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General History

Appalachian English is a dialect of English, primarily used in the Southern Midland


region of America
Earliest settlers of Southern Appalachia came primarily from the Anglo-Scottish border
country, which implies that the dialect was influenced the Scottish
Characterized by phonology, morphology and lexicon
Mostly oral but can be found in writing
Usually associated with lack of education/intelligence
A-verbing History
A-verbing is the form of a verb usually in the present tense, which is preceded by the
prefix a
It emphasizes the duration of an action, e.g., shes playing means that she is engaged
in a short-term task, whereas shes a-playing means that she is engaged in a longterm task
A-verbing does not occur with relatively unstressed syllable such as respect
Usually found in animated narratives and vivid story-telling
Negation History
Negation has been so freely used, that the use of simple negation (used in Standrad
English) has almost been abandoned
It is nonstandard and uses two negatives for emphasis, where only one is necessary
In Standard English, one could use doubly negative to express a positive, but in
Appalachian English, double negation is used to express a negative