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EUROPEANS

CLAIM
MUSLIM
LANDS p. 352-356

Objectives
Summarize the decline of the Ottoman Empire
Describe the Crimean War

Analyze Egypts Reforms


Evaluate Persias response to foreign pressure

Why it matters now

Political events in this vital


resource area are still influenced
by actions from the imperialistic
period.

OTTOMAN EMPIRE LOSES POWER


Reforms Fail

Suleyman I
Died 1566
Last great sultan
a Muslim sovereign

Followed by a succession of weak sultans

Quarreling factions
Corruption and theft caused finical loses
Inflation
Lagged behind technologically

Salim III
Comes to power in 1789
Attempts to modernize the army
Overthrown by the Janissary
Turkish infantry forming the Sultan's guard between the 14th and 19th
centuries

Nationalism
Greece independence
Serbia Self-rule

Europeans try to find a way to exploit this weakness in the empire

What part did internal corruption play in the decline of


Ottoman power?

It lead to a weakened economy and


technological stagnation

EUROPEANS GRAB TERRITORY


Russia and the Crimean War

Geopolitics
An interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products

Former Ottoman controlled access to the Mediterranean,


Atlantic, & Black Sea was coveted

Crimean War
Conflict in which the Ottoman Empire, with the aid of Britain & France,
halted Russian expansion in the region of the Black Sea

Florence Nightingale
Led the 1st groups of army nurses

Newspapers
For the 1st time newspapers correspondents covered the war

Ottoman Weakness
Despite of the help from their allies, land continued to be
lost.

How did European nations take advantage of Ottomans


weakness?

They saw it as an opportunity for


imperialism

EUROPEANS GRAB TERRITORY


The Great Game

Great Game
Geopolitical struggle between England and Russia over Muslim lands in
Central Asia

India
One of Britains most profitable colonies

Afghanistan
Geographically between Russian & British Empire
1881 British withdraw from Afghanistan
1921 Soviet Union signed non-aggression pact

In what way were Russian, British, and French motivations in


the Crimean War similar?

They all wanted to control Ottoman


territory

EGYPT INITIATES REFORMS


Military and Economic Reforms

In response to the Ottoman decline, the Muslim world


was put on notice
Adjust to the modern world
Or
Be consumed by it

Mahammad Ali
Sent by the Ottomans to govern Egypt
Broke away from Ottomans and gained control over Syria an Arabia
after a series of battles

Shift to cotton
Brought Egypt into the international market place

The Suez Canal

Built by the grandson of Ali


1869 connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean
$450 million in debt to build
English overseeing financing and control of the canal 1882

How was Muhammad Alis promotion of cotton production similar to


European imperialists actions in Africa?

Both substituted production of cash crops


for food crops

Why was the completion of the Suez Canal cause for


international celebration?

It greatly decreased the time needed to


travel from Europe to East Africa and Asia

PERSIA PRESSURED TO CHANGE


Persia
Russian and Britain compete to put the country in their sphere of
influence

Russia
Access to the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean

England
Wanted Afghanistan as a buffer between India and Russia

Oil found in 1908


Persian rulers began to grant concessions to Western business
Anglo-Persian Oil Company British Petroleum

Battle Over Tobacco

Tensions arose between rulers and the people

1890 Nasir al-Din sold concessions to the British to


export tobacco
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani set up a tobacco boycott
Forced Nasir al-Din to cancel the concession

1907 Russia and Britain take control of the country and


divide into spheres of inflenece

Why did the discovery of oil in Persia increase the value of the
Ottoman territory?

The oil had to pass through Ottoman


land to Europe

What advantages did granting business concessions to Western


countries offer Persia?

Income, development of their resources,


and participation in world events

How did Persias granting of concessions eventually lead to its


takeover by Britain and Russia?

Concessions allowed Western countries to


establish an economic foothold in Persia, which
they exploited when the Persian government lost
control of the coutnry