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Metabolism and Diet

At the end of this assignment you should be able to:


1. Determine the calorie contents of foods.
2. Estimate Basal Metabolic Rate.
3. Complete a dietary record and activity guide to estimate weight loss/gain.

METABOLISM: Nutrient Assessment, BMR, and Body Composition


Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical reactions that are occurring in the body. It is
subdivided into catabolism and anabolism. Catabolic reactions are those reactions that break
down or hydrolyze large molecules into smaller ones. Anabolic reactions are those that build
large molecules from smaller ones. For the most part, catabolic reactions are exergonic (energy
releasing) and anabolic reactions are endergonic (energy requiring).
The balance between anabolism and catabolism is influenced by the intake of energy from
foodstuffs and is regulated largely by the endocrine system. When more food energy is taken in
than is used, anabolism dominates and your body stores energy and gains weight. When less
food energy is consumed than is used, catabolism dominates to release energy from stored
energy molecules and your body loses weight. When the body is neither gaining nor losing
weight, anabolism and catabolism are in balance.
Body Composition
Body composition refers to the relative proportion of lean body mass and fat tissue in the body.
Although some adipose tissue is essential, an excess of fat is detrimental. Currently, about 31%,
or about 59 million people, are obese, which is defined as roughly 30 or more pounds over a
healthy weight. Almost 65% are either obese or overweight, 10 to 30 pounds over a healthy
weight, which increases their chances of developing diabetes, heart disease, some types of cancer
and a host of other health problems. At current rates, 40% of Americans will be obese in 5
years!

EXPERIMENT: Energy Intake and Dietary Record


Both the chemical energy consumed in foods and the metabolic energy expended by cells are
measured in kilocalories (kcal) or Calories (C). The major source of food calories are
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. For one gram, carbohydrates yield 4 kcal, fat 9 kcal, and
protein 4 kcal. A well-balanced diet consists of about 45-60 percent carbohydrates, 25-30
percent fat, and 15-20 percent protein.

Procedure:
1. BEFORE YOUR FOOD LAB: Complete a 3-day dietary record using the SuperTracker
Food Tracker from www.ChooseMyPlate.gov. The three days must be consecutive days,
including at least one weekend day.
2. Record all foods and fluids consumed each day and whether they were consumed during
Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, or Snack.
3. Print your data and bring it to class.

How to set up your Food Tracker:


1) Go to www.ChooseMyPlate.gov
2) Click on SuperTracker located on the bottom of the Home Page

3) Click on Create Your Profile and create a profile so that you can save everything you
enter into your Food Tracker.

4) After you have Registered, click on Food Tracker to get started tracking

5) Add all foods and drinks consumed to your Food Tracker for three consecutive days
(including at least one weekend day). Be sure to accurately record the amounts of each
food/drink and during which meal the food/drink was consumed in your Food Tracker.

6) After recording for three days, click on My Reports Meal Summary Report
7) Choose all 3 days that you recorded. Print and bring to class.

8) Also print and bring to class My Reports Food Groups & Calories Report for all 3
days that you recorded.

9) You will also be able to access your Food Tracker in class using iPads. Remember your
username and password!
Energy Output: BMR and Activity
The total energy expended each day includes the energy consumed at rest and during physical
activity. The basal metabolic rate is a measure of the energy required to maintain the body.
Complete the calculations and then record the results along with your diet record in the tables
provided.
Procedure:
A. Determine your BMR by the following method:
The Harris-Benedict formula (BMR based on total body weight): The Harris
Benedict equation is a calorie formula using the factors of height, weight, age, and sex to
determine basal metabolic rate (BMR). This makes it more accurate than determining
calorie needs based on total bodyweight alone. The only variable it does not take into
consideration is lean body mass. Therefore, this equation will be very accurate in all but
the extremely muscular (will underestimate caloric needs) and the extremely overfat (will
overestimate caloric needs).
Men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 X wt in kg) + (5 X ht in cm) - (6.8 X age in years)
Example (For an 18 year old man who is 61 and 170 pounds):
BMR = 66 + (13.7 X 77.1) + (5 X 185.4) (6.8 X 18)

= 66 + 1056.3 + 927 122.4


= 2049.3 122.4
= 1926.9
Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 X wt in kg) + (1.8 X ht in cm) - (4.7 X age in years)
Example (For 20 year old woman who is 54 and 130 pounds):
BMR = 655 + (9.6 X 58.9) + (1.8 X 162.5) (4.7 X 20)
= 655 + 565.4 + 292.5 94
= 1512.9 94
= 1418.9
Note: 1 inch = 2.54 cm. 1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs.
BMR: _1372.34___________
655+ (9.6X54.4)+ (1.8X 158)- (4.7X19)
655+522.24+284.4-89.3
1372.34
B. Use an online tool such as the one found on this website:
http://www.bmi-calculator.net/bmr-calculator/
BMR: 1379.1
____________

Are the two estimates similar?

