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Revision lesson

Sustainability from Unit 2 People and


the Planet
1. Population
2. Consuming resources
3. Development
4. Globalisation
6. Challenges of the Urban World
7. Changing UK Settlements

What is Sustainability
Being able to be used without being completely
used up or destroyed.

Sustainable development what is it?


"Sustainable development is development that
meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs.
So we still need to develop, but we have to do
it carefully by managing it, thinking about the
future.

Sustainable
Development

Economic Growth

Social Equity

Environmental
protection

Population

You need to know


Why we cant predict future population
change
Why do countries want migration
policies?

Now to you
Why can we not predict future population
growth?

What is migration?
Why do people migrate?
What migration policy does the UK have?
Why does Australia have a skills test migration
policy?
Why can we not just let everyone into a
country?

Consuming Resources
Topic 2 Unit 2

I can explain the supply and demand


of renewable energy
Solar power is a renewable form of energy being
used more and more to help plug the energy gap.
It works by harnessing the energy from the sun to
heat water to create steam and turn turbines or by
using photovoltaic cells to convert solar energy into
electricity.
Benefits: less dependence on oil, energy source
doesnt run out, could help industrial growth
Problems: need a lot of sun, solar power plants
need building

I can describe the future pressure on both


supply and consumption of resources
Lots of reasons why there is pressure on resources
globally now:
Population growth: more people= more resources used
Urbanisation: more people in cities= more energy used
Development: economic development= more energy
and resources
Wealth: people get richer= buy and use more resources
Technological innovation: societies more developed
and advanced= more energy used for more appliances
Some resources (metals) are finite in supply

I can evaluate the theories of Malthus and Boserup

Malthus

The theory predicts that the population is


growing exponentially (2, 4, 8, 16, 32). Food
production is growing arithmetically (1, 2, 3,
4), population will outstrip food supple and
there will be a famine or starvation which
will bring the population back down- this is
known as a natural check.
Boserup Necessity is the mother of invention
Boserups theory is that as the population
increases and food starts to run out, we will
not give up and experience famine, we will
invent new ways to increase food
production to keep up with population. She
calls this agricultural intensification or the
green revolution.

I can assess ways to reduce our


resource use
Strengths

Weaknesses

Recycling Resources are made into a


different form (e.g.: local
councils have recycling
boxes and collections,
plastic is melted down and
re-formed.

-Reduces the
amount of
resources we use
-Raises awareness
of resource
problems

-People may not


recycle much
-Often uses a lot of
energy to turn the
resource into a
different form

Educatio
n

People are made aware of


resource problems to try
and make them aware of
their behaviour and
resource us habits.

-Could make people


change behaviour
-Makes more
sustainable citizens

-People do not always


change their
behaviour
-Sometimes difficult
to educate a lot of
people

Conserva
tion

Resource supplies are


protected to ensure that
we have enough for the
future.

- Protects sources
of resource

- Eventually the
resource will get used

Method

What is it?

I can explain the technological fixes to


resource problems
Reduce oil consumption:
Hydrogen powered cars
Pros: no carbon dioxide, sustainable and easy.
Cons: new technology is expensive, need infrastructure to
support it
Increase food resources:
Genetically modified (GM) crops
Pros: could provide food for people in drought areas
Cons: morally problematic, unsure of the effects of GM
crops.

Development

You need to know the two case studies


3 Gorges Dam Top down
Handpumps in Tanzania bottom up
You need to know the positives and negatives of
each.

Top-down development 3 Gorges


Dam
Top-down development:
large, expensive development projects organised by
governments or private companies. Local people have little
say in these development projects.
Some use large-scale technology, which cost a lot of
money
Government say what happens locals have no say
Provides jobs, but only temporarily
1.3 million people forced to move their house
Hydroelectric power helped develop China and reduce
GHGs
Increased risk of landslides now

Bottom-up development Hand


Pumps in Tanzania
Bottom-up development means that experts work
with local communities to identify their needs.

Draw pictures to show


Bottom-up development is used to improve the lives of
local people!+ and of bottom up
This gives local people
more control over the outcomes of
developments!
bottom-up projects.
Experts assist with the progress.
Governments dont get much say.
Jobs for the locals = more money
Not long walks to water = children in education = more
money and jobs

Globalisation
Things you need to know.

