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EXPERIMENT 1

SAPONIFICATION REACTION OF FAT: SOAP PRODUCTION

1.0 Objective

The objective of this experiments was to synthesize a sample of hard soap

To produce soap via the saponification reaction of fatty acids.

To test the soap produced.

2.0 Summary
The chemical reaction of fat towards soap production which is soap are produced
during the chemical reaction known as saponification also known as basic hydrolysis. The
saponification number indicate the number indicate the number of fatty acid chain length of
triglycerides. In this experiment there are three steps of analysis data done to relate with the
objective, to synthesize a sample of hard soap and tested the soap produced. The triglycerides
fats are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids then its combined with alkali to form a soap. The
product of hydrolysis was mixed together with the usage of calcium chloride, about 0.8ml of
foam form on above of cloudy solution and white precipitate was formed at the below of the
solution also about o.4ml of white with a little yellow precipitate form above the graduated
cylinder and below turns to cloudy mixtures when trisodium phosphate added inside the solution.
The soap does not react with water because its contain cation Ca2+ while trisodium phosphate
helps to soften and prevent soap molecules from reacting with Ca2+.

3.0 Introduction:
The purpose of this experiment was to identify the chemical reaction of fat towards soap
production which is soap are produced during the chemical reaction known as saponification also
known as basic hydrolysis. Which is, in this procedure the hydrolysis of a fat under basic
condition to form an alcohol and the salt of a carboxylic acid. This chemical reaction converts a
fatty acid (triglycerides) and an alkali (sodium hydroxide) into soap when combination occur
within a specific temperature range.
Heat
Fat + base

glycerol + salt (soap)

The salt of fatty acid called as a soap. Fatty acids found as free molecules but mostly often a part
of triglyceride, in which consist three carbon chain (glycerol) with a fatty acid bonded to each
three carbon atoms in the glycerol. The bond between the fatty acid and the glycerol is referred
as ester linkage and in saponification process to form glycerol and soap, the ester linkage is
broken to form this process.

4.0 Materials and Methodology


4.1 Materials:
Chemical
a) NaOH
b) 95% ethanol
c) Fat
d) 50% water/ ethanol mixture NaCl
e) 4% calcium chloride solution
f) Trisodium phosphate

Apparatus
a) Conical Flasks
b) Beaker
c) Filter Funnel
d) Hirsch/ Buchner Funnel
e) Watch glass
f) Measuring cylinder

5.0 Result and discussion


5.1 Results
Conditions

1.

Observations/ Explanation

Soap + 3mL
distilled water

1.5 of white foam appears.

2.

Mixture from No
1. + 5 to 10 drops
of 4% calcium
chloride
0.8ml of foam form on above of cloudy solution. White precipitate
was formed at the below of the solution.

3.

Mixture from No
2. + 0.5 g
trisodium
phosphate
O.4ml of white with a little yellow precipitate form above the
graduated cylinder and below turns to cloudy mixtures.

5.2 Discussion:
The objective of the experiment was to synthesize a sample of hard soap and to test soap
have produced. Saponification usually used to refer the reaction of metallic alkali (base) with a
fat or oil to form soap. Based on the experiment done, saponification (hydrolysis) is an ester
under basic condition to form an alcohol and the salt of carboxylic acid. The triglycerides
process was reacted with a sodium hydroxide to produce glycerol and fatty acid salts. The
alkaline solution, which is often called lye refers almost exclusively to soaps made with sodium
hydroxide, brings the saponification reaction. In this reaction, the triglyceride fats are first
hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, and then these combine with the alkali to form crude soap, an
amalgam of various soap salts, fat or alkali, water, and liberated glycerol (glycerin) which is
glycerin is useful for soap production and softening agent. When soap mixed with distilled water
white foam appears top of the solution. The sodium and potassium salts of most carboxylic acids
are water soluble. However, the calcium, magnesium, and iron salts are not. Thus, when soaps
are placed in hard water that contains such ions, an insoluble, curdy solid forms. This process
removes soap ions from solution, and decreases the cleaning effectiveness of soaps. After that,
the solution foam form on above of cloudy solution and white precipitate was formed at the
below of the solution. As explain, soap does not react excellently as it does not work well in hard
water because it contain the solution of cation Ca2+. For the 3rd mixture, the trisodium
phosphate was added and white with a little yellow precipitate form above the graduated cylinder
and below turns to cloudy mixtures. This reaction occur as trisodium phosphate act as water
softner.

