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Chynna Swayne

Mr. Ring
Period 1
Unit 4: Structure and Function of Government
The three branches of the government work together by checking and balancing each
other out. There are specific systems in place for each of the branches that allow them to have
some power over the branches of the government. This power ensures that one branch of the
government isnt able to have more power over the others. The tree main branches of the
government are the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches. Simply the legislative
branch is responsible for making laws, the executive branch is responsible for carrying out the
laws, and the judicial branch is responsible for evaluating the laws. The Senate and the House
of Representatives make up the legislative branch of the government. These branches are able
to represent the people of each of the states and work toward their best interests to created
laws. The executive branch is made up of the President, Vice-President, and the Cabinet. The
Cabinet is chosen by the President, but must be approved by the legislative branch to ensure
that the President does not have too many of his own party members. The judicial branch of
the government is made up of the Courts systems, including the Supreme Court, and federal
The legislative branch has 11 powers. This paper will deal with 9 out of 11 of the
powers. They are; taxation, borrowing money, regulating commerce, naturalization,
bankruptcy, coining money, post offices, patents and copyrights, and standard weights and

measures. The power to tax means taking public money for government use (schools, roads,
military, etc.). Congress has the power to borrow money to finance projects that ae not in the
budget. Borrowing money can lead to debt! They have the power to regulate comers with
foreign and interstate trade (ex: setting minimum wage). The rule of naturalization is born in a
U.S. territory or on U.S. owned property or to a U.S. citizen. Congress passed the law of
bankruptcy to protect both creditors and debtors. This is a way to get a clean start. Coining
money includes determining the types of currency to use and to make it (ex: coins, bills). The
power to establish post offices and mail routes (including airways, railroads, and waterways).
They made patents and exclusive rights to a person to manufacture, use or sell any new
invention for a set period of time and copy rights are an exclusive rights to authors for
publication and resale of their work. We use the English System of weight and measures (ex:
pounds, miles, inches, gallons, etc.). Congress has also legalized use of the metric system.
The executive branch has 6 powers. They are the powers of the Commander and Chief,
pardons, treaties, ambassadors, Supreme Court Justices, and State of the Union. The President
is the Commander and Chief of the United States Military. He can deploy troops oversea, but
he must get the approval of the Congress to declare war. The President has the power to grant
pardons for federal crimes. A pardon forgives the crime and the penalty for the crime. The
Constitution grants the President the power to make treaties with other nations. He must
receive 2/3s of the Senate to make it official. The President appoints ambassadors and others
not provided for in the Constitution. The President has the right to nominate justices, but
nominates must be confirmed by the Senate. The State of the Union address is presented by

the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress and is
delivered annually.
Three powers of the judicial branch will be reviewed here, judicial review issues
between states and treason. The judicial review is fundamental to the United States
government, the actions of the executive and legislative branches are subject to review by the
judicial branch. This allows the Supreme Court to take an active rule to make sure the other
branches abide by the Constitution. The judicial branch balances the power between state and
federal government. This power allows them to give grants to states. Treason against the
United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies,
giving aide and comfort. To be convicted there must be a testimony of two witnesses to the
same act.
Checks and balances is the concept of checking and balancing powers of the legislative
branch, the executive, and judicial branch. The legislative branch checks the executive branch.
They can overturn a Presidential veto with 2/3s vote in both houses. They can reject proposed
treaties (2/3s vote to approve). They can reject Presidential nominations of officials and
judges. They can also impeach and remove the President. The legislative branch checks the
judicial branch. They can create lower courts, reject nominees to federal and Supreme Courts,
amend the Constitution to overturn the Supreme Court and impeach judges. The executive
branch checks the legislative branch. They have veto power and the ability to call special
sessions of Congress and recommend legislation. The executive branch checks the judicial
branch. They nominate judges to the federal and Supreme Courts. The President can pardon
and grant amnesty. The judicial branch checks the executive branch. The Supreme Courts can

use the powers of judicial review to rule laws unconstitutional. The judicial branch checks the
legislation branch. The Supreme Courts can use the power of judicial review to rule Presidential
actions unconstitutional. The Supreme Courts can use the power of judicial review to rule
treaties unconstitutional.