent.g~nning from equal starting i)oinrs. \\. 111ahnost evcry "lded" city the pre<lominant tlic~nuu.~lse.. along the innumcrJbls routcs \vliich intersccr.in any event.lr: I'rr~ttronitio. Dy thc elimination o i thc city.~ltcre<l spari.Kenneth Frampton's interpretation of S U I ~ ~ K S ~picked ~ D I O up on a counter c ~ ~ l t umessage.i'The whole operation.il form occupying an existing Ian~lscope. 'l'he revieu~errum~rkccl. rthcy .here one might think of d c v i a ~ ~ n . anti-futurisr :~ncltechnologicslly optimistic utopia .". started in 1966 ~~y'~. sleep an11 juy.g . surlLmrunro projecte<l n sllenr. where v~siblc. Once SUPLKS'rLDIO finlshcrl p r o d ~ l c ~ nthe lislicd a short uns~gneclreview on pagc 29 titlcd '12 Citti dcl futuro" ( I 2 cities of the future^.rirtm.\lutrdu's cultural c<litorduring tlicsc ycars wns l t ~ l o ZI . n~ficnntthat (~JI'LRSIUUIO chose to represent sucl~3 non-repress~ve world in terms of an arcl~itecruret h ~ was t virtually invis~blc. C'utrt~trr~utrr. . r~l that he recognized to be veiled bclou the image itself.r to Italiar p ~ p e r s including .\lonr~t?ti9trt 35 3Jacobin ~rchitecture. u.c mean tlie destr~ctionof their artributes of 'srarus' 2nd the conr~ot. onc step ~t t i ~ n e As Natalini cmphasizc~l "By tht. appe~ringin the D ~ e l n b e rI971 I S S U ~of AD.11 f i r . Frampton may t. By the e n J of work. h ~ c hthe philosopher Herberr Marcuse had alread) char.~ e e 2 h D ' c " """e"" ' 'I ban sign and proclucing a scricr oivignertcs illustrating . we m a n tlic elin~in:~rion of the accumulation of formal strucd tures of power .".\lyrticol RL.\lotrdu. by chutes and pneulnaric tubes from tllc time of birth to rhc rilnc of death The machine takes c ~ r of e cvc~thing.I.ten~por."~~.rcvo~utionorybu! despotic He failed ulrlrnately in recollciling tlic ironic self-cr~tquethat functione~lCIS a ~l~sorclering col~rrolmcclinnis~n Fur if Jencks was not convinced that the Monument's haunting mcss~gccoul<lbe so f.3 strangely . exccpt ~nsome cast. l solnetimes also rcbcll~on."l'hc 21ternativc 1)rol)os3lsby Super-studio' appear in succusslon Inscd on ar! im~ginary. .lvL.os aI)out blind fnitli in rcclinological salvntion and the looming cffccrr of the A m c r i c a ~ ~ i z ~ t ~ o n or) hobitants.". well 11131if they get off r l i e o b l ~ g ~ r rou:es o r ~ established by the InJchine. bilities. destruction of objects.~r/ ~vasnor so cloakc<lin irony alld alnbigul. .y powcr. In \vIiich cveryone can reach <lifferenr gralles in the rlcveloprncnt of his possi. Thc inhi~bitnntsf ~ n dfood and (car. I1 .birrhu/ Ur.~lsoconfirms tl1. sex n l ~ dhope.or.e suggesting. led by Adolfo Nntalinl.iml)oss~ble:lnJ playfid archirectu~"An i n r c w .I world from which consumer goods had !xen elilninated Their work varied from the projection of v ~ s ~t m ~ c n e t r n bmeg.'.bur thcy know very death ~ n l anger.o e ~ ~ ~ ~ n : ~ c l .':"I ro produce a body of work which was more or less divided betwecn representing the form of . ~ I I 111s I commentary .ltions ilnposcd t.lnrl consumer gooJs. so that we live w ~ t hobjects .the elimin~tionof thc clty 3s Ilier~rchy~ n social model.rro/thr.".s . ""' Lrlcr /or C'l..lcprogrnmming o l the m ~ c h i n c .~l~rhs. ' . bfitrrmi. ' i t 15 s ~ g .:$'~~.~l cont~nuu:~~. I."" g 7ir r9lve 7 ~ l r . \!.I 'Continuous Monument' as a mute ur.

As they describe it is " . a reconsideration of thc relations between the process of design and the environment through . Calvino's short stories had a vast influence on the general public. In the catalogue this image is the foil for another."She is depicted sadly marooned amid her appliances on r small grass island in the middle of a plane "wirhout any messages in bottles"." A poetic re~niseerr sci. seen feedme on reconsideration of domestic space. . not to mention a whole generation of architects.rUDIOcollage their slick drawings of satellites. In addi- titr~rorrsr M o . but nonetheless powerful precisely because the hypcr-gadgetry of space-capsule life is suddenly reduced to a tribal ritc. to switch roles. ~ a . Srrpcrsurfnce and remain one of their outside this burdensome dichotomy. the group moved to espouse the complete reversal of the normative condition. ~ e rindecorously i~ neutralized layers of gratuitous his- logue.'" This project.UI'EIISTU!JIOoarticioated in thc Museum of Modern to remove all commercially driven clutter from the object.~are the histogram objects that penetrate the galaxy. . o r the architecture: as in their FiueSuburbor~I'illos project. beginning with the MOCIA show. urhich portrays a youthful sybarite world of nomadic pleasures not enslaved to designed objects of mass consumption but free to experience their a nostalgia precisely for primal knowledge on earth. desert landscapes and people in the act of fa- the effects arc indeed at times simplistic. Another cautionary tale? Also durine this time sulJaHs. which took the form of a small plastic model. SUI'ERSTUDIO'S incursion into the world of film begins far from earth: evcrvrhinn. I' 1 torical symbolisms associated with the making of monumental ar- V ? k f iijjl $jilt fi!ig (jp . sought to re-conceptualize the position of urchitecture altogether They discarded the role of the c r e n o r the d e signer.what kind of influence would the svPEllsruD1o piece have had on Calvino if he had indeed read it in 1971 .i id pi . repeated ro infinity in a cubed light box." The images reproduced in the catalogue ore nine variations from their film project Life.~iein which the real protegonis. co find architecture in one's olun life. SUPERS. the architect. each super- Their ~ n s s f l o rplastic ~ lamp was selected by the show's c u n t o r Emilio Ambasz for the "Obiects" section of the exhibit.lroin. In 1972 I.In alter~lativemodel of existence".ruolo began the production of its I background In one rnemorable scene w h ~ l ethe rhythlns are heard n~elodlcallvIn the backeround the astronauts. SUIXI&UDIO. "from the moon to the planets is archi- "no intention of doing withoutn. Instead.the coincidence nonetheless renlains intriguing.I Though the connection remains speculative . T h e Disinril Mou.

r) were completed in f ~ l ~version. never renl~zcdw:rhln r h ~ ss:lmc enselnble.Icfr srrs in motion such a level of dcstabtlization that there would in f. play. of course. After 1973..ere t .lr) c building blocks ~hemsclvcs. thv decisions on the Accepting his rolc.hut nlso the rigours of poverty.iry that \\.~ry nrcli~tcct. to t l ~ prlm.:r. sUllEalulIto's rn3nifcsto states: "Architecture never touches the great thelnes. you c. The prolecr.r/c. 'rhc FILCF ! l ~ ~ d r ~ t ~Acts ~ ~ ~\\.thc differcnce Ires only in the quantities i r ~ of ltv~nghnvc 31rc3dy hcen made. the stor)boards for the I:r~cF I O I ~ ~ I I I Lwere ~ Nd~~ ~d ~/ c~t ~i cC ~ T In nnturc.oriented 1 cxplolt3tion of the deigrl profession Of course tlils would he hy riow irnposs~blcto persevere.r~Co~tt~~tt.ble :~fterwnrds. was screened for the MO\IA exhibition TI>?Nero Do. Rut it should be c l e x that \\. ~ y s ~ .rrt.iction poss..rlirough .r/. St~prrrt~r/acc and Ccre.~rchitccturelnovemcnt.iriori of architccturc becomes the centre of our reductive process.' C P ~ L ~ I Iwns IOI~) shot IIVC ~n Florcncc the follo\v~n. co~~tplrt on Iifc. a sliort-IivcJ but s~gri~ficont mcctlrlg of niirids bcrwccn rlic far flurig rncmbcrs of the Radical . succeeded In cleansing ~ r c h i tccture of all so-rces of contamlnntlon The only quancl. I\rcliitecturc relnains 3t the limit. furnishing answers to rigidly stated problems Even if 11s answers .no sequel truly possible.11Act Death wns set to a slidc show a t t h nn audlo soundtrack. The move cotr~cidedwith rhe co-tounding ot Global Tools 111 1973. reconsrirutcs thcmselves as best 3s the) cln.~rrtrcLn~~drcapc ~n 1972. Lo1 C.I tempts to rake arcliitccturc onto n dlffcrent philosophic~lplnte. The resc3rcli and tcrial Cultt. given the rnentir~griot just the style of life 111 the far renchcs of the Italian cour~tryslde. Ct. . the nrchitcct bccolnes nccornplice to the rnachu~at~or~s of the system Then the av... ns Peter Lang polnts our in Su~cirlnlDesirss". and Death. \vhcn you c3n expcrlencc 11 through merely I l v ~ n when ~ . Renvecn 1972 2nd 1973.t.hen ) o u have the chance ro hcgln all over. orily I.~to~ty.1~1he ~lrnostno recourse to . of tre~nc. is what does In fact arcli~rccturclook likc \\. year: The illustr:~tedtcxts for thc Frfih Ftorda111e.energy conscrvntion. distributed recourses.n. n SNpr. This tent~ttveanthropologicnl and ph~losophicalfound.in move freely 3cross the lsndscnpe rns~den clty of tlic mind' File Ftrndarnrtifol .in inrensivc aca- Solo charr dcrnically founded stilrl) on the making of peasnnt tools and sheltcrj. Carrhrllo published $I'PEIL%TL'DIO~ ttor y b o ~ r d s~ n texts d for t l ~ cF I I CF1~11da. now. 26 strurncnts nccuratcly predisposrd to avold nny dev~arion 'rhc working-class holnc rcsernbles a st3tcly vllln in the sarnc 1t13y3s tlie dcsi<n of 3 Radical . a collage anllnntion with its flnnl scquencc filmcd outdoors in nature with n )oung couple."" SUI'LIISTUD!~. usually when hchnviour 113s dreadYbeen entlrely codified.Ire nberr:lnt or evn. 7 1published In series in rtor) honrd forrnx. d conternplntes the existence of rhc architect. one lnlght nrgue.it.:. the work of x P c u n r ) ~ oentered by fiar into 3 seconcl plirse ~ r wliicli i the group.int-gnrdc architect f d s one of the nost r~gldlyhxed roles dike the young lover 111 p l .ndousscope ~ n vision.r/e.rn.~trr Alo~tIO?IPN~. arid Intcrvenes only 31 3 ccrta~ripoint in tlic process.irchitect that of :~riacadernlc or re:~ction. the W I I II ( .auld r e m a n .rc project suggests some very inrerest~ngaltcrnntive p ~ h to s folio\\. liowcver. 3 r d multiple uses.111.7l . Coriccivcd as :an experimental film opus. Edtica!to. Llke the one for T/>/. It Iielpcd to dcvclop liantly creative i r i the use of rcc)cled matcri~ls. by shifting llle ~ O C L I of S the11 resenrch on. the fundnrnen131 tliclncs of our lives.hat S L I ' E R ~ T U D ~ ~ brought to their phase of research was the intcrisivc desire not to repeat the forrnul~t h ~ would r onl) serve to prolorig the conuncr~ 1 3rnnrkct. nonetheless moved parallel with the S U I ~ C R \ur~ro's I sccond phase oiproduction. Their collecrivc s t r ~ t c g ~ ethough s. Bctr: I.~o.

