You are on page 1of 15

02/2012

Doka Knowledge Transfer

999453102 en-GB

Fair-faced concrete Low-void concrete surfaces

94531-804

The Formwork Experts

Introduction

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

tion
Introduc-

by Doka Industrie GmbH, A-3300 Amstetten


2

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Introduction

Contents
4
6
10
14
15

General remarks
Release agent
Concrete
Usage on site
Annex

999453102 - 02/2012

3
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

General remarks
Criteria applicable to the surface of fair-faced concrete
surfaces with high and very high requirements:
smooth concrete faces
Low-void (maximum proportion of voids 0.3 - 0.6 %
of test surface)
even concrete surface, of uniform appearance
Minimal surface voidage is also desirable for concrete
surfaces not planned as fair-faced concrete.
Keeping in step with the trend toward low-void concrete
surfaces entails dealing correctly with the following factors:
Formwork sheeting
Release agents
Concrete
Working the concrete

The production of high-quality fair-faced concrete


requires a great deal of specialist skill and meticulous
care on the part of everyone involved in the process,
underpinned by smooth co-operation throughout.
Factors influencing fair-faced concrete and concrete surfaces
In advance
Influenc- Planning
ing
factors Bid solicitation

On construction
site
Concrete
Quality
Release
agent
Working

Environmental
conditions

Temperature
Precipitation
Wind
Sunshine

See the "dopi" Lotus Notes tile, user information/practical information publication entitled
"Forming fair-faced concrete".

Fair-faced concrete classes in Germany (DBV/BDZ bulletin) and Austria


Fair-faced concrete class

Designation
GerAustria
many

Concrete surfaces without engineering requirements

Description
No special architectural features

Fair-faced concrete with low requirements

SB 1

SB1

Low design-related requirements

Fair-faced concrete with normal requirements

SB 2
SB 3

SB1
SB2

Normal design-related requirements


High design-related requirements

SB 4

SB3

Very high design-related significance

Fair-faced concrete with special requirements

Examples

Basement walls, garage walls,


retaining walls
Stairwells, bearing walls
Facades
Representative structural elements

Areas of responsibility
The manufacturer or supplier of the concrete is responsible of ensuring that the product is mixed in compliance with the applicable standards.
As of handover to site, the concrete-placing company
bears responsibility for the following:
Placement in compliance with applicable codes and
regulations
Compaction
Post-pouring work
Further protection of the concrete structural element
Whenever fair-faced concrete or concrete subject to
high requirements in terms of the finished surface is
concerned, the concrete manufacturer must be notified
accordingly and integrated into the overall construction
process so that the best possible finished result can be
achieved.

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

999453102 - 02/2012

5
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Release agent
See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus
Notes tile and the detailed information on
"Release agents".

Proportion of pores on the concrete surface in %


depending on the used type of release agent (Mineraloil with additives/ Aqueous release emulsions)
Mineral-oil with additives

Aqueous release emulsions

Types of release agent and how the


various release agents work
Release agents are indirect materials used in construction; they are applied to the formwork sheeting before
the fresh concrete is poured. Their primary purpose is
to facilitate demouldability, in other words the separation of the formwork sheeting from the set concrete.
When it comes to fair-faced concrete, the release agent
has another part to play as well.

Types of release agent:


Mineral oils and vegetable oils, without additives,
have a purely physical separating effect.
Mineral oils with additives have this same physical
separating effect plus a chemical releasing effect.
Aqueous releasing emulsions do not work in the
same way as vegetable or mineral oils. They ensure
highly effective de-aeration along the concrete surface.
Distinctions are drawn between the following types
product:
Hydrophobic products
- Mineral-oil-based and vegetable-oil-based products
Hydrophobic products
- Aqueous release emulsions
Regarding non-emulsions and oils, moreover, viscosity
has a crucial part to play in the achievement of low surface voidage. Viscosity depends on the temperature at
which the concrete is worked and on ambient temperature.

CEM I 42,5 R

The release agent forms the boundary film between the


formwork sheeting and the concrete. Depending on the
composition of the concrete, this film has a very considerable effect on surface finish and quality, particularly
with regard to the intensity of surface voidage at the
exposed faces of the finished concrete structure.

