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Calculation of the Braking Distance

Theoretical calculation of the braking distance

Example: Two guide carriages and a UBPS braking element (size 45)
A (number of braking elements)
F (holding force of braking element)
tR (reaction time)
tR (response time)
m (mass) = 50 kg

= 1
= 3,700 N
= 0.06 s
= 0.01 s

vO (initial speed)
G (dynamic friction)
G (static friction)
g (weight)

= 2 m/s
= 0.06
= 0.1
= 9.81 m/s2

The values for G and R are based on serial tests and many years of industrial experience. However,
due to particular environmental conditions, different results may occur. The values tR and tA refer to
measured test values.
Stopping distance (horizontal deployment)
The stopping distance is the theoretical, anticipated distance required to bring a known mass travelling
at a defined speed to a standstill. During braking kinetic energy is converted into friction energy.
In addition, the braking distance is extended by the distance required by the overall system to apply
the brakes. Short hose lines, fast valves and clean rails shorten the pathways.

Energy formulas:
WKin = m x v2O

WFric = F x A x G
H

SB

WKin = WFric
Braking distance SB:
SB=

m 2
m x vO2
50kg x (2 )
s
=
= 0.045m
G
2 x F x A x 2 x 3,700N x 1 x 0.06
0.1
H

Reaction distance + response distance SR:

m x (0.06s + 0.01s)=0.14m
SR = vO x (tR + tA) = 2
s

Stopping distance SH:

SH = SB + SR = 0.045m + 0.14m = 0.185m

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Stopping distance (vertical deployment)

Vertical deployment speeds up the system until the element is triggered and braking is applied. The
holding force is reduced by the weight.
Speed at start of brake application Vbrake:
m
mx
m
Vbrake = vO + g x (tR + tA) = 2 +
s 9.81
s
s2 (0.06s + 0.01s) = 2.69

Braking distance SB :
SB =

m x v2brake

G
x g)
2 x (( F x A x )-m
H

m 2
50kg x (2.69 )
s

0.06
m
x
2 x ((3,700N x 1 x
0,1 )-50kg 9.81 )
s2

= 0.104m

Reaction distance + response distance SR:

1 x g x (t + t )2 = 2
1 x 9.81
m x (0.06s + 0.01s)2 = 0.164m
m x(0.06s + 0.01s) +
SR = vO x (tR + tA) +
2
R
A
s
2

Stopping distance SH:

SH = SB + SR = 0.104m + 0.164 = 0.268m

Linear guide of the

Rail manufacturer

Carriage of the
Rail manufacturer

Braking element
UBPS

Carriage of the
Rail manufacturer

During installation of the axis, with the brakes, the applicable machinery directives must be followed.