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Meshal Samadzada

Professor Shishova
CHM 220
18 Nov. 2014

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6
B-complex

Water soluble
Must be obtained through diet
Meats, liver, whole grain products, legumes, milk

Structures

Pyridoxine
(PN)

Pyridoxine-5-phosphate
(PNP)

Pyridoxal
(PL)

Pyridoxal-5-phosphate
(PLP)

Pyridoxamine
(PM)

Pyridoxamine-5-phosphate
(PMP)

Vitamin B6 Forms. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Resource. 2000. Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Web. Nov 11 2014.

Metabolism

Vitamin B6. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Resource. 2000.


Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Web. Nov 11 2014.

Functions
Role in over 100 enzyme-catalyzed reactions
Amino acid metabolism
Glycogenolysis
Heme synthesis

Transamination
Transfer of NH2 from amino acid to -keto acid

PLP-dependent enzyme: Aminotransferase


Synthesis of non-essential amino acids
Use of amino acid carbon skeletons for energy or

glucose production

Amino Acid Catabolism: Nitrogen. Molecular Biochemistry of Metabolism. 2008. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Web. Nov 9 2014.

Decarboxylation
Elimination of CO2 from amino acid

PLP-dependent enzyme: Decarboxylase


Synthesis of some neurotransmitters
Glutamate -amino butyric acid (GABA)
5-Hydroxytryptophan serotonin
Tyrosine dihydroxyphenylalanine dopamine

Transulfhydration
Transfer of SH group

2 PLP-dependent enzymes for conversion of

Homocysteine Cysteine:
Cystathionine synthase
Cystathionine lyase

*
*
Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine
Metabolism. Oregon State University Web site. Accessed 10 Nov 2014.

Glycogenolysis
PLP-dependent enzyme: glycogen

phosphorylase

PLP
glycogen
phosphorylase

glycogen

glucose-1-phosphate

Heme Synthesis
Heme ring synthesized from glycine & succinyl-

CoA
5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS)
Condensation & decarboxylation
First enzyme of heme biosynthesis pathway
Rate limiting step

5-aminolevulinic acid synthase

Succinyl-CoA + Glycine
PLP

Aminolevulinic acid
CO2

Deficiency
Neurologic symptoms
Confusion, depression, irritability
Convulsions (infants)
Tryptophan

Glutamate
Tyrosine

X serotonin
-amino butyric acid (GABA)
Xdihydroxyphenylalanine
X dopamine

Homocysteineuria
Methionine

Homocysteine
Associated with CVD

X Cysteine

Deficiency contd
Microcytic, hypochromic anemia

Disruptions of Heme Synthesis. Biochemical pharmacology course notes. 2014. University of Waterloo. Web. 11 Nov 2014.

Nutritional Recommendations
Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B6
Age

Male

Female

Birth to 6 months

0.1 mg*

0.1 mg*

712 months

0.3 mg*

0.3 mg*

13 years

0.5 mg

0.5 mg

48 years

0.6 mg

0.6 mg

913 years

1.0 mg

1.0 mg

1418 years

1.3 mg

1.2 mg

1950 years

1.3 mg

1.3 mg

51+ years

1.7 mg

1.5 mg
* Adequate Intake (AI)

Adapted from Table 1. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B6: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet.
Office of Dietary Supplements. September, 2011. National Institutes of Health. Web. Accessed Nov 10 2014.

Treatment Options
Supplementation

B6 = B-complex vitamins
Needs with protein consumption

"The Importance of a Multivitamin." Fitnesscom RSS. N.p., 2014. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.

Current Research
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy
Infancy, sometimes in-utero
Thought to be result of neurotransmitter dysfunction
Medical Tx with vitamin B6 megadose

Works Cited
Amino Acid Catabolism: Nitrogen. Molecular Biochemistry of Metabolism. 2008. Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute. Web. Accessed Nov 9 2014.
Disruptions of Heme Synthesis. Biochemical pharmacology course notes. 2014. University of Waterloo. Web.
Accessed 11 Nov 2014.
Genetics Home Reference. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. US National Library of Medicine. N.p. Sept .
2011. Web. Accessed 9 Nov 2014.
"The Importance of a Multivitamin." Fitnesscom RSS. N.p., 2014. Web. Accessed 9 Nov 2014.
Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin B6. Oregon State University Web site.
Accessed 10 Nov 2014.
Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine Metabolism.
Oregon State University Web site. Accessed 10 Nov 2014.
Mahan, Kathleen. L., Escott-Stump, and Sylvia, Raymond, Janice, L. Krauses Food and the Nutrition Care
Process. 13th ed. Missouri: Elsevier, 2010. Print.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Vitamin B6. National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health.
N.p., Aug. 2010. Web. Accessed 11 Nov 2014.
n.p. Vitamin B6: Drugs and Supplements. Mayo Clinic. N.p., 2013. Web. Accessed 10 Nov 2014.
Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers. National Institutes of Health Web
site. Accessed 11 Nov 2014.
Office of Dietary Supplements. Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B6: Dietary
Supplement Fact Sheet National Institutes of Health. N.p. Sept. 2011. Web. Accessed 10 Nov 2014.
Vitamin B6 Forms. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Resource. 2000. Southern Illinois University School
of Medicine. Web. 11 Nov 2014.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B6: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet. Office of Dietary
Supplements. September, 2011. National Institutes of Health. Web. Accessed 10 Nov 2014.