94531-811

Mineral-oil with additives

CEM II/A-S 32,5 R with 15% Fluasit

In these circumstances the surface of the concrete has


to meet certain aesthetic requirements:
Low surface voidage (low proportion of blowholes).
No concrete adhesion to the sheeting.
High level of colour uniformity over the visible surface of the concrete.

0,95 %

0,86 %

94531-812

0,09 %

94531-813

Aqueous release emulsions

0,10 %

94531-814

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Viscosity measured at 5, 20 and 30 C

Viscosity [mPas]

94531-800

250

236,4

200

174,3

150
100

81,9

50

29,4

180,5

131

104,5

65

27,2

78,2
57,3
24

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32
Temperature [C]

A Mineral oil
B Mineral oil with additives
C Emulsion
D Rapeseed oil

As the graph shows, unmodified vegetable and mineral


oils evince very severe temperature-dependent fluctuations in viscosity.
As regards temperature-related fluctuations, mineral
oils with additives and aqueous emulsions exhibit a
more restricted bandwidth of viscosity fluctuation.

Blowhole surface area [%]

Surface voidage for thinly applied release agent,


non-absorbent formwork sheeting surface and variation of fresh-concrete temperature
94531-801

2
1,5
1
0,5
0

1,65
1,18
0,58

D
B

0,50
14 15

0,85
0,71
0,38

A
C

16 17 18 19

0,56
0,50
0,27
0,23

0,28
20

21 22

23

24 25

Temperature [C]
A Mineral oil
B Mineral oil with additives
C Emulsion
D Rapeseed oil

Surfaces produced using mineral-oil-based or vegetable-oil-based release agents evince considerable differences in terms of surface voidage. Even at low temperatures, the voidage figures achievable when a mineral oil with additive or an aqueous solution is used are
acceptable. Under these circumstances the temperature-related fluctuation bandwidth of surface voidage is
considerably narrower.
Conclusion: In the case of oil-based release agents in
particular, viscosity influences de-aeration of the
peripheral zone. High release-agent viscosity produces
stronger adhesion forces along the formwork sheeting
and this tends to trap the air bubbles that form voids at
the sheeting.

999453102 - 02/2012

7
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Interaction between formwork


sheeting and release agent
The choice of release agent has a significant effect on
the surface voidage of the finished concrete, particularly with non-absorbent, plastic-coated formwork
sheeting (Xlife) but also in the case of slightly absorbent, phenolic-resin-coated sheeting (Dokaplex),
depending on the age of the sheeting in terms of
number of previous use cycles.
The inherent absorbency of other slightly absorbent
sheeting (3-SO) and strongly absorbent wooden-board
shuttering compensates to a large extent for the effect
of the release agent. When oils and oils with additives
are used this leads to low surface voidage.

Influence of the season of the year in conjunction with non-absorbent and very weakly
absorbent formwork sheeting (Xlife, Dokaplex)
Summer:
Aqueous release-agent emulsions are best suited
for fair-faced concrete applications. On account of
their low viscosity, mineral oils with additives
(applied in small quantities only) are also used for
work in summer temperatures.
Winter:
Once ambient temperatures dip below < 10 C, fairfaced concrete to standards compatible with high
requirements classes can be produced only subject
to certain restrictions. In winter, mineral oils without
additives in particular thicken to high viscosity and
thus cause severe surface voidage. In the case of
mineral oils with additives, it is important to ensure
that they evince low viscosities even in winter-usage
conditions (special additives, viscosity regulators).

These conditions permit good concrete de-aeration


along the formwork sheeting.

Influence of the season of the year in conjunction with weakly absorbent (3-SO three-play)
and absorbent formwork sheeting (wooden
boards)
Summer:
Mineral oils with additives are used for absorbent
formwork sheeting (wooden-board shuttering,
untreated plywood, chipboard products). Aqueous
emulsion release agents are also used, subject to
certain restrictions (3-SO). When temperatures are
high and the formwork sheeting is absorbent, if the
flash time is long than a day it is important to ensure
that the emulsion is not absorbed into the sheeting.
Winter:
When mineral oils with additives are used they
should evince no significant differences in viscosity
between summer and winter conditions. Unconditioned mineral oils with additives should not be used
in winter. They become highly viscose and obstruct
de-aeration along the face of the sheeting. A suitable
antifreeze agent has to be admixed to emulsions.
If fair-faced concrete requirements are high it is
advisable to conduct on-site tests with trial coupons
in order to match up formwork sheeting, release
agent and concrete.