s u ~ r t a .rd 1 Kad?c~lr.ilh soundrrack. Brrnzi.I~chitcc~~~r(~. hibirion cnr.~~irrbc. Rouillard.lortr"l.' Nuvoncand R. Knrding~helrdlidnRroupa. our. inrcr!. dirbdndcd g~ncrrl.rh. wcrc b. ed.llogoe (Flo.14). : ' .l e l i a n ro C n ~ l i r hfor thc qu~cklocriricire~hcmoveI C I ~ I ~ M ~ I > . 1973..r cent ~nrervieu.. Irrrerplioi~~~u~.iez. c r i t i c r ~look l at the objects that surround our lives. Thc cy o f aut'altiruolo rec D . rcprinted in /'I. mucll emphasis on thc L...11~:Design and Archifoundcn in 1966.in rhc 1990s lo b c r ~ c r a bix rhcmc .. m d Almsandm M a g r ~ s ~ ~ n"d Roben Vcnruri. cxh~hirlon tisenlenrr chsr ere increar. opniznble lungudgc" r n d rhdr ir encornpurred ". concetved ro displt~y primsrily thusis projec. : Pop-ups ure thole n.>n: CdiS.sr~~. no erclliblay ZOO1 iBlrcclon.Riley. !r.d Anchor Uookr.e.l: Di..r~clrrre .e\.~~ostn.l'. 31). ~r.mr rubdccicr rr chc Ava~ir-Gurdc.c 6 1 ~ ~ 1 Oadminirrcr : ixr current and 1Villi.r.th Dcyong plsced roo hlonumenrContinu 1969". i r too A aut. dr Ve.. ~ f ~ r r ~r b c l l o r ~ w r d G i / ~ ~<. i n VI b b g r i r joincd i n 1967. 19).~ h e r u r h o nbeliwc.~.~tely to un-design their surroundings like no other group before or after them.lr. ~ i o r r n i Wr.G~rrdc. Dccember 1969).mg iMil. of arustic pracricer. Orlztndini. Redicale".mg.r L.i(. Dcnisc It B..l rion (Ne\r.i.per/ior merabolis~r'influences re. Percr L ~ n y l i ~ ~ ~ l 0 f ~ u 1 ~ 1 3bucn.C.rrro. cx. Sco~rBmunnndS~wcLen1' 011 lcfi rhc group in 1972..com.lm Menkinx. m.ithour t ~ d ~ c r i h t h c s p e c ~ f i c r n . .iUo.rrenirrri. i n 1986.lnal.Aleaarndro Poli i n 1970. aut~t. Archr/c~!~.rr. :" I'erer b~.1<b.~rsinelliin 1968 mdicdcnle icir.. Brrnri strc>serlin . rm~rof~iDirp.rrcrrrr nalrnb. Ne\v York.~?rd:Arrr ?brc. ri.n. I4 Decembcr 2002) " For rhe lncn>hcrs o f 1982.18--19. 7 December 2002).iblilun: Docu. " rbrd 2. 1974.tr.April 2001. to its soundrmck. \vho.~g~/n.c. ofiirelev.r u ~ > ~'His~o. "M~.Villcursulan.ru IY68-IY8Y.t.lr "not . I~L. hibir.thclla. rrcbi~cc~urei~~..>nne. sibly Ins h r r n ~ f uonly l bcMureurn o f Modern Arr (New York: .rrolc .ir11 Adolfo h'. \/I/iria. The (%d. tnenti di C.siuoto. 'The Con. 481. "Supcrr~udio: c u r e ir seldom gels builr. lb. coined by Ccrmnno CrLnr to describc . ~n1. Dcyonp.elf i .eshi.If SUI~EWTUDIOhas succeeded in contributing to any particure it would be not so much lar lesson to inventing a f ~ ~ t uarchitecture. rcnce: Ven~ll.Jt~nuoryinternrrionsl journals and metx: 'IIo\r. Urban Foturc". (no.ICJIO~~~.r. " {hid ". York: a!oat.moricao f ciun". Sourif... in' ' 28 ic.s. 2002). 80).lrcc.\ruolc tcrts from Radical community. D .Du.. 1972..115.I rc~l..1996). We are far enough along again to perform similarly criticnl interrogations and we hope as the editors of this project that SUPCRSTUDIO'S contribution may be to take another. or perhaps more appropri.Lf\. o.~noTorsldo d i Fr.Pcrrenu.\. l e c t ~ r e l 6~ O he L PIIS\YCI 10 agon.Picro Fr.. 11). ~ e ed. ' Sar. producerl by " lhrrl 248. This process of repeatedly and critically re-esamining the normal drifts and currents moving across the domestic landscapes has led them to design. i n T. l'ct~. the strict critical vision focused on their own roles in the much larger chain of production. Frb~nces Urunror 1rdns1.lvu.c writlngr \r. Arcl~irccrrrriDnirm.t~~iuoto. 1r. Inrritut d i r r con.my rmdly:oups a.ttcd highly respec14 nnlong [he b l ~ i o ocnh~logue.~~~nI~~ del. i n Arc11. though il is porC.~ (Filotrfilno.llion voice avcr. L. xrsms".er.~p t o o n ~ u c b n r c h i ~ e c ~ u r e .i(/r.~a(no. Arch.~bro. . X r 5 7 ) . and requires further res~omcion..1 It~clical ' 'I'he ~ u m "lndicitl". xlng lirrle lnrerner rdver.iew wtrh Crnstl. "lnrroducPeccr L.un. rcconsrirured ir. .erL. mafizinm. This is onc oi rlie srgumcncr developer1 in Peter Lnnx's essay "Sui. Roberto "'C.rgbigo/~/1~~computur screens. the individual "pieces" as it would be the process itself. u t ~ ~ a m o ~ "Invendon o. magazines.lng.rl~~pri~sfuc. "Archicer~uia rccrurc 1960/75". r m n i Print.llc.~.ngits ~pllyscc~l em- York: bodimenr... 2001).) \rhole r n n ~ e 2002.lncl.rerction of thc anti-archi.re dell.ir. e x h i b i ~ i o l l " F o r n de~uileddircuns~on other excrmlc i n the orhcr on the contemporaly Icgil.lli[~i iFlorcncu. ingly jumping onto the ~ i l ear the endless fondling 2002): 7'brCl~n. vr.dogue(Ilorrncc:iM&IM. " A.:~rr.igbrg 0 tinuourMonluuc~~t". inturvieiv a.

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urith no co~itrolsplaced on land uses.' This gradual slide towards social breakdown was brought into explicit view through the work of some of the country's most creative cinematographic artists. and thc more innovative faculties found themselves isolated if not removed from participating in the city's architectural and urban development.32 Fascist regime contributed to the invention of Italian mass society. The different directions. During the 1960s the student population in the national university system doubled to half a nill lion students. But these epic themes also can be seen to reflect tnore formulative life trajectories. which unseals its withdrawnness and puts its pieces back in place. These are therefore the issues to follow in order to get to the heart of suPel?srumo's deeply internalized rebellion against architecture. in fact. The primal recall remains an insidious reminder of a simpler past. a symbolic metaphor that would find its echo in the reflections on che builc environment among the young generation of architects who would form the nucleus of sUl%l<n'ut11().' Over the course of their activities. cannot be linked to a specific student movetnent . only a siren-like song seems to penetrate the ambient stupor. but the symptonls of estrangement among the post-war Italian middle classes bore the common traits of similar Western industrialized countries. Economic expansion came late relative to other European countries. SUPLRSTUDIO'S genesis.. "the more life is submerged. The gro\\~ingprosperity within the Italinn society exposed ever-deepening rifts urithin the communities at large. Italians were becoming more mobile.whose beginnings are announced in the historical staging of the 1966 Superarchitectnre exhibit in Pistoia. more urban.' The results were catastrophic. as a "super-office". providing sufficient momentum behind the rise of a mass student culture.the six members of the group did not come from the same ideological background or belong to the same student tablished its characteristic identity. a design and architectural office that happened to have an extremely deep and foreboding sense of history and belligerent behaviour.' In many aspccts SUI'ERSTUDIO was formed just as their name implied. but adapting to this new consumer-oriented lifestyle inevitably meant ruptures to traditional habits. whose laws were designed to promote private investments to the exclusion of all else. 'rlie entire national university was put to test in the 1960s. As Siegfied Kracauer noted. therapy and the visceral fortns of suicide. Michelangelo Antonioni in his 1964 film Red Desert. These themes informed the un- derlying critique that constituted the group's thoughts and actions from the initial founding in 1966 to thelate 1970s. As the characters move with empty gestures through Red Desert's world of manufactured sensations. more enatnoured with their object world. The story of SUPEilSTUDfO. with sl>eculative buildings spm\rrling randomly through the urban peripheries and under reinforced buildings tragically collapsing in known high-risk earthquake zones. constructed a spiritually deprived vision of postlinked to a devastated landscape war Iraly that was her~neticall~ of smog-choked fiactories and polluted landscapes. Private initiatives in housing were given a "free hand". pressured by students and many of thc faculties to renovate the archaic . SUl~ElaTUDlOelaborated on the grand themes of alienation. After La r l o b vita was released in 1960. Federico Fellini turned the camera on himself and his profession. finds its inception in Florence's rebellious youth culture. nor sufficient safety regulations to ensure proper building methods. precisely because the generation of students who completed their e d u ~ l t i o nthere were marked much differently than else- modernization. creating in 1963 Eight and a Hnlf.. the more it needs the artwork. Yet to understand SUI~LRSTUDIOit remains essential to understand the university climate that existed in Florence during the 1960s. the university administered itself as the pedantic gatekeeper of this very same cultural legacy. but did not construct a mass consumer culture. a spectacularly personal inquiry and psychological confession on the existential state of cinema and society."' Aesthetic manifestations depicting the general malaise of Italy's upwardly mobile classes and alieliated youth increasingly surfaced in the arts and in cinema by the mid-1960s. adequate service facilities like parks or parking lots. neuroses. rationalization. That \vould be the accomplishment of the post-war governments. as well as intergenerational conflicts.

