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THE VIRTUOSO PIANIST—-Complete SCHIRMER'S LIBRARY OF MUSICAL CLASSICS HANON The Virtuoso Pianist In Sixty Exercises For the Piano The Virtuoso Pianist In Sixty Exercises For the Piano For the Acquirement of Agility, Independence, Strength, ond Perfect Evannass in the Fingers, 5 well as Suppleness of the Wrist Transloted from the French by (OR. THEODORE BAKER Baek 1 (Mas, 1-90) — Library Val 1071 Bash M (Mes. 1-49) — Uatvary Vek 1072 Book ll (Nos. 44-80) — Libary Vel, 1073 Compete Uber Vol 8 SAN OVS TSS G. SCHIRMER, Inc. Pas KASCAP) Now Works SY Warning: Unsatterted aeprdectea of tlk paiteatsn pevbibined by Foserattaw aed vebject to criminal peunecatoe, HANON ¥ THE FIRTUOSO-PIANIST PREFACE. The study of the piano is now-a-days so general, and good pianists are 10 numerous, that mediocrity on this instrument is no longer endured. In con- sequence, one must study the piano eight or ten years before venturing to perform a piece of any difficulty, cron at a gathering of amateurs. Now, how few pertons are in a position to devote so many years to this study! It often happens, therefore, that for want of sufficient practice the playing is uneven and incorrect. The left hand gives out in passages of slight difficulty; the fourth and fifth fingers are almost useless for lack of special exercises for these fingers, which are always weaker than the rest; and when passages in octaves, in tremolo or trills occur, they are usually executed only by dint of exertion and fatigue, so that the performance is very incorrect and wholly wanting in expression. For several years we have labored to overcome this state of affairs, mak- ing it our aim to unite in one work special exercises which render possible a complete course of pianistic study in far less time. ‘To attain this end, it sufficed to find the solution of the following problem: Uf all fove fingers of the hand were absolutely equaily well trained, they would be ready to execute anything seritten for the instrument, and the only question remain~ ing swould be that of fingering, which could be readily solved. ‘We have found the solution of this problem in our work “The Virtuoso~ Pianist, in 60 Exercises,” etc. In this volume will be found the exercises necessary for the acquirement of agility, independence, strength and perfect evenness in the fingers, as well as suppleness of the wrists—all indispensable qualities for fine execution; furthermore, these exercises are calculated to ren- der the left hand equally skilful with the right. Excepting a few exercises, to be found in several methods, the entire book is our personal work. ‘These exercises are interesting, and do not fatigue the student like the generality of five-finger exercises, which are #0 dry that one requires the perseverance of 4 true artist to summon up courage to study them. ‘These exercises are written in such a manner that, after having read them 2 few times, they can be played in quite a rapid movement; they thus become The Virtuoso -Pianist. Part I. Preparatory Exercises for the Acquirement of Agility, Independence, Strength and Perfect Evenness in the Fingers. NL, Stretch between the fifth and fourth fingers of the left hand in ascending, and the fifth and fourth fin- gers of the right hand in descending. For studying the 20 exercises in this First Part, begin with the metronome set at 60, gradually increas- ing the speed up to 108; this is the meaning of the double metronome-mark at the head of each exercise Lift the fingers high and with precision, playing each note very distinctly. (MM. d= 60 to 108) a. paoging ga 5 ® For brevity, we shall henceforward indicate only by their figures those fingers which are to be specially trained in each exercise; ¢. 8-8-4 in NO 2; 2-8-4 in N@ 8, ete: Observe that, throughout the book, both hands are continually executing the same difficulties; in this way the Jeft hand becomes as skilful as the right. Besides, the difficulties executed by the left hand in ascending, are exactly copied by the same fingers of the right hand in descending; this new style of exercise will cause the hands to acquire perfect equality. 