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CONSTRUCTING AND SCORING ESSAY TEST

A. GENERAL TYPES OF AN ESSAY TEST

• EXTENDED RESPONSE ESSAY ITEM - is one that allow for an in-depth


sampling of students knowledge, thinking processes, and problem-
solving behavior relative to a specific fact.
• RESTRICTED RESPONSE ESSAT ITEM – is one where the examinee is
required to provide limited response based on a specified criterion for
answering the question.

A. LEARNING OUTCOMES MEASURED EFFECTIVELY WITH ESSAY ITEMS


➢ According to Gronlund and Linn (1990), there are 12 complex learning
outcomes that can be measured effectively with essay items. These are
the abilities to:

• Explain cause- effects relationships;


• Describe application of principles;
• Present relevant arguments;
• Formulate tenable hypotheses;
• State necessary assumptions;
• Describe the limitations of data;
• Explain method and procedures;
• Produce, organize and express ideas;
• Integrate learning in different areas;
• Create original forms; and
• Evaluate the worth of ideas.

A. CONTENT VERSUS EXPRESSION-It is frequent claimed that essay item allows


the students to present his/her knowledge and understanding. More often or not,
factors like expression, grammar, spelling and the like are evaluated in relation
to content. If the teacher has attempted to develop students’ skills in expression,
and if these learning outcomes are included in the table of specifications,
assessment of such skills is just right and valid.

B. SPECIFIC TYPES OF ESSAY QUESTIONS


I. RECALL
a) SIMPLE RECALL
1. What is the chemical formula for sodium bicarbonate?
2. Who wrote the novel, “The Last of the Mohicans?”
a) SELECTIVE RECALL- in which a basis foe evaluation or judgment is
suggested

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1. Who among the Greek philosophers affected your thinking as
a student?
2. Which method of recycling is the most appropriate to use at
home?

I. UNDERSTANDING

a) Comparison of two phenomena on a single designated basis.


1. Compare 19TH century and present-day Filipino writers with
respect to their involvement and societal affairs.
a) Comparison of the phenomena in general
1. Compare the Philippine Revolution of 1896 with that people’s of
the Philippine Revolution of 1985.
a) Explanation of the use or extract meaning of a phrase or statement.
1. The legal system of the Mesopotamians was anchored on the
principle of an eye for an eye, tooth far a tooth. What does this
principle mean?
a) Summary of text or some portion on it.
1. What is the central idea of communism as an economic system?
a) Statement of an artist’s purpose in the selection or organization of
material.
1. Why did Hemingway describe in detail the episode in which
Gordon, lying wounded, engages the oncoming enemy?

I. APPLICATIONS
➢ It should be clearly understood that whether or not a question requires
applications depend on the preliminary educational experience.
A. CAUSE/EFFECTS
1. Why did Fascism prevail in Germany and Italy but not in Great
Britain and France?
2. Why does frequent dependence in penicillin for treatment of
minor ailment results in its reduced effectiveness against major
innovation of body tissues by infectious bacteria?
A. ANALYSIS
1. Why does Hamlet torn by conflicting desire?
2. Why was the Propaganda Movement a successful failure?

A. STATEMENT OF RELATIONSHIP
1. A researcher reported that the teaching styles correlates with
students’ achievement about 0.75. What does this correlation
mean?
A. ILLUSTRATION/ EXAMPLES OF PRINCIPLES