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the third was the significance of the student activist lnovements in directly and indirectly contributing to reconstituting the School of Architecture into one of the most openly receptive . developed an urbanistic architectural language that. As the country's major economic centre.if also least recognized -grounds for architectural commercial districts abandoned to more ad hoc rebuilding meth- Benedetto Croce. Zevi's American connections and deep dedication to reforming Italian architectural culture had immediate impact on post-war debates. Over thc next decade. The MoveInent. through the sponsorship of IN.led to feeble and greatly colnpromised reconstruction of the histori- . H e quickly established under the aegis of AI'OA the first "organic school" in Italy inspired largely by Frank Lloyd Wright." In Manfredo Tafuri's opinion the ensuing proposals for the heavily damaged areas ". while Leonardo Savioli's more timid Micheluc- Ricci. Ernesto Narhan Rogers took over Dornrrs from G i o Ponti in 1946 and then moved over to launch an improved Casabella-Corrtinuit in 1954 (the magazine remained under his direction until 1967). did not gain much public support.. the second concerned the equally disappointing manner in which the city expanded to ~iieetthe growing populatio~iand manufacturing needs in rhe same period. reconstruction proceeded quickly. heavily darnaged during the German wartime withdrawal on 4 August 1944. T h e development of the city's regional master-plan.36 gree. O n e of the challenges was to re-evaluate and re-conceprualize a contemporary architectural style that could reconcile both Modernist and Neo-classical contaminarion from rhe Fascist period. the State-subsidized housing authority. The Lombard city was already predisposed to developing a Functionalist and Neo-rationalist style of architecture to plug the many damaged sites. Florence would also have its opportunities to grab the centre of the debate. In 1947 the Milan Triennale opened its VIII edition featuring the most recent post-war developments in social housing and urban reconstruction.\-Casa. Mario Kdolfi. Many younger Italian architects joined efforts with Zevi in reconstituting the Roman scene.. but it seems that each occasion was squandered by internecine quarrels among bitterly competing interests. went largely unchallenged by the city's traditional planning strategists. Milan's publication houses quickly became the principal platforms for national debates on the future of Modernist architecture. There are three kcy aspects that when collapsed together help explain the peculiar condition of Florence's conflictual artistic and architectural culture in the post-war period. for Architectural Studies (MSA) was founded in Milan in 1945 with the goal of opposing a traditional academic education. Adalberto Libera and Luigi Moretti among others.~ The urban fabric in and around Milan was heavily damaged during the drawn-out allied bombing campaigns. succeeded in promoting the development o f a n urban-scale hybrid Modernism combining labour intensive craft-work with advanced concrete frame technol~gies. conceived with the participation of the Milanese members of CIAM. The first was the failed reconstruction of Florence's city centre.

.I :pauasqo !AaZ o u n q ..u!e8e a s u o .e j o sa[d!su!~d aql 01 Injql!q aq 01 panu!luos uert\l a1!qmZsanss! [elnlsal!qsJe aless-ucq~nuo pasnsoj blled!supd Bu!u!ema~ aruox 'so961 aql q 8 n o ~ qploq l saqxls aqJ .%\ ~ sIsal!qxe aqJ .I .a~aqmas[a suo!l!sod ~ olja[ j 01 -ohauaa opleuoa? Kq pamo[[oj ' $ 9 6 ~u! ! u o ~ e n oo s p o p n ~ ' z 9 6 1 u! e l a q q ollaqlepv auo b q auo puc 's046r ale[ aql Xq eu3o[og u! luaml~edap8u!Jaau!8ua aql 01 a[!xa-j[as olu! luam !ssn[aqs!Ty : s ~ o s s a j o ~luau!ruo~d d sou S!I j o kuuru so961 a q l j o p o ! ~ a d b~ea s!ql u! lsol asualo[. s y ~ e duaa18 j o luamdola~apl o sa>!hlas alenbape u! I S ~ A -u! 01 8u!nsq Inoql!m 'a1nlsal!qsle j o bl!lenb a q l au!mJalap pue sal!s j o as!oqs aql a ~ e u ! u o p01 alqe aJam sJolsai\u! L l ~ a d o ~ pue d [C!~UWU'J aql ..an[eA [elnlsal!qsJe l u e l ~ o d m ! s.Jaq.asuaJolj j o luawa8eBuas!p PI -01 aql aq p p o m sa!l!unl~oddo pass!m asaql j o u y j a Jau aqJ .]uarudola~aplale[ s'i(l!s aql j o qsnm l o j pallns -uos b [ a ~ eam..oue auo m o ~ ~su!ls!p j Ll!luap! [eJnlsal!qsJe 10 les!%oloap! alq!Ba[ i([qeuosea~e pamas -laA!un s!eqsJe pus paleplno aql 1su!e8e sa188n~lss!da asaqJ soo!~el!Be pal-luapnls aql uo pr1n~ruo-~~ll~qoso3q~s~ u! a u y aql le 8u! aql B u ! ~ n ~ ! ~ s u'asmoss!p os [eJnl[ns L ~ e ~ o d r u a l u oasq ~ u! sluaAa 1ues!j!u8!s lsom aql pu!qaq aJam ue1:Ty pue aruox 'payad JEA\ -]sod a..uo!s!~ ysel p[non\ osle Bu!le~luasuos mou sem payad em-]sod aql u! q u \ o ~ % p a l aql j o qsnm alaqm 'h!s aql j o scale l e ~ a q d ! ~ aaql d j o uo!lsnJlsuos pus Bu!uucld aql 'arqA\ .sa!l!s aA!lsadsal l!aql u! pa8eBua a ~ o m~ eSEA\ j kqnsej qsea uept\l pue aruox q o q UI dllnsej am1 -sal!qsle au!lualols aql j o asueAaIa1aql pampa1 Kla~ahasa m q 01 smaas 'asuaJolg j o uo!]snllsuosaJ aql uo 'csuossa[..~ aolu! ~ a slaqssal s... ye!lua~odaql j o I n o a8~ama01 asmoss!p lelnual!qsJe ulapom lusnalal j o pu!y bue l u a ~ a 01 ~ dpa~!dsuosl a q l sasuelsmnsl!s j o ]as aBue1ls aqJ .1ooqss aql j o palualel lsom aql Bu!qsnd e p u e l s !p o p l e ~ oue!ls!~3 o~ 01 Bu!p~osse' a ~ n l n j s&lp aql m o l j slsal!qsle Bu!pea1 s.~sa!o~d aql InsJapun 01 pamaas k[uo 'auoz @!nsnpu! yea[q e m o J j ssolse Lpsa~!pK a l l e ~OUJV aql j o l e o l q l aql le 'a~!saql j o uo!~sal -as paz!ql![od K l a l e u n ~ ~ o j u aql n 'aue8~os'Ll!unmmos mau leap! ue qsle~ssm o l j 8u!deqs u! paassns p!p !JJX PUB !IO!AES U a w \ ..a~nlsal!qs~e ~I!A\ op 01 Bu!qlou seq qs!q~\ssaso~de qBno1ql jlasl! palsn~lsuos-olne..Ll!s aql se sJ!ns -1nd 1es!laJoaql ~ a d a a p .uo!lsnJlsuos pus u%!sapBu!p[!nq '8u!uueld ueqm .e!parum! aql U.ha -qd!~ad8u!puadxa L[p!de~aql j o uo!lsnllsuos pup Bu!uue[d aql 10 ' a ~ l u a saql j o uo!lsnllsuosal aql Jaql!a u! aloJ ~eluamnJlsu! ue j o padd!~lspue ap!se paqsnd sayasruaql punoj slsal!qsJe au!luaJ -old ~ u a u ! u o ~Isom d aql ' u ~ a l l e dle!y!mej X[Bu!sea~su!ue amos -aq p[nom leqm UI .

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now buried deep under metres of mud and debris. There would be little time for Archizoom and sUPER5'TUD10 to evolve between the two ." Over the Ions term. With all the talented artisans and small manufacturing in a state of existence that was neither reliably authentic nor confurniture and leather luxury goods for the upper classes. Maria Gloria Bicocchi's gallery Centrodiffusionegrafica on Piazza Saltarelli (later to become a d t a p e s 22. Scenes ments of artifacts from the river? sediment and painstakingly handling them like birds caught in an oil slick were emotionally stirring. performance artists like Allan tions threw the two events out of sequence.Radical architecture is born in the occupied university. with extensive meetings." Piero Frassinelli opined: ". the pre-eminent video centre featuring the likes of Bill Viola) was one of the first galleries to bring internationally acclaimed artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol. Florence was primarily an artisan-manufacturing centre with a very powerful shopkeeper middleclass. o r getting swept into working class struggles.. the point may in fact not have been whether the reforms to the university system ever were entirely successful. The prolonged struggle for educational reform is to be credited with furnishing the powerful rhetorical ammunition exploited so proficiently by the Superarcbiterlure generation. assemblies. whose entire economy functioned outside of major industries like Milan or the huge bureaucracies like Rome. And then of course there is the historically rich city of Florence. all-night sit- Kaprow. The planning for the first Superarcl~irecrr~re exhibition in Pis- the Arno valley as an enormous lake. Florentines were gradually becoming acquainted with the most important players on the European art circuit. Without the distractions of the big city setting. students moved in smaller circles: but one event in 1966 would act to pull the \\thole architectural community together the past.. some reforms were achieved.'" T h e students and the faculty engaged in a decade-long ideological battle over the substance of a contemporary architectural education and this critical discourse undoubtedly succeeded in recasting the fundamental issues of the Florentine school. the sound artists from l3uxus. Students attending the School of Architecture in Florence in the 1960s had a much harder time finding work. or protesting national policies. One lives there and one sleeps there ..." But in less than a flash. others never came close.bly energetic. Alessandro Mendini's land of "Good design" could be almost anywhere 42 If in fact Florence was hopelessly blocked by traditional conventions. dle class were incapable of seeing beyond the city's customary traditions. but ultimately a setback to the cause. the city's artistic community had been taking important steps towards building a receptive place for an alternative contemporary art culture. more events and experimental projects.

sentative medium itself, as it does from their subversive message.
SUPERSTUD~O
from beginning to end stripped architecture down
to i n most essential meaning.
SUI'ERSTUDIO requires additional levels of reading, precisely because there are degrees of deception constantly present in their elaborately assembled images and projects. Their highly seductive and
visually pleasing visions tend to veil a biting critique collaged just
below the surface. Each stage of their work is meant to eel back
another layer of social paralysis, of futile dreams and debilitating
social infrastructures. SUPERSTUDIOworked from positions of deep
familiarity, destabilizing from within each and every aspect of the
architectural discourse. Florence, as one of the most significant artistic destinations o n the 19th-century Grand Tour, finds itself transported in the work of SUPERSTUDIOinto a dimension of science fiction, history's other." Twelve Carrtionary Talesfor Christmas: Pren~o,ti!io~ts
of the M)~sticalRebirth of Urbanism, apart from its anti-utopian visions and very personal form of inquisitiveness, refuses
to celebrate the role of architecture and urban design in the construction of city lile.'" The exquisitely drafted sections, axonometrics and illustrations depicting the twelve cities reassure the

Piero Frassinelli, seem in the end to be much closer to a critique
o n the present than evocations for the future: the twelve scenes
unfold like exaggerated projections on some of o u r most common
obsessions, where consumer culture goes blind, bureaucracies go
mindless, high-technology pacifies. This may also be interpreted
as a critique of Americanization, a rising hen omen on in the contemporary Italian scene. The suggestive subtitle, "SUPERSTUDIO
evoke nvelve visions of ideal cities, the supreme achirvement of twenty thousand years of civilization, blood sweat and tears. The Final
Heaven of Man in possession of Truth, free from contradiction,
equivocation and indecision; totally and forever replete with his own
PERFECTION ...", implies just such a world specially made for you,
with no need to do anything except to find the button. The project was not really about anti-utopias, but was SUPERSTUDIO'S
stark
premonition on where contemporary trends were leading.
office had schizoFrom 1966 to 1973 the SUPERSTUD~O
phrenically advanced by pursuing o n one hand pragmatic and successlul furniture designs, train cars, residential and commercial
buildings (the group could count o n the industrial design experience of Roberto Magris), and on the other by progressively dissecting those very same projects to reduce the variations, to
streamline the waste, to eliminate all clutter. The process devel4s oped into a series of checks and balances, whereby the theory en-

trolled and modified. This is what Adolfo Natalini referred to as
"theory

+

practice

+

theory check", that ran into all sorts of

This may well have been an inevitable outcome for a research
project that began with the typological ordering of architectural
monuments, images and ambient technology; and gradually spread
farenough out to bring into its orbit a world of objects and buildings, of monuments and landscapes, until nothing remained untouched by its reductive powers. SUPERSTUDIOdutifully maintained

us want to change ... but also allow us to retreat back to the con,.
fort of our real homes, our heavy objects, our annoying lives.
But from 1973 on, coinciding with Adolfo Natalinii teaching
appointment at the School of Architecture in Florence, the group
moved in hvo different directions. It was a moment of deep reassessment. The individual members began working more independently on different types of projects, but also moved into the
academic research and teaching. Natalini's class, taught with the
assistance of Alessandro Poli, Cristiano Toraldo di Francia and Piero
Frassinelli, investigated the everyday use of objects in contemporary culture. Under the title of Ex~ra-UrbanMa~erralCukure,students were asked to return to their local family origins, and help
anthropologically document the material culture slowly disappearing in the countryside. Natalini's famed lectures on the walking stick -he boasts a large collection of handmade and manu-

