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S te p 1

P HO NE T I C S :
Th e K a z a k h A l p h a b e t
In tr o d u c ti o n to U n i q u e K a z a k h S o u n d s

C O NV E RS A T I O N:
Gr e e ti n g s a n d In tr o d u c ti o n s
P HO NE T I C S : T h e Ka z a k h A lp h a b e t
The Kazakh alphabet contains 42 letters. These are given below in their correct order,
which you should learn, as you will soon be looking up words in a dictionary. The
second column describes the sound of each letter. Where possible, an approximate
English equivalent is given. The letters marked with a star (*) only occur in words
borrowed from the Russian language.

E X E RC IS E 1 : P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E : T H E KA Z A KH A L P H A B E T

Listen and repeat:

Letter Examples
The sound it represents

ć like "a" in "father" ‡ø, ‡Ô‡, ·‡Î‡, ‡Îχ, ‡Î, ·‡Ò


∏π like "a" in "class" πÌ, π̯¥, ÔπÌ, ÚπÌ, ÒπÌ, ÏπÌ
Å· like "b" in "box" ·‡Ò, ·‡Î, ·‡Î‡, ·‡·‡, ·‡Û, ·‡Û˚
*Ç ‚ like "v" in "vat" ‚‡Ú, ‰Ë‚‡Ì, à‚‡Ì, 炇
É„ like "g" in "get" „Â, „¥Á, Ì„Â, Ò„¥Á
щ like "d" in "desk" ‰ÓÔ, ‰‡Î‡, ‰π¥, ‰πÏ, ‰πÏı‡Ì‡
ÆØ unique sound ‡Ø‡, ڇ؇, ·‡Ø‡ ҇؇Ú, ڇ؇Ú
Ö like "e" in "met" ÂÎ, ÂÒ, ÂÍ, ÂÏ, Â, ÂÏÂÍ, ‰ÂÌ
*› fi like "yo" in "yolk" fiÎ͇, èfiÚ, îfi‰Ó
Ü ÊÜ like "zh" in "measure" ʇÎ, ʇÁ, ʇÈ, ʇÌ, ʇŒÒ˚, ʇχÌ
áÁ like "z" in "zoo" ‡Á, Ú‡Á‡, ʇÁ‡, ·ÓÁ‡, χÁ‡, ·‡Á‡
àË like "ee" in "need" ÚË, ÚËÏÂ, Ë, ËÌÂ, Ë¥Ì, ÍË¥Ï
âÈ like "i" in "time" and "oi" in χÈ, ¯‡È, Ú‡È, Ò‡È, ÓÈ, ŒÓÈ, ÚÓÈ
"coin"
äÍ like "k" in "key" ÂÍ¥, ¯ͥ, ÍÂÌ, ÍÂÌÂ, ÍÂÒÂ
ÕŒ unique sound ‡Œ, Œ‡ÌÚ, Œ‡‡, Œ‡Ò, Œ‡Ò˚Œ, Œ‡Î‡, Ú‡ŒÚ‡
ãÎ like "l" in "like" (soft) ÎÂÍ, ÊÂÎ, ÍÂÎ, ÒπÎÂÏ
or like "l" in "bottle" (hard) Œ‡Î‡, Ú‡Î, ·‡Î, χÎ, ·‡Î‡
åÏ like "m" in "man" χÎ, χί˚, ÏÂÌ, ÂÏÂÌ, ÏÓÎ
çÌ like "n" in "not" ̇Ì, ʇÌ, ÊπÌÂ, ڇ̇
æø like "ng" in "sing" ÒÓø, ÚÓø, Ï˚ø, Óø
éÓ like "o" in "toe" ÓÌ, ÓÌ, ÒÓÚ, ÓÚ‡Ì ÓÚ˚Á, ÚÓÚ˚
ºΩ like "u" in "burn" ΩÁ, ÍΩÁ, ÍΩ¯Â, ΩÚÂ, ·ΩÎÏÂ
èÔ like "p" in "apple" ÔπÌ, Ôπ̉Â, ÂÒÂÔ, ÒÂÔÚÂ
ê like "r" in "arrow" Œ‡‡, ‡‡, Ú‡, Ú‡‡, Ú‡‡Œ
ëÒ like "s" in "miss" ¥Ò, ÍÂÒ, ÍÂÒÂ, ÂÒ¥Í, ʇÒ, Œ‡Ò, χÒ
2
íÚ like "t" in "take" ‡Ú, Ú‡Î, Ú‡Ò, Ú‡ŒÚ‡, ÓÚ, ܇Ú
ìÛ like "oo" in "pool" ÒÛ, Û, Û˚Œ, ÒÛ˚Œ, ŒÛ, ·Û
≤≥ like "u" in "bull" ≥Î, ≥Ì, ≥Î˚, ·≥ÎÚ, ≥ÎÚ, ·≥Î
∫ª unique sound ªÌ, ͪÌ, ÚªÌ, ܪÌ, ªÈ, ͪÎ
*î Ù like "f" in "fit" ÙÓÌÂχ, ÙÓÌÂÚË͇
ïı like "h" in "hunting" ı‡Ú, ıÓ¯, ı‡Î, ı‡Î˚Œ
¨ unique sound Œ‡¨‡χÌ, Œ‡¨‡
*ñ ˆ like "ts" in "its" ñÓÈ, ˆÂÌÚÌÂ
*ó ˜ like "ch" in "chance" ó‡Ô‡È, ó͇ÎÓ‚
ò¯ like "sh" in "ship" ¯ÂÌ, ¯Â¯Â, ¯ÂÍÔÂÌ, ¯Ë, ¯ÓÎ
*ô˘ like "shsh Í¢Â, ôÓÒ i.e. double "sh"
*˙ no sound value Ò˙ÂÁ, Ò˙ÂÁ¥
õ˚ unique sound Ü˚Î, ˚Ò, ˚‰˚Ò, Œ˚Ò, Ï˚Ò, Ü≥Ï˚Ò
ߥ like "i" in "tin" ¥Ì, ¥Ò, Í¥Ò¥, ¥¯¥Í, ÂÒ¥Í
¸ no sound value ˲θ, Ë˛Ì¸, ‡ÔÂθ
*ù ˝ like "e" in "mend" å˝Î¸Ò, ˝Î‚‡ÚÓ
*û ˛ like "yu" in "yule" ‡˛, ŒÓ˛, Ó˛, ÊÜÓ˛, ÚÓ˛
üfl like "ya" in "yarn" ‡fl, ܇fl, χfl, Ú‡flŒ, ‡flŒ, Ò‡flŒ