TNCs costs and benefits


Secondary - Nike in Vietnam case
study
Tertiary - Tesco case study

What Are the Benefits of TNCs?


Create formal employment and
raises living standards.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).
Introduce new technology,
knowledge, expertise and skills.
Improve infrastructure.
Increase exports brings foreign
currency into a country and
improve the balance of
payments.
Multiplier effect, increasing
economic activity.

What are the problems created by TNCs?


Jobs are often low skilled and low
paid. Managerial positions tend to be
brought in.
Avoid taxes
Export the profits back to home
country
Poor safety record and inadequate
pollution controls. Corners are often
cut in health and safety.
Countries become over dependent
on TNCs (mono-economy), they can
pull out at short notice.
Decisions made outside of the
country.
They exert political muscle.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wR3LhFlgGo&feat
ure=player_embedded

Outsourcing
This happens when a job is given to a company
overseas that was formerly done at home. This
can happen due to the advances in technology
and communications.

Why do companies
outsource?

A service sector TNC

Where is the HQ of Tesco located? Why?

Challenges in the
Urban Environment

Eco-footprint?!
This is a measure of how much land is needed to
support peoples lifestyles and dispose of the
pollution and waste they produce.
Why would turning the light off when you leave
a room REDUCE your eco footprint?
Food?
Travel?
Holidays?
Water usage?

But wait..what is a carbon footprint


then?
Carbon footprint is INCLUDED in eco footprint.
Eco-footprint is the term that means reducing
CO2, recycling more, using less water, using less
food.

CO2 footprint is JUST CO2!!!!

Case studies!!
LONDON (DevelopED)

Mexico City (DevelopING)

Activity - How sustainable is Londons


transport network?
Describe the schemes that are already in place to make
Londons transport sustainable.

Increasing bike use


Improving public transport
Reducing car use
Reducing air pollution

TASK
OUTLINE the costs and benefits of making
Londons transport network more sustainable
(4).
Choose one cost and outline
(give more than just a simple
point) about why it is a bad
thing. (2)
Then choose a benefit and
outline why it is a good idea.
(2)

Extension (higher):
Now explain why to
make it a 6 mark
answer.

Things that MEXICO CITY is doing to reduce


their eco-footprint
Improvement
Scheme
Reducing private
vehicles

Extending the
Ecobici scheme

Advantages

Disadvantages

Discuss with your


partner for 1 minute.

Encourage recycling

Encourage
composting
Recycling more
water

Building more
sewage treatment
centres

Feedback to class.

Changes in UK Settlements
How are they improving
the areas?

National Parks
The main aims of National Parks are:
1. To preserve and enhance the natural beauty of the countryside.
2. To provide places for recreation.
3. To protect the social and economic wellbeing of the people living
or working in the parks.

The Eden Project


How have these helped
improve the quality of
life for local people?

Quality of life:

Access to services
Good transport systems
Growing economy
Availability of jobs

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

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Draw this shape in your books and


label the different layers

Extension:
Add a fact to
each of your
layers

ASTHENOSPHERE WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

The Asthenosphere is a lubricating


layer underneath the Lithosphere.
It is this layer of the mantle which
causes tectonic plates to move!!!
The asthenosphere is in the top layer
of the mantle.
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Label the asthenosphere on your


diagram.
Can you add a fact about it?

TECTONIC PLATES (OCEANIC AND CONTINENTAL)


OCEANIC CRUST It is thin (6-8 km thick). It is denser
(heavier) and made of igneous rock called basalt.
CONTINENTAL CRUST It forms the land. It is mostly
made from granite. Low density (lighter) igneous
rock. It is thick (30-50km).

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Name one difference between the oceanic and


continental plate

HEAT FROM THE INNER CORE CAUSES CONVECTION


CURRENTS IN THE MANTLE IT IS THIS MOVEMENT OF HEAT
WHICH CAUSE TECTONIC PLATES TO MOVE!!!

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What happens at the top of one of the convection currents?


Using this diagram explain why the tectonic plates move.

PANGEA The supercontinent.


The movement of tectonic
plates has caused the plates to
move apart. Tectonic plates
move in different direction
depending on what plate
boundary they are located
on!!!

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Plate Boundaries
You will have 1 minute to write down the name of
the boundary and describe how they cause a
natural disaster.

