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Modem: What is a Modem?

Types of Modems
BY DINESH THAKUR

Modem is abbreviation for Modulator Demodulator. Modems are used for


data transfer from onecomputer network to another computer network through
telephone lines. The computer network works in digital mode, while analog technology
is used for carrying massages across phone lines.

What is a computer network? Advantages of Network .


BY DINESH THAKUR

A computer network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share
resources such as printers and CD-ROMs, exchange files, or allow electronic
communications. The computers on a computer network may be linked through cables,
telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.

What is Switching
BY DINESH THAKUR

Switching: Every time in computer network you access the internet or another
computer network outside your immediate location, your messages are sent through a
maze of transmission media and connection devices. The mechanism for
moving information between different computer network and network segment is called
switching in computer network.

Network Connection Types


BY DINESH THAKUR

The two different computer network connection types are

(A)
Point-to-Point
(B) Multipoint Connection.

Connection

A point-to-point connection is a direct link between two devices such as a computer


and a printer. It uses dedicated link between the devices. The entire capacity of the link
is used for the transmission between those two devices. Most of today's point-to-point
connections are associated with modems and PSTN (Public Switched Telephone
Network) communications. In point to point networks, there exist many connections
between individual pairs of machines.

What is IEEE 802.4 Protocol? Token Bus


BY DINESH THAKUR

IEEE 802.4 Token Bus : In token bus Computer network station must have
possession of a token before it can transmit on the computer network. The IEEE 802.4
Committee has defined token bus standards as broadband computer networks, as
opposed to Ethernet's baseband transmission technique. Physically, the token bus is a
linear or tree-shape cable to which the stations are attached

What is Network Topology?


BY DINESH THAKUR

The
term
Network Topology defines
the geographic
arrangement
of computer networking devices. The term Topology refers to the way in which
the various nodes or computers of a network are linked together. It describes the actual
layout of the computer network hardware. Two or more devices connect to a link; two or
more links form a topology. Topology determines the data paths that may be used
between any pair of devices of the network.

What is a Computer Network? Uses of Computer Networks.


BY DINESH THAKUR

During 20th century the most important technology has been the information gathering,
its processing and distribution. The computers and communications have been merged
together and their merger has had a profound effect on the manner in
which computer systems are organized.

Types of Servers
BY DINESH THAKUR

File servers. -With a file server, the Computer Network client passes requests
for computer network files or file records over a computer network to the file server.
This form of computer network data service requires large bandwidth and can slow a
computer network with many users down considerably. Traditional LAN (Local area
Network) computing allows users to share resources, such as data files and peripheral
devices, by moving them from standalone PCUs onto a Networked File Server (NFS).

What is IEEE 802.3 Protocol


BY DINESH THAKUR

Ethernet : IEEE 802.3 Local Area Network (LAN) Protocols : Ethernet


protocols refer to the family of local-area network (LAN) technology covered by the
IEEE 802.3. It is working examplc of the more general carrier sense multiple access
with collision detect (CSMA/CD). In the Ethernet Computer Network standard, there
are two modes of operation: half-duplex and full-duplex modes. In the half duplex
mode, data are transmitted using the popular Carrier-SenseMultiple Access/Collision
Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol on as hared medium.

Types of Network

BY DINESH THAKUR

Computer Networks fall into three classes regarding the size, distance and the
structure namely: LAN (Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), WAN
(Wide Area Network).

What is Internetworking
BY DINESH THAKUR

Internetworking started as a way to connect disparate types of computer networking


technology. Computernetwork term is used to describe two or more computers that are
linked to each other. When two or more computer networks or computer network
segments are connected using devices such as a router then it is called ascomputer
internetworking.

Types of Computer Networks


BY DINESH THAKUR

Types of Computer Networks can be classified on various properties. The Computer


networks can also be classified on the basis of Computer network technology used by
them. There are two types of Computer networks in this category.

What is Router
BY DINESH THAKUR

Router: Routers are devices (computers) containing software that help in determining
the best path out of the available paths, for a particular transmission. They consist of a
combination of hardware and software. The hardware includes the physical interfaces to
the various networks in the internet work. The two main pieces of software in a router
are the operating system and the routing protocol.