Overview: formwork sheeting, seasonal conditions and suitable release agents

Release agent types

Formwork sheeting and climatic conditions


Summery ambient temperatures
Wintery ambient temperatures
+15 to +35C
-4 to +14C
WoodenWoodenXlife
Dokaplex
3-SO
board
Xlife
Dokaplex
3-SO
board
formwork
formwork

Mineral oil or vegetable


oil without additives
Spray on and
wipe down
Mineral oil or vegetable
oil and additives
Spray on and
wipe down
Doka-Trenn
Aqueous emulsions
usable down to ambient
temperatures of +5C
Spray on
Aqueous emulsions
usable down to ambient
temperatures of -4C
Spray on
Doka-OptiX
Suitability
Very
good
Good
Poor

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

creting can commence once adequate flash time has


expired.
The following factors influence the flash time of emulsions:
Quantity applied
Temperature
Local relative humidity on site
Absorbency of the formwork sheeting
An emulsion's flash time is always stated on its product
data sheet.

Application and use of release


agents
Once the release agent has been sprayed on it is
important to wipe off the excess with a clean cloth; this
applies in the case of oils in particular. The release
agent should be applied sparingly and spread uniformly
over the entire surface. Use the fingertip touch-test
method of checking release-agent application.
Fingertip touch-test

All the formwork elements of a concreting section


should be sprayed with release agent at the same time.
Once the release agent ahs been applied, protect the
sheeting against rain, wind and direct sunlight. Concreting can commence 4-6 hours (empirical value) after
application of the release agent.

Release agent correctly applied. Too much release agent used.

The carrier medium of aqueous release-agent emulsions is water and it is important to allow the emulsion
enough time for the excess water to flash off. Evaporation of the water means that it is not necessary to
remove/wipe off the excess release agent. The emulsion's flash time will inevitably be longer in the cooler
seasons of the year and in humid conditions.
Summer: approx. 15 to 30 minutes (according to
data sheet).
Winter: allow for temperature and relative humidity.
Aqueous release-agent emulsions generally form a
watery, whitish film after being sprayed onto the surface. A thin, colourless, transparent film forms within
the flash time or in the process of demulsification. Con-

2,68

Effect of quantity of release agent applied on proportion


of surface voids
3

0,28

0,21

0,17

0,53

0,26

0,5
0

1,13

1,59
0,38

0,71

0,85

1,5

0,88

1,55

1,77

2,5

94531-802 G

A Vegetable oil
B Mineral oil
C Mineral oil + additives
D Mineral oil + additives
E Emulsion
F Emulsion
G Mineral oil + solvent
Small quantity
applied
Large quantity
applied

999453102 - 02/2012

9
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Concrete
Concrete to EN 206-1
Properties, production and conformity of the concrete
are regulated by the terms and conditions laid down in
EN 206-1 (framework standard). The national standard
for Germany is DIN 1045-2 and the corresponding Austrian standard is N B4710-1.
Concrete has to satisfy engineering and usage-related
requirements. Concrete is graded by type and exposure class (environment class), again depending on
requirements.
See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus
Notes tile and the detailed information on "Concrete".
National codes for fair-faced concrete:
Germany: Merkblatt Sichtbeton (Bulletin for Fairfaced Concrete), August 2004, DBV and BDZ.
Austria: "Sichtbeton - Geschalte Betonflchen" (Fairfaced Concrete - Formed Concrete Surfaces), VBB
guideline.
As regards its composition and working, fair-faced concrete is required to meet the technical requirements set
down in EN 206-1.

Binder
The term 'binder' refers to the combination of cement
with hydraulically active aggregates (cinder sand, fly
ash). The proportions by volume and the use of these
hydraulically active aggregates are regulated by the
national implementations of EN 206-1.
The effects on the concrete's working, setting and
strength development depend largely on the binder's
composition and fineness of grinding.
The workability of the concrete is a very important
aspect as regards the production of fair-faced concrete
finishes:
Stickiness, viscosity
De-aeration propensity
Compactability
Binder properties
Binder
Fineness of grind- High
Coarse
ing
(> Blaine 4500 cm2/g) (> Blaine 3500 cm2/g)
Reduced (CEM II/A
max. 80 % clinker, CEM
Proportion of
High (CEM I 42.5 /
II/B max. 60 % clinker,
clinker
95% prop. of clinker)
CEM III/A max. 35 %
clinker)
Water need
High
Low