I found that, chemical substances was those can be converted into soap.
CH2-OOC-R - CH-OOC-R - CH2-OOC-R (fat) + 3 NaOH (or KOH)
Heated
CH2-OH -CH-OH - CH2-OH (glycerol) + 3 R-CO2-Na (soap)
R= (CH2)14CH3 (right)
The additive of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in this experiment caused the hard soap formed.
Whereas potassium soap (potassium hydroxide (KOH)) tends to be softer than the corresponding
sodium soap. Vegetable oils and animal fats are fatty esters in the form of triglycerides. The
alkali breaks the ester bond and releases the fatty acid and glycerol. If necessary, soaps may be
precipitated by salting it out with saturated sodium chloride.

4.2 Methodology:

6.0 Conclusion:
Based on the experiment done, the objective of the experiment was successfully
achieved to synthesize a sample of hard soap and to test soap produced. From the
experiment defined that saponification is hydrolysis of an ester under basic condition to
form an alcohol and the salt of carboxylic acid which hydrolysis of the ester linkages
between fatty acids and glycerol. From the mixture number 2, after the mixture was
shaken, foam form on above of cloudy solution and white precipitate was formed at the
below of the solution. This is because, soap does not react excellently as it does not
work well in hard water as it contain the solution of cation Ca2+.

From the second

mixture, the solution was mixed with trisodium phosphate and white with a little
yellow precipitate form above the graduated cylinder and below turns to cloudy
mixtures. This reaction occur as trisodium phosphate act as water softner. It helps to
prevent soap molecule from reacting with CA2+ ion so the cleaning process will not
affected. Based on this experiment, the objective was successfully achieved. To obtain
a good result, during the preparation of NaOH, we need to make sure that the sodium
hydroxide was dissolved so there is no granules left during experiment.

7.0 Tutorial
7.1 Pre Laboratory Question
1. Saponification means the hydrolysis of the ester linkages between fatty acids and
glycerol.
2. Soaps (sodium or potassium fatty acids salt) produced by hydrolysis reaction acts as
excellent cleanser because of its ability to act as an emulsifying agent. The emulsifying
agent are capable of dispersing one liquid to another immiscible liquid, means that while
oil (which attracts dirt) doesnt naturally mix with water, so that soap can remove oil and
dirt in such a way that it can be removed.
3. Synthetic detergent is petroleum byproducts, it can provide more cleaning power, able to
break up oil droplets and making them very useful for cleaning clothes from grease
stains. It also can be used in hard water, in a acidic solution, and more soluble in water
than soaps while in laundry purposes, its acts as softener and surfactants.
7.1 Post Laboratory Question
1. The nature of soaps depends on alkali metal, which the soap that are produced from
sodium hydroxide was firmer while potassium hydroxide are softer. When Sodium
Hydroxide (NaOH) is replaced by Potassium hydroxide (KOH) long chain carboxyclic
acid will form. This means it will formed a soft soap.

8.0 References

LAB REPORT LIPID in 2013. Available from http://www.slideshare.net/UmiBiee/labreport-lipid.

J. Chem. Educ. Soap and glycerol, Chemical Education, pages 172, 2013.

T.Y Toon, S. Shanmuganathan, Oxford Fajar, Chemistry for matriculation, Fourth


Edition 2013.

Isah,A G. (2006). Production of Detergent from Castor oil. Leornado Journal of


Practices and Technologies 9: 153-160