Determine your energy expenditure for each day by multiplying your BMR by the appropriate
daily activity multiplier below.
Activity Multiplier
Sedentary = BMR X 1.2 (lay in bed all day; no exercise)
Lightly active = BMR X 1.375 (normal daily activity no exercise/sports)
1379.1 X 1.375 =1896.2625
Moderately active = BMR X 1.55 (normal daily activity 1 hr exercise/sports)
Very active = BMR X 1.725 (normal daily activity 2 hrs hard exercise/sports)
Extremely active = BMR X 1.9 (normal daily activity 4 hrs rigorous athletic training)
Example calculation of male above who is Lightly active: 1926.9 X 1.375 = 2649.5

Example calculation of female above who is Very active: 1418.9 X 1.725 = 2447.6

For each day, record:


Day 1
Calories Consumed____926______ BMR____1379.1 ______
Calories used (BMR x Activity)___ 1896______
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)_ -970__________
Day 2
Calories Consumed___902________ BMR___1379.1 _______
Calories used (BMR x Activity)___ 1896____________
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)____-994________
Day 3
Calories Consumed_____1239______ BMR_1379.1 _________
Calories used (BMR x Activity)_____ 1896__________
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)_____-657_______

GRAND TOTAL (Add together all three days)


Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)_____-2627_______ Pounds of fat gain/loss __________
Example calculation:
Day 1
Calories Consumed: 1963
BMR: 1926.9
Calories used (BMR x Activity): 1926.9 X 1.375 = 2649.5
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used): 1963 2649.5 = -686.5 (A loss of 686.5 calories a day,
which will lead to weight loss)

What you Need to Turn In


1. Record your diet for three days including one weekend day using the online Food
Tracker.

2. Determine the total Calories consumed for each of the three days. This will be
automatically calculated for you on the Food Tracker.

3. Determine the total Calories expended for each of the three days. You will have to
calculate this yourself using the BMR x Activity equation.
Day 1
Calories Consumed____926______ BMR____1379.1 ______
Calories used (BMR x Activity)___ 1896______
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)_ -970__________
Day 2
Calories Consumed___902________ BMR___1379.1 _______
Calories used (BMR x Activity)___ 1896____________
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)____-994________
Day 3
Calories Consumed_____1239______ BMR_1379.1 _________
Calories used (BMR x Activity)_____ 1896__________
Calories gain/loss (Consumed used)_____-657_______
4. For each day of the dietary record, compare the Calories consumed with the Calories
expended. Is there a net gain or loss for each day? Over all three days?

There is a net loss for each day. On the first day Ive lost 970 Calories, the second day
lost 994 Calories, the third day I lost 657 Calories. Overall, Ive lost 2627 Calories in
three days.
5. If there are 3,500 kcal/ pound, what is the expected weight gain or loss in pounds over
this three-day experiment?
2627/3500= 0.75 lbs.
6. Study your dietary and activity record. Make a detailed list of at least four specific
suggestions for improving your diet and activity.
- I should exercise more when I get time. But these days I dont have that much time
for exercising. Perhaps sometimes I can exercise a bit more by choosing stairs instead
of elevator when Im in school. Or choosing a longer path to go to each class.
- Based on the graphs, I see that Im taking to many Empty Calories, which mostly
consist of sugars and fats that arent nutritious for my health. So Id need to purchase
and eat less those kinds of food and drinks that contain too many Empty Calories,
such as cupcake, punch, etc.
- The graphs also show that my intake of sodium is too high, so in the future I will try
to look at the amount of sodium on the nutrition facts before I eat. I need to reduce
my daily intake of sodium to less than 2300 mg a day.
- I have eaten enough refined grains but I would need much more whole grains than
refined grains because they are generally better for my body. Also, the graph shows
that my intake of vegetables is under the suggested amount of vegetables that an adult
on average needs in order to maintain a good physical condition.