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# Lab 3: Logic Minimization with

Karnaugh Maps
ECEN 248: Introduction to Digital Design, Section 302
TA: Daniel Mcbride
Due date: June 24, 2014

Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to use truth tables and Karnaugh Maps to build a logic circuit that
serves as a profit calculator. Building a truth table that matches the constraints of the lab is a
demonstration on how to use digital logic in circuits to yield useful results. These results can
then be used in a Karnaugh Map to show how to design circuits that are logically minimized to
the most efficient manner.

Design
Using the information given in the Pre-Lab, the circuit in Figure 1 was designed using Karnaugh
maps for three different outputs. These three outputs, in order from top to bottom led to LED's
that represented three different bits. If the LED was on, the bit was recorded as 1, and if it was
off, the bit was recorded as 0. Using this information, the profits of any given valid inputs can be
simply calculated and displayed.
Figure 1:
Profit Calculator

This profit calculator was inserted into the circuit portrayed in Figure 2 that was given in the lab
manual. The switches in our schematic our simply just replaced with a DIP switch on the

Figure 2:
Circuit Schematic

Results
Experiment 1
The following table shows the outputs observed during the lab. The bolded and italicized values
are the bits that were originally 'Don't Cares' in the Pre-Lab but were recorded with the value that
they displayed in the circuit built. All the rest of the values match the table made in the Pre-Lab's
exactly. The reason why certain values took places of the 'Don't Cares' that were originally there
was because of the gates implemented in our circuit. There are several different possible ways to
design a circuit from the given specifications but by using Boolean algebra and minimization
through K-maps, the values were replaced by their proper outputs in respect to each gate.
I - Chicken
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

S - Sheep
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

C - Cow
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

H - Hog
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

P2
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

P1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

P0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1

0
0
0

0
1
1

1
1
1

1
0
1

0
1
1

1
1
1

Experiment 2
This experiment was cancelled, therefore no information is available.

Post-Lab Questions
1. Make a table showing the digital inputs and outputs of your circuit observed during lab. For
input combinations not allowed by the aforementioned guidelines, provide the output values
observed rather than X.
See the given information under the 'Results' section of this report.
2. Provide a comparison between the table in item 1 and the truth table you created in the pre-lab.
What values does your circuit output for the dont cares and why?
See the given information under the 'Results' section of this report.
3. Derive the Product of Sum (POS) expression for a 3-input (A, B, C) XNOR Gate. Assume that
output of the gate is called Y.
The following truth table is for a three input XNOR Gate:
A
B
C
Y
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
Using a K-Map, the following POS expression can be derived:
Y = (A' + B + C ) ( A + B + C' ) ( A' + B' + C' ) ( A + B' + C' ) = ( A B C )'
4. Figure 7 labels the driver output as having an open-collector output. Explain what this means.
The open-collector output is just a transistor connected to resistors that connect to the five volt
power supply. This completes the circuit and whenever the transistor is off, the power through
the resistor output 1 (high voltage) and whenever the transistor is on, it's grounded to output 0
(low voltage).

Conclusion
In this lab, the profit calculator worked entirely showing our familiarity on how to use truth
tables to make minimized expressions for outputs, then design a circuit using these expressions.
By testing every possible value for the four inputs, we were able to make a second truth table

that showed results just as expected from the Pre-Lab. These results helped us understand the
transition of design from paper to breadboard. Our circuit portrayed how digital logic gates can
be manipulated for a user-friendly purpose. By following the procedure in the lab, we learned
how to apply digital logic gates in a real-world application.

Student Feedback
1. What did you like most about the lab assignment and why? What did you like least about it
and why?
I liked this lab because the observations recorded could be were physically seen rather than just
being measured by a tool. The profit calculator was a great real-world application and the only
thing I didn't like was that there wasn't enough time to do experiment 2.
2. Were there any sections of the lab manual that were unclear? The Pre-Lab could have been a
little more detailed to better explain the type of circuits that were going to be needed in the
design.
3. What suggestions do you have to improve the overall lab assignment?
To improve the lab assignment, there should be more explanation before the students start
implementing the circuit on the breadboard.