WAN - Wide Area Network (WAN) - Difference between WAN and LAN
BY DINESH THAKUR

WAN is the acronym for, Wide Area Network and refers to a network used to
connect different equipments from remote areas. This technology connects sites that are
in diverse locations. Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect larger geographic area, such
as New York, Canada, or the world. The geographical limit of WAN is unlimited.
Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of
network. Hence, a WAN may be defined as a data communications network that covers
a relatively broad geographic area to connect LANs together between different cities
with the help of transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone
companies. WAN technologies function at the lower three layers.

Ethernet topology - What is an Ethernet topology? How an Ethernet


Worked?
BY DINESH THAKUR

The IEEE 802.3 standard is popularly called as Ethernet. It is a bus based broadcast
network with decentralized control. It can operate at 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps or above.
Computers on an Ethernet can transmit whenever they want to do so. If two or more
machines transmit simultaneously, then their packets collide. Then the transmitting
computers just wait for an arbitrary time and retransmit their signal. There are various
technologies available in the LAN market but the most popular one of them is Ethernet.

Types of Transmission Technology


BY DINESH THAKUR

The transmission technology can be categorized broadly into two types:

1. Broadcast networks and


2. Point-to-point networks.

Peer-to-Peer Networks
BY DINESH THAKUR

1.

2.

3.

4.

In the peer to peer computer network model we simply use the same Workgroup for all
the computers and a unique name for each computer in a computer network.
There is no master or controller or central server in this computer network and
computers join hands to share files, printers and Internet access.
It is practical for workgroups of a dozen or less computers making it common
environments, where each PC acts as an independent workstation and maintaining its
own security that stores data on its own disk but which can share it with all other PCs on
the network.
Software for peer-to-peer network is included with most modern desktop operating
systems such as Windows and Mac OS.

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)


BY DINESH THAKUR

In "frequency shift keying (FSK)", the frequency of a sinusoidal carrier is shifted


between two discrete values. One of these frequencies (f1) represents a binary "1" and the
other value (f0) represents a binary "0". The representation of digital data using FSK is
as shown in Fig. Note that there is no change in the amplitude of the carrier.

Protocol What is Protocol?


BY DINESH THAKUR

A protocol is a set of mutually accepted and implemented rules at both ends of the
communications channel for the proper exchange of information. Protocols comprise
standards which, at a basic level, include the dimensions of line setup, transmission
mode, code set, and non-data exchanges of information such as error control (detection
and correction).

What is LAN (Local Area Network)?


BY DINESH THAKUR

LAN looks like an acronym that a board of directors spent a lot of money and time
trying to create, but it actually stands for any generic local area network. A network is a
group of computers and other devices connected together so they can
pass information back and forth.

Modem- Classification of Modems


BY DINESH THAKUR

The modems can be classified according to their characteristics as

Range - Short Haul, Voice Grade (VG), Wide band


Line Type - Dial-up, Leased, Private
Operation Mode - Half Duplex, Full Duplex, Simplex
Synchronization - Asynchronous, Synchronous
Modulation - AM, FM/FSK,PM
Transmission Media - Radio, Optical and Dial up.

Network Switch
BY DINESH THAKUR

In computer network Switches and Bridges are the layer 2 computer network devices.
Once the number of users began to push the limits of a single computer network
segment, there was a need to create a new segment to link two computer networks
together a device called bridges accomplished this. basically the bridges have 2 ports,
one for each computer network, bridges actually inspect the data that passes through
them and make decisions about whether to send it to the other computer network or
not.

What is Cable Modem


BY DINESH THAKUR

To access Internet Through a Cable TV. Computer Network requires a cable Modem. It
has two interfaces on it one for computer and other for Cable Network The Computer
side interface is usually is a USB Interface or 10Mbps Ethernet And The Cable Network
is common cable wire interface.

What is packet
BY DINESH THAKUR

A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin of computer network and
a destination of computernetwork on the Internet or any other packet-switched
computer network. When any file (e-mail message, HTML file, Graphics Interchange
Format file, Uniform Resource Locator request, and so forth) is sent from one place of
computer network to another place of computer network on the Internet, the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP of computer network.

Client Server Networks


BY DINESH THAKUR

1.

A Computer networking model where one or more powerful computers (servers)


provide the differentcomputer network services and all other user'of computer network

(clients) access those services to perform user's tasks is known as client/server


computer networking model.

Difference Client Computer and workstation and Dumb Terminals


BY DINESH THAKUR

A computer in computer network that connects to the server and uses the network
services to perform user's tasks is a client computer.

What is Connectionless Service?


BY DINESH THAKUR

Connectionless service is a self-contained action and does not include establishment,


maintenance and releasing a connection.
Each message carries the full destination address and is treated and routed
independently of all other messages.

