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LosAngelesAbrasion

Hardness
Hardnessistheaggregatesresistancetoabrasion
(wear)
Hardnessisanimportantpropertyforaggregatesin
pavementsurfaces
TestedbyLAAbrasionorMicroDeval

LosAngelesAbrasion
Measureofresistanceofcoarseaggregateto
degradation(breakdown)by
impact
abrasion
grinding
Note:LAAbrasiontestisnotjustameasureofabrasion!

LosAngelesAbrasion
CoarseAggregate<11/2in.
ResistancetoDegradationofSmallSizeCoarse
AggregatebyAbrasionandImpactintheLosAngeles
Machine
AASHTOT96
ASTMC131

CoarseAggregate>3/4in.
ResistancetoDegradationofLargeSizeCoarse
AggregatebyAbrasionandImpactintheLosAngeles
Machine
ASTMC535

Significance
Indicatesrelativequalityofaggregatesources
havingsimilarmineralcompositions
Example:comparedifferentsourcesofgranite

Cannotnecessarilycomparedistinctly
differentsources
Example:granitevs.marinelimestone

Hardrock=Lowerpercentageloss
Softrock=Higherpercentageloss

LosAngelesAbrasion
LocalVariabilityinGranite

16%(MartinMarietta Augusta,GA)
25%(MartinMarietta Cayce,SC)
38%(Hanson Demorest,GA)
43%(Hanson Jefferson,SC)
43%(Vulcan Anderson,SC)
53%(Vulcan Lyman,SC)
ValuesfromSCDOTJanuary2013QPL

RequiredApparatus

LosAngelesMachine
StandardSieves
Scales
DryingOven
SteelCharge
#12Sieve

LosAngelesMachine
shelf

drum

charge + sample

LosAngelesMachine
Drum
Hollowsteelcylinder,closedatbothends
Insidediameterof28 0.2in.
Rotatesonhorizontalaxis
slopetoleranceof1in100

Dusttightcoverforopening

LosAngelesMachine
Shelf
Removable,steelshelf
Extendsfulllengthofcylinder
DimensionsofShelf=3widex1thickx20
length(each 0.1)
Mountedtobefirmandrigid

Charge
Steelspheres
6to12spheres
Average127/32in.diameter
Weigh390to445g(slightlylessthan1lb.)

Charge
Sample
Grading*

No. ofSpheres Total Massof


Charge

12

5000g+ 25g

11

4584g+ 25g

3330g+ 20g

2500g+ 15g

*Aiscoarsestgrading,Disfinestgrading

TypeBGrading
TotalSample:5,000 10g(about11lbs)
in.Stone(passingin.sieve)
2,500 10g

in.Stone(passingin.sieve)
2,500 10g

TestProcedure
Sample
Washandovendry5,000gofaggregatesample
Drytoconstantmassat230F(+/9)(110C(+/ 5))

Separatesampleintoindividualsizefractionsby
sieving
Recombinethesievedmaterialtotherequired
grading
Recordtotalmasstonearest1g

TestProcedure
Rotatethedrumfor500revolutionsataconstant
speedof30to33rpm

approximately15minutes
shelfpicksupcharge+sampleatbottomofdrum
charge+sampledroppedasdrumrotates crushing
charge+samplerollatbottom grinding

TestProcedure

Removethesamplefromthemachine
SievedryoveraNo.12sieve
Materialpassing=degraded
Materialretained=intact
Washandovendrymaterialretained(if
required)
Weightonearest1g

LosAngelesAbrasionHardness
Mass(weight)placedinabrasionmachine
Mass(weight)ofintactparticlesleftaftertest
PercentLoss
=InitialMass FinalIntactMassx100%
InitialMass

Example
Mass placed in abrasion machine
Mass of intact particles left after test

5008 g
3891 g

(1 pound = 454 grams)

% loss =(5008 g 3891 g) x 100 = 22.3%


5008 g

Report results as 22% (nearest whole number)

SCDOTQCTestFrequency
TypeB
Materials

ValueRange
55.0&above
50.0 54.9
40.0 49.5
Lessthan 40.0
35.0 &above
Lessthan35.0

Stone
(nonslag)

Slag

MinimumTesting
Frequency
1daily
1weekly
1monthly
1every6months
1weekly
1every6months

SCDOTSpecifications
TypeB
MaterialUse

Specification

SlagforConcrete

40Max

Slag forAsphaltConcrete

45Max

Interstate/PrimarySurface Courses

55Max

SecondarySurfaceCourses

60Max

Interstate/PrimaryIntermediateCourses

55Max

SecondaryIntermediate Courses

60Max

HMA BaseCourses

60 Max

Asphalt DoubleTreatment

60Max

Concrete

60Max

MarineLimestoneBase

65Max

SoilAggregate Subbase

65Max

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CommonErrors

Samplenotrepresentative
Incorrectnumberofspheres
Totalchargemassoutsidetolerances
Notsetting(orresetting)counter
Drumnotrotatedatconstantspeed
slipandbacklash

Notremovingallmaterialfromdrum
Samplenotdriedtoconstantmass
Impropersealbetweenhatchanddrum

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