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A Euphonium By Any Other Name Is Not a Baritone

David R. Werden

Over the years I have heard

several different explanations of
the difference between the euphonium and the baritone:
A baritone is a small euphonium.
A baritone has three valves
and a euphonium has four.
If the instrument is in treble
clef it's a baritone, and if it's in
bass clef it's a euphonium.
(Attributed to Robert King) a
euphonium is a baritone that's
played well.
Some of these distinctions are
partly true, but none is a correct
and complete definition. I would
like to help clear up some of the
fog surrounding these instruments.
I have consulted 24 sources including general dictionaries, encyclopedias, music dictionaries,
and texts trying to find an official definition of the difference
between these two instruments.
All the books agree on the following: the euphonium has
mostly conical tubing, a larger
bore and bell than the baritone,
and a darker, bigger sound. The

baritone has mostly cylindrical

tubing, a smaller bell and bore,
and a smaller, brighter sound
than the euphonium. None of the
books mention specific measurements or dimensions, which are
important aspects when distinguishing these instruments.
In England the distinction between the euphonium and baritone is especially important because of the many brass bands.
There, as well as in the rest of
Europe, the bands use two baritone horns and two euphoniums
with specific parts written for
the different timbres of these instruments. Therefore, to illustrate the importance of dimensions, I will use my British made
instruments as examples.
My euphonium has a bore of
.580", with almost entirely conical tubing (except for the section
passing through the first three
valves). It has a large bell, 11" in
diameter, whose throat is large
enough to accept a fist several
inches down. My baritone has a
.515" bore. Its bell is 10" in diameter, and proportioned similar



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to a trombone bell. Its tubing is

mostly cylindrical, as demonstrated by removing the tuning
slide and reinserting it with the
two ends reversed. This is not
possible with my euphonium,
because, in order to maintain
the taper, the two ends of the
tuning slide are of a different diameter.
Another instrument, the bellfront type with front valves (often seen in high school bands
and sometimes referred to as a
baritone) usually has a .560"
bore and about a 10.5" bell. The
throat of this bell is roughly as
large as that of my euphonium.
A glance at the tubing confirms
that it is mostly conical, and the
tuning slide is not reversible. I
understand that this type of
horn was originally developed
with characteristics that would
allow it to be used for both
baritone horn and euphonium
parts (its tone color is more or
less centered between those two
instruments). However, over the
years its sound has grown
darker as the manufacturers
have tried to meet the demands
of musicians desiring a fuller
tone. As the instrument exists today, its sound is very close to
that of euphoniums such as
mine, and it has a much darker
sound than that of the baritone
horn. Having played most
brands of this type of instrument, I see no reason to ever call
it a baritone. It is best described
as a small euphonium, and its
characteristics are not different
enough from its larger brothers
to justify a different name. Certainly the range of bore sizes and
tone colors among tenor trombones is at least as diverse as it
is among euphoniums, yet I
haven't heard any name other
than trombone used to describe
the smaller of these instruments.
David R. Werden was recognized as
"Euphonium Player of the Year" in
1980 by the British publication
Sounding Brass, and in 1981 was
elected Euphonium Coordinator of
the Tubists Universal Brotherhood
Association. In 1982 he was awarded
the Coast Guard Commendation
Medal for his work in promoting the
euphonium. Werden is a clinician
for Boosey & Hawkes.