5 soon as Ex, tis mastered, go on to Ex & without stop- ping onthis note. te = *No2. “ We (3-4) When this exercise is mastered, recommence the preceding one, and play hoth together four times without interruption; the fingers will gain considerably by practising these exercises, and those following, in this way. Beirne ss Poe - - r (1) The fourth and fifth fingers being naturslly weak, it should be observed that this exercise, and those following it to N@ 94, are intended to render them as strong and agile as the second and third. os a La (4-4 Before beginning to practise N° 8, play through the preceding exercises once or twice without stopping. When N23 is mastered, practise N° 4, and then N° 5, and as soon as they are thoroughly learned playthrough all three at’ least four times without interruption, not stopping until the last note on page 6. The entire work should be practised in this manner. Therefore, when playing the numbers in the First Part, stop only on the last note on pp. 3,6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21. seaa| ta5aaz eearres? Eres ba No4. (2-4-5) () Special exercise for the 3%, 4th and Bt fingers of the hand. ceeat Pacve . 8 N95, (1-2-8-4-5) We repeat, that the fingers should be lifted high, and with precision, until this entire vol- me is mastered. types eees | saseaes|t a” e a er 5 (5) To obtain the good results which we promise those who study this work, it is indispensable to play daily, at least once, the exercises already learned =f) PL Prerst a! Berri: & (2-4-5) Exercise of the greatest importance for the 3%, 4th and 5th fingers PYerveweerreresy BPrecs1s* foaeais® (1-2-8-4-8) Very important exercise for all five fingers ges gees | E59 Extension of the 4th and 5th, and general finger-exercise. Berrret: Frmcest* os = (8-4) Preparation for the trill, for the 3 and 4th fingers of the left hand in ascending (1); and for the 314 and 4th of the right, descending (2). 10. (4 et 5 BSSrires Sreres ss 5 5 5 rae) 5 5 (3-4-8) Another preparation for the trill, for the 4th and St fingers. Extension of 1-5, and exercise for 8-4-5. 12. Ses Haters Toae ers Tes TS (@-4) Another preparation for the trill, for the 94 and 4th fingers Extension of 1-2, and exercise for all 5 fi r all 5 fingers. 15. ory ere! Pras Pparatet BPrraret 5, and exercise for 3-4-5 Extension of 1-2, 2-4, 4-5, and exercise for 3-4-5, fevapevereers (4-2--4-5) 12435 oe ae4|*Seesaee Extension of 2-4, 4-5, and exer 54 WOYVEPTacerrerre 20. Sprrrees Biprest* saat Tater Tease — fete Piss End of Part I. After having mastered this First Part, play it through once or twice daily for some time before commencing the study of the Second (transcendent”) Part; by so doing, one is sure to obtain every possible advantage that this work Promises Complete mastery of Part I gives the key to the difficulties found in Part IL Transcendent Exercises for Preparing the Fingers for the Virtuoso Exerci Observe, that the work done by the 3f4, 4th and 5th fingers of the left hand in the first beat of each meas- ture (A) is repeated inversely by the same fingers of the right hand in the third beat of the same measure (B). M.M. d = 60 to 108) = @ 1g 8 2s Ft Practise the exercises in Part 11, like those in Part I, with the metronome at 60; sit exercises where the tempo is not indicated, and gradually increase the speed to 108. is required, it will be indicated at the head of the exercise. rly practise all the follow therever a different tempo pbs deta 5 Sa 5 5 Having fully mas tered this exercise, go on to the next without stopping on this note. Same abject as N° 21. (2-4-5) 22. pepe ty osr.e as oe oe peas 5 ase Practise the exercises of this Second Part as we directed for Part I (op of p.4); thus, in playing through the exercises, stop only on the last notes on pp. 24, 20, 33, 37, 41, 44, 46, and 49. (1-2-8-4-5) 26. $4532 582 Les erty saa Stag as ea ee * saa 4 (4-2-8-4-5): Prepares the 4t8 and 5th fingers for the trill given further on. set oe 4 1 ofa ee a ae mes ae eare se eee ri Tse eS gaa ss basseesl 4, (4-2-8-4-8) Preparation for the Trill, forall five fingers. 29. Trill alternating between 1-2 and 4-5. (4-2-8-4-5, and extensions) 15454525154 zr ‘ 4 . Turning the thumb under. Torning the thumb under the 214 finger. tzezigs ot moat d = soto7 Repeat this measure 4 times Teieigiaie C2tgseseraie tatesetzszie FRraer tt Serer en etet? Turning the thumb onder the 3°4 finger MM. d = s0t072. Repeat this 5 oszsiazl| | measure 4 times, azpiazszsias ikke 33. Pere perr = GRrrestseta? taet ee Pperast ae tes Ann 13 433s Turning the thumb under the 42 finger MM. ¢ ~ 6oto10s. Repeat this measure 10 times tesseane | LEeeeeae | Eee Turning the thumb under the 5th finger. This exercise is of the highest importance. MM. d 40 to 72 35. Repegt this, gigas DES AaRT BEtressrssss «orsaoer 6 ‘oteaaer 6 F Spreaser So tbioaer 6 PEER S tetos 15154 4 “ SBuseeeieeas isisazes 5 isisasee 5 t5isse24 3) tors Another example of turning the thumb under. Se OCU eat ees 23 a ee aa sts 8 —— es ate Special exercise for turning the thumb under. Play thig.whole exercise with the two thumbs only. Qo aa taka eas 37. wo, ,Hr,? 