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Name of Student: Jarlath Lydon



Article/Reading [AUTHOR & TITLE]:

Brookfield chapter one and two reflective practice

The article discusses the factors that influence teachers to reflect. It also highlight why
reflection in important in teaching practice. Teachers may get poor evaluations about their
teaching methods and techniques from students. And as a result many teachers may feel like a
failure. This article highlights the many ways teachers can reflect and it highlights the
important of reflection in teaching practice.
Critical reflection in teaching is important because it helps teachers to look at their practice
and examine how it can be improved to enhance the students learning. Like every profession
its easy for teachers make assumption. Assumptions allow teachers to make meaning of
who they are and what they do. But most people resist making assumptions because teachers
are afraid of what they might discover. Assumptions can be divided into three categories
paradigmatic, prescriptive and casual. Paradigmatic assumptions help teachers to make more
meaning of the world. The teachers may believe that adults are self directed learners. In
addition the teacher may believe that adults critically think about education and that
education has a political dimension. However adults need evidence based practice in order to

change their thinking. Prescription assumptions are assumptions and thinking that happen
when adults are faced with particular situations.

Casual assumptions help people to

understand how that world works and helps people to discover how processes can be
changed. Many teachers believe if the teachers make a mistake in front of the students than
the students will feel its acceptable to make mistakes. In other words teachers need to set
example and encourage their students to do their best in school.

Teachers need to reflect on their teaching practice to improve their practice so that the teacher
can find more effective and interesting methods of teaching so that students can be motivated
to learn. Teachers need to justify their actions because teachers can get into a habit of using
the same teaching techniques for years. But teachers may fail to examine if their practice is
the best practice for that subject. For example if the teacher puts students into small groups
and then the teachers goes to see if the students are doing the tasks. Checking on the students
like this imply that the teachers does not trust the students to do the task. But students need
time to assimilate the question they are exam. Students need the teacher to question her own
assumptions, refer to theories, facts and philosophies. This will encourage the students to
examine their thoughts on the topic in question and stimulate analyses among the group of
students. So that the students can examine the pros and cons of the topic. This will stimulate
discussion so that the facts can be established among the students. Thought this process the
student will learn to listen to other students point of view in a respectful manner. This also
helps the students to learn the skill of reflection. Reflection is not critical it looks at both side
of an argument. Also having students sit in a circle allow students to have a conversation
about a topic and all students can contribute to the discussion. But putting students into
circles can be humiliating and painful experience because students can feel pressurised to
contribute to the conversation.

Teaching can be seen as a vocation but this slogan is not good for teachers because teachers
may try to just cover all the course work as quick as possible and may fail to reflect and
examine if their action are producing the best outcomes for the student. However teachers
need rational for their practice and need to examine their practice to reflective practice.
Through reflective practice teachers strive for perfection and want their students to do well.

Teachers may ask students to evaluate their teaching. Likewise reflection allows teachers to
analyses how different students learn at different paces and level. This would help the
teachers to incorporate a more effective motivating teaching plan into the lesson so that all
students can learn to engage with the teacher. Some teachers use manuals and workshops to
solve the problem of poor teaching practice. But these practices are helpful but this will not
help teachers to improve practice because teachers need to look at their own practice to find
solution. Teacher also feels that they have to meet every students needs and the teacher may
feel disillusioned if these needs are not met. But critical thinking allow teachers realise that
there are many factors that affect why students under achieve. This process of reflection will
help teachers to analyses these factors. Critical reflection is important because it allows the
teacher in making informed decision about practice, develop rational for our practice, it helps
us to avoid low esteem, help teachers to build up trust between student and teacher. When
teacher reflect on their practice the teacher will try and gather meaning from the experience.
Also when student teacher reflects with more experienced teacher the student teacher learns
new techniques for the more experienced teacher. Teacher reflective journals, teachers
learning audits, survival advice memos and videotaping can all help teachers to reflect on
their practice.

In Conclusion
The article highlighted that critical thinking is vital to improving teaching practice. Teachers
need to become more self - aware of their teaching practice and to stimulate students learning
so that students feel more included in their learning. As a result reflection will assist teacher
to become competent practitioners in teaching students.


