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How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Patsy M.

Lightbown and Nina


Spada
Supplementary Activity 1.1: Milestones of vocal/linguistic development
Below is an alphabetical list of descriptors that characterize some of the things children
are able to do with language at different ages. In the Table below, match the descriptors
with the age ranges. Note that there are 18 descriptors and 12 age ranges, so you will
want to enter more than one descriptor on some lines.
Babbles repetitive consonant-vowel strings (for example, ba ba ba)
Babbles with sentence intonation (for example, ba BA ba ba!)
Begins to use grammatical morphemes and function words
Combines words to make telegraphic sentences
Cries only because of discomfort or hunger
Discriminates among similar language sounds (for example, pa and ba)
Has a vocabulary of about 50 words
Has a vocabulary of several thousand words
Knows cake the eat is silly but doesnt know why
Learns to use different voices with different interlocutors
Learns to use different language registers for different social/academic situations
Makes cooing sounds
Makes some consonant-vowel sounds
Produces first word
Shows literacy-based metalinguistic awareness
Starts to ask lots of why questions
Takes into account what listener knows(for example, on the telephone)
Understands afterwards
How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University PressAge
Description of language development
How Languages are Learned | fourth edition | Oxford University Press

TASL 501, Dr. Carlson

8.30.14 Lisa Rutland

Age
Birth to 1 month

1 to 3 months
36 months
69 months
912 months
1218 months
1824 months
2436 months
34 years

46 years
68 years

810 years

Description of language
development
-Cries only because of discomfort or
hunger
-Makes cooing sounds
-Discriminates among similar
language sounds (for example, pa
and ba)
-Babbles with sentence intonation
(for example, ba BA ba ba!)
-Babbles repetitive consonant-vowel
strings (for example, ba ba ba)Produces first word
-Has a vocabulary of about 50 words
-Combines words to make
telegraphic sentences
-Begins to use grammatical
morphemes and function words Starts to ask lots of why questions
-Knows cake the eat is silly but
doesnt know why
-Learns to use different voices with
different interlocutors
-Takes into account what listener
knows (for example, on the
telephone)
-Shows literacy-based metalinguistic
awareness
Has a vocabulary of several thousand
words
-Learns to use different language
registers for different
social/academic situations

Lisa Rutland
TASL 501, Supplementary Activity 3.1 BLOG/VLOG
October 1, 2014
Characteristics of the good language learner Chart
A-4

G-5

B-5

H-5

C-5

I-4

D-5

J-3

E-5

K-4

F-5

L-4

When thinking of terms of my experience as a second language learner or


teacher
Which characterizes seem to you most likely to be associated with success in
second language acquisition are:
C,E,F,L.
C- is willing to make mistakes. Making mistakes is so important, so that learning
development would increase quickly. I strongly believe it is what makes acquisition
happen effectively. Both teachers and students need to realize that we all are
human and no one is perfect. Learning is infinite and learning would keep on going,
if the learner can accept the lessons that come from mistakes.
E- practices as often as possible. Practice makes perfect, indeed. Practice is
where commitment is seen. The authenticity will evolve in time. Without practice,
skills and comprehension would not be possible. It is the students responsibility to
keep on practicing, and to be assertive to work with others as well as themselves.
Practice is my main recommendation to learners and hopefully it is others as well.

F- analyzes his or her own speech and the speech of others. It is always a good
idea to analyze speech in both oneself and others. Imitation is a great tool in the
acquisition and comprehension process.
L- has a good self-image and lots of confidence Confidence does attract! The law of
attraction does make a difference in every aspect of life. Others are also attracted to
energy, and I must add posture, eye contact, proper attire, and an easygoing, open
minded, honest, motivated and patient person.
Are there some characteristics that learners can develop with adequate
opportunity and good instruction?
Do you think that some of the
characteristics are innate or unchangeable?
D- constantly looks for patterns in the language. The learners are encouraged to
seek for whatever the language offers. It is always necessary to seek patterns in
language and to understand the uniqueness of it as frequently as possible. More
understanding leads to better ability to to acquire and use it fluently.
Do you think some of these characteristics might be important for students in
classrooms where the emphasis is on learning grammar while others might be
more important for students acquiring language in the community, outside
the classroom? Which ones? Why?
All characteristics indicated in the chart are highly important, except for K, which
stated needing an above average IQ for better acquisition. It is more relevant to
know if the person would be interested or not in learning new things. Effort and
motivation are considered. But, based on research, according to the How Languages
are Learned by Lightbown and Spada, the IQ scores were a good means of predicting
success, especially in second language learning. The IQ test may be more strongly
related to metalinguistic knowledge than to communicative ability.
Actually, I have a lot of respect for others with a variety of personalities, traits, and
skills. I always scan the differences or similarities in these areas, and then I work
closely with the learners to help them improve in the weaker areas. I emphasize
that in the classroom is where they can make mistakes, imitate others, go beyond
their comfort zone and then outside in the community, they can have a smaller room
to make mistakes, but confidence and willingness to learn more by observation and
interaction with the native or expert signers.

