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T Boom \eamdony |) Design of Steel Structures N. SUBRAMANIAN, Computer Design Constants (Grannal OXFORD OXFORD ‘ck a ng Sigh Da ee a une ea et ety x seis See nates seh estip eee aa oe ‘Satta Seduced la hy Chel PS ‘niga monn ety En enter et eet ny Pen store taper pin en en i meee Sd neh seo et a sopetraeeag ee eee eee mea rea heals Tanne oats ‘cau ig gh Ra Re on espe dete Prof. Sepals Pr Cane, Pre J. ne an Pf Oh Peer, rom whan art he iia of tet des j Foreword his ook slo sisting In aden anépactingsngncers to fed entgorencos slat thc sig ems nt th {tur ihe a 25 yall adv counties al ange net to inpove darign code Sone on be cet staat eshneope, ‘cht ii seme weve th etig nd Oesgn races in nda ecrnonsal Ins, my beete htthe Timi sme eer ye ck Onto th mst xing pect oy tnvetvenest wi he prove of acing sestud seelJsg in nd tie bopng ofa decd arto ccovera ae nme of iin ie io Fimatacd ah et enon stents, fai, 2 pofesinals ts hoe sbwt ie pe ad dove se of ste ncn. “iba, tuner eign do more der hg oad comple sacar Stel maf sujet ogo ay col at {Gov Sits ele el deem. 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England we Preface ‘Das nso sensor lg ts ut cig contiguaon her forte gic rrements stl iss dein dete ‘tvs capone einstion oi Seri ree nde Co The ‘ctl dain fst ny ments ath element fhe rt te {ate poperoned and joie ng in sch ay tha thy wl seo isd al sa llc) tnt we ily eto tring eve Iie ithaca defer o alas Sian ergy ahr cae tne at wl ior, K mt le hee sala with acted eosin such a th ete oferta fad an ero, he a ‘chavo suse deigue mtb sand eye ei ‘de cal shrift mail compartment ‘Sibel propre of ttelesed compro the weaned ee Sel eat fhe mj contin mls lover wel Ia uy snags oer ter sonpting arch at gh sah owe Cae ee bye ec san ta ‘hen. i aly obey, Prsely. sevopatesand ses ct odo Stans pyandcnisy hs snag edn, heaton tod eon of scar a Dlg ‘Sheth el pps eg te ce Sl eed tehave «sud owvldge osc se! Bhai, Inuiog he aad ‘eho seh ss eect ear ofc lnc sa tte Comps secure, Une the strlen i han te ee ‘Sram adden te elie Bec stl oe ‘gn ters np tye sc of be gn enh wile llowag icra ml ey analy ania renga yen lege a "Tet ol on he he an Sard code of atte fr pe conan fig el ea ce (5 80 307 ewe in Febay Son Thirtird vnn ft cle edo te it ae metoo egh (ie cate voce th cod wr aed onthe working or lore ees ‘tod Anche pan hangs ne cole na cotventon fr mee rinse remem ee si: node be comple with he of comps porams the cae ‘chown the xarrlngte meres anh joan al othe Magee int he si) andy ana minor os petpendiuat the Rane ite cn of Leo) Hace, above cemestion apie in ‘thr book an St eben wl hough tok. “atogh event nemo mb nan Stand code of pris as toned inh txt eters sie alo he lee cre CS 800: 207) us ye Bar ton Stns New Del Fs oormendh Thtrender orate at eon bcos oe ipa ds S875 ant 151899) eno of on (80 eS Handi No.8 111 18 127% [8 4923 and 8H, clean of ste 152021 800, 1 669, ad 275), ot