This assignment explores the process of reflection for teachers. Reflections may involve
reflection in action and on action. But reflection can be difficult but it is necessary to develop
the teachers teaching practice. It also makes the teacher more aware of the techniques that
may be effective in enhancing student learning.
Reflection is key to students learning because it helps teachers to improve their practice so
that they can find better ways of managing their work load and concentrate on student
learning (Kyriacou, 2007). Teaching students can be tough because all students learn at
different levels and at different paces. Moreover teachers need to be aware of that many
factors that can affect student learning. Overall the article on what it means to be a critical
reflective teacher was very informative. It highlight that teaching can be viewed as a
vocation. But the notion that teaching is a vocation is not beneficial to the profession.
Because many teachers who see teaching as a vocation may not reflect on their practice
Theses type of teachers may not see the importance of reflection and are just interested in
getting the years course work taught. However teachers need to be aware of the reflection
process so that their practice can be examined effectively.

Teachers can also make assumptions about their practice. But teachers cannot assume that
adults are self directed learners and then assume that the most effective way to teach students
is to allow the students to take control over their own learning. Likewise the author
highlighted that the teacher needs to reflect on each lesson to see what measures can be taken
to ensure that all students learning is students centered. Many other arguments discussed by
the author also highlight that teachers need to reflect on teaching methods and promote
learning through class discussion by creating rules democratic discourse so that respect all
students points of view. Even experienced teachers need to reflect on their practice. But
sometimes experienced teachers may believe that they are superior to junior teachers and may
think that they do not need to reflect on their practice.
The article also explains the teaching techniques needed to build up student teacher

relationships. The arguments put forward were very convincing. Likewise the author
highlights that teachers cannot be the fly on the wall approach to teaching students but
instead the teachers needs to see what they do through the eyes of the students. In addition
the article highlights that students need feedback on their progress so that the student can
progress and become aware where the students need to improve. Likewise Farrell (2004)
highlights that reflection helps the teacher to explore their values and beliefs about teaching
so that the teacher is more accountable for their practice. Moreover it is easy for teachers to
complain about the teaching system. This can also be a sort of reflection because the teacher
is venting their anger. But this type of reflection also allows the teacher to look at the factors
that affect their teaching practice due to lack of resources and then the teacher will look for
other ways of improving their practice (Farrell, 2004). This will positively influence the
education system. However if teachers fail to reflect on their practice this will lead to burn
out. Likewise Farrell (2004) highlights that teacher may feel isolated, frustrated and stress
and may even think about leaving the teaching profession. This is why reflection is necessary
to alleviate the stress teachers are faced with (Farrell, 2004).
The article was well structured, heading were used over each paragraph and simple language
was used with the aid of class examples of how to practice critical reflection. All the
arguments discussed in the article were convincing and relevant. From reading this article I
have learnt that critical reflection is vital to enhance student learning and teacher practice.
Reflection helps the teachers to become more self aware and feel less inadequate about the
challenges the teacher faces in the classroom (Tice, 2004). During my teacher practice I
would have reflected on the class I taught so that I could see how I could do teaching
practices better next time. Reflection also helped me to learn from incidents that may have
occurred in the classroom. I also learned valuable lesson from the reflection process.
Reflection helps teachers to develop as a teacher (Petty, 2009). However Josie, Marcos,
Sanchez and Tillema (2009) highlight that reflective practice may not be adopted as intended
to develop teacher practice. But reflection helped teachers to look at their actions and think
about their practice. Research shows that only 10% of teachers were capable of carrying out
reflection on action. In this study by Josie, Marcos, Sanchez and Tillema (2009) only 2% of
40 teachers were aware of the reflection steps but reflective practice was higher when
teachers had training in self regulated thinking. This highlights that teachers may need
training in reflective practice so that they can develop their practice. During reflection
teachers looked for the positive aspects of the actions. They were reflecting on the positives

rather than the negative aspects of the obstacles facing their teaching (Josie, Marcos, Sanchez
and Tillema 2009). Reflection helped teachers to problem solve and evaluate their teaching so
that lessons can be learnt (Josie, Marcos, Sanchez and Tillema, 2009).
From my own teach practice I also found it helpful to talk to my mentoring teacher about the
classes I taught to see how my practise could be improved. We also explored what actions I
could take to improve my teaching and how I could motivate the students to get more
involved. I also read some teaching books and research article on classroom management and
behavioural management to try and put some of the strategies into practice. I found reflection
a very worthwhile task because it helped me to cope with any issues that arose. I just did not
ponder about the issues I was faced with in the class. Reflection allowed me to speak with
more experienced teachers who gave me helpful advice on the pros and cons of carrying out
certain actions when teaching students. Reflection also helped me to remain focused on the

In conclusion
Reflection is an ongoing process throughout the teachers profession. Reflection helps the
teachers to look at what the teacher does, why the teacher does it, how effective the teachers
teaching is and how students respond to the teacher when the teacher teaches.