48

The course in effect initiated a second phase in the SUPERSTUDIO
oeuvre; whereby there is a concerted attempt ro find a way to reconstruct the bare elements of a new architecture.
T h e anthropological research on primitive Italian peosanr culruse, its tools and shelters, was one of the few projects of its kind
going on during these years. Considcring the massive scale of the
fami exodus into the 1960s, the real risk, that has since proved
founded, was the permanent loss of a highly sustainable lowgrade human ecology. E s t ~ < r - U r b o1'4oter;ol
,~
C ~ ~ l t r ibears
re
little resemblance to the fanfare and hoopla created around the 1973
Global Tools symposium, which remaincd transfixed by consumer
culture. SUPERSTUDIOinitiated Histog~a171s,back in 1969, with the
intention of reducing design and architecture to a single threedimensional manipulation of surfaces. When SUPERSTUDIO began
its study on the design of silnple multi-functional utensils in 1973,
it w:~snot to design a better and more marketable product bur to
de
that were uniquely versatile.
find proven l ~ w - ~ r a technologies
The peasant farmer Zeno, in his native home in Tuscany, rebuilt a bent-wood chair from the turn of the century, piecc by
piece, over the course of about fifty years. Every reiteration presenled the chair's proportions and function, though each time thc
artifact was slightly modified. The goal of the research was to documenr and le:~rnfrom these extraordinary human experiences; but
this phase of SUIJEI(STUDI~'S research lacked the checks, balances
and earlier ironies that might have successfully lifted this project
back on to a more international platform. A broad overvie\\, of the
project including many examples drawn from tlie student research
was later mounted at the 1978 Venice Biennale to exhibit the category of Architecture, under the title of l'roject Ze11o. This strangely Heideggerian vision of the new world, a familiar revisiting of van
Gogh's contemplation on a pair of peasant shoes, suggests a project that nonetheless reconnects with the r e c l ~ r of
t ~ architecture.
SUI'ERSTUDIO also presented The WiJe o J L o t , consisting of a
welded iron table and moving tower designed to hold a fluid pouch
filled with water. A tube dripped water over five salt nloulds representing the historical stages of architecture: the pyrsmid, the
coliseum, the basilica, Versailles and the Villa Savoye. With time,
as in fact was the case, each of the salt moulds disappeared, a
demonstration on archirecture's inevitable dissolution. This project more than anything else physically embodied the dilemma of
;~rchitecture'sephemeral existence, \vith the additional tension
(hat such a delicately framed iron and s;llt structure produces by
sitting at the edge of Venice's Grand Canal. The artifact has since
been lost, but its idea lives on as the anti-monument dedicatcd to
the mother of all monuments.
The strange combination of professional practice and theoretical insurrectionism; of profitable industry contracts and sarcastic

I

assaults on consumerism; of global fame and peasant culture, are
the conflictual relationships in a body of research committed to
engaging mainstream society. Thc members of S U I ~ E R S T U Dhave
~~
sought t~ discover the way towards making a better society, made
up of individu:~lsresponsible to their communities, critically cog.
nizant of their natural resources and shared cultures.
The fundamental issues from the group's early beginnings Xrcere
all directed towards a c r ~ t i q i of
~ ea hegemonic modernization: N ~ .

If the architect cannot become architecture, is there anything left
but to take one's leave of the stage?

' P Ginsbow, ,I Hirtnn $
Corilc~,~pomn
lia(i8 (Lon.
rlon:l'cn~tlinhoks, 1990.

' D . Gi;~che~ri,
,l,ini SCI.
r.r,,lt, cr,anac;n 1" c/ti,,ai
(Pis% BTS. 2002. 191
' S Krlr.tocr. "Thc Horel
Lobby". In 'The ~ L l o ~Orr
Jirlnr.nl: IY1c.inirr &*!)a,
~rtlnsl.Thonl:>s Y L c r i n
(Ca~nbridpc,Mnsr.: t l n r -

1970 imld 19721, h u I~L I ~ I
rrsctlich n.as oor get porriblc l a d o in l he school. l'eIcr Lang. inlcrrir\v x i t h
hlc5smdro Poli Iflorcncc,
Deccmher 20021.

and minorron~lccrionrbc.
' Ilornc war bombitrdcd I"
~\r,eenthcm, bo, rhcr were
m d ;trotand #hc
st;,.
onlike Archiroom. who
11on ; ~ n d y;trds. mainly
(corn he beginnin): e ~ l r ~ c ddrnluging t h e a . o r h p d;~u
ns s right and Iamncliar r c ~ i d c ~ ~distTiCI
~ i i l l Of San
group of fricndr or cohonr.
L ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ .
" According ro Irl.lrca
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,-fie,,,.een
Grirpigni, sutdcnr> rcvolr.
Conrinuilgnnd Crisis: t l i s r d bec;>oscthes were con- w r y md I'rojecc in L ~ l i ; ~ ~
rciously ;~s..trct h ~ soclcly
r
ArchlrccrurJ CUI,,,~~in ,Ilc
\vould nor be sblc ro proP O ~ C Uperiod..,
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15. B ; ~ C I ~ 2000.
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~ r i o n e poliric;~
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c violenrn.
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Agarti. L. P;>,serln~,md N.
Tr~tnfi~glin,
edh. lri ' i r 1 r ; ~ m
e i bragbr Jd '68 (Milan:

194-951.

1999.

,', so lirrle
hiSroric
ccnrre. in Lcr,
can bc con.

3idered h i r ~ o r i ~ ~ l l ~
uc, bur for chc ~ c nmillion

p6n~oftheschwl'r populationduringthep~c. '' IM.Grc~otti. Capo.lrian from Mondndari. ar well as r " Fontan2 (cit. cdr. 7 Decembcr 20021. 1944dcncn O f the porriblc iuc198. a conrmverriril . fessorr wcrc n. war quite .lfuri.and i ~ ~ ~ d e ~ u ~ ~ c e r . (Cin.ere [he issuer [hat pro\. C o .tppro. " G l i Anni Qui~rnnvn'. During the nr~cmblies[hey refused ro veuk bur chirped inrrei~d perrhcd on [he bcnchcr likes raosring birds. verri~y. E.lnoToraldodi And here \\.tcb jii\. :' Toraldo d i France recalled that Ricri'r course had rhc r~udcntrwork on ftlll-rcnlc models.er)~one.287. rcncr war and remains counerhecirs'r. Perer Lang.ar. 1%. r.ore iaccorion \\.". c. Dcg. biunco.er merropoby focu.lrured ciwdboard ittian roproviderhcmu.l'ctcrLnnp.to include rhe participstion ofrhcrmdentrin ar~demlcdecirionr.orking cl. Thesrliclc ourlined rhe tcnuour condicionr t?dngthe rchod after che flwd. 20021. i n M . interview with .I . rc\.iewrwith rcvcrnl members of Archimam and SUPERYTUDIO.o/l/nl. \villing lo alloiv erperi.May 19W.lecturc held nr thc FncoltB d i Firenzc i n orrarian ofthe faculry confcrence held i n Romc hc. Milan. Dcripns b y Arch!.o~rs \ v i ~ b reridcnrisl Iproblcmr than rhc \lorking cli~rrcs.denrr from a v. i ~ ~ i (no. 1951.:Thc \r. " h l i n ~ o r cFanfmi \\. T h n e \>.~r $vcll versity in 1963 ond 1901.\vi~hrnsrr . Crahell<r-Cot. 1991.brdFe. i n Gmhrllir-Co. M Filer (no. Genoa and thc South. lemi per una nuovn maggior~nza". 1998.enlml: mentarion inro the cir?. 71.as ~ h e rhe school's prcridenr.JerricaLcvinc tors thsc lily behind Fla~ n c e ' rgrowing ppulnriry. Pirzoilo and Di jcrts i o a Crirtina.een I 4 and 15 M ~ r c h 19M.ri. inS0pee of chc Florcnce School of hrchi~ecrurcwnspublished i n the Florentine daily in Decembcroil966. i n G ~ n h c l i u . cember 20021.znyof rhere godr rhe Florrntinc Radical were rhated.391 '' Tornldo di Frzlncin m w rhc fight to do arvay with lhc expensive nmdclr us a sign rhnr much tnorc had to ch. rhopkeepcrr. chirct~ami~rliilrrn: 191019. ingtoCrirri. inrcrvicw wirh Crirr h n o Toraldo d i Franch (Filottrnno. " On the agenda were r l o dcnrs' demilndr to reeon. "V. 3MI. 401.7." "In his iwopural lerrurc for the new year.ecnrible toercr)nne.. H. Bur they were prerenr e.nn.ulello.~pler: Elecra Napoli. h4.~nr and ~n~r. n.from nII social clurrer..hat rhere w r n lack of this ii. "Diwomo agli 5. 1990. toia ilxir.ni. T. ~l>elirrrSt.inirric h c r locked i n the hitndr of rhe itngr IL?Nt~:tone.79 IN. Cilrreri. "Prab. Cnrre". Scicnce Ficrion be imporrant ro go deeper works ar o son o f alterna.i!i. foornore 37).vork l o rlirrrncr rhcn?.rhe olhcr grca. rirnrl. 191.hlaric Therer Stauffcr laced Dranzi. 7 Dcccmbcr 19661. 'lnccrvirra ia BrunoZNi".auld cros-d. Cnpobianco and C. war pcriod (500rrudcnrs ln 1958 to 1500 in 19661. M. 1221. Corrctti. n r c l ~ d c c l : ~ r ~ r h o ~ ~ ~ i n P i ~ ~ iiir n s r nor a prccire oblip.tr occupicd the rector's office. '" "In 1968 rhe Iralii~n Schools of Archilecturc be- " Umnir. "In inrcn.rtnn. nant politicxl class to have ' C a p o n e ~ r oinnd Fmcnrrilcfr the Iralian r c h w l ryr. t\\.Milnn.ar p a c lpse. ~ r m i n such abandon and misery".~as part of the group 111.>y 19M. 'I.into su~cns-ruoro'sgroup tn.thcrc..iId Ino. '' Leonardo Ricci.toia fc. rei L%!ng. London.as .inrcn~iew thcrchool ingcnectl nccd.t h a ~the city hsd l e s who sough[ f:~t.ider rnnjie of topics.cn thc rchool'r pcnchsln~for precise ink drmingr. r.irucc thc existing power structures within (he oni. M~rr.ould relocatc rhe school inro (he pcriphcry running along the fwrhills on the RorcnccPni+l'ir. See Grispigni k i t ..tri region from RcFSioCmilie.rriirird (no..~l\vayso f Franci..a trivis~lobrema~ion p h r . ~ ~ i .lr a.ho nrc on.c or escapist li~eri~rure dynamic. largcnumbcrof fore~jinrnlimr Arrbiiecl. 0 yello\v bound meekly news-stand publi- and more could bc developed on each o i r h e indi. with C r ~ t h n oT o r ~ l d odi ilndrhitr iiirno~theprecire Francid (Filortmno.m reaching arrir~antr.ing his or~cntionr lirer and bccnure rhc !pro.er districts blc having I n r professionto begin w i ~ h But accord . 7 Deresponribiliry ofthe domi. Milan. According l o ~ h address c by SO Gori. 287.bn:trdi n r ~ n l h arhich (he univcrriiy and ~ions.\r i n f s c ~rhc cost o f [he proferrionally m ~ d etmodelr for thc (hesir proiecl. v i d u ~ lmcmberr of the i ~ m u n d group.nnae: their demands were to opco the univeoicy ryrrcm co~?. 287. 35. Aho see M . national-levcl policicisn Con. Florence drew xu- ns to upen tire thesis pro- \r. and Tonddo d i Frenci. licr .R o m ~ c c . Ar. the destiny ofFlo.cd in C~rcrbel- i n Romc. zoom and Supciscudio".such . 47. LO deal with thc wpid 1r. > ~ . and it \\. becoming a sonofwish lirr for the then Preside G i ~ i r c ~G~oer i who lpropored n new rh. ami~h srbour lifly othcr students our dirporitlon reparore inridenccthen.oked them to occupy the rec~or'roffice on Plap Z I San Marco in 1964. lvlily 196-1. Rq.nr orld admission by btlr Press. See Slauffcr (cil.rc." R c o l t i dcl corrruire".