E X E RC IS E 2 : P RO U NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E : U NIQ U E KA Z A KH L E T T E RS A ND S O U ND S T H E Y
RE P RE S E NT

Listen to the tape and repeat:

Letter Examples

∏π πÌ, ÔπÌ, ÒπÌ, π̯¥, ÔπÚÂ


ÆØ ‡Ø‡, ‡Ø‡¯, Œ‡Ø‡Á, χ؇Ì
æø ܇ø‡, Ú‡ø, ÒÓø ‡ø, Œ‡øÚ‡
ºΩ ΩÒ, ÍΩÎ, ·ΩÎÏÂ, ÚΩ·Â, ÚΩ
≤≥ ≥Î, ≥Ì, ≥Î˚, ·≥Î, ·≥ÎÚ
∫ª ͪÌ, ÚªÌ, ͪÎ, ªÎÍÂÌ
õ˚ Ü˚Î, ˚Ò, ˚ÒÚ˚Œ, Œ˚Ò, ·‡Ú˚
ÕŒ ‡Œ, Œ˚Ò, Œ‡, ŒÓÎ, Œ‡ÌÚ, Œ‡Î‡Ï
¨ Œ‡¨‡χÌ, Œ‡¨‡, ɇۨ‡

3
LETTERS THAT MIGHT BE MISTAKEN FOR ENGLISH ONES

There are certain letters in the Kazakh alphabet, which can easily be confused with
English letters. The following table illustrates differences between the two writing
systems.

Letter Don't confuse with:

Ç‚ English B b. This letter is like the English "v" in "vat".