Reference list
Farrell, T. (2004) Reflective Practice in Action: 80 reflection breaks for busy teachers.
Corwin Press.
Jose, J., Marcos, M. Sanchez, M. And Tillema, H. (2009) Teacher reflection on action: what
is said (in research) and what is done (in teaching). Reflective practice. 10, 2. Pp.191-204.
Kyriacou, C. (2007) Essential teaching skills. Third Edition. United Kingdom: Nelson
Petty, G. (2009) Teaching Today. Fourth Edition. United Kingdom: Nelson Thomas.p.300.
Tice, J. (2004) Reflective teaching: exploring our own classroom practice. British Council

Name of Student: Jarlath Lydon

I.D: G00279899
Article/Reading [AUTHOR & TITLE]: Tormey, R. ( ) Three Curriculum Ideologies. University of


This article highlights that the development of education through the years and the article explains
how educations has helped society to progress.

Classical Humanism
Classical Humanism was developed from 500AD to about 1500AD around the time of the collapse of
the Roman Empire. During this time there was a growth in scientific and rational thinking known as
Enlightenment. Education was linked to religion. Books were written in Latin, however, priests and
learned men were the only individuals who could read Latin. Women had no access to education.
Religion played a key role in developing classical humanist philosophy. A list of great books were
drawn up so that learned men could learn from the Greek and Roman writings. Church men debated
which books should be included in the Great book list and these books or writings were complied
into the Bible. The collection of great books became known as the Canon. A list of non religious

great books was also compiled. These great books were sometimes called Humanities. Hence the
term Classical Humanist became used. Churchmen believed they knew and understood Gods word.
People were not to question churchmen about these teachings. These teachings affected the way
people lived their lives.

Liberal Progressivism
Liberal Progressivism philosophy was associated with what was known as the Enlightenment period
in Europe. Enlightenment was used to describe a revolution of thinking around 1600AD. There was
focus on the future and those individuals actions could contribute to their future. People began to
look at new ways of improving their future. Rational thinking and science could play a role in this
progress. As a result physics, sociology, economics and psychology development during this period.
People believe they should have freedom of choice and rights. Classical Humanist educators felt that
the curriculum should consist of great books and ideas chosen by learned men. This education is
transferred to the next generation. While Liberal-progressive educators believed that the
Enlightenment period focused on the development of peoples own abilities. During this period it was
believed that people should think more for themselves and that people should explore the world
and to create evidence based knowledge to enhance the development of society.

Vocational Modernism
In the mid 1800s most of the bigger countries in Europe and in North America were undergoing a
massive social transformation. People left the land and moved to the cities to seek work due to a
decline in farming earnings. There was a growth in manufacturing like coal and mills during this
period. This also placed greater demands on water, coal and steam. This industrial revolution saw
competition between Britain, France, United States and Germany. There was more emphasis on
greater efficiency and quality in industrial production. Governments set up National School Systems
in 1831 and the English system developed forty years later. People questioned if education based on
classical Humanist or Liberal Progressive philosophy was the most appropriate for the development
of education. David Snedden set out to answer these questions in the The Problems of Vocational
Education in 1910. Snedden suggested that liberal education was not related to a persons ability to
earn a living. He believed liberal education prepared people to be consumers rather than producers.
He argues that helping people to read and appreciate poetry, was good but unless they earn a living

they will not be in a position to buy a poetry book. Snedden believed that vocational education
should educate people in professional education, commercial education, industrial education, and
agricultural education and home economics education so that people have the necessary skills and
knowledge to function in society and for society to progress in the future.
In conclusion
Religion and education were closely associated in earlier times and assisted in the development of
education. In 500AD churchmen read teachings to students and guided people in how they should
live. The first books were developed around 500AD. During 500AD church men dictated to people
how they should live. Liberal Progressivism philosophy also known as the Enlightenment phase.
During this period people began to make plans for the future and look at how their future could be
improved. People began to see they had rights. Vocational Modernism showed that the
development of the industrial revolution helped society to progress. As time progressed education
also became more accessible to people in society and it allowed people to enhance and develop
their talents and capabilities. Education developed to equip people with the necessary skills for the
world to progress.