Let us put to rest some mis:onceptions. The euphonium

merican, European, or Japalese) may have three, four, or
iore valves without its basic diicnsions or tone color changig. The baritone horn is almost
Jways found with only three
'alves. However, if a manufacrer chose to add a fourth
,lve, the instrument would still
a baritone. The direction the
:11 points does not affect the
finition, nor does the placelent of the valves. For example,
me European manufacturer
lakes a euphonium with the
.me basic dimensions of bore
id tubing taper in side-valve
ipright bell, front-valve upright
11, and front-valve front bell
mfiguration, all available with
ee or four valves. Euphonium
:Usic may be written in either
iass or treble clef. Baritone
iorn music is almost always in
reble clef, though the reasons
tor this have more to do with tralition than technical necessity.
I would like to see music publishers use the correct terminoligy on the parts for these instruicnts. As a member of the
nited States Coast Guard
land, I read much music in the
mrse of a year. While most of
ie parts I play are labeled "bari<ne," they are meant to be
ilayed on a euphonium. Brass
lands, in which the distinction
tween baritone and euphoum parts is critical, are beiming popular in the United
itates. Thus, it will be all the
iore important in the future to
iliminate the existing confusion.
My final plea is that the manufacturers of brass instruments
:gin to use the correct titles for
ritone horns and euphoniums
their catalogs. The word "euihonium" should stand for more
n just a high-quality version
a particular instrument, and
laritone" or "baritone horn"
ihould only be applied to the
rue, small-bore, cylindrical,
Tighter-sounding instrument.
and a Little Magic
Donn Laurence Mills

At some point in a child's life,

he lets it be known that he likes

music, and before he knows it, a

well-meaning adult presses an
instrument in his hands and
packs him off to music lessons.
The new toy is a delight for
awhile, but then the going gets
tough. Suddenly it's becoming a
burden; practicing, a bore. A few
agonizing months pass; the instrument is returned to the store
and another musical career has
ended in disappointment. Only
one of three beginners will still
be playing a year later, and
many others will give up long before any musical satisfaction is
reached. Lack of talent? Well,
music isn't for everyone... or is
Fortunately for us, just
enough turtles reach the sea to
provide players for our ensembles, and those survivors deserve our respect and gratitude.
Now that they're in the high
school orchestra, are their musical dreams to be fulfilled at last?
For too many, the answer is "no."
A lot of our students stick it
out through years of tedious rehearsals long after the bloom of
anticipation has faded. Like
brushing teeth, it's become a monotonous habit. For some it's
easier to continue than quit,
even if the experience is boring.
Many reach a minimum performance level, then stagnate. If
you look carefully, you'll find
these people in about half the
chairs of your orchestra. At least

they make the yearbook photograph look impressive.

Truthfully now, how can the
rank and file of your orchestra
be as thrilled with the experience as Helen Hotshot, your
overachieving concertmistress?
They can't see the promised land
beyond the next page-turn as she
does. As both leader and teacher,
you must motivate everyone, including those chair-warmers
but how?
We all know that small, poorly
balanced orchestras are demoralizing to everyone. Feeble
groups convince weak players
that making music isn't so wonderful after all. To stay on top
we must anticipate our needs
and prepare well in advance. Unless you savor martyrdom, make
studies, lists, and alternatives.
Do your homework and recruit
with the fanaticism of a zealot.
Never permit your orchestra to
lose ground no matter what the
I hear you say, "Yes, fine, but
every year we have to start all
over again." No, you don't. You
can edge the standards upward
even with changing personnel.
Just keep expecting a little more
each year. Let incoming students strive to better last year's
standards. Play a tape of your
spring concert at the first rehearsal in the fall and challenge
the group to surpass it. Successful athletic coaches operate that

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of Music

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June 11-15
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June 18-22 1 Hour Credit (morning)
Clinicians: Virginia Hoge Mead, Lynn Freeman Olson
June 18-22
1 Hour Credit (afternoon)
Clinician: William M. Anderson


June 25-27
1 Hour Credit (afternoon)
Clinician: Michael Lee
July 2-7
2 Hours Credit (morning)
Clinician: Arthur Bean
July 9-13 2 Hours Credit (afternoon)
Clinician: Arthur Bean
July 16-20
2 Hours Credit (afternoon)
Clinician: Joy E. Lawrence

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Programs, 327 Rockwell Hall. Kent State University. Kent, Ohio 44242; 216/672-3100.