ÆØ English F f. This letter is unique Kazakh sound.
Ռ English K k. This letter is unique Kazakh sound.
çÌ English H h. This letter is like the English "n" in "not".
æø English H h. This letter is unique Kazakh sound which is
like the English "ng" is "sing".
ºΩ English O o. This letter is unique Kazakh sound.
ê English P p. This letter is like the English "r".
ëÒ English C c. This letter is like the English "s".
ìÛ English Y y. This letter is like the English "oo" in "pool".
∫ª English Y y. This letter is unique Kazakh sound.
≤≥ English Y y. This letter is unique Kazakh sound.
ïı English X x. This letter is like the English "h" in "hunting".
¨ English h. This letter is unique Kazakh sound.

E X E RC IS E 3: P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E : C O NS O NA NT S

Listen and repeat:

Consonant Examples

· ·‡Ò, ·ÂÍ, Å‡ËÌ, ÅËÚ‡ÌËflx


‚ LJ¯ËÌÚ„ÚÓÌ, ÇË„ËÌËfl, ‰Ë‚‡Ì, 炇
„ Ì„Â, ¯Â„Â, „ÂÛ, Ú„¯, É‚‡ÚÂχ·
Ø Ø‡Ò˚, ؇Î˚Ï, ‡Ø‡, ʇ؇, ƇÎË
‰ ‰ÓÒ, ‰ÓÔ, ‰πÎ, ‰ÂÛ, ÑÛ‚
Ü Ü‡Ò, Ê܇Ì, ܇Î, Ê܇fl, ÜπÌÂ, ܇χÌ
Á Á‡Ú, ÁÓ, ÂÁÛ, ΩÁÂÍ, ΩÁÂÌ
È ‡È, Ú‡È, χÈ, ŒÓÈ, Ê܇È, Ò‡È, ·È
Í ÍÂÒ, ÍÂÒÂ, ÂÒ¥Í, ÂÒ¥Ï, Í¥, ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ
Î ‡Î, ‡Î‡, ·‡Î‡, ·‡Î
Ï Ï‡Î, χÈ, ÏÂÌ, ÏÂÍÚÂÔ, å‡Ì˜ÂÒÚÂ
Ì ÌÂ, ̇Ì, ‡Ì‡, ÂÏÂÌ, Ì„Â, ̇, 炇
ø ÒÓø, Ú‡ø, χø ‡ø, Ú˚ø, ʇø؇Œ
4
Ô ‡Ô‡, ‡Ô‡, ÔÂ‰Â, Ô˚¯‡Œ, Ô¯, èÂÛ
 ‡‡, Œ‡‡, Â, ÔÂ‰Â, ÂÏÂÍ, êÂÈ„‡Ì
Ò Ò‡Œ, Ò‡Ì, ܇Ò, ܇ÒÚ˚Œ, ܇Ò˚Œ, χÒ, ·Ò, ëÛÂÁ
Ú ‡Ú, ‡ø, ڇ̇, Ú‡Œ, Ú‡Ò, Ú‡ŒÚ‡, ÚΩ·Â, ÚΩÒÂÍ, Œ‡ÚÚ˚, íÓÍËÓ
Ù ìÙ‡, ÙÓÌÂχ, ÙÓÌÂÚË͇, îËÌÎfl̉Ëfl
ı ı‡Ì‡, ‡Òı‡Ì‡, ‰πÏı‡Ì‡, Í¥Ú‡Ôı‡Ì‡, Ê܇ڇŒı‡Ì‡, ï‡ÏËÚ, ÄıÏÂÚ
ˆ ˆÂÌÚÂ, ñÓÈ
¯ ¯‡È, ¯‡¯, ‡Œ¯‡, òÓÚ·̉Ëfl
˘ Í¢Â, ôÓÒ

E X E RC IS E 4 : P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E : V O W E L S

Listen and repeat:

Vowel Examples

‡ ‡Ò, ‡Ò‡, ‡Ì‡, ‡Ô‡, ‡Œ, ·‡Î‡, ÄÙË͇


π πÌ, ÏπÌ, πÜÂ, πÍÂ, ∏̉Ë
 ÂÒ, ÂÒÂ, ÂÒÂÍ, ÂÒÂÌ, ÂÒ¥Í, ÂÒ¥Ï
fi èfiÚ, fiÎ͇, fiÜÓ·
Ë ËÌÂ, ÍË¥Ï, ËÏÂÍ, à̉Ëfl
Ó ÓÎ, ÓÌ, ÒÓø, ÚÓÌ, ‰ÓÔ, ŒÓÎ
Ω ΩÌ, ÓÁ¥, ÍΩÁ, ·ΩÎÏÂ, ÚΩ·Â, ÚΩÒÂÍ
Û ·Û, ŒÛ, ÒÛ, ÒÛ˚Œ, ÚÛ, Ú‡Û˚Œ
≥ ≥Î, ≥Î˚, ≥Ì, Œ≥Ì, Œ≥Î˚Ì, ·≥Î
ª ªÌ, ÚªÌ, ͪÌ, ͪÎ, ͪÎ, ªÎÍÂÌ, ªÈ
˚ Ï˚̇Û, Œ˚Ò, ˚Ò, Œ˚Ï˚Á, Œ˚Á, ˚Ï
¥ ¥Ò, Ú¥Î, ¥Ì, Í¥ÎÂÏ, Ú¥ÎÂÍ
˝ ˝Í‚‡ÚÓ, ˝ÍÒÍÓ‚‡ÚÓ
˛ Ó˛, ŒÓ˛, ÒÓ˛ , ÚÓ˛, Í˲, ˛ÔËÚÂ
fl ʇfl, Ò‡fl, χfl, ‡fl, ‡flŒ, Ú‡flŒ, Ò‡flŒ, üÎÚ‡

E X E RC IS E 5: C O NV E RS A T IO N E L E V E NT S

Listen and repeat:


‡Ú˚Ï å‡ÈÍ [name is Mike]
ÏÂÌ¥ø ‡Ú˚Ï [my name]
åÂÌ¥ø ‡Ú˚Ï – å‡ÈÍ [My name (is) Mike.]
ëπÎÂÏÂÚÒ¥Á ·Â? [How do you do?]
Œ‡Î‡È [how]
ı‡Î¥ø¥Á [your condition]
ï‡Î¥ø¥Á Œ‡Î‡È? [How are yor?]
5
Ò˚ [Good.]
ê‡ıÏÂÚ [Thank you]
íΩÍÂ ¯˚Ø˚ø˚Á [Be seated]
‡Ú˚ø˚Á Í¥Ï? [name your]
Ò¥Á‰¥ø [your-polite form]
ë¥Á‰¥Ì ‡Ú˚ø˚Á Í¥Ï? [What (is) your name?]

E X E RC IS E 6: P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E

Listen and repeat the following words noting the unique Kazakh sound:
π ÒπÎÂÏ, ÒπÎÂÏÂÚ, ÒπÎÂÏÂÚÒ¥Á ·Â?, ı‡Î¥ø, ı‡Î¥ø¥Á (Note the "‡" in the word "ı‡Î" is
pronounced like "π".
ø ÏÂÌ¥ø, ÒÂÌ¥ø, Ò¥Á‰¥ø, ‡Ú˚ø˚Á, ‡Ú˚ø, ı‡Î¥ø, ı‡Î¥ø¥Á
Œ Œ‡Î‡È, Ê܇ŒÒ˚
Ω ÚΩ, ÚΩ„Â, ÚΩ„Â ¯˚Ø˚ø˚Á
Ø ¯˚Ø˚ø˚Á, ÚΩ„Â ¯˚Ø˚ø˚Á

E X E RC IS E 7 : C O NV E RS A T IO N

Listen to the following dialogue:


ëπÎÂÏÂÚÒ¥Á ·Â?
ëπÎÂÏÂÚÒ¥Á ·Â?
ï‡Î¥ø¥Á Œ‡Î‡È?
ê‡ıÏÂÚ. ܇ŒÒ˚. ë¥Á‰¥ø ı‡Î¥ø¥Á Œ‡Î‡È? [How are you?]
ê‡ıÏÂÚ. ܇ŒÒ˚. íΩ„ ¯˚Ø˚ø˚Á.
ê‡ıÏÂÚ.
åÂÌ¥ø ‡Ú˚Ï ÄÎχ. ë¥Á‰¥ø ‡Ú˚ø˚Á Í¥Ï?
åÂÌ¥ø ‡Ú˚Ï å‡ÈÍ.
ê‡ıÏÂÚ.