This assignment reflects on the three curriculum ideologies used in education. The article highlights
how education developed and how education and the curriculum changed through the years.

Classical Humanism and Liberal progressivism

Many of the arguments discussed were informative and educated the reader about the
development of the three curriculum ideologies -classical humanism, liberal-progressivism and

vocational modernism. The reader was informed about the close association of education and
religion in classical humanism. In addition, the article highlighted the formation of the collections of
the great books called Canon. The list of religious great books called humanisations. Which lead to
the development of the name classical humanism. During classical humanism the learned men and
priest read Latin and women had no access to education and did not know how to read. During
Liberal Progressivism times peoples way of thinking began to change and so people began to discuss
the future through rational thinking and science. This was a very progressive period where people
recognised they had the right to be individuals and could think for themselves rather being told what
to do. This lead to many revolutions like the French revolution. The Liberal Progressive period was
known as the Enlightenment period. Many people recognised that education should focus on
developing peoples thinking and capabilities. There was a great emphasis on exploring the world
during this period.

Vocational Modernism
However, during the Vocational Modernism period came massive social change. Agriculture forced
people to leave the land and move to cities to find work. Industries like coal and mining developed
and bigger countries like France, America, Germany and Britain measured competition against one
another in terms of the efficiency and quality of their industrial production. The National School
system was developed in 1831 and the English system was developed forty years later. People also
questioned whether classical humanist or liberal progressive philosophy was the most appropriate.
However, Snedden highlighted that liberal education prepared people to be consumers rather than
producers. He also highlighted that you can teach people to read poetry but unless they earn a living
they would not be in a position to buy a book of poetry. He also highlighted that vocational
education would take a number of different forms like professional education, commercial
education, industrial education, agricultural education and home economics education. This would
assist in the education of people of a variety of talents and capabilities. The author would agree with
this statement that vocational education educates people in different areas because the curriculum
is varied to cover all aspect of skills needed for society. In the past vocational education educated
students in many subjects to ensure they have skills for the jobs market. But today society has
changed in the types of skills it needs in the jobs market, therefore educators need to review the
educational system to exam whether the education system is equipping students for the jobs
market. Likewise, Marulcu and Akbiyik (2014) investigated pre-service teachers curriculum
ideologies. The results showed that pre-service teacher see the role of schools as being the

construction of a better society which indicated that pre-service teacher perceives society as fragile
and problematic. As society progresses the curriculum needs to be revised to ensure it equips
students for the world of work. This will help society to function more efficiently when graduates are
educated with the relevant skills of work (Marulcu and Akbiyik, 2014). Likewise, Mulcahy (2009)
believes that liberal education can help students to think for themselves and become more
Moreover, this article illuminates the importance of education in society. Education allows people to
become more autonomous in their thinking and broadening of minds. Otherwise people lacking in
education may not see both side of an argument. Education also creates more knowledge of how to
do things better. Nowadays technology allows people to view information on line and educate
people about their rights and entitlements and allows people to progress in their future whether it
be doing an online course or accessing further opportunities aboard to advance in their career.
Education has also allowed society to be more accepting of the different cultures because people
research and learn more about different cultural background and gives people a better
understanding of the peers. In addition, Vocational schooling teaches students skills that are
relevant to todays world and offer hands on experience to students and prepare students to go
straight into the workplace. However, a one fit all lesson plans is not appropriate in post modern
schools because it may not cater for the learning needs of all students (Skinner, 2009).
Likewise, in education many educational strategies have been implemented over the years to make
the curriculum more relevant in todays society. For example The Programme for Action in 1989
emphasised the notion of equal opportunities for all people to advance in education. In 1992, the
Green paper on Education for a Changing World emphasised the changing nature of the jobs market
and the need for schools curriculum to be revised to respond to these needs. In the mid 1990s it
was recognised that more than 2,000 children left school without any qualification. It was also
recognised that the traditional leaving certificate was not meeting students needs and not helping
students to enhance their talents and abilities. Hence, the leaving certificate applied was
implemented designed to prepare students for the transition from school to adult work life (Walsh
and Dolan, 2009 p.7). Likewise, the New Junior Certificate cycle was implemented this year with the
aim of enhancing students learning and promoting students different talents for todays society.
Educators recognised that they needed to teach students to be more creative in their thinking and
gain more attributes towards problem solving (The National Council for Continued Assessment,
2010). The curriculum concentrates on bettering standards of education in maths and English. Other
new subjects have been added to the curriculum like computers studies which will help equip

students with the basic knowledge of computer programming when entering college (The National
Council for Continued Assessment, 2010).
This article has helped to inform the author how education was developed and how it has
progressed. This article is very relevant to the teaching professional because it highlights how it is
important that education helps people to develop their talents for the betterment of the person and
society at large.