Lisa Rutland
TASL 501, Dr. Carlson
Supplementary Activity 7.1: Who said that?
November 26, 2014
This activity was an intense search. It was a great way to test my memory who
these authors were. Also I learned new ones. Hope I guessed/remembered right?
Lisa
1. Roy Lyster
2. Jim Cummins
3. Robert DeKeyser
4. Stephen Krashen
5. Merrill Swain
6. Manfred Pienemann
7. Nick Ellis
8. Kellen Toohey
9. Nina Spada & Maria Frohlich
10. Carmen Munoz

TASL 501, Dr. Carlson


Kelly, Lisa, Sherilyn and Yvonne/Cheryl
November 22, 2014

Supplementary Activity 6.3:


Comparing teaching approaches
The following activity is adapted from one developed by Mela Sarkar.
Each of the four statements below represents the perspective of an imaginary teacher
who is using one of the approaches to teaching described in Chapter 6. After you
have read the statements, answer the following questions for each one:
1 What is this teaching approach called in Chapter 6?
2 What SLA perspective (from Chapter 4) is this teaching approach closely
linked with?
3 List three things in the statement that helped you answer question 2.
4 Which features of this teaching approach would you use in your own
classroom?
Why?
5 Are there features of this teaching approach that you would not use? Why not?
Teacher A (Kelly Leeper)
When I teach a second language, I work very hard on correct pronunciation from the
beginning. I am careful to provide a clear, accurate model for the students to follow,
and I listen to them carefully and correct mistakes as they occur, so the students dont
form bad pronunciation habits. That applies to grammar, too. We work with short
dialogues that the students memorize and practise in pairs. Then they perform them
for the class. Of course Im lavish with my praise for correct L2 production. We also
spend a lot of time on careful sentence drill, so the students can learn useful words
and phrases in context. I dont talk much about grammar rules in class, although
the students can look those up in their books if they want to. I basically expect the
students to figure out the rules from the dialogues and other examples they hear from
me or in the language lab. We build up fluency and accuracy at the same time, step by
step. Group or pair work is hard to control, so I dont do it. I want to hear what the
students are saying, so I can correct it. After all, what am I paid for?
1. Teaching Approach:Get It Right From the Beginning
2. SLA perspective: Behaviourist Perspective
3. List 3 things: Mimicry (using drill), memorization (students memorize) and
learned dialogues (practise in pairs)
4. Which features of teaching approach I will use: Work with short dialogues
that the students memorize and practise in pairs.

5. Which features of teaching approach I will not use:To work on correct


pronunciation from the beginning. Why not? I believe the correction should be
done in the middle of the dialogue while they are doing the activity.

Teacher B-((Lisa Rutland))