.

is "a safe distance from Cape Canaverd. the best art and architecture book store in Italy Centro Di and Maria Gloria Bicocchi's out front gallery Centrodiffusionegrafica (later to become the important video tape gnllery art/tapes 22): Throughout the 1960s the seductively ironic and charged polemics of these Florentine architects were known in North h l e r ica through Italian magazines but SUPERSTUDIO did touch down in the United States at the Rhode Island School of Design for a moment in 1970. and Austrians Raimund Abraham and Friedrich St Florian. and even the snlelly factories of the P o valleyMand "there [is] hardly an insistent or threatening local milieu of mainstream architects worth bothering about".' The arch scenes of Rome..domesticated?" "It is an act too often neglected. said the fox. Archigram o r the Austrians: Coop Himmelblau.rtic Landscape. group 9999 and others. it is hard to imagine a small museum city like Florence as a centre of international thought on architecture..' This connection with the world outside Italy changed dramatically in 1972 when the Museum of Modern Art in New York under the direction of design curator Emilio Ambasz created an amazing exhibition and spectacularly beautiful catalogue titled Italy: The New Dornertic 54 Landscape. Its "strategist" Adolfo Natalini taught there for a semester with Archigrammer Mike Webb. unlike anything being ~ r o d u c e din America at the time. Ugo La Pietra. Architecture IVitbout architect^ (1965) and just before Neru Dotne.it featured alongside a survey of contemporary Italian industrial and doniestic product design a SUPERSTUD~O Mimocvent/Microcrrvirontnetrt as well as projects by Archizoom. image making and thought than mere product design. It had an architecture culture that revolved around one of Italy's most lively and politically engaged architecture schools. Haus.sig~z." It was the first to feature the young Florentines and none of the other visionary architectural draftsmen of the period: Cedric Price. Edu- ÿÿ be Webb Ratmund Abraham ~ d o l l oNarallni and Frledr ch St Florran 1970 stage for its penultimate moment on the international scene. Gruppo Strum. Gruppo Strum. The drawings of SUPESTUDIO. It means to establish bonds.' It should be noted that during this period MOMA'S architecture department truly had its finger on the ~ u l s of e the moment. Gianni Pettena.orld where architectural shifts and drifts are internationalized cquickly across cyberspace.~ The largest and most expensive exhibition in the history of MOMA. : . The exhibition and catalogue attempt to rectify this understand- sign culture. In today's \\.visionary drawings coming from the studios of young Florentines from 1966 on were an altogether different level of creation. UFO. as Peter Cook reminds us.Rucker-Co. "Please domesticate me". forever. This small Tuscan city." . Thc Ncw Domestic Lndscape catalogue begins with a short discussion on domestication from Antoine d e Saint-Exupbry's Thl. as Doug Michaels puts it. the galleries of New York and Dusseldorf. "kick ass design" but more importantly they were "creative initiatives"..r Little Pri~~ce: "You become responsible. Ugo La Pietra and others were. for what you have domesticated.." "What does that mean .Archizoom. but this small museum and university city was very much a hot spot in the late 1960s.. urbanism and design. Achievetnet~tsand I'roblems ofltalia~rDe.' They suggested a fantastic architectural scene in Florence that made California seem very provincial and unimaginative. The Architecture and Design Department under Arthur Drexler created other important exhibits: Visiotra~~' Arch~tectrrre(1960). Venice and Milan were vibrant in their own ways.

~ n dsometimes self-deprecatory socio- tradictions and paradoxes of the firsr two groups.One must observe the proper rites ." They do not "invent substantially new forms. attacks the work of sLJ~olU'l'L!~10 ing "liberation through irony [that] goes over the same ground covered by rlie utopias of the avant-garde of earlier years". The catalogue essay by Manfredo Tafuri. urban decay. "Those are .'" These absraining designers. and the pollution of tlie environmenr now cncounrered in all industrialized countries". If you want a friend. T h e history of modular housing is 56 er "conceive[sl of work as an autonomous acrivity responsibleonly to itself and does not question irs sociocultural context". to domesticate you?" asked rhe little prince. "They re what make one day different from other days. instead they engage in a rhetorical operation of redesigning conventional objects with new ironic.:~ The second group o r rhe reformists. said the fox. for and Archizoom for bcexample. Ambasz then proclaims the irrelevance of objects: "for many designers." When in society". domesticate me . are given a chapter in the caralogue ro stare their position and critique those with whom they disagree about the production of objects. in rhe spirit of polemical discourse. "But I have not much time." "One only understands tlie things that one domesticates". ". soriie of these designers "despairing of effecring social change through design. .. simply refining "already established forms and f~nctions".."I want to.. I I~by I modular housing industry. and . said tlie fox."" This call for design is quickly followed in the introduction with the disclaimer thar "design cannot solve all problems that precede its crearion and rhose that may arise f r o ~ nir". very much". and so \ve have no friends any more." Furthermore. the little prince replied." "What must 1 do.." If this were not cnough of a qualifier. I have friends to discover. the aesthetic quality of individual objects intended for private consumption [has] become irrelevant in the face of such pressing problems as poverty.I great many things to understand. "Men have no more time to understand anything. They buy things already made ar shops. thereby insuring most co~ilpellingapproach since it "corresponds to the preoccupations of a changing society". itre "morivated by a ~ r o f o u n dconcern for the designer's role in a society that fosters consumption as one mciins of inducing individual happiness.. one hour from other hours.icrions too often neglectedn. But there is no shop anywhere where one can buy friendship." "What is a rite?" asked the little prince. In thc first ten- litical and philosophical action or complere \virhdrawal from the mean here designed environments like T o ~ oFl I ~ U I I S / JU~~.. regard their task as essentially a political one and therefore absrain from physical design of either objects or environments and channel their energies into the sraging of evcnrs and the issuing of polemical statements". and is what "rhe exhibition is .

Ettore Sottsass' classic Valentine portable Olivetti typewriter.created a nine-panel project that arguably stands out as the iconic project from the exhibit. the Castiglioni brothers' lamps. Marco Zanuso and Richard Sapper's early television boxes. It is a domestic product that appears in many Italian design concerns and their professional practices" can be placed togethwhich they work". In "Objects" designs are seand finally "implications of more flexible patterns of use and arrangement". The division of Italian design into three prevalent attitudes is followed in the catalogue by the two sections "Objects" and "Environments" that parallel and document the exhibition. . The cat- DIO for their implications of more flexible patterns of use and arrange- to completely different categories."These definitions seem flexible and loose because urn. Gaetano Pesce. Vico Magistretti. Massimo Vi- see much difference in concept beyond their marketing." In the first "Objects" grouping selected for their formal and technical means are domestic designs by Joe Colombo.

Marxism and the Fre11c11 Upheaval. allo\\' itself an ample margin of little experiments". Ambasz's Princeton professor Abraham A. ~Firms with more than 500 employees in more than 28. created by an extant artisanal Italian economy.8) and can thercfore.as. a list OF "general considerations" and a final separate essay. sincc they risk be- .. The socalled 'Furniture industryyhas only t \ \ . little more than an "inducement to COLISUII~C". and all the Fragments envisioned For the city OF tlie imagination may dwell together in an ensemble. thcy decided. "Manhattan: Capital of the Twentieth Century" that all attempt to put contemporary problems OF the domcstic landscape in context for the designers. if not by reason of thcir casual or historical relationships (since no reconstruction is hereby intended). Adolfo Natalini commenting on Italian architects involved in this sector has said.Italian conundrum and needs an explanation. thanks to its 'craftsmen' size. exhibition light sources.000 students. "its super production of ideas is due to the condition of complete unemployment among architects."Based on chis detailed Design Progra~n each invited designer or group is asked to design "a domestic environment adaptable enough to permit the enactment OF different private and communally imagined new events." In tlie Desig~rProgram Ambasz presents his view that the probso lems of urban society are so severe that designers must be chal- anti-utopias are scvcrely criticized in the most po\verful text in The ri's preferred standards OF earlier avant-gardes.." The Design Progra~~r includes minutely detailed programmatic considerations and options that include cost goals (economically available to "low to middle income Italian Families"). Moles and ~II The Manhattan text.UD~Odid believe For a titile that the luxury goods market. then by grace OF their aBinities". constant aspects OF our individual and social memory". offered them the opportunity to express design ideas that were closed off to them in the building sector. sufficiently fixed to permit the re-enactment OF .000 Firms (average number of employccs 4." informed by W:ilter Benjamin insights.I" In thc second section of the exhibition "Environments" Arnbasz presents a detailed. they evcntually canie to believe it was a deadend street. H Z I I I IEnvironnrer~!. there are 6." This essay originally published in Casabrlla seems gratuitous and his call that it inspire designers to "make incursions into i~iiaginaryrealms" is hardly necessary For groups like suPmsruuro. and architects in Italy are in charge OF only 25% of the total built volume of building." It is liberally sprinkled with quotes From Siegfried Giedion's T11e A r c l ~ i f e c t f ~orfe Transition. . maniFesto-like seven-page Design Program of "environmental concepts" that he hoped would become physical designs.. It \\. In the Florence School OF Architecture." While SUI'ERSI. Henri LeFebvre's The Explosio12. presents the island as an infrastructure that provides the Framework in which "all crystallized fragments rescued from the city ofmemory. Howard Searles' N O I I .