E X E RC IS E 8: T RA NS L A T IO N

Translate the dialogue in Exercise 7 into English using Exercise 5. Check your answers
with the key.

E X E RC IS E 9: C O NV E RS A T IO N P RA C T IC E

Listen to the dialogue in Exercise 7 and repeat.

E X E RC IS E 1 0: RE A D ING

Listen to the following dialogue. Then listen again and repeat after each line.
ëπÎÂÏ! [Hi! or Hello! – familiar form, i.e only to your friend].
ëπÎÂÏ! ï‡Î Œ‡Î‡È? [How are you – familiar form]
ê‡ıÏÂÚ. ܇ÍÒ˚.

6
E X E RC IS E 1 1

Memorize the dialogue given in Exercise 10.

7
S te p 2
GRA M M A R:
M o d e l 1 . å ˚ Ì ‡ Û – Ô ‡ Ú‡ .
M o d e l 2 . å ˚ Ì ‡ Û ÂÒ ¥ Í ÂÏÂÒ .

V O C A BUL A RY:
Th e C l a s s r o o m & S c h o o l S u p p l i e s
E X E RC IS E 1 2 : M o d e l 1
Model 1: å˚Ì‡Û – Ô‡Ú‡.
This is a desk.
Listen. [Note that the dash is used to separate the subject (nouns, pronouns or
demonstrative pronouns) from the nominal predicate. The dash approximates the
auxiliary verb (e.g. "is") in English].
å˚Ì‡Û – Ô‡Ú‡ This is a desk.
å˚Ì‡Û – ͇·ËÌÂÚ This is a classroom.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÍÓÏÔ¸˛Â This is a computer.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÒÚÓÎ This is a table.
å˚Ì‡Û – Ú‡ŒÚ‡ This is a blackboard.
å˚Ì‡Û – ·Ó This is a chalk.
ÄÌ‡Û – ÂÒ¥Í This is a door.
ÄÌ‡Û – ÚÂÂÁ This is a window.
ÄÌ‡Û – ‰ÂÌ This is a floor.
ÄÌ‡Û – ¯‡Ï This is a light.
ÄÌ‡Û – ÚΩ·Â This is a ceiling
ÄÌ‡Û – ¯ª·ÂÂÍ This is an eraser (for blackboard).
å˚Ì‡Û – Ó˚̉˚Œ This is a chair.
å˚Ì‡Û – ·≥˚¯ This is a corner.

E X E RC IS E 1 5: T RA NS L A T IO N

Read Exercise 14 and translate into English. Check your answers with the key.

E X E RC IS E 1 6: P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E

Listen and repeat the pronunciation of the following nouns for school supplies.
/Œ/ Œ‡˚̉‡¯ [pencil]
Œ‡Î‡Ï [pencil]
Œ‡Ø‡Á [paper]
Œ‡Î‡ÏÒ‡Ô [pen]
/Ω/ ÒΩÏÍÂ [bag]
Ω¯¥„¥¯ [eraser]
ÒΩÁ‰¥Í [dictionary]
/Ø/, /˚/ Ò˚ÁØ˚¯ [ruler]

E X E RC IS E 1 7 : C O M P O S IT IO N

Compose sentences with the nouns for school supplies (Exercise 16) using Model 1
(Exercise 12).
Model: å˚Ì‡Û – …
ÄÌ‡Û – …

E X E RC IS E 1 8: T E X T # 1 : M o d e l 2
Model 2: å˚Ì‡Û ÒÚÓÎ ÂÏÂÒ.
This is not a table
The negative word "not" is expressed with the word "ÂÏÂÒ" in Kazakh.

9
Read the following text.
å˚Ì‡Û – Ô‡Ú‡. å˚Ì‡Û ÒÚÓÎ ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û – ÂÒ¥Í. å˚Ì‡Û ÚÂÂÁ ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û Â‰ÂÌ. å˚̇Û
ÚΩ·Â ÂÏÂÒ. ÄÌ‡Û – ¯‡Ï. ÄÌ‡Û ·Ó ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û – ¯ª·ÂÂÍ. å˚Ì‡Û Ú‡ŒÚ‡ ÂÏÂÒ.