JS 136 a 1 0s welg (S819. Aout Book ‘The bate iting ths book ne) 0 expan oe sent the bhava {vt somens of ste sta povie hea orth codlae, 0 rma ten code poisons wi howe of rcv, Whew ‘entry (nthe pl econ, many ences ae eel design wing (ira ter ones) topo ae exampls wo tt te stat “dst comely, 1 ie infomation om atest develope {luo oi osc roth edngan hat ire ender ye tiem formar dete ‘Contents and Coverage “Te et tex const of 8 cate oof wich 14 copter tt completely ‘over luda cacao fr seus ovate bo, Poe fe ches te men Sigh Ses a for aig anes Me ‘Remind in CD sccmsying he bok Te CD ai lees epee t's concen it of fae acim comprise angen oftaesfipes eagles, Review pestonnecice given aticent exh cle wisp Hodes ani ‘Sevens panne echoes abo oop thant ge afelet heres ‘ict Che pvt csi saa doekpmens sel ming wont edly of se alo pros le formation ote ‘nial paper fee types ef ste. Caper 2 nodes he design ‘Ssdron andthe ole f sal design inthe eee design poe. ‘She cry Sree usta knowlege aot te ats yes of Ue Tea dics the re yer of ses casa preset. Vos Chon snopes expand wh i sonnel wks Many farses he ck determinant elo acing onset, Heyes he low ons it tn eon race re cused (vith eps ‘rnd satu ns perth ne Ini codes Cae 3 Petes overleaf mals whisked te fssand mets sma cet eter ave or Gee. Inf aca ay ‘iting yr ot th dxgn acs Hens teresa eds ae ly \Gurol in Chpee 4 The two mehogr wed to coment elements of sel Sroctes uy, oe nd wade comme diced in Chapter Sand ‘Divalmroe rr dveleniceaciondgnancie weaves tela ete in escape "Cap? els wih dag eson members. Psi nll cing tetsu lst ae covered Cay ey wil Be tl rsncing the desig of sly faded campresion enters sl xia members wha cov in Chg 912. “Tein often cole ih te je bo pl ambos omen cud in Cpr. Wie fama pov CaS Tot tsporblea deg ey pet sre cog of tess rete, emo enters, eal tenes, ob comm Te dense i ‘he ds of dst bags eal wah n Chg ‘Chaps Isto have ber de nthe CD a tse cages pain eps “sie te seo tudes caren ad wld fe intrest {> port tne voved neh nd ger sts ht nove png eggs Chae 1 17 deal ih coqon peti tu ae esto ean. Sot pei for monber objeto one ror in Cpr Tt The pecs cued th CD) prove ome eld schac rope os varity of tural el secon, poet of sand recone poten “Togs crf oe ae aps ree mri oe eros ght savscrpinieivereny sod iy spc emer te eo py tation. Any ugptons for nowt ei welcome. ‘Acknomledgements Site New once Ihave sen ar han fers Beane ave ‘odo te ahr of Ginn sue we. hve ee et ened inte peptone ois, rd te et eo I ti ie apogee ny nts Hur en Book Inronenty wot tandem. Tn get oy whey Po Sshpthy of Tage colle of tng PD, enogopen of at Une and Pr spay inks tac easly Moto was deepest erst {nthe nbs ae so arth ro Pie wd Pa Ch Pete, swingin crnany sen Asc en oa My rng thi btw rey ace ka bis of ve te ‘cons nt ee gsi gn, emo "Wheaties penne dein a in he bcomnites, wh repre he ds 189007 2007, ene aan apa fst rR, Naspann (omer of Eduction ant Penton Division of Stet {Consonant UP