~rrdPmbbnrg/ltnl.b u their ~ aim ofdireng. bmlkinl: ~vlth." They did call for a \vorld "without cities.~o". itnd ' C w k k i t . but his belief was that SUI~BIISTUDIO'S"anti-utopian regression \\. i r no l o n ~ e r svirher ro be commercialized or rlienated. Ribrd 139-210. .I lighlwei~htstructure to cowr the uppcr and lower terraces o f rhe museum'r garden. Ar</~dedsreDe~i~. " lhd. "All rhcnew 1r. 3831.d 13946. c~tralo~oe. lb. bilities of the design strategy.as therefore fated to give birth to new utopias" and that a "private leap into the sublimated universe of 'artificial ~aradises'has not proven prescient".Proclaiming it. .. "lbid 143 "/bid.drm ilrchirecrure Archizoom and Supcntud 6 a . The Neru Do.'^ A. " lhid 245.tnuary 2003. Tsfuri. ':Il~rd147.thc prcrenl l i o n a. 1990.an behnuiot~nl. 'l~sly: The ~ ~ o ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ r T h l . ~hemsclver from. tionr from the ~IOMA l i bmry. 2 J. 'Art in ReI. 139- 46). 8/72.Hirrog o/IrnIianArcl.tFing ian Dcrign (1972). " Ibrd 147. " lh~d. ' Doug Michselr. MohlA i n 1972. i n nn cmstl conversation wirh the nurhor. not only arc the " Ibtd designerr fc. London. lhid. 49). Nnlnlini. 469).ttured i n this exhibit edunted 2%archi. Milas. 2 January 2003. '-'lhiil 420. [ecw but or informs all of their ~ h a u p h and ~ r motivarianr. scape".lrion to Architecu~re/ Arrhitcrturc i n Relatton to " A r n b ~ ~ rerl.nrchirecrure exhibition after " lhirl 94. ' Doug Michaels. Grnhrm. or to renounce irr o\vn idei~r~nnd " - !?~enrr. sires". *'lhld 21. rnadernlrrn ur Moh1.. lelf ar mdicitl. CnmbellN " D. i n an e. The next rnaior . mail conl8enstton*irh the author.: The His text in the "Critical Articles" section of the catalogue is dense and insightful on 20th-century Italian design. (no. ' ' IbiJ " Ilnd :' lbid 2 I. Perer Lnng. 4. placed on ~ I O M A ' S New Dornrrfic to us at the start of the 21st century. 380).' M. e A r c h Ne\v i t e c ~ ~Domestic ~re Lnndolthe fleorfx Arts i n 1976. "ihrd Hawmer. " lbid 11 I. "'lhrd 421. bur remained un- "lbid. in thl. '' l b ~ d20. See G.I. 242: oriGinslly in "sul)Khnu~. *' Ibid. (cil. " Ibld 148. Celant'r 'Rndicill Archircaure". u how thnt heralded I'orr. e c c . castles or roads" but this h l l l Prerr. r . " Anlbarr. "Suicidal De. Icir. In the spirit of 1960s' polemical and protest culture SUPERSTUDIO. (cir. ln Arnbarr. 242).mic Lind. ed. 1972.I rh..1iL1181 (C~~mbridgc. " Ihid. Rcnzo P m o devlrcd .>r I t s rims Anre conmpruil .itcdurr: 11.

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Thus a series of guerrilla warfare actions are born, violence is
imposed and suffered ... this is which creates the need for a "strategy for living", i.e. a series of practical rules, first-aid manuals, welltried methods for smoothing over discord and bringing back
peace and calm. Living strategy is substantially a method for
reaching the self-consciousness of horno bobitons through a series
of spiritual exercises. And certainly every "manual of spiritual
exercises for serene living" must suggest the abandonment of all
desire to be always "in fashion" or the desire to be always stylish, or amusing, or to be liked at once: that is, it advises an immediate abandon of false problems, manias, hysteria.

74

The Egyptians and the Etruscans used to put household objects in their tombs: today also most houses are the tombs of objects. Objects become museum-ified very quickly, and are kept,
it doesn't matter whether for a long or short time, with all the dusty
eternity of useless ornaments. If the purpose of furnishing is to
permit human relationships, e\,erything we have about us must
always and only be a witness to our mental o r emotional relationships: a series of objects to keep like messages in bottles,
about our public and private histories.
But the important thing is to keep ourselves free from fear rep r d i n g memories: the important thing is to keep control of the
situation, with all its possibilities for change, for abolishing or conserving. Each operation, each variation, must however take place
without drama, because usually nothing is bettered or worsened,
just changed. In the field of variability, much is talked (too much
perhaps) of mobile space, consumable space, transformable space.
There is the search for metabolisms and cinetization, an architecture of "mobility, functionality, usability" is substituted for an
architecture of "firmitas, utilitas, venustas".
At any rate, there is an effort to move what is still, without trying to stop that \vhich is moving too much.
is not that of searching for a house which imiThe
tates movement, which follows the man who mo\,es, lives, con-

sumes, dies; the great problem is that of finding a house above
passion, a house of calm serenity, a house for all seasons. We already move about enough ourselves to rendcr the architecture variable, changing its relationships with the passing of time, with the
changing of the seasons and life.
Modern furnishing is like a great race (from one exhibition to
another, from shop to magazine) towards the most beautiful, the
newest, the most functional.
But to come in first o r last has no importance if the whole race
is wrong, and the race of consumerism is definitely wrong.
Thus, the thing to d o is not to take part in the race, but to get
out of it as soon as possible, and to isolate oneself apart to col-

The problem is not to furnish roorns.
and not even to propose objects both amusing and perishable ...
The problem is to furnish deserts,
to awake consciousness from long, dogmatic sleep,
and force backward the monster created by the sleep of reason.
Once, silver was used for protection against vampires
and werewolves;
now we use marble, chrome, mirrors and rare roots
against similar nightmare creatures,
but now it is easier to distinguish them because they are
nightmares in daylight,
born, under fancy lights, lampshades and appliques,
floating on blow-up cushions, boxed into modular,
transformable coffins; but at the same time it is also more
difficult, because now they frighten no-one (or almost):
a policy of progressive narcosis encourages them,
and the illusion of well-being feeds them.
The pass-word is still let yourself go,
let yourself be guided by Big-brother-\\rho-knowsmore-than-you,
above all because Big Brother
is himself a civilized person,
\\'ha understands perfectly that one cannot argue about taste
and everyone has his o\vn personality,
and so everyone has the right
to choose for himself when it comes
to slipcovers for the car,
the lamps for the TV set and the seat-cover
(or better still, the three-piece set) for the WC ...

g

131
1 1

O n e has the lrnpresslon of a serles of hard, s h ~ n pleccs
~ n ~ of

I

We don't ~nrendto lanore u ~ s s ~ o or
n ades~res,or detdch ourselves

1

and d e s ~ r efor t h ~ n g sthemselves

they wllIgrow In the ddrk u n t ~ they
l
become trlump

wastc to be avoided is that of intelligence.

object made with the instruments of reason, appe

w:c,ln

ogmm or cube, and to p l ~ n them
t
In sltt~ng-rooms,bedrooms, on

!
11

~maelne-itelnotv and then we can beam to fill 11, slowly,

I\!:

1

'+

fprrion: the comolementnriness from the fact that. together, thev

serrcs of dctrons w ~ t h o u tvtolettce, rcndlng to rnnlnrarn non cornm u n ~ c d t ~ nsystems
g
closed, dnd at the same tlme to state a slngle
ldca of a serene and exact way of 11fe

around it as images. This is a kind of living with n o great adventures. which makes its choices without haste. constructine a form

!

of the oresent. that of Le Corbus~er.Mtes. ~ i e u e rMart
,
Srarn, Adl-

already brllllantly passed all tests, ~ n c l u d ~ nthe
g hdrdesr of dl],
And there 1s other furn~tureon the way to belonging to the

There are uleces of furn~turem chrome and mlrror, s h ~ n ymetal

lit!

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far from being a zigzagging course without a real destination. sedentary owners of land. the true.I did NOTwant to find a monumental architecture. warm. Indeed I fail to see it. we realised however that this search was no longer the business of the SUPERSTUDIO but of each one of us. like in the fdm on the "invisible man". at our disposal. perhaps apish but resolute. down to the roots of human doing. it has grown close to me. had become an urchin's shell: the lad had been accepted and taken in by the colossus. an anthill architecture for men (of course just the opposite of a phalanstery!). the only "improvisers" of design. A descent. to let itself Once we reached this place. the Phoenix. a2 My search for architecture now appears to me like that of the Graal. but I shall try to explain. to not work. from one branch to the other. Les MisPrables. we followed the ancient and modern nomadic "gatherers". still had the brilliant prerogatives of chilAs you can clearly see. either because they have not yet collapsed under the cozy. plain and hill architectures. of its impossibility to be authentic and to serve Man. made use of just like the inside.l architecture. In the course of this critical ~ h a s e to discern the birth of objects and of architecture starting from the primordial. That is why I say I did not find it. I was more and more convinced of its instrumentality with respect to social and economic forces. of the Philosopher's Stone. examining it with their bulgiig eyes and an expression of contempt: 'What is it good for?"' Victor Hugo. and of specific. of architecture. that had contained one of the emperor's thoughts. was according to me remarkably consistent and logical. an architecture in which the outside arises from the inside. Bernard Tschumi Florence. 1 I I did NOT want to find a bmur. the "inventors" of something out of nothing. of town-planning. this time an individual one. December 2002 f 2 P ' . First of all let us see what I did NOT want to find: I did NOT want to find a fashionable architecture. ready to reveal itself. as was often reproached us. To the only mental place where we might have been able to find (maybe!) the magic formula for the Invention of the New Architecture. our journey. all so sweet weight of mass culture or because they are drop-outs from it. In other words that another journey began here. Instead I always sought a "skinless" architecture. out of flotsam. uncorn/ortable. And therefore architectures the outside of which could be utilized. the great. And I believe I did not find it. on the verge of revealing its outline in a puff of dust. even if I have a feeling that. an "invisible" architecture (in the sense of the "invisible man"). I say "I believe" because I might even have found it without realizing it! I understand that this is not a very credible claim. "Oh unexpected usefulness of the useless! Charity of great things! Bounty of giants! This outsize monument. Book VI. of cultivation. it can be intentionally designed to be rmpleasat~t. gone through. The bourgeois dressed in their Sunday best walking by the elephant of the Bastille would say. The first example of an architecturehon architecture that en- come an architect. Leaving aside the "cultivators". from men "bare" of knowledge and experience. straight out of the inner life of the men who live in it. touched. the few who. of its ambiguous aesthetic-artistic ambition. of steam or in the rain: pouring rain (like in Rashornon!) that Gavroche sought cover from in the elephant of the Bastille. down to where Architecture is without Architects. It was there./r. I1 An architecture can be consciously negative. already institutionalized cultures. theory" of architecture and art.

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Cristiano Toraldo di Francia. Techtlo~norphicArchirpcrure These three categories were subsequently synthesized in three major theses: I~luenriorrDesign and Evasion Des~g~i (1967). constructed on a critical re-evaluation of their educational experiences and tied to the contemporary architectural and design culture in Florence. Roberto Magris. The office began with Adolfo Natalini. A Caralogue of Villas (196748).1966-68 Superarchitecture: to the Rescue! The first chapter deals with the newly consrituted group SUPERSTUDIO following their debut announced at the December 1966 S~perarchilecllrreexhibition in Pistoia. Simultaneously. the group organized a fully professional architectural and design office.]ourrrey into the Real111of Reaso~r( 1 9 6 8 4 9 ) and the development of a "single design". Archr~ec~rrre and I~noge 3. We recognize this first brief period to be the Slrperarchitecrurephase in the group's evolution. Many of their core theoretical and representational concepts they later developed originated in this earliest phase benveen 1967 and 1968. Benveen 1967 and 1968 three main themes were identified for further investigation: 1. Archi~ec~ure and Mo~rrrrnen~ 2. an intensive initiation to the world of architecture that paralleled the early development of Archizoom. from their first offices in Via Bellosguardo 1. that attempted to translate the group's theoretical and ideological concerns into "practical" projects. and after April 1968 Piero Frassineh. . The period benveen 1966 and 1968 represents the group's early developmental stage.

