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Panel method for cascade

Ashlin Augusty

The MATLAB code


clear all;
clc;
x=[-0.5 -0.499315 -0.497261 -0.493844 -0.489074 -0.482963 -0.475528 -0.466790...
-0.456773 -0.445503 -0.433013 -0.419335 -0.404508 -0.388573 -0.371572 -0.353553...
-0.334565 -0.31466 -0.293893 -0.272232 -0.25 -0.226995 -0.203368 -0.179184...
-0.154508 -0.12941 -0.103956 -0.078217 -0.052264 -0.026168 0 0.026168 0.052264...
0.078217 0.103956 0.12941 0.154508 0.179184 0.203368 0.226995 0.25 0.27232...
0.293893 0.31466 0.334565 0.353553 0.371572 0.388573 0.404508 0.419335 0.433013...
0.445503 0.456773 0.46679 0.475528 0.482963 0.489074 0.493844 0.497261 0.499315...
0.5];
y=[0 0.00415 0.009064 0.01354 0.017766 0.021902 0.025891 0.029731 0.03339...
0.036871 0.04015 0.043215 0.046051 0.048651 0.051 0.053085 0.0549 0.056444...
0.05771 0.058699 0.05941 0.059845 0.06001 0.059915 0.05957 0.05899 0.05818...
0.05715 0.055921 0.054512 0.05294 0.051217 0.04936 0.047385 0.045311 0.04315...
0.04092 0.038635 0.03631 0.03396 0.0316 0.029248 0.02691 0.024594 0.022321...
0.020106 0.01796 0.015888 0.013911 0.01204 0.010291 0.008663 0.007156 0.00584...
0.004682 0.003555 0.002656 0.002184 0.001554 0.000518 0];
for j=1:61
xbh(j)=x(62-j);
ybh(j)=y(62-j)*(-1);
end
for j=1:60
xbh(61+j)=x(j+1);
ybh(61+j)=y(j+1);
end

lambdad=input(Enter the stagger angle in degrees: );


alphad=input(Enter the incidence angle in degrees: );
spac=input(Enter the space chord ratio (s/C): );
lambda=lambdad*pi/180;
alpha=alphad*pi/180;
xbz1=xbh*cos(lambda)-ybh*sin(lambda);
ybz1=xbh*sin(lambda)+ybh*cos(lambda);
im=sqrt(-1);
z1=xbz1+im*ybz1;
2

z2=tanh(pi.*z1/spac);
xb=real(z2);
yb=imag(z2);

m=length(xb)-1;

for i=1:m
dxc(i)=(xb(i+1)-xb(i))/((xb(i+1)-xb(i))^2+(yb(i+1)-yb(i))^2)^0.5;
dyc(i)=(yb(i+1)-yb(i))/((xb(i+1)-xb(i))^2+(yb(i+1)-yb(i))^2)^0.5;
xc(i)=0.5*(xb(i)+xb(i+1));
yc(i)=0.5*(yb(i)+yb(i+1));
xhc(i)=0.5*(xbh(i)+xbh(i+1));
yhc(i)=0.5*(ybh(i)+ybh(i+1));
sc(i)=((xb(i+1)-xb(i))^2+(yb(i+1)-yb(i))^2)^0.5;
thetac(i)=atan2(yb(i+1)-yb(i),xb(i+1)-xb(i));
sinec(i)=sin(thetac(i));
cosinec(i)=cos(thetac(i));
end
for i=1:m
a1c(i)=2*pi*((xc(i)+1)^2+yc(i)^2);
b1c(i)=-2*pi*((xc(i)-1)^2+yc(i)^2);
c1c(i)=pi*((xc(i)^2-yc(i)^2-1)^2+4*xc(i)^2*yc(i)^2);
ubc(i)=pi*yc(i)/b1c(i);
vbc(i)=-pi*(xc(i)-1)/b1c(i);
end
for i=1:m
uac(i)=-(spac*sin(alpha)*yc(i)/a1c(i)+spac*sin(alpha)*yc(i)/...
b1c(i) +spac*cos(alpha)*(xc(i)^2-yc(i)^2-1)/c1c(i));
vac(i)=spac*sin(alpha)*(xc(i)+1)/a1c(i)+spac*sin(alpha)*(xc(i)-1)/...
b1c(i)-2*spac*cos(alpha)*xc(i)*yc(i)/c1c(i);
end

for i=1:m
dnc(i)=dxc(i)*vbc(i)-dyc(i)*ubc(i);
dtc(i)=dxc(i)*ubc(i)+dyc(i)*vbc(i);
3

rhsc(i)=dyc(i)*uac(i)-dxc(i)*vac(i);
end
rhsc(m+1)=0;
dx=transpose(dxc);
dy=transpose(dyc);
x=transpose(xc);
y=transpose(yc);
xh=transpose(xhc);
yh=transpose(yhc);
s=transpose(sc);
theta=transpose(thetac);
sine=transpose(sinec);
cosine=transpose(cosinec);
a1=transpose(a1c);
b1=transpose(b1c);
c1=transpose(c1c);
ua=transpose(uac);
va=transpose(vac);
ub=transpose(ubc);
vb=transpose(vbc);
dn=transpose(dnc);
dt=transpose(dtc);
rhs=transpose(rhsc);
for i=1:m
for j=1:m
if i==j
cn1(i,j)=-1;
cn2(i,j)=1;
ct1(i,j)=0.5*pi;
ct2(i,j)=0.5*pi;
else
a=-(x(i)-xb(j))*cosine(j)-(y(i)-yb(j))*sine(j);
b=(x(i)-xb(j))^2+(y(i)-yb(j))^2;
c=sin(theta(i)-theta(j));
d=cos(theta(i)-theta(j));
e=(x(i)-xb(j))*sine(j)-(y(i)-yb(j))*cosine(j);
f=log(1+(s(j)*(s(j)+2*a)/b));
g=atan2(e*s(j),b+a*s(j));
p=(x(i)-xb(j))*sin(theta(i)-2*theta(j))+(y(i)-yb(j))*cos(theta(i)...
-2*theta(j));
4