Kalama ad Dr SR Sash Kot (Ger, Dv Tapa as rst Develnen ed rove, Kata, Dr Aral Jeacanln SER), DeC Sriiasn U4 CR Naya Ran Aehtec and Enger): Dr RN, Res mer Serery General ot Toon Coc lr) ad er mate so cornish erna Iai te dicsson Ido sera wth Po. Sather (Game Dem of Aa Unies Profs T Mad Tel ke tok flowing exons fr permitng 10 reeds me Aner as ofSet Conca ie, CEA. fr ‘Shc rom pps pb Modes Sel Coston wd Enhnecrng Sara, Ameen Sosy fC Eager quae fom Hk bition, ‘Sel Cont Inti, Ast UK fer Hers fom he ook Scar ‘Sebcnen (oF Dowing.P Reon 9. Oven (erect 988, ‘eve Ugur th bok Stace eer Comets GW. ‘Onces td .D. Chel aterworts Hees 189), Canoe ste of Soa fer gue fom he bk Sts Deg nS ‘Seay Skoda Bion oe gree ‘Son tbh Src Se! sign by 1 Bowkes (BBD, Sel. Conerete, nd Compose Desi of Tl ular by BS. Tata and Handbook of ‘Stace! Comet Deng and Det by A. Tao (1958) ato tn eat edn Stier ating pslon seguro the nda coe 8 #00 207, and 5 B73 Ca): 1987. ar [lft Pt, Nap frig the ewe fr hook, Tel oan 1 ve who nd enh preprn oi ook os a rm T nu thew tank eS Seettarantn, Depety Diet ‘Seas Enporing Reach Cente SEC) Mas fer win he chupes ‘nos en Pi GD: DS. Runa Meth oe Dept Dieta ‘Siena Dene RAD), Seer Bopaing Cotes, fo rvewing and Sra etn nie clon age PC Gant gig ough ‘Sate mente nd ef omnes, MAM, Bat fre ps ‘cing uth us nt chen Pt es id Gantry Gis Me ‘har ong poblen in Chap: DS. Ralnan and Ms Redes tet belpstnng Dy Ar yadda Dr Sista ed MS ‘Sta fortes naa Ms, Marg or repos “ys and dng ots in Chap 1 a shag hy wend in my ‘comizon, Ting in ny dty 1 do tke the ip and asia ea en Cin alt ls ook wing poke Lay [Setvidge ie actentoope conan provid y heer tea oxtod Univesty Pes De, Sabramanian a a Acknowledgements Te fllowng exacts ve bon ech fot ad Sf 8 80 2007 and 1 875 Cat 3): 1987 th eran fm te Boe Tag, ‘Sonn, New Bah 1S Cade Neier 1 90:00 Parts of mater repre tn fom Sen 610, 3a 16 Bees 287 a3 Yer 231,21, 23,2629, al 2 Wes 1,15 blr} ands 1478 Pan3): 1987 Town’ our dom Contents ne Fonend 7 Proce vit ‘Acknowledgements Uefa aa 1. Mater, Steuctare, pd Speiestons 1 Maligg$"lon an Sic in inca” Metgy of Sed 13" Alyy lnestin Stel 18| ChenicelComponton of Set 20 "ypeot Suc Seat 27 Mechta Propet f Ses! 22 Reval Stes 40" Sts Corentton 43 Cad Werk sd Sain lansing 43" Seca Sel Prd 44” Col formed Stl Secon 5 Highspfomunc Sel 93 Stine Stel 8. “Advantpes of Semen Since 9 yposor Sel Siete 65 "Alani Alle 72, Fatreton ad Beton 74 ests of Sel Suseues 78, Coopoce Concion 78 Senna 79 esew ution 2 The Ds of Struc Design 2 DesigeCooieraons 82" Stops Inada Contacton 9 Rel and Response ofthe Designer, Status Syaens6@ Sturt! 