E X E RC IS E 1 9

Read the following text and translate. Check your answers with the key.
å˚Ì‡Û - Í¥Ú‡Ô. å˚Ì‡Û ‰πÔÚÂ ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û – Œ‡Î‡Ï. å˚Ì‡Û Œ‡Î‡ÏÒ‡Ô ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û –
Œ‡Ø‡Á. å˚Ì‡Û ‰πÔÚÂ ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û – Ω¯¥„¥¯. å˚Ì‡Û Ò˚ÁØ˚¯ ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û – ÒΩÏÍÂ.
å˚Ì‡Û ÒΩÁ‰¥Í ÂÏÂÒ. å˚Ì‡Û – Œ‡˚̉‡¯. å˚Ì‡Û Œ‡Î‡ÏÒ‡Ô ÂÏÂÒ.

E X E RC IS E 2 0

Make the following sentences negative. Check your answers with the key.
å˚Ì‡Û – ͇·ËÌÂÚ.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÒÚÓÎ.
ÄÌ‡Û – Ô‡Ú‡.
ÄÌ‡Û – Ú‡ŒÚ‡.
å˚Ì‡Û – ·Ó.
å˚Ì‡Û – ¯ª·ÂÂÍ.
ÄÌ‡Û – ÚÂÂÁÂ.
ÄÌ‡Û – ÂÒ¥Í.
ÄÌ‡Û – ·≥˚¯.
ÄÌ‡Û – ÚΩ·Â.
å˚Ì‡Û – ‰ÂÌ.
ÄÌ‡Û – ¯‡Ï.
å˚Ì‡Û – Ó˚̉˚Œ

10
S te p 3
GRA M M A R:
M o d e l 3 : è ‡ Ú‡ Ê Ü‡ Œ Ò ˚ . [Th e d e s k i s g o o d .]
M o d e l 4 : è ‡  Ú‡ ÂÒ Í ¥ ÂÏÂÒ . [Th e d e s k i s n o t o l d .]

V O C A BUL A RY: S im p le A d je c t iv e s :
Ê Ü‡ Œ Ò ˚ , ܇ χ Ì , ܇  ˚ Œ , Í ‡  ‡ Ì Ø ˚ ,
܇ ø ‡ , ÂÒ Í ¥ , Ú‡ Á ‡ , Í ¥  , ‡ · Ò ‡ , ·Ë ¥ Í
E X E RC IS E 2 1 : M o d e l 3
Model 3: è‡Ú‡ Ê܇ŒÒ˚.
The desk is good.
Listen and compare. Note that if the subject is a noun and the predicate is an
adjective, the dash is not used. The linking verb is understood.
Example: è‡Ú‡ ܇ŒÒ˚.
The desk [is] good.

å˚Ì‡Û – Ô‡Ú‡. This is a desk.


è‡Ú‡ ܇ŒÒ˚. The desk is good.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÒÚÓÎ. This is a table.
ëÚÓΠ܇χÌ. The table is bad.
å˚Ì‡Û – ‰πÔÚÂ. This is a notebook.
ÑÂÔÚÂ ܇ø‡. The notebook is new.
å˚Ì‡Û – Ω¯¥„¥¯. This is an eraser.
º¯¥„¥¯ ÂÒÍ¥. The eraser is old.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÒΩÏÍÂ. This is a bag.
ëΩÏÍ ڇÁ‡. The bag is clean.
å˚Ì‡Û – ¯ª·ÂÂÍ. This is an eraser.
òª·ÂÂÍ Í¥. The eraser is dirty.
å˚Ì‡Û – ͇·ËÌÂÚ. This is a classroom.
䇷ËÌÂÚ Üʇ˚Œ. The classroom is light.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÚΩ·Â. This is the ceiling.
íΩ·Â ·Ë¥Í. The ceiling is high.
å˚Ì‡Û – ÒÚÓÎ. This is a table.
ëÚÓÎ ‡Î‡Ò‡. The table is low.

E X E RC IS E 2 2 : P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E

Listen and repeat.


/Œ/ ܇ŒÒ˚ [good]

E X E RC IS E 2 2 : P RO NU NC IA T IO N P RA C T IC E

Listen and repeat.


