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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership
Name: Aysun Coban

Date: October 11, 2014

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Waxman, H., Boriack, A., Yuan-Hsuan, L., & MacNeil, A. (2013). Principals' Perceptions of
the Importance of Technology in Schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 4(3), 187196.

Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is
the theoretical background or overarching theme):
What is school principals perception of the importance of technology in schools?
Can principals technology use and view change students success?
In terms of technology use what successful school principals do in order to increase
students academic achievement and graduation rates? (Day & Leithwood, 2007;
Schargel, Thacker, & Bell, 2007; Waxman, MacNeil, & Lee, 2006).

Purpose of the research:

This study focuses on how principals view the importance of technology.
The study focuses on principal characteristics such as years of experience and
What are principals perceptions of the importance of technology?
Can gender and experience of principals change their use of technology in the
What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the
issue? Provide information regarding the following:

Participants: A convenience sample of 310 principals from a large metropolitan

area in the southwest region of the United States.
Principals responded to a cognitive interview questionnaire that asked
principals about their perceptions regarding the importance of technology
for their schools.
126 males and 184 females principal were sample.

A range of years of experience of principals was:

104 participants having 0-3 years of experience,
82 participants having 4-7 years,
55 participants having 8-11 years,
32 participants having 12-15 years,
31 participants having greater than 15 years.
The questionnaire was administered by graduate students in the
Educational Leadership program at a major, urban doctoral-granting
university located in the south central region of the U.S.
As part of the principals certification course requirements, students were
trained on how to administer the instrument and required to interview a
specific number of current public school principals.
The survey instrument was designed specifically for this purpose and
included both qualitative and quantitative questions. (Desimonte & Le
Floch, 2004).
For this study, only the data from the interviews was used.
The interview questions were Has technology had an impact in your
school?" and "If so, in what specific ways has it made a difference?

Data Collection Methods/Data Source:

Open ended questions
Interview questions
Data Analysis:
Analysis of the interview data began with a process of data reduction. The
participants responses were read several times to become familiar with the data.
The data was then coded into meaningful categories. Once the categories were
established, another researcher independently coded a 10% sample of
responses to determine the consistency of the coding. The inter-coder reliability
results revealed a high level of agreement (Cohens kappa = .94).
Findings or Results (or main points of the article):
35% of the principals indicated that technology was used as a primary
communication tool.
28% of principals responded that technology was integrated in teachers
classroom instruction.
The third category 14% was using technology for data sharing and management.
The 4th category that is 15% was using technology as a resource to find
10% said technology was also used for administrative tasks, such as taking
10% said technology has increased the efficiency with record keeping,
developing instructional materials, and numerous administrative tasks.
Technology was used for student learning.

Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):
In the study MacNeil and Delafield (1998) found that if administrators can be role
models as technology leaders, the teachers and students may integrate and use
technology more successfully in the schools.
There are still some administrators who are not adequately using technology and
they have little experience or training in the technology knowledge and skills.
They should have more experience and training and be effective technology
leaders (Ertmer, Bai, Dong, Khalil, Park, & Wang, 2002).
School leaders should use latest technology to help other school personnel.
If principals do not have adequate knowledge about technology use, they will not
be able to help and support teachers and students.
School leaders visions must include technology. (Paben, 2002.)
Administrators need to have sufficient experiences to develop an understanding
of how technology can improve instructional practices and strategies for
supporting teachers efforts to use technology in the classroom. (Schmeltzer,
Study shows that it is important to use technology from principals point of view.
Principals also see the importance of using technology for data sharing and
management, as a resource, for administrative tasks and for student learning.
Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your
The article states that school principals prefer to use technology mainly for communication,
instruction, data sharing and management, a resource, administrative tasks, and student learning.
When I read this article I examined my current schools administrators technology use.
Our principal use technology to communicate teachers, parents, and other stakeholders. He uses
database to keep records of staff and students. Admins share google documents to share data.
Assistant principals use some administrative tools for their own tasks. And finally teachers use
technology to improve quality of instruction. I do not think the principal and assistant principals
know every single tools that teachers currently use in their classrooms, however administrators
support using these technology tools in the classroom. For example, last week our principal
arranged some coffee talk sessions for teachers to ask them what kind of technology tools they
are using in their classes and if they need any support from admins. I really found that meetings
supportive even if they do not know what I am using in my classes. I believe and support that all
administrators should be knowledgeable about their teachers technology use, what teachers are
using in their classes, are they enough trained, and do they need any help. However, with some
reasons they are not having chance to examine every technology tools that used in the school. I
did not work with any principal so far who really know how to use all technology tools that are
being used in the school. Since I am teaching Computer in my school, I am not having any
difficulty to use technology in my classes; however other subject teachers are having hard times
with new technology tools in their classes and cannot get help every time when they need