104" ‘Arsiyis an Design 108. Codes a Spcfeations 106. Desig ‘esos 105 Lim Sina Mtn LSM) 18 Pa Cea Set 128" Smmary 128 Review Quaston 130, 5. Landing an Lond Combinations ma Iaodtion 137 Chaacete Actes (Loud) 132 Dead Lowls 133 pec Loads 138 Tempers ics 19 pct on S rese 152 Beton oul /53"AecdemalLose 59" Other Lea 94 Nata sshnks Fee 83” Decnition of Wind owls ose 13 a9) 209 "PanLoncing231- Load Cabo 230 Exons 238" ‘my 260 Bure 261 Review Qutons26¢ of Atay 269 ‘ni Asiyie270. baking (tion tens 281" rater Psi Anais 308. Secon-Orbx [case Amayees 209 Pra Ost-oPiane Advanced Analysis 379 ‘Soumary 20 Bus 327 Rese Quen 321 oted Camco Py Invoticon 134” Rite ad Reed Comecos 328, Bole Commins {Bo Dehlne offen 32 Daun Stet Orta Black Bls Js Devin Sng of High Sength Fin Grp Bots 254 Pin ‘Connon 160 Sine Comes 32 Moret Resi Cineton, ‘S74 Hem Deam meectons88Bevnané Cola i290 Se git Comesins 995" Paige 395 Examples 35 Smary {31 Bute 437 Reiew Quins 433 Welded Conectne Po Invofacton 437 "Welding Picestes 498. Welding Bletodes 448 [sven o Weng 444 Types ol Prperis ef Wes 437 Types of Jeecth OuucttShinsagenm Darton 45, Weld Symbol? Wels Spactinise seine el Wee 473,Deinof Wee¢7. Single SG)" Morse Rein Comecton0 Conenca Bee--Clum ‘Coonrtans 300" Continuous Beam Ben Coenectons 08 Bea ‘Sten psc 309° Tublr Comet 70. Recent Detlopmets tm CConvecine Design 514” Appcaton of Aibsies 518 Examples $20 ‘Simmary $48" tons 48" Review Qin 351 7 sign of Tso Members st Inmtctin 337 Types of Taka Meer S55, Dei f Stands 35° Stodene Kno $22, Daplconnt of Tens Memers 360 Bavior titowiceMenbu36] MotestFates Fr Afoetng he Seengh {i Tenoon Members 356" ngs Under Teson 372 Othe Sesion 978 ensoenhs DesgnofaTeson Mente 60 Lag ANBesS8Spleze 550 Gunes SEP Tague ete SES Axamples 989" Summary 02 rewite 602 Rese Quen 6 Inindncin Pais 402” Coneal Requests xP Desig 13, Pa ings Cont 616. Pascale Lan! 617 Contes of Pai Amps 018 Thereof Pate Colle 619 Mets of Pate ‘tl eaes62 Ete Al an Sarco Piste Ment oy (21 Spel Censieratons 21 Lael Boeing of Par 638. Coss ‘rump 30 Summary 6" ieee 676 Rew Qin 68 | (Cia Loud) Anas 266 Sarees of Nowy 286 Joint ond 9. Dosen of Compression Menbers Pt Inns £80" Consracnn ete GS, Fosble Fite Mocs 688 Ghssican of Cow Sting Bebacou of Canresion ene. 690 htc Basing of SkenicConprenica Memb (2 Bebvca of Rent ‘Conn Ser 695. essa of Mui Cla Caves 705 Secon wsed for Compresion Members 721 festive Length of Conpresin Mente 776, Fes Toseral cling738 Cols wis NoAcsatSymmtny 4D. Peveanottuckig Fare 70_ Sige Ange emizs 4 Compe ont Comps of Two Cotponet: Back tne s)Csnen sean Cape75t Congesson Member wit Other Notes nd Sop 750, Dapemat 764" Expl 764 Simnary 88" ier B16 Review Quetonr 13 stain 807 ‘Beam Tybee $70 Sion Csesion 811 Lata ‘Sip of Beans 817 Lata Trio Bulag of Sy Seton ‘a Bors Ain Leal Sy 817 ‘Boring of eal Bean 80 ‘avert Beans indenting 3 Dein Senet Lely Seppo pets ening #38 Dosgn Seng f Lateral Unsorted Bans er Shear Semi of Set Dean #95" Asn Dion 85 We ‘etaingand WeCiplingS60 Hsin eae 8 Late Beams 6S Somme ening #7 ai Sci 7, De of (venti 928 Design of Pie Gledere v9 Tacha 929 Pe Cine 20 Gaal Csiersen37 Dison eee ine Cdr 8 rckary Doig Poses 0. Web iu! sneaed Stew 944 Web Subj! wo Contin Bede ond enone” Deiynot Pie Gderusng 880M 866 Reavowr tcpiy ioe) Pate Gide 