4 SF So a dal = aya eae fn eg as ane ese ie Rs cece in thess(ra(mce cect Preparatory ex: ercige for the study of scales. ey 3 8. | beetr mass! 5 . The 12 Major Scales, and the 12 Minor Seales. Each major scale is followed by its relative minor, There are two ways of playing the minor scale; we thought it best to give them here after each major scale, leaving it to the instructor to teach them as he sees fit. We mark hy a figure 1 the first (modern? minor seale, also termed the “harmonic minor scale,” and by a figure 2 the second (ancient) minor scale, also termed the “melodic minor scale.” We know, that the modern or harmonic minor scale has a minor sixth and the I scending and’ descending; whereas the ancient or melodic minor scale has a major note is ascending, and a minor seventh and minor sixth in descending. Maat d= 60 t0 120. C major. \ding- note both a- hand the leading Bb major. 1, @ minor. = - 2. minor. 1. F minor. 2. Fminor. D> major. 1, Bb minor. a= 2. Bb minor. 1 eee G> major. 1. G# minor. 2. CH minor. 1, Ff minor. 2. F# minor. D major. 1. B minor. = 2. B minor, eo ee G major. 2.E minor. Chromatic Scales. MLM, 60 to s20, At an octave. atat At a major sixth. eeeeeee! In contrary motion, beginning on the octave. 3 aba s ese eae as caratr, 3 pbe8L2 113 1.3 = 343 Byes we STH TAS 4 ae In contrary motion, begin a spake reae 3u2 12 « Jing on the minor third. Be aa Tn contrary motion, beginning on the major thd abo Bsa beets p boSb3 th3 2 : fae as Another fingering, which we particu Aeron larly recommend for legato passages rwireses ss} Arpeggios on the Triads, in the 24 Keys. 1, 3 A minor, ; relative to Cmajor. G minor. eS E> minor. ry A major. E minor. es Extension (tretching) of the fingers in chords of the diminished seventh, in arpeggios. n 5 MM. d= 60 to 120. measure 4 times MAM. 4 60 torzo, Repeat this measure 4 times. asl pao : 4 times. Toa LaCECa i: eae wae . End of Part Il. : Parts I and Il of this work being the key to the difficulties in Part III, it is evidently very important that they should be thoroughly mastered before commencing the virtuoso studies contained in Part TIT. Part Ill. Virtuoso Exercises, for Obtaining a Mastery over the Greatest Mechanical Difficulties. Notes Lift the fingers high and with precisi led in groups of thre ith ures are well learned, take up the rest without raising hand or wrist the exercise. As soon as the first four meas- MM. 4-60 to 120. aa gerserseraaa| 3s CEPECREET MY CEPCErEErEer CEPR EEreer tercereerezr Tisai 521 Tat Soe Notes repeated in groups of two, by all five fingers. Study the first fingering until it is thoroughly mastered; practise similarly each of the five following finger- ings then play through the whole exercise without stopping- Accent the first of each pair of slurred notes, (UM, 4 60 10 408) ~ = CMimite ae 45. 1S fingering: SITET simile 2d fingering. SILT L® simile fins > TIT 81 ® simite bth fingering: 3 \( 6th fingering. ae simile => The Trill for all five fingers. Practise the first 6 measuresuntiltheycan be executed in quite a rapid tempo; then practise the rest of the trill. Where the fingering is changed (1), be careful that not the slightest’ unevenness is apparent. =eineainn | eearanaa a hy It is of interest to note that Mozart used th i oe s exercise for the study of the tril. QLECCEEELY eretnrsereccy QRTEeTeeaey fee perce” 2aegegsgrarseana Notes repeated in groups of four. When Lift the fingers high and with precision throughout this exercise, without raising hand or wri the first line is mastered, and not before, take up the rest of the exercise, oad: 50 to 120) simile Eerreyey) ee Wrist - exercise. Detached Thirds and Sixths. Lift the wrists well after each stroke, holding the arms perfectly quiet; the wrist should be supple, and the fingers firm without stiffness. "Practise the first four measures until an easy wrist-movement is obtained; then take up the rest of the exercise. LM, J 20 to 4) : a LAE Bsimiee 4 3 22 2 2 simile Detached Sixths. Same remarks as for the thirds. GEM. #240 to 50) sr Stretches from the 18 to the 4 fingers, and from the 24 to the St, in each hand. Very useful for increasing the stretching-capacity of these fingers. LAM, J 260 to 108) stmile Continuation of the preceding exercise. ‘M.Mia= 60 to 108) ane { Stnile Legato Thirds recommend careful study of this exercise, as Thirds occupy a very important place in difficult mu ‘must be struck evenly and very distinctly. All not Scales in Legato Thirds, It is indispensable to practise scales in legato thirds. To obtain a smooth le- gato, keep the fifth finger of the right hand for an instant on its note while the thumb and 39 finger are passing over to the next third; in the left hand, the thumb is similarly held for an instant. Notes to be held are indicated by half-notes.