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"8 Aluo pan81IOU $8 a111ieqt pue -!11nmAlddns noA a r e > ~ n ! aql ) ul loalp Alalns IIeqr aMpue adoq ul '.u61sap aqduomoo.u6#rap. r w a ! aqljo 6~1ueamaql II Guqloaiq leln6al '$1 1eq1 01 p q qu!ql uollmuuo>r\ql ul pup) Alnll6ulnll 'Alan!learJ 6ulhl1I 0 maiqoid uGlrap uolluanul rA@MpII u6irap aql ale1 am11'luawomllana l e p>lenAuelng panlaluo.alled6u!Alddnr A q ~ o Pue anol lo1 rralun 6ulqllue op la6ual lelll lanamq laqwamal plnoqs 1euo813unlAllel~laodale 1941~llnpodd ou IlPUSaM ePlOl WnSlnS qG14 "M adoq lnoql!MPUP laS!ldlns 6~lAlddn~Aq .uo!l>as~aiy .ul.aa8lv "8 uana lo e ! p e ~ ~ v ~ u u o t ~ r u r l d aql r a rsuareal arrlrmod e "I all IW raapuo8IenleS la s q ~ ~ m h n ~ u a ~oql .= .arnaq.lay] $8 fiulq~lueuodml u q l r 6 u q i uo aAeq 11eqs a M bland Aephana l o pllnq 01 pialle u e ? o q ~ r l c l ~ o m q!cm .ol a6e1r el .adra PUP all!xall re aq II!M "a41 ame2aq 01 uaql u6lrap uolreq uo!Ienl!r 10 araql ale elepaql . .o. am 'r#alim10 asoql pue r l e m w o >no 10 1eq1sn011qu I! 11 A ' PPOI ape.ajbts e qllM Iunnrual l n o q i l ~ x o q31q1~1e '111001 P U! 1eq1a>ualr!xa ue lo1 r u o ~ ~ e p u naql o~ IIWS ah\Puc'lPal l n o q l l ~ l n q anll Allenrn . e :lralold 6uol auo st repha. 2 G e loo~dq>oqrA1116no~oql slmlqo 6ullr!ra ue ul . ~ O M O MU!I pana#q.e alq#lm>lsapulpue aGnq ~>rulruo> fiuqe~l o Aeae Aluo ri 11 l~uawuo~~nua 11eqra.no buqem "006 01 'ranlasmo U O I I ~ I ~ ~ ~ I U Daql I lo1 swool pue aleunuol aioql wo. uol~.aql ~ j alo r 'puejjapuoM ' ~ ~ e qpaGfial-)no) a aql lo amaqi aqi pue O I P P X ~ PUBllaPUOM uo ruot~etle*puernoq~ ay1'6uiqlhara r. 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SAc*~lepuc laqlelal wa41 qli* Aeld sAe~lolom aql uo'remau~.uejq m o l l ~ ~ a re t l l alq@~6euem 6 jralddlq sql lo auo aslls!nble-uou all1 u16aqol lael u! paau a M ruealp lo uam lo) d ~ i u e m n ~lowuollPZll!All ~ uoiac2t(t.aq.qa]~ gpua l way1 q1!n\pa11auuo1 ue r! alaql r n q l alr81ualod a1 6utyaar railmllle aql pue silnpold aql I0 rl "fitrap uotrsna 1 3 1 alle el aqi UOIM!~. aql aql Ajddnr noA'are?puo?ar aql ul pue may1 YllM an11 ~ ~ ' r a r ~ ~10d l n s ul'rlagem~adnso q ~~ ! ' E J P ~ PUO u! 111q u ! q ~aq arn aqlol wag) rlndlain llnl Pue lnlasn amaslaq~n2Pam0103 hl!2 aql u! orlelnq 'ran8l lallwed llems q 3 ~ a pue 'asn lerlanlun 10 r l ~algo . Aq paradml r l m p o d vql uo uo!l>a!al or~leuol~nl. 'jelauafi "8 6ulmoq fiu~p!onelo . ~ I I D M ) P~pueq ~ auo all1 ua uo8rrnlrlp puoAaq mou $1 sale)or puepunor rl pllom laa. q l ~ w10 agoq) pue alua#.llr aql r! aulllle q l l a r l a o n o l slew lleqr a M 11q11w UI auo PUIJ 01 q6noua W n l amti .amanlonu! joa.lru.an11 noA ralem leqlhlaod aql r! 11.% aloAad lo aroql pue rauo u w n q BIOL(M~~I fiu~dsqs I m o l e 'rmaolqmm alqelamnuul lo pue 6uulddnr) alldre aM q3111~01 rpnall all1 ua'alellen elllllanfi ~ l l q n d uatlelada lelol all1 lou $8 I! .uollelado pue alent~dlo r u m 6ullomr all! uo pnna..o!laly 01uo!iuane m o qxunr o~ 6uli11saslaio'~nowag! SUM I OU I I pue SUIUI~Sc amolaq pue'uo!lelauan pue rfiu~qljorpuq Ile y1tmpa1181 aq maql fiulx11~101u8odaql at la6 am 1111 ~ I ~ S I O M I O 1381q0 ue 10 'a3ed~ U ~ ~ I ~ ~ I S ~ ~ U I O10I U'113alqojosp~11( O~ waql lam 6uldd8~1rarjarrna pull ul alnluanpe ue aq Aew I3alqo ue puv lle 411MpaAeld aq ol awe6 D la rain.ufi#iap je~~lrnpul.ado pup 6uluusld le sql plane aa "PI 'apnl!lle 111~1139aql $ 1 1uamaG~fiuas8p ~mllllcd anlllall e fiulqellq 'Aem11q1 UI AlUO lo rauol~arok e a PUP 6uluund raoanbmau aql 'ufilrap uolsiln3 . a q l ~ O l I luel~enlo an!leulalle ue re .no lo r u a r ~ e ~ r a p s6qqmlrip m luopaloq pue A ~ ~ p d n l sra~~alsAlu io aroql puelrrauaqll pue a6lml lram 3ql lo auordsqlad'.rrau~realpAepharaapena araql .l~A~e~.~ur awld aMr13npo~dufilrap leql a l l l ~ oslsodu6!s j re w a r pue ' a l l l ~ e l ~ ~ ~ ~ e m o ~ q ~ ) r a ~ a d o i d ~ o raql u ajar A3uafie aql$ ( u ~ .aurap parralda~lo aroljl 110s oneq lleqr a m slulld arauedep 01 a l q ~ r r o d avow l ~ DI ubsap uotsrna 'puemap ~ a a n r u o ~ p u e l G o l o q l a l l o j a l i w >o.

while entering into one of its most creatively engaged and controversially subversive periods. Almost all the conceptual production was intended for catalogues. the city. architecture and the city. ' % & a / - OFcao4i~ JmeC #'/&a h 16 Superprojects: Objects. nor restored) 2. ~vithAlessandro Poli. Euclue Ideal Cities (architecture of cities. March 2003) Each of these three categories represents a concise theoretical engagement on one of the following disciplines in design and architecture: the object. with an audio-slide show.I. with an audio-slide show to be re-enacted and recordcd in conjunction with the London exhibition. architecture magazines and exhibitions. &~Z%& ‘ . The professional "officc" continued its design activities. Monuments. design objects A r c / ~ ~ t e c t r ~the r e . en~ployingcollage. 1. from Europe to the United States and Japan.1969-71 /Lmc. Cities This chapter surveys SUPERSTUDIO'S most provocative period from 1969 to 1971. . The most srriking images produced in the period found wide distribution internationally. storyboards and literary narratives. After successfully formulizing a critique on design. Y W . The Corrtitruorrs Monrrmmt (storyboard. the monument. It was during these years that the group generated its most renowned body of work. the u s of conceptual projects through group produced a ~ r o d i ~ i o set an innovative use of multi-media techniques.first film to be produced and I~rterpl~~netaty e r the group by suIJensTuolo. Hrrtogrdms (architecture of objects. ~ n e n ~ b of from 1970 to 1972) 3.