/Œ/ ܇ŒÒ˚ [good]
è‡Ú‡ ܇ŒÒ˚.
䇷ËÌÂÚ Ü‡ŒÒ˚.
íÂÂÁ ܇ŒÒ˚.
ÖÒ¥Í Ü!_
ÖÒ¥Í Ü‡ŒÒ˚.
Ö‰ÂÌ Ü‡ŒÒ˚.
Ü‡Ï‡Ì [bad]
íΩ·Â ܇χÌ.
Å≥˚¯ ܇χÌ.
é˚̉˚Œ ܇χÌ.
º¯¥„¥¯ ܇χÌ.
/ø/ ܇ø‡ [new]
ëΩÁ‰¥Í ܇ø‡.
ë˚ÁØ˚¯ ܇ø‡.
äÓÏÔÛ˚Â_
äÓÏÔ˛ÚÂ ܇ø‡.
/¥/ ÂÒÍ¥ [old]
ÑπÔÚÂ ÂÒÍ¥.
12
ä¥Ú‡Ô ÂÒÍ¥.
º¯¥„¥¯ ÂÒÍ¥.
Í¥ [dirty]
䇷ËÌÂÚ Í¥.
퇌ڇ Í¥.
òª·ÂÂÍ Í¥.
è‡Ú‡ Í¥.
é˚̉˚Œ Í¥.
ëÚÓΠͥ_
ëÚÓΠͥ.
/Á/ Ú‡Á‡ [clean]
ëΩÏÍ ڇÁ‡.
ÑπÔÚÂ Ú‡Á‡.
íÂÂÁ ڇÁ‡.
ÖÒ¥Í Ú!_!_
ÖÒ¥Í Ú‡Á‡.
Ö‰ÂÌ Ú‡Á‡.
íΩ·Â Ú‡Á‡.
/Œ/ Ê܇˚Œ [light]
䇷ËÌÂÚ Ê܇˚Œ.
íÂÂÁ Ê܇˚Œ.
Œ‡‡øØ˚ [dark]
ò‡Ï Œ‡‡øØ˚.
䇷ËÌÂÚ Œ‡‡øØ˚.
‡Î‡Ò‡ [low]
íΩ·Â ‡Î‡Ò‡.
ÖÒ¥Í !
ÖÒ¥Í ‡Î‡Ò‡.
è‡Ú‡ ‡Î‡Ò‡.
é˚̉˚Œ ‡Î‡Ò‡.
ëÚÓÎ !
ëÚÓÎ ‡Î‡Ò‡.
·Ë¥Í [high]
íΩ·Â ·Ë¥Í.
ÖÒ¥Í ·Ë¥Í. [The door is tall].
ÖÒ¥Í ·Ë¥Í. [The door is tall].
è‡Ú‡ ·Ë¥Í.
é˚̉˚Œ ·Ë¥Í.
ëڇΠ·Ë¥Í.

E X E RC IS E 2 3: S E NT E NC E C O M P L E T IO N

Fill in the blanks with appropriate adjectives: Ê܇ŒÒ˚, ܇χÌ, ܇ø‡, ÂÒÍ¥, Ú‡Á‡, Í¥,
܇˚Œ, Œ‡‡øØ˚, ‡Î‡Ò‡, ·Ë¥Í. Check your answers with the key.
䇷ËÌÂÚ ______________ 䇷ËÌÂÚ ________________
íΩ·Â _________________ Ö‰ÂÌ ___________________
íÂÂÁ _______________ ÖÒ¥Í ____________________
퇌ڇ ________________ ÅÓ ____________________
òª·ÂÂÍ _____________ ëÚÓÎ ___________________
è‡Ú‡ ________________ é˚̉˚Œ _______________
Å≥˚¯ _______________ ëΩÁ‰¥Í __________________
ä¥Ú‡Ô ________________ Õ‡˚̉‡¯ ______________
Շ·ÏÒ‡Ô ____________ Õ‡˚̉‡¯ ______________
ÑπÔÚÂ _______________ º¯¥„¥¯ ________________
ë¥ÁØ˚¯ ______________ ëΩÏÍ __________________
Շ؇Á ________________

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E X E RC IS E 2 4 : T RA NS L A T IO N

Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your answers with
the key.
äÓÏÔ˛ÚÂ ܇ø‡. íΩ·Â Ú‡Á‡. íΩ·Â ·Ë¥Í.
Ö‰ÂÌ Í¥. íÂÂÁ ڇÁ‡. íÂÂÁ ‡Î‡Ò‡.
Õ‡˚̉‡¯ Ê܇χÌ. ëΩÁ‰¥Í ܇ŒÒ˚. ëΩÏÍ ÂÒÍ¥.
䇷ËÌÂÚ Ü‡˚Œ.