10

Effect of binder on concrete:


With cements and clinker, fineness of grinding
increases in relation to strength class. The finer the
cement stone the larger its specific surface, and this
in turn increases its water need and accelerates the
hydrothermal reaction.
The cements used for ready-mix concrete are generally those assignable to the strength classes 32.5
and 42.5. The most commonly used cement grades
are CEM II products (CEM II/A max. 20 %, CEM II/B
max. 35 % aggregates).
Water content alone does not suffice to ensure
requirements-compliant consistency. Consequently,
as a general rule concrete of all grades (exception:
XC3) has to be mixed with a liquefier/plasticiser in
order to obtain workable consistencies.
Modern PCE liquefiers are polycarboxylate-based
and enable the concrete to achieve the specified
consistency and adequate working time despite a
low water content.
The liquefier increases the stickiness of the fresh
concrete and this in turn hampers de-aeration along
the formwork sheeting.
The higher the binder's water need or the lower the
w/b ratio, the higher the proportion of liquefier
required. The quantity of liquefier, in turn, increases
the stickiness/viscosity of the concrete.
Binders with low water need (optimum workability,
low tendency for blowholes to form) are best for summer conditions. In winter the cements used are of
higher degrees of fineness and the proportions of
clinker are higher, because this helps prevent bleeds
and demixing.
Suitability of cements for fair-faced concreting in
terms of stability and surface voidage
Binder / cement
CEM I 32.5
CEM II/A 32.5
CEM II/B 32.5
CEM II/A 42.5
CEM II/B 42.5
CEM III/A 32.5

Surface voids and stability


Summer
Winter
Pores
Stability
Stability
Stability
Pores
Pores
Stability

Suitability
Very
good
Good
Poor

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

w/b ratio
See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus
Notes tile and the detailed information on "Concrete".
Effect of water-to-binder ratio and compaction time

CEM III A 32.5 N with 10 % mineral dust

Compaction time: 30 seconds Compaction time: 60 seconds

1,34 %

1,20 %

Concrete mixed to meet high requirements in terms of


strength and durability generally has a low water-tobinder ratio.
Regarding fair-faced concrete applications, the rule
of thumb is:
The lower the w/b ratio, the higher the influence of the
cement on the finished fair-faced concrete product.
Effect of w/b ratio on concrete:
If the w/b ratio is low a higher proportion of liquefier
is needed (mixed concrete is stickier/more viscous).
Concrete with a w/b ratio 0.5 generally evinces
more favourable characteristics with regard to deaeration along the face of the formwork sheeting.
Some 80 % of fair-faced concrete applications
involve concretes with a w/b ratio 0.5.
Concretes with w/b ratios < 0.5 are generally frostproof and de-icing saltproof concretes and concretes
for wastewater treatment facilities and high-performance concrete.
Effects of the w/b ratio can be countered by more compaction work and selection of an optimised release
agent.

94531-808

94531-807

w/b ratio = 0.45

CEM III A 32.5 N with 10 % mineral dust

Compaction time: 30 seconds Compaction time: 60 seconds

0,65 %

0,40 %

94531-809

94531-810

w/b ratio = 0.50

Surface voidage as a function of w/b ratio and grade of concrete


Code (AUS)
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7

Environment classes
covered
XC3
XC3/XD2/XF1/ XA1L/SB
XC3/XD2/XF3/XA1L/SB
XC4/XD2/XF1/XAL1/SB
XC4/XD2/XF2/XAL1/SB
XC4/XD2/XF3/XA2L/XA2T/SB
XC4/XD2/XF3/XA2L/XA2T/SB

Maximum w/b
ratio(AUS)
0,60
0,55
0,55
0,50
0,50
0,45
0,45

Maximum w/b Blowhole propensity,


ratio(GER)
surface voidage
0,65
Low
0,50
Low
Low
0,50
0,50
Medium
0,50
Medium
Elevated
0,50
0,45
Elevated