CONSERVATIVE PLATE
BOUNDARY
Two plates SLIDE PAST
EACH OTHER.
The plates become STUCK.
PRESSURE BUILDS UP.

PRESSURE IS RELEASED.
Plates move and
EARTHQUAKE is caused.

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COLLISION PLATE
BOUNDARIES.
Two CONTINENTAL plates
(low density granite) push
together.
Both plates WEIGH THE
SAME.

Push up FOLD MOUNTANS.


Cause EARTHQUAKES.
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CONSTRUCTIVE
PLATE BOUNDARY
Two OCEANIC plates
MOVE APART.
MAGMA rises
through the gap.
The magma is
BASALT.
Forms LAVA FLOWS
and VOLCANOES.
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DESTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARY


OCEANIC & CONTINENTAL plate move
together.
OCEANIC PLATE SUBDUCTED, because it is
DESNSER (Heavier)

SUBDUCTED OCEANIC PLATE RUBS against


CONTINENTAL PLATE THIS CAUSES
FRICTION.
FRICTION CAUSES HEAT.
HEAT CAUSES SUBDUCTED ROCK TO MELT
INTO MAGMA.
MAGMA IS UNDER PRESSURE.
MAGMA RISES TO THE SURFACE TO FORM A
VOLCANO.
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Earthquakes and Volcanoes

COMPOSITE OR
STRATOVOLCANO
STEEP SIDES
LAYERS of ASH and LAVA
ANDESTIC MAGMA
(THICK and EXPLOSIVE)
Causes PYROCLASTIC
FLOWS
SHIELD VOLCANO
FLAT SIDES
BASALTIC MAGMA
(RUNNY and NOT
EXPLOSIVE).
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VOLCANIC HAZARDS

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PRIMARY and SECONDARY EFFECTS of a HAZARD (VOLCANO


or EARTHQUAKE)

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EFFECTS/ COSTS/ CONSEQUENCES/ IMPACTS of a TECTONIC


HAZARD
PRIMARY EFFECTS/ COSTS/ CONSEQUENCES/ IMPACTS:
PEOPLE KILLED
BRIDGES and ROADS COLLAPSED
TRAIN LINES DAMAGED
DAMAGE to HOUSES and INFRASTURE (GAS/ ELECTRIC/ WATER and
SEWAGE PIPES).
PORTS AND AIRPORTS DESTROYED
SECONDARY EFFECTS/ COSTS/ CONSEQUENCES/ IMPACTS:
FIRES due to BROKEN GAS PIPES
BUSINESSES effected due to time it takes to rebuild.
HOMELESSNESS
DISRUPTED SCHOOLING
UNEMPLOYMENT
INCREASED STRESS
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DIFFICULT TO GET AID INTO THE AREA

List 3 primary and 3 secondary impacts of the Kashmir


Earthquake.
Look back at your notes to help you.

WHY IS PREDICTION/ PLANNING AND EVACUATION WORSE


IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (LEDC)
Live in RISKY locations (side of a mountain) due to a lack of
space
Can NOT AFFORD SAFE WELL BUILT HOUSES
Do not have INSURANCE

Governments do not have MONEY to provide AID


COMMUNICATIONS are poor, so WARNING and EVACUATION
may not happen.
LACK of EDUCATION

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LONG TERM PLANNING FOR HAZARD

Example JAPAN
EARTHQUAKE DRILLS
EMERGENCY SERVICES
practice RESCUING people
People keep EMERGENCY
KITS at home containing
water, food and a radio.
BUILDING DESIGN

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RESPONDING TO A HAZARD
Ask DEVELOPED countries for INTERNATIONAL
AID
Send in EMERGENCY SERVICES to EVACUATE
people
Set up FIELD HOSPITALS to treat those who
have been injured.
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Describe 2 actions that can be taken to reduce the


impact of earthquakes.

TOPIC 2: CLIMATE AND CHANGE

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EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE - DISTANT PAST


FOSSILISED ANIMALS,
PLANTS and POLLEN
that no longer live in the
UK.
LANDFORMS, like the U
SHAPED VALLEYS left by
retreating glaciers.

ICE CORES from the ice


sheets
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Name 1 way we have been informed about climate


change in the distant past

EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE RECENT PAST


Old PHOTOGRPHS, DRAWINGS
and PAINTINGS of the
LANDSCAPE.
WRITTEN RECORDS, such as
DIARIES, BOOKS and
NEWSPAPERS.

