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Organic Chemistry Notes

Carbon Bonding

What makes carbon special?


Carbon has a
central role
in the
chemistry of
living things.

Carbon can bond to other carbon atoms and


other elements.

Carbon atoms share valence electrons


(covalent bond)
8 is the perfect number.

What makes carbon special?


Carbon can make 4 covalent bonds.

Carbon can form single, double, and triple


bonds.

Carbon Forms Single,


Double, and Triple Bonds

Single Bond
Draw CH4

H
H

C
H

Atoms with single bonds share 1 pair of electrons.

Double Bond
Draw C2H4

H
H

Atoms with double bonds share 2 pairs of


electrons.

H
H

Triple Bond
Draw C2H2

Atoms with triple bonds share 3 pairs of electrons.

Organic Chemistry Notes

What is Organic Chemistry?


A field of chemistry that studies the
carbon compounds found in living things.

The chemistry in living things is


different from the chemistry we have

learned so far.

What are organic foods?


Are they the same as organic chemistry?
Organic foodsplants or animals that are
raised without the use of pesticides
(chemicals that kill weeds, insects, and
other pests)

Organic foods and organic chemistry are


two

things.

Organic Food means

Pesticides

Organic Chemistry means

What are some common organic


compounds? Where are they found?
All plants are made of organic compounds.

Animals are made of organic compounds.

You are made of organic compounds.


Do you see a pattern yet?

What is not organic?


rocks
metals

water
minerals
air

What makes a compound organic?


Organic compounds always contain carbon.

Circle the organic compounds.

CH3CH2COCH3

AlCl3

NaHCO3

NH2 COOH

H2SO4

C20H22O3

H2O

NaCl

CH3NH2

(CH3)3N

C56H58Cl14CuN16S4

NH3

CHONSP
All living things are composed of only a few
elements.

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Phosphorous

CHONSP

The different combinations of these


elements form millions of compounds.

These compounds make up earths


biomass (the total mass of all living
matter on Earth)

Out of the 90 naturally occurring


elements, only six make up living things.

CHONSP

Quiz #1: Review pages 2-3

Example

Amoxicillin
antibiotic

Chemical Formula

CHONSP

C16H19N3O5S.3H2O

CHONS

Example

Amoxicillin
antibiotic

Chemical Formula

CHONSP

Sugaryum!

C12H22O11

CHONS
CHO
CHO

Adrenalinegives you
energy when you are
scared

C9H13NO3

CHON

Aspirinpain reliever

C16H19N3O5S.3H2O
C7H6O3

Propaneused in
BBQs

C3H8

Advilpain killer

C13H18O2

Malathion kills flies

C10H19O6PS2

CH
CHO
CHOSP

Aspartamefake
sugar (diet coke)

C14H18N2O5

CHON

Caffeine

C8H10N4O2

CHON

C7H7NO2

CHON

PABA - found in
sunblock

Polymers

Essential Molecules
These are
inorganic
molecules.
Why?

They do
not contain
ANY
carbon.

Salt (NaCl)
Cl

Na

Water (H2O)

Are All Molecules So Small?


You are used to seeing small compounds
such as water and salt.
H

Cl Na

Many organic molecules are very large.

Some organic molecules have millions of


atoms.

Large molecules are called polymers and


are made of monomers.

What are polymers and monomers?


mono - one

poly - many

Polymer a very large molecule that is a


chain of many smaller molecules bonded
together.
Monomer one molecule that makes up a
link in a long polymer chain.

polymer

monomer

Can Polymers Be Made of More


Than One Kind of Monomer?
YES! Many are made of different
monomers.

some patterns repeat

some patterns DO NOT repeat

Is DNA a polymer?
Yes! DNA is a polymer made of 4 monomers.
guanine
cytosine
adenine
thymine

G
C
A
T

C
G

G
C

T
A

What do the words structure and function mean?

All organic molecules have a structure


and a function.
Structure something that is built
Function purpose; what something does

Structure toilet

Function gets rid of things

No pictures please!

Analogies
Structure

Function

toilet

gets rid of things

pencil

writes

book

used to read/ gives information

refrigerator

keeps food cold

chair/sofa

to sit on

scissors, knife

cut

The Four Organic Polymers

DNA
Structure
monomer: GCAT
(nucleotides)

polymer: DNA

Picture

DNA
Foods:

Function in Your Body:

Living things make


their own DNA.

DNA are instructions


to build and
maintain life.

Proteins
Structure
monomer: amino acids
polymer: protein

Monomer

Foods:
chicken
beef
pork
fish
beans
dairy

Proteins
Function in Your Body
builds many of the parts of a cell
builds muscles, hair, nails, skin
used in hormones: chemical communication
antibodies

Carbohydrates
Structure
monomer: sugar
polymer: starch

Carbohydrates
Picture
monomer

polymer

Draw both, but


simplify your
drawing by just
drawing the
hexagons.

Carbohydrates
Foods

breads, grains, rice, potatoes


fruits, and vegetables
sugar

Carbohydrates
Function in Your Body
provides energy

Lipids / Fat
Structure
monomer: glycerol and fatty acids
polymer: lipid

Picture

glycerol
3 Fatty Acid Chains

Draw

Foods made of lipids


oil
butter
found in many foods

Function in Your Body


cell membranes are built from lipids
storage of some vitamins
energy storage