973 Gir with Openings Sectors HytPitsCnter 976 Weliger inex Compe Fir opoioning oe Secon 77 Pate ies Ws Comal Webs Bool cen 983 Se! Mat Sar Wall (STS) 984 semper $20 Somnary 109" Bers 1010" Review Questo 113 12 Ganty Glders 6 Pa ors Lomtng Cosine 119 Maximum Lot Es TAS en te TS Seton Gy eT Desi at Review Quen 1082 12, DesignofHeamcolamas 10s Mote tncrocen between Beneoluma on Srcre 1058 ceria Losting 0% aan tons fr Lol Capt Check 1076 Cate esgnreeles1077 Deyn of Beane 08 see columns Sebi w Ten and Bending 089 ‘Cane Clu Td ovgof Berl Lond aie Pas 1086 Buanpes 1038 omy 1123" Bares 128. Reo Orion 128 14. Design of nda Bilngs losacatt? Inwodueton 129° Seen of Rooting and Wall Masia 140 Secon ot 247 Plane Tewsses 148 Floor Pistes 1171 Bnd Beatngs 1172," Desgn fStabsox Gade 173° Bronpts 1172 Samay 1193" Reve scene In95" are 1196 Suggested Renin, 1198 10 ‘Additonal Topics x CD 15, Corson rotction of Stel Sutures ssicisae Inodocton« Cortsie of Stel Corsi poteston Nethede + ,Aimosphce-Consion Resistant Stole» Coraion Allononce + Simm» Review Quer 16 Mews Design rertaia Intodscton Fe Resa s Design Caries und Fee Mado hae ‘ngnerng DesignProbees «Pe Engine Design Seat sees {aesoa Apron «Cutan of Tenet Rie Se Meso Meshal Popes Ses loved empernes. eestor, Lining Tenpcate + PaiePotstine orSelvrk. 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Bll ar fein the ol dan sheep Toy dae shew sents of eon ‘peta Fe firs xin star i= ppp anes seat pea sts a ten ele 7 rege eee velo Fg i gh OF We pe of ea or design wind speed at eight a stove ound tsa vel Cuctaton shove an Yel 1 “opp las ih ele ei vena ter 1% cgi and st ree protein 1 tifa psu low on te th ae de leone ‘erica aay sited od gifts ft ens to pot my ther 2 en inden 4 ic fom cote of py a 1 yl ste 3 asace fom et of ity ny Je. ace tron poi ofp Ua orien ease of te 00D Se Serres ctl i et ‘Bestia Urata Si ore ec Farrier § Serene 5 nme Fn rae tee tte nce pe cane tin pi cine eas Cec rere nae tate ar safc tart pan 3 stp ans Eri eat Fata ner treat Sane a ner ee tt ot foesipiess Caer nt Spa Tee amt ttage td 4 stata ey ania mim set foot, Saad bos Semaine ao ee Sree ent esy se ir be Lettermen ee a ez Se er Eataeraton Stites ete °F ent nln tt br tomar 4 vit eon of he aloe rary te ind vy a ‘soa od J mot anplieton or id empeaon er {Eo anplieton te fr ‘ay fe {Sts deieton of te of ony combed wy son Pe neice ‘eng tesfratanton yeu 2, onde in Sate 5 Stn 2 oe tiow fare on {conan cn Ngo cmon {icenashntenter: ieosotae Se te ts se at noite awe cet st Joa pitty Gtr ba salt arr et 2 fslatcy four rma 1 or ey er it le ‘test cng ep ey Se ais To pcre Ebina pet ‘ay tao Sammie Teo ty tor ie Sng opti aly fctor depend Soot peo dae pret Sa Tata crf Bg, aiming 2 sande sete (non, 2. abt ca aint slender rts 4 stcive heal conductivity of 2. somdinononl lenders elo "4" nodmencmlsondee dont apetie ae 1h to nano wo ademas ‘Thier searbctiog (Pls at sap otic fete forma comet Ie pai reo on tee iy file