Star Topologies What is Star Topologies?


BY DINESH THAKUR

The distinguishing feature of star topology is that all nodes are joined at a single point,
as shown in Figure. This single point is called as a central node, hub, or switch, to which
all other devices are attached directly, generally via UTP or STP. This topology is
frequently used for networks in which control of the network is located in the central
node. This method is optimal when the bulk of communication is between the central
and outlying nodes. If traffic is high between outlying nodes, an undue switching burden
is placed on the central node.

What is Hybrid networks?


BY DINESH THAKUR

1.

2.

3.

Hybrid networks are the networks that are based on both peer-to-peer & client-server
relationship.
Hybrid networks incorporate the best features of workgroups in peer-to-peer networks
with the performance, security and reliability of server-based networks.
Hybrid networks still provide all of the centralized services of servers, but they also
allow users to share and manage their own resources within the workgroup.

LAN OPERATING SYSTEMS


BY DINESH THAKUR

A LAN Operating System, or Network Operating System (NOS), is software that


provides the network with multi-user, multitasking capabilities. The operating
system facilitates communications and resource sharing, thereby providing the basic
framework for the operation of the LAN. The operating system consists of modules that
are distributed throughout the LAN environment. Some NOS modules reside in servers,
while other modules reside in the clients.

MAN - Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


BY DINESH THAKUR

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) covers larger geographic area such as cities or
districts. By interconnecting smaller networks within a large geographic
area, information is easily disseminated throughout the network. Local libraries and
government agencies often use a MAN to connect to citizens and private industries. It
may also connect MANs together within a larger area than LAN. The geographical limit
of a MAN may span a city.

Bus Topologies What is Bus Topologies?


BY DINESH THAKUR

Bus topologies are multipoint electrical circuits that can be implemented using
coaxial cable, UTP, or STP. Data transmission is bidirectional, with the attached devices
transmitting in both directions. While generally operating at a raw data rate of 10 Mbps,
actual throughput is much less.

TCP/IP Encapsulation
BY DINESH THAKUR

TCP/IP encapsulate upper layers using headers for the purpose of exchanging control
and status informationabout the progress of the communication because its protocols
also engage in peer talk by encapsulating data withprotocol headers before submitting it
to the underlying layer for subsequent delivery to the network. The data communication
using TCP/IP and Ethernet as it is passed down the layers by an application on node X
to node Y across the network.

Ring Topologies What is Ring Topologies?


BY DINESH THAKUR

The ring architecture is a distributed architecture, with minimal connectivity and a


topology of two links connected to every node as shown in Figure and forms unbroken
circular configuration. Figure shows a network laid out in a physical ring, or closed loop,
configuration. Transmitted messages travel from node to node around the ring. Each
node must be able to recognize its own address in order to accept messages.

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)


BY DINESH THAKUR

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is the simplest type of digital CW modulation. Here
the carrier is a sinewave of frequency fc. We can represent the carrier signal
mathematically as follows:

Evolution of Computer Networks


BY DINESH THAKUR

The term computer networks resulted from the 'combination of two major areas,
namely computers andcommunications.

What is a Connection-Oriented Service?


BY DINESH THAKUR

1.

In

connection

oriented

service

connection

is

established

between

2.

communicating n+1entity using the service provided by the n-entity.


The service users of connection oriented service undergo three different phases:

the

Network Interface Card (NIC) - LAN HARDWARE


BY DINESH THAKUR

In addition to the attached devices also referred to as nodes or station, LANs may make
use of other devices to control physical access to the shared medium to extend the
maximum reach of the LAN, and to switch traffic. Such hardware is in the form of
NIC/NIU, transceiver, MAU, hubs, bridges, routers, and gateway.

Point-to-point Connections
BY DINESH THAKUR

The point-to-point scheme provides separate communication channels for each pair of
computers. When more than two computers need to communicate with one another, the
number of connections grows very quickly as number of computer increases. Above
figure illustrates that two computers need only one connection, three computers need
three connections and four computers need six connections.

SMDS - What is Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS)?


BY DINESH THAKUR

The SMDS is designed to connect the multiple LANs together. This is the first high
speed broadband service offered to the public.
Fig.(a) shows the interconnection of four LANs using six high speed leased lines. But
this interconnection is expensive.