999453102 - 02/2012

11
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Chemical admixtures
Additives are liquid or powder substances admixed in
the course of production to control the properties of the
concrete in its fresh and set states. The proportion of
additives is generally in the range between 0.1 and 0.3
% by mass of binder.
See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus
Notes tile and the detailed information on "Concrete".
Important additives:
The additives most commonly used in the production
of fair-faced concrete are Liquefiers. Depending on
their composition, liquefiers control the consistency
and the workable time of the concrete. Liquefiers that
make the concrete sticky have a negative effect on
concrete de-aeration along the formwork sheeting.
The air-entraining admixture is another important
additive.
- It is used in the production of concretes that are
resistant to frost, de-icing salt and chemicals. It
causes the formation of microvoids of air in the
fresh concrete and these tiny cavities allow for
expansion when frost acts on the concrete.
- If low-fines aggregate is used, the air-entraining
admixture can help stabilise the concrete mix to a
certain extent.
- The need for liquefier can also be reduced and
this improves the workability of the concrete.
A defoamer can be used for special fair-faced concrete applications (slender, complicated structural
elements). Defoamers destroy air voids in the fresh
concrete. These products are best not used for concretes that are intended to have a high proportion of
voidage. Defoaming products are very costly and
meticulous care has to be exercised in matching
them to the other ingredients in the concrete recipe
as otherwise there is a danger of undesirable sideeffects occurring.
Stabilisers and viscosity regulators are used in easily
compacted concretes (consistency classes F5, F6)
to prevent demixing.

12

Temperature of the fresh concrete


and the ambient temperature
The various standards lay down limits for fresh-concrete temperature and ambient temperature. Compliance with temperature limits is highly desirable for all
fair-faced concrete applications subject to high requirements.
Bleeding, demixing and clouding can all become more
severe if these limits are not met in winter conditions.
Excessively high temperatures in summer lead to premature stiffening and setting (lays, gravel pockets).
Temperature ranges for fair-faced concrete as a
function of quality
Ambt
-5 C 0 C
.
FCT -5 C 0 C

5 C 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C 35 C
5 C 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C 35 C

Ambt ... Ambient temperature


FCT ... Fresh-concrete temperature
Fair-faced concrete
High requirements - structural
engineering
Low requirements Infrastructure civil engineering
Not possible to obtain reliable
results in production of fairfaced concrete

Fair-faced concrete classes


Germany
Austria
SB 4, SB 3

SB3, SB2

SB 2, SB 1

SB1

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Consistency
Invariably, consistency has to be adapted to suit the
working of the concrete. F45/F3 is generally the lowest
consistency allowable for fair-faced concrete. Consistencies for summer use must invariably be F52/F4 in
order to ensure workability. In winter the consistency
range is lower than summer, because this helps prevent bleeds and demixing.
Consistency ranges of fresh concrete
Slump
Consistency range Class (NORM 4710-1
/EN206*)
Very stiff
Stiff
- / F1
Plastic
F38 / F2
Soft
F45 / F3
Very soft
F52 / F4
Flowable
F59 / F5
Very flowable
F66 / F6
Extremely flowable
F73 / -

Spread
Slump [mm]
350 - 410
420 - 480
490 - 550
560 - 620
630 - 690
700 - 760

Class

Spread [mm]

S1
S2
S3
S4
S5

10-40
50-90
100-150
160-210
220

*F1-F6: Designations in Germany

See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus


Notes tile and the detailed information on "Concrete".

Aggregate
Aggregates are usually natural products of degradation
processes.
Properties and effects on fresh and set concrete:
Petrographic (relating to stone) properties
Chemical properties
Screen line
Grain shape
- Round grain
- Angular grain
Consequently, it is not possible to formulate generalities with regard to the use of aggregates.
As a basic recommendation, the meal content of round
grain should be about 400 kg/m3. The value is generally
higher for angular grain.
The specifics of choice and use of aggregates are regulated by EN 206-1 and its various national implementations (in Austria NORM B4710-1, in Germany DIN
1045-2).
See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus
Notes tile and the detailed information on "Concrete".

999453102 - 02/2012

13
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Usage on site
Placement of the concrete

Stripping out and post-treatment

Concrete is generally played with the aid of crane buckets or concrete pumps.

