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Formula sheet – Final Exam – IGEE 401 / ELEC 6411

i

Average and rms values The instantaneous power is:

p

( ) =

t

v V
=
2
sin
ω t
i I
=
2
sin (
ω
t
φ
)
2
2
I
= V
Z
,
Z
=
R
+
X
L
− 1
=
ω
L
,
φ
=
tan
(
X
R
)
  X
L
L
j 0
V
Ve
V
j 0
j
φ
V
= Ve
and I
=
=
=
e
j
φ
Z
Ze
Z

=

v i

Ie

φ

j

P

AV

=

1

T

T
T
T
1
1
2
p t
( )
dt
=
v i dt
I
=
I
=
i
dt
rms
T
T
o
o
o

Power, reactive power and power factor

S = VI* = Ve j0 Ie jΦ = VI e jΦ = Se jΦ

S

S

=

=

VI

P

cos

+

jQ

φ +

,

jVI

S

2

sin

φ

=

P

2

+

Q

2

Apparent Power (VA) = S = VI Real Power (W) = P = Re[S] = VI cosΦ Reactive Power (VAr) = Q = Im [S] = VIsinΦ PF = P = cosΦ

S

I
P = I cosφ → P
= VI
,
I
In phase (IP) and out-of-phase (IQ) components:
P
Three-phase systems
2
π
2
π
π
π
− j
j
j (
)
6
j
(
j 0
V
= Ve
, V
= Ve
3
, V
= Ve
3
V
=
V
V
=
3
Ve
= V
e
)
6
a
b
c
ab
a
b
LL
2
S
=
V
I
,
P
=
S
cos
θ
,
Q
=
S
sin
θ
=
3
V
ω
C
3
φ
L
L
3
φ
3
φ
3
φ
3
φ
L
Transformers (ideal):
N p I p = N s I s
V p /N p = V s /N s
V p I p = V s I s

Q

= I sinφ Q = VI

Q

Line current distortion

s

( t )

=

i

s

1

( t )

+

i

h 1

sh

( t ),

I

s

=

,

THD

(%)

=

100

I dis

I

s 1

, where

I

dis

=

2
2
2
I
I
=
I
s
s
1
sh
h ≠ 1

, Crest factor

=

I s ,peak

I

s

Average power, total power factor, and displacement power for a nonlinear load:

T
1
V I
cos
φ
I
I
s
s 1
1
s
1
s 1
P
=
2
V
sin
ω
t i
dt
=
V I
cos
φ
,
S
=
V I
,
PF
=
=
cos
φ
=
DPF
,
AV
s
s
s
s
1
1
s
s
1
T
V I
I
I
s
s
s
s
o
2
2
Thyristor based ac controllers
I
=
V
Z
where
Z
=
R
+
(
n
ω
L
)
n
0_
n
n
n
Phase controlled
2 V
ˆ
2
2
S
I
=
a
+
b
,
a
=
(
cos 2
α
1 ,
)
b
=
1
1
1
1
1
2
π
R
V
S
=
(sin 2
α
+
2
π
2
α
)
(rms)
I L 1
π ω
L
1
PF
=
2
1 + THD
i
2 V
S
(
sin 2
α
+
2
π
2
π R

DPF

2

α)

On-off or integral half-cycle control: n cycles on and m cycles off.

Single-phase diode bridge rectifier (considering a highly inductive load):

V

d

0

=

0.9

V

s

,

I

s

Line voltage distortion:

di

s

v

PCC

=

v

s

L

i

s

=

i

s

1

+

sh

i

h

1

,

,
dt

Three-phase full bridge rectifiers:

s 1

v

PCC

_1

v v

d

=

Pn

v

Nn

=

=

,

=

I
s
1
=
cos
φ
=
1,
PF
=
DPF
=
0.9
1
I
s
di sh
2
L
=
(
I
X
)
s
1
sh
Lsh
1 dt
h ≠
h ≠ 1

cos

t d

ω

t, V

ω

d

0

=

1.35V

LL

=

I

d

and

I

s

1

=

0.9

I

d

,

DPF

di
s 1
v
L
,
v
s
s
1
PCC
_
dist
dt
1
π
/ 6
V
=
2V
d
0
∫ −
LL
π
/ 3
π
/ 6

2.34V

s

Input current components considering a highly inductive load:

I

s

=

0.816

I

d

I

s

1

=

0.78

I

d

I

sh

=

I

s

1

h

DPF =

1

PF =

0.955

Single-phase thyristor ac-dc converters:

V

S

d

α

=

=

V

s

2
2

π

V

S

I

s

, S

1

=

cos

V

s

I

α

s

1

,

=

P

1

0.9

=

V

V

S

s

cos

α

I

s

1

cos

,

P

dc

α

,

Q

1

=

I

=

dc

V

V

d

α

s

I

s

1

sin

α

,

I

S

1

=

0.9

I

dc

Three-phase thyristor ac-dc converters considering a highly inductive load:

I

V

d

S

α

=

= 1.35

3

V

V

LL

LL

I

cos

α

s

,

S

1

,

I

s

=

2
=
3

3

V

I

LL

d

I

=

s1

0.816

I

,

P

1

=

d

,

I

s

1

3

V

=

0.78

I

d

=

3

π

I

LL

I

s1

cos α ,

Q

s

1

,

DPF

=

cos

φ

1

=

cos

=

3

V

LL

I

s1

sin α

α

,

PF

=

DPF

Q

SVC

=

Q

=

V

s

2

V

s

2

2 I
=
I Th
rms
_ 2
= I∠ − φ
, V
T

SVC (TCR+FC):

Q

TCR

FC

X

L

1_

eff

(

)

α

X

C

,

Voltage regulation

V

S

=

jX

S

I

+

V

T

, V

S

= V δ

S

, V

T

= V

T

0,I

=

jX

S

I

Tuned harmonic filters

1

Buck dc-dc converter:

(

V

V

)

t

=

(

V

)

t

V

o

f

h

=

=

t

on

h

=

f

grid

D

=

=

2π

C

h

L

h

v

ctrl

I

o

=

V

d

=

1

d

o

on

o

off

,

V

d

T

S

ˆ

V

st

, V

I d

o

D

I

=

1

I

=

DT

S

(

V

d

V

o

)

=

T V

S

o

(

1

D

)

=

I

oB

LB

2

L peak

,

2 L

2 L

V

o

=

1 T

S

2

(1

D

)

=

π

2

f

D

c

2

=

1

V

o

8

LC

Boost dc-dc converter:

(

V

)

t

=

(

V

V

)

t

2

V

o

(1

=

)

1

f

s

I

o

,

=

f

c

(

1

2
π
LC

D)

d

=

on

1 I

d

V

d

t

o

off

,

V

d

V T

S

1

D

,

I

d

V T

S

2

V

DT

T S

=

on

=

o

D

(1

D

)

I

=

o

2 L

D

(1

D

)

o

S

LB

2 L peak

,

2

L

2 L

oB

=

= D

V

o

RC

τ

I

s

1

3

=

I

s

π

cos

α

Single-phase inverters:

SPWM (half-bridge)

m

a

=

ˆ

V

control

ˆ

V

tri

,

m

f

=

f

tri

f

control

Square Wave (half-bridge)

i

d

( )

t

ˆ

( V

Ao

=

)

1

V I

o

o

V

d

=

m

a

cos

φ

V I

o

o

V

d

cos(2

ω φ

t

)

V

d

2

,

m

a

=

ˆ

V

control

ˆ

V

tri

1

=

I

d

+

i

d 2

f

h

h

=

=

(

j m

j m

f

f

±

4 V

(180

ˆ

( V

Ao

)

V

d

2

=

d

= 1.273

β

1

=

π

2

Voltage cancellation:

ˆ

V

oh

=

4 V

d

h

π

sin(

h

β

),

)

α

2

3-phase SPWM

(

V

LL

)

1_

rms

=

3-Phase square-wave:

V

LL 1_

ˆ

( V

Ao

)

h

=

ˆ

( V

Ao

)

1

h

,

h

odd integer

, half of a pulse width.

3
2
2

rms

=

m V

a

d

,

V

d

π

,

m

a

V

LL h

_

1

rms

=

6
π
h

V

d

,

h =

6

n ±

1

±

k

k

)

f

1

,

j

integer

k

odd/even

For SPWM controlled dc-ac converters it should be noted that the values in the table are peak values normalized with respect to the voltage that appears at the output of the converter: Vd for full bridge and 0.5 Vd for half bridge. Also, the principle of voltage cancellation

Design of a second-order LPF:

 Gain = Vout _ h , Gain dB ( ) = Vin h _

20 log(

Gain

),

fres =

fh

Gain dB

(

)

10

40

dB

/

Dec

UPF diode rectifier:

p

in

( ) =

t

v

d ripple

,

ˆ

V

s

sin

ω t

ˆ

I

s

( )

t

1

C

d

i

c

 t = I d V s I s sin 2 − t ω V s I s cos 2 t ω , 2 ω C d

sin

ω

dt

= −

p

d

( )

t

=

V

d

i

d

( ),

t

i

d

( )

t

, For constant frequency control : I

=

rip

 V s I s − V s I s cos 2 ω t V d V d V d = 4 f s L d

Switch-mode bi-directional grid interface:

V

2

s

V

V

s

2

1

P

= V I

s

V

conv

1 =

s 1

cosθ

=

[

V

s

2

+

(

ω

HVDC:

V

dc

B

= −

1.35V

LL

conv 1

sin

Q

δ

 

,

V

dc

o

=

V I

s

s 1

sin

θ

=

ω L

s

ω

L

s

L

s

I

s 1

)

2

]

V
s
0.5 m
a
=
2

cosα

B

, γ

B

=

180

α

B

, extinction angle,V

dc

_

_

B

V conv 1

V

s

cos

δ

 

=

1.35V

LL

cos γ

B

P

dB

= 1.35V

LL

I

d

cos γ

B

, Q

dB

= 1.35V

LL

I

d

sin γ

B