What is Internetworks
BY DINESH THAKUR

Availability of different operating systems, hardware platforms and the geographical


dispersion of the computing resources necessitated the need of networking in such a
manner that computers of all sizes can communicate with each other, regardless of the
vendor, the operating system, the hardware platform, or geographical proximity.
Therefore, we may say that internetworking is a scheme for interconnecting multiple
networks of dissimilar technologies. To interconnect multiple networks of dissimilar
technologies use both additional hardware and software. This additional hardware is
positioned between networks and software on each attached computer. Thus, system of
interconnected networks is called an inter network or an Internet.

Need For Computer Networks


BY DINESH THAKUR

The term network is defined as a set of computers of different types, terminals,


telephones, and other communication equipments, connected by data communication
links, which allow the network components to work together. The network components
may be located within a small area or spread over many remote locations. In any case,
data communications hold the network together.

What is baud rate?


BY DINESH THAKUR

baud, baud rate A baud is the number of signaling elements per second sent by a
communications device such as a modem, In theory, a modem with a high baud rate
means fast transmission. The baud rate is therefore equal to the bit rate only if
each signal element represents one bit of information.

What is Broadcast?
BY DINESH THAKUR

Broadcast: Any form of communication in which a single sender transmits messages


to many receivers at once, the most familiar examples being the television and public
radio systems. The opposite of broadcast is POINT-TO-POINT or narrowcast
communication, between just a single transmitter and a single receiver - a telephone

conversation for example. When such a multiple connection is made via a network cable
as opposed to wireless, such communication is often called MULTIPOINT, as opposed
to a point-to-point or UNICAST.

What is bps (bits per second)?


BY DINESH THAKUR

The acronym bps stands for bits per second, which is a measurement of how
fast information (data) travels between two devices. When two modems converse via the
telephone line, the speed of modem communications is measured in bps. (When people
talk about modems, they often use the word "baud" to mean the same thing as bps,
though technically the two terms are not synonymous.

What is Application Server?


BY DINESH THAKUR

Application Server: A network SERVER that enables users to run application


programs such as word processors or spreadsheets on the server itself, rather than
downloading the application's code and running it on their local workstation.
Application servers are often used in conjunction with diskless workstations or so called
THIN CLIENTS.

What is null modem?


BY DINESH THAKUR

A null modem cable is a cable that plugs into the communication port (the serial port,
the one where you would plug in the cable for a modem) of two computers that are
pretty close to each other. Then the two computers can share information back and
forth, even faster than if they were connected by a modem and phone lines. If you want
to be able to connect your portable computer directly to your bigger computer without
modems, you need to hook them together with a null modem cable. Or you can use a
standard serial cable and get a null modem adaptor, which is just a plug with a female
jack on one side and a male jack on the other.

What is Fax Modem?


BY DINESH THAKUR

If you don't quite know what a fax is, first read the definition on the previous page. And
if you're shaky on what amodem is, it might be smart to read that definition too.
Anyway, a fax modem is simply a modem designed for sending and (usually) receiving
faxes via your computer. Using a fax modem, you can send a document to someone
else's fax machine without having to print out the document and then stand there and
make sure the pages don't jam in the fax machine. In fact, if the other person has a fax
modem attached to their computer, they can receive the document directly into their
computer and read it on their screen. Of course, they can print it to their ownprinter and
then have a copy on real paper instead of that disgusting fax paper.
Apple's PowerBook (the laptop Macintosh) and many notebook pcs have fax modems
built into them. You can take the PowerBook to your hotel, unplug the hotel room
phone, plug that cord right into your PowerBook, and fax away. Incredible. In fact, if you
need a printout and you don't have a portable printer, you can fax the document to
yourself in the hotel lobby.
You can buy fax modems on add-in boards that plug into your computer, or in little
boxes not much bigger than a deck of cards. Before you lay your money down, be sure
you ask whether the fax modem can receive (some don't-they cost less, but you'll be
stuck when someone wants to send you a fax). And ask how fast the fax modem is-the
standard speed is 9600 bps, but some only run at 4800 bps. And find out for sure what
software will work with it, because the modem won't do you any good if your software
can't make it go.

What is Distributed Computing?


BY DINESH THAKUR

Distributed computing is a quick but kind of stuffy way to describe the situation
when a business relies on lots of small computers located throughout the organization,
rather than a few big machines at some central location. They may still have a few big

machines, but many important duties are assigned to the personal computers and
workstations, too. All the computers are tied together in a network, communicating with
each other so that different portions of an application run on different computers.