My approach to second language teaching gives the learners a lot of freedom.
Perhaps it would be better to call them acquirers I dont want them to learn
language, I want them to acquire it! In other words, I want them to feel as natural
and comfortable in their second language as they do in their first. That wont happen
if theyre always worrying about some rule that they might be breaking. We never,
never talk about grammar rules. I just make sure that the students hear and read lots
of interesting language material at a level they can understand and relate to. When
something gets too easy, we move on to something new and a bit more difficult. I
keep classroom activities fun and engagingI think people learn better if theyre
relaxed and having a good time. When the students are talking, they make mistakes,
of coursethat cant be helped. I NEVER correct them. That would just make them
feel stressed and anxious; then theyd stop feeling that practising was fun. But I do
supply lots of examples of how to say things right. And they really listen!
1.Teaching Approach: Just listen.. and read
2.SLA Perspective: Innatist
3.Three helpful things:
1. Universal Grammar would permit all learners to acquire the language of
their own- natural setting or emotion.
2. Krashens affective filter- if stressed, learners may not listen or read.
3. Monitor hypothesis-- allowing them to make minor changes.
4.Which features of teaching approach I will use:
a. Enhanced input is chosen because I would try and draw learners
attention.
b. Grammar plus communicative practice is what I like for the tests
would measure the fluency, understanding and the ability to
understand as well as transit information in a variety of
activities/discussions with both peers and native user.
c. The dynamics of pair work as I believe interaction is essential and
pairing is one of those in supporting the acquisition.
5. Which features of teaching approach I will not use:
*Audiolingual pattern drill because it may cause the boredom in learning.
*Reading for words because it does not apply to my classroom. ASL is a visual
language.

Teacher C -(Sherilyn Stutzman)


Its not that hard to learn a second languagebut you have to work at it. And you
have to work at it with other people who are attacking the same task. So I think
of myself as a facilitator rather than a teacher. I set up activities that the students
work on in pairs or groupsand please dont think that its not a lot of work to
come up with good activity ideas and to structure them properly! I have to take
the students age and level of proficiency into consideration; I have to know about
their interests, so I can make the material relevant to them. Although I use a lot of
authentic material, of course its important to adapt what the students will hear and
read so theyll be able to understand it. And on the rare occasions when Im talking
to the whole class, Im careful to modify my language so its not too difficult for
them. I teach them how to do that for each other, tooslow down, use short, simple
sentences; use gestures and other non-verbal cues; think of alternative ways to say
things if youre not being understood. Its all in the negotiating!
1.Teaching Approach:
-Lets Talk
2.SLA Perspective:
-Sociocultural Perspective
3.Three helpful things: (p165)
a: They argue when learners are given the opportunity to engage in
interaction, they are compelled to negotiate for meaning.
b: Learners are working together to accomplish a particular goal.
c: Negotiation leads learners to acquire the language forms--the words and
grammatical structures.
4.Which features of teaching approach I will use:
-I will use an approach with good activities that apply to the students
interests, age level at that time. I will also use materials that are authentic
to their learning.
5.Which features of teaching approach I will not use:
-The focus would be on language learning NOT gestures and non-verbal cues,
or the use of alternative ways to be understood

Teacher D (Yvonne and Cheryl)


I think second language learners have to be aware of the structures and vocabulary
of the second language in order to be able to learn them. The thing is, though, they
have to notice language features because they are interested in what they are trying

to understand or say. It wont do a thing for them if Im always trying to hammer


grammar rules into them. No, the best way for me to help my students is to supply
lots and lots of second language material for them to process on their own. I can make
the conditions optimalreduce stress, try not to make them anxious by correcting
them all the time, make the material interesting, and so forth. But ultimately second
language learners have to see for themselves which features of the new language are
important. Then, after they notice those features, learning will happen naturally
when they see them or try to use them again. Sometimes, if I see that students are
having difficulty with something, I try to help them figure it out by talking about
how the language works. Or if they keep making a mistake in using something that I
know theyve already noticed, I might remind them by pointing it out to them as they
are speaking or writing. But I realize that learners cant be rushed. Learning a new
language takes time. So we do lots of different kinds of activities, using language that
is challenging but not frustrating for them.
1. Teaching Approach:
Get two for one
Teaching Approach:Content -based language teaching (CBLT)
2. SLA Perspective:
Cognitive perceptive , noticing hypothesis, used-based language,
3. Three helpful things:
1. Aware of the structures and vocabulary of the second language.
2. Noticing language features.
3. Figure it out by talking about how the language works.
4. Interesting materials to do activities
4. Which features of teaching approach I will use: Why?
a. Just listen and receptive
b. Practice learning signing
c. Signing right at the end
d. Take time for them learning in timely paced.
The reason is these features, because ASL is visual language. Let the students
learn to use their visual spatial skill, and be able to copying the sign then they
learn how to interaction easier.
5. Which features of teaching approach I will not use: Why not?
Get it right from the beginning
The reason is these feature I will not use Get it right from the beginning. Those
students will lose interested in learning second language and overwhelmed.