E X E RC IS E 2 5: S E NT E NC E S T RU C T U RE

For each sentence in Exercise 24 underline the subject with a single line and the
predicate with a double line. Check your answers with the key.

E X E RC IS E 2 6: T RA NS L A T IO N

Listen and translate. Check you answer with the key.


Example: ‰á∑À ⁄á¡á. [The study is clean].
⁄á¡á Õ [A clean study]
‰á∑À ⁄á¡á. is a sentence
⁄á¡á Õ is a phrase
äÓÏÔ˛ÚÂ ʇø‡. ʇø‡ ÍÓÏÔ˛ÚÂ
è‡Ú‡ ÂÒÍ¥. ÂÒÍ¥ Ô‡Ú‡
íΩ·Â ·Ë¥Í. ·Ë¥Í ÚΩ·Â
ëÚÓÎ ‡Î‡Ò‡. ‡Î‡Ò‡ ÒÚÓÎ
Ö‰ÂÌ Í¥. Í¥ ‰ÂÌ
íÂÂÁ ڇÁ‡. Ú‡Á‡ ÚÂÂÁÂ
ÖÒ¥Í Ü‡ø‡. ܇ø‡ ÂÒ¥Í
䇷ËÌÂÚ Œ‡‡øØ˚. Œ‡‡øØ˚ ͇·ËÌÂÚ
ò‡Ï ܇˚Œ. Ê܇˚Œ ¯‡Ï

E X E RC IS E 2 7 : T RA NS F O RM A T IO N D RIL L

Cover the right hand column and change the sentences in the left column into phrases.
Then check your answer with the right column.
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 5
6. 6
7. 7
8. 8
9. 9
10. 10

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E X E RC IS E 2 8: M o d e l 4
Model 4: è‡Ú‡ ÂÒÍ¥ ÂÏÂÒ.
The desk in not old.
Formation of negative sentences:
䇷ËÌÂÚ Ü‡˚Œ. [The classroom is light.]
䇷ËÌÂÚ Ü‡˚Œ ÂÏÂÒ. [The classroom is not light.]

䇷ËÌÂÚ is the subject


܇˚Œ is the predicate adjective
ÖÏÂÒ is the negative word
ÖÏÂÒ makes the whole sentence negative. The negative word ÂÏÂÒ follows the adjective.
Cover the right hand column and change the sentences in the left column negative
sentences. Then check your answer with the right column.
1. ò‡Ï ʇ˚Œ. 1. ò‡Ï ʇ˚Œ ÂÏÂÒ.
2. 䇷ËÌÂÚ Œ‡‡øØ˚. 2. 䇷ËÌÂÚ Œ‡‡øØ˚ ÂÏÂÒ.
3. íΩ·Â ·Ë¥Í. 3. íΩ·Â ·Ë¥Í ÂÏÂÒ.
4. ëÚÓÎ ‡Î‡Ò‡. 4. ëÚÓÎ ‡Î‡Ò‡ ÂÏÂÒ.
5. òª·ÂÂÍ ÂÒÍ¥. 5. òª·ÂÂÍ ÂÒÍ¥ ÂÏÂÒ.
6. 䇷ËÌÂÚ Œ‡‡øØ˚. 6. 䇷ËÌÂÚ Œ‡‡øØ˚ ÂÏÂÒ.
7. Ö‰ÂÌ Í¥. 7. Ö‰ÂÌ Í¥ ÂÏÂÒ.
8. º¯¥„¥¯ ʇø‡. 8. º¯¥„¥¯ ʇø‡ ÂÏÂÒ.

E X E RC IS E 2 9: T RA NS L A T IO N

Translate the sentences in Exercise 28. Check your answers with the key.

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