@)Proceed similarly in thechrormatic scale further on, and in all scales in Thirds, 3 se 8 Chromatic scales in minor thirds. ( 40 to 64) : Preparatory Exercise for Scales in Octaves. The wrists should be very supple, the fingers taking the octaves should be held firmly but without stiffness, and the unoccupied fingers’ should assume a slightly rounded. position A first repeat these three first lines slowly until a good wrist movemvnt is attained, and then accel erate the tempo, continuing the exercise without interruption. If the wrists. become fatigued, play. more Slowly until the feeling of fatigue has disappeared, and then gradually accelerate up to the first tempo. See remarks to NO 48 ae ~ Scales in Thirds, in the Keys Most Used. Play these scales legato, and very evenly; it is highly important to master them thoroughly. See remarks to No 50. C major. as a7 01 G mis Scales in Octaves in the 24 Keys. First practise each of these scales until it can be executed with facility; then play through all 24 with out interruption. ‘We cannot too strongly insist on the absolute necessity of a proper wrist-movement; it is the only means of executing octaves without stiffness, and with suppleness, vivacity and energy. ‘See the explanations for NS 48 and 51. MM ds 20 to 8, C major. 8 @) In all scales in Octaves, tho black keys are to be taken with the 4th finger of either hand E> major. Ab major. a 7 Ebminor. B major. G# minor. E major. A major. F# minor. D major. B minor. E minor. The Fourfold Tri in Thirds, for all five fingers. Execute this exercise very smoothly and evenly, striking each Third very clearly. GtM. d240 10 92) a8 BS Bt a i a2 54. The Threefold Trill. Same remark as for N° 54. MM. d= 40 to 92 4 55. dew martath * ® * Tiaaat as ben marcato Special fingerings for the fourfold Trill. legato. £424 a4 ee ees ae ee Scales in Broken Octaves, in the 24 Keys. Play them throvgh without stopping. This highly important exercise likewise prepares the wrists for the study of the tremolo. Special fingerings for the fourfold Trill. legato. £424 a4 ee ees ae ee Scales in Broken Octaves, in the 24 Keys. Play them throvgh without stopping. This highly important exercise likewise prepares the wrists for the study of the tremolo. F major. Bb major, G minor. ae 3 @ Though it this exercise. take the black keys with the 4th finger of each hand. Eb major. S Ab major, Db major. By minor, 8. Gb major. G4 minor. z E major. C# minor, A major. $ - F# minor. 3 7 D major. a G major. - E minor. Broken Arpeggios in Octaves, in the 24 Keys ‘To begin with, practise the first arpeggio in C, which must be played cleanly and distinetly, with a good wrist-movement, before passing to the next in minor. Similarly practise each of the 24 arpeggios; then play them all through without interruption MoM. #2 40 to A minor. 2 o C majors 2 8 B> major. che 8. wt ee @) Throughout this exercise, take the black keys with the 4th finger of each hand! Ab major. Db major. Bb minor, Eb minor, 8 ‘2 G# minor. wwe z As this arpeggio, and the next one in Eb minor, are on black keys alone, it makes no difference whether the 4th ‘or Sth finger be employed. . C# minor. E major. | a minor, 5 E minor ners. Sustained Octaves. accompanied by detached notes. Strike the octaves vigorously without lifting the wrists, and hold them down while deftly executing the in termediate notes with a good finger-movement.. MoM. = 60 to 92. ten. simile. Fourfold Trill in Sixths, for the combination of the Ist and 4th, and nd and Bth,fingers of each hand. Neither hand nor wrist should be moved in the least while playing this exercise. J-40 0 84) OM. 5 3 a8 Ota. J = 40 to #8) 4g simile 4 a> o S 4 The Tremolo. To properly execute the tremolo, it should be played with the same rapidity as the roll on the drum Practise slowly at first, then gradually accelerate the tempo until the movement indicated (M.M.d +78) is reached. Finally, by oscillations of the wrists, the rapidity is still further augmented up to the tempo of the drum-roll. This étude is long and difficult; but the excellent result will fully repay the pianist for the trou- ble and fatigue encountered. Steibelt. made his hearers shiver by his execution of the tremolo. a tempo _pp ow roe | perdendosi Concluding Remarks ted with the chief mechanical diffi- ought to play this entire self with these great dif- Now that the student has practised this entire volume, he is acquai culties; bul, if he would enjoy the fruit of his toil, and become a real virtuoso, he book through every day for a certain times only in this way can he familiarize ficulties. An hour is required to play the book through. The greatest artists find it necessary to repeat daily exercises for several hours, merely to “keep up their playing We should not,therefore, be accused of exaggerating the matter when we require of a student aspiring to true virtuosity, that he should play these exercises through every day.