RECORDED DATES of REGULAR


EVENTS such as HARVESTS,
the arrival of MIGRATING
BIRDS and TREE BLOSSOM.

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Name 2 ways we know about the


little ice age.
Which method do you think is more
reliable? Give 2 reasons why.

THE CAUSES OF NATURAL CLIMATE CHANGE

THE VOLCANIC
ERUPTION THEORY

THE SUNSPOT
THEORY
ASTEROID
COLLISIONS

THE ORBITAL THEORY

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Explain one natural cause of climate change

IMPACTS OF THE LITTLE ICE AGE (1315) ON PEOPLE


AND THE ENVIRONMENT
WHEAT and OATS did not ripen
and the HARVEST FAILED.
The great FAMINE began in
1317.
People DIED of HUNGER.
GLACIERS moved down valleys,
destroying VILLAGES and
FARMLAND.
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HOW PEOPLE ADAPTED TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE


Started to grow the
POTATO, instead of
wheat.
Abandoned farms
high on hillsides
(because it is colder as
you go up!)
Enjoyed FROST FAIRS
on frozen rivers (E.G
River Thames).

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Name 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of the


Little Ice Age

ICE AGE MEGAFAUNA EXTINCTION


As climate INCREASED, the MEGAFAUNA MIGRATED into new
areas to live where the climate suited them.
However it was DIFFICULT finding the right PLANTS to EAT.
This caused DISRUPTION to FOOD CHAINS, leaving animals
SHORT OF FOOD.
Also, HUMANS MIGRATED into new areas. HUMANS would
have killed the MEGAFAUNA for food.

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GREENHOUSE EFFECT
GASES in the
ATMOSPHERE TRAP
HEAT from the sun.

The GASES act like the


glass in a greenhouse.
They let HEAT IN, but
PREVENT most of it from
GETTING OUT.
It is NATURAL. It is GOOD
THING!!!
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GREENHOUSES GASES AND WHERE THEY COME


FROM (THE SOURCES)......
CARBON DIOXIDE is
produced by.....BURNING
FOSSIL FUELS (COAL/
OIL/ GAS) and
DEFORESTATION (cutting
down trees).
METHNE is produced
by....... EMISSIONS FROM
RICE PADDY FIELDS.
NITROUS OXIDE is
produced by......
AIRCRAFT ENGINES and
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CARS.

DEVELOPED countries
(USA and JAPAN) produce
the MOST GREENHOUSE
GASES.
This is because off.....
INCREASING
POPULATION SIZE
LIFESTYLE (more cars per
household).
FOSSIL FUELS ARE
NEEDED WITHIN
INDUTRY.

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DUE TO HUMAN ACTIVITY (INDUSTRY/


DEFORESTATION), MORE GREENHOUSES GASES
ARE BEING PRODUCED. THIS CAUSES THE
ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

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Look at your A3 sheet on Is the world getting hotter.


You have 5 minutes to read through you sheet and then
you will need to answer these questions.

1) Define the human enhanced greenhouse gas effect


2) Name 2 greenhouse gases
3) Describe 2 impacts that the enhanced greenhouse gas effect
could cause
4) Explain 2 reasons why some countries emit more GHGs than
others
5) Give 1 reason greenhouse gas emissions have increased in
the last year.

DEVELOPED (MEDC) CLIMATE CHANGE


CASE STUDY UK!!! The BENEFITS!!!
Reduced heating
costs saves money.
More TOURISM in UK,
generates money and
jobs.
Fewer deaths of old
people in winter
months.
New crops could be
grown.

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DEVELOPED (MEDC) CLIMATE CHANGE


CASE STUDY UK!!! The COSTS!!!

Increased DROUGHT
(Lack of water).
Increased HEAT
STROKE and SKIN
CANCER.

ROAD SURFACES can


MELT expensive to
repair.
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DEVELOPING (LEDC) CLIMATE


CHANGE CASE STUDY EGYPT!!!
The COSTS!!!
City of ALEXANDRA is being
flooded due to sea level rise.
People then become
ENVIRONMENTAL
REFUGEES.
UNRELIABLE RAINFALL.
This leads to DROUGHT. This
causes DESERTIFICATION
(Land turns to desert).
Spread of diseases like
MALARIA.
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