10 salnqr~lls.INeIlr.sllnpo~dII! ale q6noql llarll ralenladlad pup r13e qa~qm]h18!1os 110a6moqUI 'p'oqao Ant) 01 6u8p~omsa s ~ p u e q l ~ a ~ sum!^ 'Su!unsuol 'fiu~mpoldloh s a! ~ "8 hla8zor Axuo11n1ona~D 10 ~ o ~ l l n ~ ~ r u o l a q l a w n d olul ~ n aq d plnoqr . Aluo aq IIIM paau IIIM am rllalqo ail1 wnnlen e q l ! raneqr ~ m lo auo alrlrsam PUP ~o813allal 'q6noql ualjo or banal uollei6a1u1 101 aleleql ' s ~ o ~ rren qlnr rllalqo ul ra!l ~a6usphluo a q mnwlulw r ~ ~ r u a1e386em ln e 01 ruolle~adoampal am'uo~lenlsa~ r r a l l o a m ' a m ma1 e 4 1 1 ~ alnlorqr rl! rplrmol uo 1anu81u03 alq8ssod sl a111qllqm UI PUO a w a s W I O I .ome'auobana 01 'ra!llledP1 rlq 01 ~UIPIO~IO 'auobana WO.qn.uoil~nllrualal.qi a a ~ q at(.n.l~uo. o ja uot~.an-aa!d pue q3n1'10111m D 10 alej~ns841 uo amllna ua ra~mjng aql lo a l ! l l s ~ d sc 'AIMQIS 'q. 9 woll salt amleu 10 alrlr P S~JO"OI hwapual s rc ralnllnns lewloj 10 UO~IOU!UII~ aql -Aluo a x o ~auo Aq puelaua6 uaaq B A P 10261 ~ a ~ .fiu~psagano. aql lo rralold l u a ~ a l da q l r~roqd~omPlam $11 q~oa. { 1 ~ 6 'f-2 1 ou 'ulu~pallriiqod lanelo) a q d allo ul hclr o l 'rpemou amolaq ol arooql am 11 'lnoqe PalIrF3 aq Allsea ue3 q31qr ' n ~ a l q o'allsual2sletl> I#atll lr6uome qleap lo aruar rlql areq q2.or m m ajo~ ralxqan aql sno~. ruo!lle qllqm rrauarlel jo amq. e no ]raw! l o boaql aql lo.ray] ja uorlannap aql "raw a n rlm!qo l o uolllnllrap aql hg palmuuo~Alarol3rluana a l e y l o m ) ~a)~emaddel!paql pue aq1p uollPulu!la aql 'rllalqo 10 u08lmnrap a q l x m .I 10 aldlau~~d aqI q l q a u l pue:ra!l~l~q~rrod rlq ja luaudolanap tin) aql pui) plnoqr auobana 4114" U! Alalmr Lsua!lnlona~'ma" e aq ~l~mamanbarual 1~>86ojaq1 ' u e m p alnleu aql 01 u6!a~ol'AIA~IP fiu~~eua~le us re uaas ' y ~ o m a e ~ ~ ~ a d a ~ pue panlrlladr lo pua aql ueam am 'porn lo pua aql hg 'rlulod 6~81relr Ienba q1m 6uluul6aq ' r a l l ~ l ~ q ~ r r o d $1410luawdolanap aql u! rape161ualalllp q l e a ~up3 auahana q r q ul~ alelr ue~le~lleGa aaq mau e l o q3~earu! lapom l p ! m pue hqllela1q e SO h1!1 aql10 uo!leulmlIa aql 'lamod 10 ~ a j n l l n lleuloj l ~ aql l a uol~elnmnmeaql l o uol~eu~lu~l a ueam a~ 'h113 aql l o uolleulmlla aql hg 'nlalqo 101lou pus (rluamala alqerodr~ppue lennau l o uol11puo2 aq! 01 pampa. pile 'nnaq p a ~ u l o naql ~e aldlllls l o ' s a n ~ l l ~ qllqm'alualrlra 03 '$all 1~3113s1uhr aql lo UOllJnllrap ue lo1 s1eu61r'ruemr~tello rfieil a l l paul~apam sa!l)ej (laueal. am a 6 w ! ar8leu~alleaql 1q611ol am03 AOM 1141 UI 'SUOII~UIWIIUOI ~noln~p!~ 'A~lpom' a ~ r a r u o'an86 l 'wlo]susll lo 311aqled 'molepuelr lrow p(naw 'me 01 paau aql re r6utq1 aqj alnll~rqnrhem am 'er. s jo ued $1 le!~rlalo>da q l o ~h1111q8sramr aesra~6ord)!a41 r r e l l Su!lnl aql hq parodold riapow jo uolrsa~dra 841 rlsqmAr rnlelr are nx!qo q 'OLU~PUOI 01 luawalnpu~hla~am$1 u6mp e -1041palllrel~o w 0 (rpaau eau fiupnpu! m a 'rpaau Lelund jo I '(q1191q19~1 AlJanod puolar p r: PUB 0 ~ 0 l q ssa11118n) 3 ulewal l l ! rl!sualn ~ aql 'pueq auo aql uo snql ruo!Ielado aldm!s q sl~suajn 'sassel3 6u!lnl aql hq parodm!.) rlla!qo qllm anll aA$ lcql os'lamod ul aroql hq parodmt r u o ~ ~ s l o u uaql o ~pue .al 1el1601oqlhrd a111 q6no~q1pallala Apealle a ~ e qam q l i w OI IPII~SIP 10 h6alelir leg1 l o lled rl1.ruorn lo uo~sra~dxa saaluelen6 Gu!mla~'~0!13e 183160111 pue monu!luolr!p q6noql rlql pus '.adnr re 'a3ue3lllu6lr nl ja ualllnllrap aql 'malrAs aq! 01 13a!qo aql pu!q qllqm (apelmdr aql l o ved lelluarra us ~ ~ I ~ M ' S Uspell O I UPUO ~ salljed 1ew1od 6~1pnpu!. a q ~ papualul A~~IBJIP.rpaau $14ol 6~1p.alqo ue oluo fiulueam l o .: 1.fiulllanal. aql'r!rhleue q6noiql uollpn!lom u a ~ ~ s ~ ~ u n1r8. $11lo1 bl "el am 13aIq0 ue l o luqu!ql.o)bnlual r rlql u! alnllnl pue hlalmr ul ra6ueql aql (Ie moq aar uel am'hlaroll 8001am11 qrlqqnt lo rulelunow lo s~!sq3I!wala Inl#lneaq6u1u61sap hq dn pua l)!m am 'ar<rmaqlg'hlal3os ul II~II~II~ aql lo y'om aql jo (adaq e lo) eapl us lnoql!m 'aml!ulnl u61sap01 lo'u6lrap a~nllwnllnoqe alqlrrod $1 u ~ u ! qIOU ~ op aM ~I~JMOI . hldwa ue 'lr!xa o l $areal awnruol iabeq3 10 100q 01 luawa2npul ue S O ullsap uaw aql rl ralelr alelpa~lalull o booq1 uo~ldwnruol-uo~llnpo~d a q l laqlla ~ a l l o01 ran!leualle 10 sall snoll8~1)aq110 uoll810qeaql lea13ou seq pus (llau! aleu!wlla 01) PuaAaq'arn pue uo8llnpold uaamlaq eplxnr I!umolol a6elnol lua1~8jjnr r d ~ q r u o ~ ~loe luo!l>nrlruom8 a~ aneq IOU raop hla83or e uaw aqI q6nolql % 6 r u j o 'rraupanerlo luanbal) ramolaq r8soqd~owelayy 'qlhm 10 sanlen aql qllm papeolal 51 11 'I! saop lo .maql qllqm 6ul~nparoq! ale q6no~t11 a6 01 ho~lr ap01 lua6)n ramomq 11uaql seq 13aIqo aql q x t l IaPOqd~Omelam ~ 'paqaeaj aq hcm a y l 'Allleal l o alua~~adra uollsnllom 6u!hllapun aql la lenomar llal!p pue Allleal lo lillol D awo3aq 0.!qm ul palean $ 1 pare pasol.~ P I ~ U O ~ ~aql J~W a11qh'mql ala1dmo3~1aq1 pull ue. s q $1~ qxem aql ul 'PI~M paPualrlp 'aualor alom e r! ~01181hlr lrsl aql UOII~P anlsens ue (a6emt ue 10 adoq aql hllea~rl q11qmJ 101 rlvllno aql alrdald hluo up.

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and from . 11recreawr. es are ever fewer Aclually. ~ t ' r not pars8ble to trallrmll impulses to tha 8nltab1tants01 levels ye1 lurther dhvn nor lo ~nhab~tanoolone's wmlevel. and almartaluay. lhur the lotal height 8s 4.000 leel. 118s h e p8ler 01 bodler lhal prowd. but everybody maginpi hlrn to be happy because he never orders anflhing. a programme af diearns emlned by the man lhvlng ~n the cupola at the lop No one knows how the man l#v#ng ~n the cupola Ilver. squarer. In the c~aumlerencewall of each level are daatr 2 1 7 feet A1 giound level there are 6. ca-ordinator. and above walls IS 16 leet The mar8mum dlstare behveen !he Iworad~alwalls and the helghtol the room IS 7 In through bran impulseslooneor more ~nllab~tanls Ineveimore Lllan Iue at the same amel lhv~ngoo the level beneath theone onwhch 86 owner Ises. lharedethraned On the terrace ru. City ol Order Thlr c t y has. apprenlly. Ihe cltlzenr that lump the Ilghlr.and lhore walls have never beenreen The mhabllantr ltve m Ls machine endlessly dragged along by conveyor bells. Its p~peltner.500doorr. are at ad~rartrantagel The lnhabllanls 01 Iho hlgherl levels who have very lew orders. oblectr. surrounded bya canal 600 feet w ~ d eI1 lr lormedaf MOc~rcular levolsane above the oher. each rccerr8ve level has 13 doors less The 5Wlh level has only 13doorr.raundrog the cupala. nor rtlll less lo those llvlng a b u e Theorel8cally. the lerhaaal 8nnovat8onr. thmgr are rlanlng logo really well. wandall other med~aronl~nually advert~reIhe marvellous novetller af the new houses. ordering Ihothlngs theyneed b m t h o r e l ~ v ~ n g beneath-he lnhabllanlr obta~n evewhing they require Eachderlle parser from coilrdmalor l o r 0 ordlnalor "nu1 It leaches the lowest levels. while llle d~ameter01 the lorverl level lr 16. stretch away out of rqhtrh~cheve. gardens.Its rows of gear-mechan~rmr. and erperlally thore on the very hlghert. heads (ma lheopenrngr gwng on lo the central space.iulth anellon. meif. putl8ng the). ready for use. and ale 29 y x d r rvlde roclenjr rejects. a>rand water became rurplur Any residue.here mamellourly arrarts all that 11requres for tho ronrtlurLion 01 the clly The Grand Farlorydevourr shreds of urelorr nature and unformed m~noralsa1 11sfront end and emllr recllons of completely folmed clly. he thought of rumng the inhab~lantrlo thetr clry Now. through the. roll dare to wander amongst Ihe rulnr.Tenth City.l~ke everyone else. the roads reparato rquaro blorkr.where the mhab~tanlrl a m [he land.lr t<anrlormed rile machine producer ferl~ltierr ..?Ihemorl urelul means of cllmblnglnalurally ~ndiu. ~nthe dim hall. alter thlr penod.dualrwllh lam~l~pr. by chutes and pneumatic tuber The marlllne ISrcll-ruffoent. whoivant lo lake them along. anflhtnr) that d~er. mador Insane w~lhgoodrlocontnbule to tile grealer prosperlly of our graat counlryand Ihe bcuer forluner olour well-loved rhareholderr parallel road next to them 8n 3 days The grealert arplrauon of everyclslen 1 5 to move more and more ohen 8nlo ~nd#v~duals.eme. who have none at all. as soon as a cit~zencomm~o some 159 .The mart myrler8our querlron rr what happens la the prev80ur mhab~lantrof the cupola. and $1I S for thsa fearon lhal the nervrpaperr. the never-before.45 yearr later. ruch a large mach~nethat not even 11s lnhabllanls knmv 11s rze. bulthe sense of gu1ltder8v8ng from lhls rebellton srogreal and provokes ruch lnlenre monlal rullerlnri rhalonlva l e w u n bear ~ t l olong i Throughth8i ryrlem-lhal~r. rom~nually endeavour to gel 8nto 1he rupala. from 11s back end The Grand Factory mover loward at a speed ol Iloot 2 112 ~nrherpel hour The plan of the rlly IS bared on a chequer-board of roads perpend8cular and parallel to llle Grand Factory.wkrng 1118 mlll~on~ n l ~ a b ~ t aon n tar rlde lllraugh valloyi and hlllr. air andwaler nch with the mlneial raltr 01 Ihe eanh 11 looks after 11slnhabllanlr by elabaratlng and rynthtr\i<ngIhe subslancer or~g~nally placed ~nI.unt#l~tieaiherground level. lhar Is. ~ t i a k e r * from the outrldeivorldanly some rays 01 runllghl. 261 x 261 yards. llfe ~ l e from r planlcullurer andantma1 breedlng The perieclon of (he mechanlrm IS such !ha1 the add~t~onatquanttt~er ol energy and rnaller brought ~nby h e Ilghr.Eighth Clty. nolh~ng strange aboul~r11has rseelr. never needs anything It Is sad that Ihe cupola has plied up hew and lherolerl~tqtothe lerm~tqollhelr llghlr Aclually. damage clly property. receive.11ghL grey and foggy.al flred tlmer.way one looks. a body has never bean laund . 11opens up a recllon for a few seconds to admit the I ~ c k yone.one has eue. Conlcal Tanaced City The clly rlrer ~nthe mcdrlof a groat plain. all ~nhab~tants of the citq. each one of which has a dtarneler 32 fcet less than theane beneah Each level IS 8 feel high.. connecung rods. new hourer and 11 8s in lart a city lhke any olher The only Ihng 8s that rt has been governed by the same mayor lor45 yearr The rearan lor h ~ long r stay ~nofftce IS rfmplo he has an er~ept~onally g o d idea Insteadof trying to rult Ihe city lo Its Inhab~lantr. but na. 111s porriblelorelure to obey Iheofderr comng fromtlle mhab8enIr of the llmr abave.reen romlo!lr What cobid be mole f a r r # n ~ l # nand g fearruring than the rperlarle of the famlher that dally drive up the perpendcular raadr tn lhe rpeclal grounds andcongralulater you' What hourcould be happier than when you enter your ncu home and . lrom the lhoure for more lhan four yearr after 11s conrlrucl#on. ~ n d ~ c a t ~the n ggroundcovered Lookat the perlectclly that producer Factory 4 miles wide and 100 yardr high lhke the clly 8 1 contlnuourly producer The Grand Fartory explo~Lr the land and the underground maler8als of the terrllory 11crosses. compla~nabout the unpunclual~tqofthe buses or !he lark oftvalerat the timer 11s most needed. ~ h a t ~wllllrn r. which apparently has noopenlng at all 118s sad lhal 11one tauihcr a paillculal spa1 on ltr surface.conveyorbells. The Ville-Mechina Habiles The clly 8s a machine. lhe delr8tur and rubble that the rtly leaves belllnd 11 It Ir ~norder lo prerent the rillzens bemg reduced to such a despelale slate that lrom tllelr eallterl age they are lnrulralcdiv~lhthe ronrepl lhal everyone's g!ealertder~remust ativayr be a nnv house.000 leel.ivo~kadmanulactureabteclr to ral~rtylhedemands01 the Inhabilanr of the upper levels Twice aday. Ninlh City.ged l r m the ("pala la jell the others about 11. wh~ch flllr the cavern 1toccup8er.

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