q=(x(i)-xb(j))*cos(theta(i)-2*theta(j))-(y(i)-yb(j))*sin(theta(i)...
-2*theta(j));
cn2(i,j)=d+0.5*q*f/s(j)-(a*c+d*e)*g/s(j);
cn1(i,j)=0.5*d*f+c*g-cn2(i,j);
ct2(i,j)=c+0.5*p*f/s(j)+(a*d-c*e)*g/s(j);
ct1(i,j)=0.5*c*f-d*g-ct2(i,j);
end
end
end

for i=1:m
an(i,1)=cn1(i,1);
an(i,m+1)=cn2(i,m);
at(i,1)=ct1(i,1);
at(i,m+1)=ct2(i,m);
for j=2:m
an(i,j)=cn1(i,j)+cn2(i,j-1);
at(i,j)=ct1(i,j)+ct2(i,j-1);
end
end
an(m+1,1)=1;
an(m+1,m+1)=1;

for i=1:m
an(i,1)=an(i,1)+dn(i)*s(1);
for j=2:m
an(i,j)=an(i,j)+dn(i)*(s(j)+s(j-1));
end
an(i,m+1)=an(i,m+1)+dn(i)*s(m);
end

gama=an\rhs;
%disp(gama);

for i=1:m
at(i,1)=at(i,1)+dt(i)*s(1);
for j=2:m
at(i,j)=at(i,j)+dt(i)*(s(j)+s(j-1));
end
at(i,m+1)=at(i,m+1)+dt(i)*s(m);
end
v=(dx.*ua+dy.*va)+at*gama;

z2cp=x+im*y;
vz1=pi*v./(spac*abs((cosh(atanh(z2cp))).^2));
cpz1=1-vz1.^2;
z1cp=spac*atanh(z2cp)/pi;
figure;
plot(xh((m*0.5+1):m),-cpz1((m*0.5+1):m),-db,linewidth,2);% Upper surface
hold on;
plot(xh((m*0.5):-1:1),-cpz1((m*0.5):-1:1),-or,linewidth,2);% Lower surface
legend(upper surface,lower surface)
ylabel(-Cp);
xlabel(Length of airfoil along x direction ->);
hold off;
figure;
plot(real(z1),gama);
hold on;
plot(z1,r)
ylabel(Gamma)

for i=1:m
clt(i)=(gama(i)+gama(i+1))*s(i);
end
clts=sum(clt);
%Lift Coefficient
cl=2*pi*clts;
xcc=real(z1cp((m*0.5+1):end));
cpl=cpz1((m*0.5):-1:1);
cpu=cpz1((m*0.5+1):end);

for i=1:0.5*m-1
xcp1(i)=(cpl(i+1)+cpl(i)-cpu(i+1)-cpu(i))*(xcc(i+1)^2-xcc(i)^2);
xcp2(i)=(cpl(i+1)+cpl(i)-cpu(i+1)-cpu(i))*(xcc(i+1)-xcc(i));
end
xcp=0.5*sum(xcp1)/sum(xcp2);
alpha2=atand(-tan(alpha)+(pi/(spac*cos(alpha)))*clts);
disp(Lift Coefficient:);
disp(cl);
disp(Center of pressure from leading edge:)
disp(0.5+xcp);
disp(Exit angle with the horizontal (Alpha2));
disp(alpha2);

Results
The tests were run for various parameters of the aerofoil and the cases keeping the stagger
s
angle at 8 and the incidence angle at 5 and the spacing to chord ratio is varied from
c
0.4 to 2 As given in Table. .
Sl No.

Stagger Angle

Incidence angle

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

s
c
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2

Cl

Cp distance

Exit Angle

0.1912
0.2382
0.2844
0.3297
0.3735
0.4156
0.4557
0.494
0.5303
0.5646
0.5971
0.6279
0.6569
0.6844
0.7105
0.7351
0.7585

0.0129
0.0685
0.1054
0.1327
0.1538
0.1705
0.1839
0.1947
0.2035
0.2108
0.2168
0.2219
0.2262
0.2298
0.2329
0.2356
0.238

-8.6671
-8.6189
-8.5561
-8.4687
-8.3526
-8.2086
-8.0402
-7.8521
-7.6491
-7.4353
-7.2144
-6.9895
-6.7629
-6.5366
-6.3121
-6.0905
-5.8725

The variation of deviation and blade loading in terms of Cl are given below.

s
The incidence angle is varied from 2 to 10 while keeping = 1 and the stagger angle
c
at 8 . The variation of deviation with increasing angle of incidence is given below.

Cp and Gamma variation for a few cases


case 8

case 9

case 13

10

case 15

case 17

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