In conclusion
Education developed from religious teaching about 500AD. As time progressed education has
assisted society to develop and helped people and industry and business to excel and reach their full


Marulcu, I. and Akbiyik, Prof. Dr. C. (2014) Curriculum ideologies. Re-exploring prospective teachers
perspectives. International Journal Humanities and Social Science. 4, 5, (1) pp.12-15.
Mulcahy, D.G. (2009) Liberal Education and the Ideal of the Educated Person. Pittsburgh: Central
Connecticut State University. Accessed 27th November 2014.
Skinner, D.A. (2008) The Whitlower. Green College of Education Without Limits: Breaking the Rules
with Postmodernism to Improve Educational Practices in Order to Best Serve Students. National
Forum of Re-educational Administration and Supervision Journal. 25 (4) P.12-23.

The National Council for Continued Assessment, 2010. Towards a framework for Junior cycle
Innovation and identity. School development Junior Cycle. Dublin: Department of Education.
Walsh, B. And Dolan, R. (2009) A Guide Teaching Practice in Ireland. Dublin: Gill and William Ltd.

Name of Student: Jarlath Lydon

I.D G00279899
Article/Reading [AUTHOR & TITLE]:

Article from the Irish Times by Hislop entitled the quality assurance of Irish Schools
and the role of evaluation : current and future trends.


For this assignment I reviewed the assignment written by Hislop (2012) entitled the quality
assurance of Irish Schools and the role of evaluation: current and future trends. Department of
Education and Skills.
The aim of this article is to provide a brief summary of that changes that have occurred in education.
Hislop (2012) highlighted that to improve the education system in Ireland there should be greater
emphasis on the quality of learning outcomes for students. Furthermore the traditional education
system placed an increased emphasis on passive learning and less focus on students outcomes and
achievements. In the era of Globalisation and technological innovation the role of the teacher has
also become more professional. As a consequence this has encouraged teachers to become more

passionate about improving students learning so that the students perform to the best of their
ability (Walsh, 2011).
Now days, the department of education places greater emphasis on value for money with 17% of
the budget money spent in education (Hislop, 2012). This objective is further reinforced by the
Government who are demanding value for money in the education sector.
Furthermore, schools have greater self-governance through the implementation of the process of
school self-evaluation (Walsh, 2011). Moreover, the era of Globalisation and Technological
Innovation has also encouraged educators and policy makers re examine the material taught in
school to ensure that students have knowledge that is relevant to the world of work so that society
can function more effectively and that upon leaving the education system that students can live
fulfilling and successful lives (National Council for Curriculum and Assessment 2010). However,
Hislop (2012) highlights that there is lack of guidance into how schools should implement the
process of school self-evaluation and greater clarity is needed in to how best to implement selfevaluation techniques. The literature highlights that external inspections have helped schools to
highlight their failing to improve their delivery of educations to students. Moreover, school
inspections allow inspectors to observe teaching practices and then make recommendations to
teachers so as to continue to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom
(Donnelly, 2014).

In Conclusion
Hislop (2012) highlights that there is a need to update the education system so as to improve the
quality of teaching and learning for students. The article also highlighted the importance of school
self-governance through the process of school self-evaluation in addition to inspection audits and
how these can improve the standard of education in the Irish education system.


The author will provide an overview of the article Hislop (2012) the quality assurance of Irish Schools
and the role of evaluation: current and future trends. Likewise the author will include other relevant