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1. Identify three examples of the uses of the hammer in a typical
Filipino home.
A. APPLICATIONS OF RULES/PRINCIPLES IN SPCIFIED SITUATIONS.
1. Would you weigh more/less in the moon? Why or why not?
A. REORGANIZATION OF FACTS
1. Some radical Filipino historians assert that the Filipino revolution
against Spain was from the top not from below. Using the same
observation, what conclusion is possible?
A. JUDGMENT
a) DECISION FOR / AGAINST
1. Should members of the Communist Party of the Philippines be
allowed to teach in college or universities? Why or why not?
2. Nature is more influential than the environment in shaping an
individual’s personality. Prove or disprove this statement.
a) DISCUSSION
1. Trace the events that led to the downfall of the dictatorial
regime of Ferdinand Marcos.
a) CRITICISM OF THE ADEQUACY, CORRECTNESS, OR RELEVANCE
OF STAEMENT.
1. Former president Joseph Estrada was convicted for the case
of plunder by the Sandigang Bayan. Comment on the
adequacy of the evidence used b the said tribunal reaching
the decision on the cased filed against the chief executive of
the country.
a) FORMULATION OF A NEW QUESTIONS
1. What should be the focus of researches of education TO
explain the incidence of failure among students with high
intelligence quotient?
2. What question should parents ask their children in order to
determine the reasons why that join fraternities and
sororities?

I. EXAMPLES OF ESSAY QUESTION BASED IN BLOOM’S TAXANOMY


OF COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES.

A. KNOWLEDGE
• Explain why Egypt came to be called the gift of the Nile.
A. COMPREHENSION
• What is meant when a person says, “I had just crossed the
bridge?
A. APPLICATION
• Give at least three examples of how the law of supply
operates in our economy today?
A. ANALYSIS

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•Explain the causes and effects of the People’s Power
Revolution on the political and the social life of the Filipino
people.
A. SYNTHESIS
• Describe the origin and the significance of the celebration of
Christmas the world over.

I. SOURCES OF DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE OF ESSAY TEST

➢ There are four (4) sources of difficulty that are likely encountered by
teachers in the use of essay test (Greenberg et al, 19960) and they are
enumerated are as follows:

A. QUESTION CONSTRUCTION
B. READER RELIABILITY
C. INSTRUMENT RELIABILITY
D. INSTRUMENT VALIDITY

I. GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING, EVALUATIONS AND USING


ESSAY TEST

1) Limit the problem that the question possesses so that it will have a
clear or definite meaning to most students.
2) Use simple words which will convey clear meaning to the students.
3) Prepare enough questions to sample the material of the subject
area broadly, within a reasonable idea and writing.
4) Use the essay question for purposes it best serves, like
organization, handling complicated ideas and writing.
5) Prepare questions which require considerable thought, but which
can be answered in relatively words.
6) Determine in advance how much weight will be accorded each of
the various elements expected in a complete answer.
7) Without knowledge of the student’s name, score for each question
for all students.
8) Require all students to answer all questions on the test.
9) Write questions about the material s immediately relevant to the
subject.
10)Make a gross judgment of the relative excellence of answer as a
first step in grading.
11)Word a question as simple as possible in order to make the task
clear.
12)Do not judge papers on the basis of external factors unless they
have been clearly stipulated.
13)Do not make a generalized estimate of an entire paper’s worth.

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14)Do not construct a test consisting of only one question.

I. SCORING ESSAY TEST

A. METHODS IN SCORING ESSAY TESTS

1. It is critical that the teacher prepare, in advance a detailed ideal


answer.
2. Student papers should be scored anonymously and that all answers
to a given item be scored one at a time, rather than grading each
total separately.

A. DISTRACTORS IN SCORING ESSAY TEST


1. Handwriting
2. Style
3. Grammar
4. Knowledge of the students
5. Neatness

A. TWO WAYS OF SCORING ESSAY TEST

1. HOLISTIC SCORING- In this type, a total score is assigned in each


essay items based the teacher’s general impression or over-all
assessment.
2. ANALYTIC SCORING- In this type, the essay is scored in terms of
each components
A. GUIDELINES IN SCORING ESSAY TEST TO AVOID SUBJECTIVTY
1. Decide what factors constitute a good answer before administering
an essay question.
2. Explain these factors in the test item.
3. Read all the answers to a single essay question before reading
other questions
4. Reread essay answers a second time after initial scoring.