Fair-faced concrete should be stripped out of the formwork as soon as technically possible, depending on the
strength and exposure classifications. Post-treatment,
in turn, is subject to the stipulations laid down in the
applicable standards (Austria's NORM B4710-1,
Gemany's DIN 1045-2, or equivalent).
Fair-faced concrete subject to high requirements has to
be protected by a non-contacting membrane or by the
formwork eased back 5 -10 cm. The formwork is covered at the top of the wall. Every effort should be made
to prevent a flow of air along the face of the concrete.
Contact between the concrete and the membrane or
the formwork sheeting can result in blackening of the
face if relative humidity is high. Light drying of the outermost edges of the concrete prevents discolouration
of this nature.
In situations in which aesthetic requirements are high it
is not advisable to apply a post-treatment spray,
because uniformity of surface colour is generally a stipulation.

Rules for fair-faced concrete quality:


Keep the drop height as short as possible (best of all
is flush with surface, drop 0.00 m).
Do not use vibrators to spread the concrete inside
the formwork.
Fill the formwork from several different points: the
number of filling points increases with the size of the
structural element.
The maximum depth per layer of fill is 50 cm.
When pouring self-compacting concrete (SCC), keep
the drop height in the formwork low. Also make sure
that the concrete can flow freely enough to de-aerate. If
flow distances are not long enough surface voidage will
inevitably increase.

Compacting
The process of compaction must be state of the art.
Adapt immersion pitch and diameter of the vibrator
poker to suit the thickness of the structural element.

Blackening on the surface of the set concrete

Signs of good compaction:


Only isolated compaction voids rising.
There is no further change in the sound made by the
vibrator poker.
Fine mortar blanks out the surface.
The concrete stops settling.
The immediate stitching of two successive lays is a very
important aspect in the placement of fair-faced concrete. Post-compaction is particularly advisable for the
highest lays, approaching the top of the wall. This helps
prevent the accumulation of voids that can otherwise
occur. Post-compaction must cease before the concrete starts to set. Another important point to bear in
mind when compacting is to ensure that the poker does
not touch the formwork sheeting or the reinforcing bars.
Make sure that the concrete does not demix, because
this leads to bleeding and separation problems. The
outcome is that excess water and fines accumulate at
the face of the formwork sheeting, causing the marbling
effect that disfigures the surface of the concrete.
The following factors reduce the effectiveness of the
vibrator poker:
Low water content
High liquefier content
Use of PCE products (polycarboxylate ether)
The concrete becomes stickier. Under these circumstances reduce the pitch between poker immersion
points and increase compaction time.

94531-805

Protecting fair-faced concrete


The fair-faced concrete surfaces must be suitably protected against damage until the structure has been
accepted by the project owner.

See the "Doka Knowledge Transfer" Lotus


Notes tile and the detailed information on "Concrete".

14

999453102 - 02/2012
The Formwork Experts

Doka Knowledge Transfer Fair-faced concrete - Low-void concrete surfaces

Annex
References
Literature:
"Richtlinie Sichtbeton -Geschalte Betonflchen"
(Fair-faced Concrete - Formed Concrete Surfaces),
sterreichische Vereinigung fr Beton- und Betontechnik, 2009, printed by: F. Csngei GmbH, Vienna,
Austria
"Merkblatt Sichtbeton" (Bulletin for Fair-faced Concrete), Deutscher Beton- und Bautechnik-Verein
E.V./Bundesverband der deutschen Zementindustrie E.V., DBV and BDZ (publishers), 2004
"Untersuchung relevanter Parameter zur Optimierung von Sichtbetonflchen" (Investigation into
relevant parameters for the optimisation of fair-faced
concrete surfaces), dissertation by Alexander Reinisch, Leopold-Franzens-Universitt Innsbruck, 2007
"Untersuchungen der chemisch-physikalischen
Wechselwirkungen zwischen Frischbeton, Schalhaut und Trennmittel" (Investigations into the physiochemical interactions between fresh concrete, formwork sheeting and release agent), Hillemeier B.,
Herr R., Schubert K, Kannenberg M., Fachtagung
"Sichtbeton - Forschung und Praxis", December
2006, Dsseldorf
"Untersuchungen zu Einflussfaktoren bei der Sichtbetonherstellung" (Investigations into factors influencing the production of fair-faced concrete), Alexander Reinisch, Tiefbau 3/2008, pp. 147-150
"Sichtbetonbauwerke - Besonderheiten fr Planung
und Ausfhrung nach aktuellem Regelwerk" (Fairfaced concrete structures, specifics for planning and
implementation as per the current code), T. Freimann, Georg-Simon-Ohm Hochschule Nurnberg,
2008

999453102 - 02/2012

15
The Formwork Experts