Overall Hislop (2012) provided many arguments that highlight how education in Ireland is changing
in a positive way. The article highlights that educational reform has resulted in a more student
centred approach to teaching and learning in the classroom. Furthermore, this new framework has
had a positive impact on student learning. (Hislop 2012).
As Schools are more accountable for their practice as they engage in the process of school selfevaluation. Moreover, the educational system must now provide rational for the processes which
are implemented, as there is now greater focus on value for money for the tax payer and the
students. However Hislop (2012) highlights that there also lack of guidance into how to conduct selfevaluation in schools. Many of the arguments Hislop highlighted were relevant to the current Irish
education system.
Other reports like the Commission on School Reform Final Report (2013) highlights that ongoing
assessment or as the literature describes as formative assessment will enhance student learning,
students skills and motivate students as they have more control and responsibility for their own
learning. Moreover, formative assessment enhances student knowledge of the subject matter in
addition to promoting literacy and numeracy skills in the classroom. Likewise, formative assessment
will also provide the teacher with an insight of the learning abilities of individual students (Donnelly,
2014). Moreover, Donnelly (2014) further rejects the notion that teachers assessing their students or
assessment for learning of learning will result in an unfair system. In addition teachers assessments
could help to identify student performance in a way which the conventional examination system has
failed. (Hislop, 2012). For instance, a standard test of maths and reading can provide information on
students performance and help identify a weakness in particular students. This allows teachers to
design more effective teaching and learning strategies for their students which will inevitably
enhance the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom. (Hislop 2012).
This is further reinforced by the National Council for Curriculum Assessment (2004) who conducted
a research study into the experiences of the curriculum among first year, second year and third year
students. The study highlighted that the syllabus needed more concentration on learning outcomes
and there was a need to improve practical and skills base of subjects. Likewise, the study also
highlighted that there was a need for more support for teachers in assessment for learning of
learning or formative assessment in the classroom (National Council for Curriculum Assessment,
Likewise, Hislop (2012) outlines that the education system needs to constantly evolve to meet the
needs of todays globalised and technological society. Hence, the education system needs to look at

what skills are necessary to succeed so as to better equip students with essential skills which will
enable them to progress positively into the future. Therefore, the education system needs to place
an increased emphasis on the school self-evaluation process so as to confirm that all school engage
in reflective enquiry which will inevitably improve the quality of the education system in Ireland
(Hislop, 2012). Hislop (2012) wishes to emphasise that, external inspections and evaluations are
important so as to ensure the schools are adhering to requirements of the school self-evaluation
process. Furthermore, external inspections and evaluations are viewed as important as they assist
the school to identify areas of weakness so they can be improved which will inevitably enhance the
quality of teaching and learning in the classroom (Hislop 2012).
However Hislop (2012) wishes to outline that it is uncommon for Irish teachers to engage in the
process of individual reflective practice. Despite extensive engagement in the school development
planning there is a lack of practical guidance on how to engage in the process of reflective practice
(Hislop, 2012). Furthermore, Hislop (2012) outlines that inspectorates reports comment on the
quality of school planning. However, the inspectorate model did not take account of the findings of
the initial school self-evaluation process. Likewise Hislop (2012) also highlights that it is essential
that teachers engage in reflective practice in a critical and professional way so that standards can be
improved. Moreover, Hislop (2012) emphasises that there needs to be honest and open discussion
between the parents association, teachers and management on how to improve the education
system for students. The author wishes to outline that all of the arguments Hislop (2012) highlighted
are credible. Furthermore, the author could identify with many of these statements from reading
other relevant academic literature.
Many measures have being introduced over the years to improve the education system in Ireland.
Internal and external assessment of schools has also helped the education system to progress
positively. From reviewing the literature it is credible to suggest that Policy makers need to look at
the market forces to see what skills are necessary in today s world so the educations system can be
updated and progress to meet the demands of globalisation in addition to the advances in modern
Technology. Furthermore, external inspections play a distinctive role in regulation the school system.
However, reform is necessary to ensure correct implementation of the school self-evaluation


Hislop, H. Dr. (2012) The quality assurance of Irish Schools and the role of evaluation: current and
future trends. Department of Education and Skills.
National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2010) Towards A framework for Junior Cycle.
Innovation and Identity School developing Junior Cycle.
Walsh, B. (2011) Education Studies in Ireland. The key Disciplines. Dublin: Gill & Macmillian.
Consortium of Institute for Development of Research in Education in Europe (2012). Effective
assessment for learning. CIDREE Conference. Consortium of Institute for Development of Research in
Education in Europe Consortium of Institute for Development of Research in Education in Europe.
Donnelly (2014) Junior Cert Assessments by teachers "fair" - expert. The Irish Independent. p. 13.
Hislop, H. Dr. (2012) The quality assurance of Irish Schools and the role of evaluation: current and
future trends. Department of Education and Skills.
National Council for Curriculum Assessment (2004) NAAC Commentary on ESRI Research into
curriculum provision and school integration among first year students. Department of Education.
The Commission on School Reform Final Report (2013) By Diverse Means: Improving Scottish

Education. Centre For Scottish Public Policy.