fon (a te) 1 expntyetucton tr fe mom ‘Suna dpa Pom cme in pce al cotton at sins & sete cine roton oe Sot of te eum segneatconang Pi bine wp spe o round 1p paneer tno sida 1h ey oe 1, ey cto eatin I tne ey of tion ata apmbots e 4 Sien-Boo constant ei oar sen the det at thane eon te 1 lich becing ese Stet aan acer 5g share ge for ly Sate sigs ate shear enh Sek rte dul etagny Ap shear ses ange sea of et 5 oeoccs nd gh Ait fre sere ening mores mae fate Sts nwo toa; sae hos it ahr se 5 show vets | Teton te fr goat etn Wy aoe meet the of ty poe eg a 1 cs rat feueney se Enenhatey ede ceota the Sey and nz ates of the section react Porsmmetalsetions Py denies te ioe pepe ait ‘whist dees the ms ea cuarrer 1 Materials, Structures, and Specifications Introduction ‘ety sexe hia Sig Tie ince ast ny esd in ston, ier, md and loss xr, go ar! Re) cot ‘cst. Th fwed bk making esl, la, nd cl wa Fron thse begins oder suas mantra nue Soroped “Toy thon dotnet al ea ney ey cone ee snd tele osreb ov mal tere eatin nt teh an calcein sstbieycnotver mie oly an sp ang Te ng pston of amon the my sudo Sune nto hw ing prope acon bs npr eos wee tity along on ror anos af be ome inte in snd peste), fan ple tier ast sel (raed an aed ‘tng Allbmonoed ses ear alnaps ina pee seston {i cs eect a prs bldg pe mayne we ot ‘woul lng my beeen eng ‘ony, ences feo se ae. Ths Seg nk het ant Posie temas wd gg a ose at hh vl ea cer itd oyaromecs ‘We witnow by dices he wea asap of he orbs mails ‘ich re employed extcaey Masonry is mt wed fr ing wal ed waking ingle oe tana a abl i iid sexta ple fem be ‘oe fr buns of tots hg ef apo 0 ery (Uoraay he ‘Sow pro! nna oc hv lm oly tht poe ‘thn ow og Hee bln i beng mec ult calyup to ace mers) fehtred ond rostosedconereteReinicl ote faed rsh wall erarton If opey ss, atc an xe wh tue Wey able 2 Dash Se eres Sine enforcer can est ay reid tape itis ni icy oftanseto ding to fal bugs fs al TO SEiiiing, Potneed emer wd or oor constion of ae ‘sete nin bigs. dg, and oer flo, ough oot ‘5 ct in Open of coaton, excep ya all mer of ig ‘pono uly conte ntononied uta emi one, Moreret ‘Snr is ou cd oper ith water for be ation reste yh od. ‘Ao he stl from cpa he il ro) aval pesca poorest do nt posse dyad (Eich Socc comet carbone adatom eed bp, ined ‘Saeed sl cata co st gv uch importa to dvs or (tig Thos cts ee fe eterno evel cone FCF SIE ony on reset hota nde sco cares ‘ce pressed core ued major const an wed by major Seine companion te gaity of promsened oer nda 9 Be ‘ied vandc ‘Stuclral sel Iona stengh, pos oferecionpefio, “enonubity Sere et wed dein es i E, essere none samc es Se howe eis ie {coe ptesin ix ses!Dulding cng avg waar made re Pimony other atl ab8 cn cnet dso vie ‘Saline wa in contin wih conte in compo coiatons dn Scala dss al cnsctine Ie many ens te Bison of la mnt ane nth wera nde mere ae he nope 1 ‘Bede md aenble Tolerances peti sel inion a eects re Start tne fr rnted exerts ences, Moroes, wea, ‘Ehting organ on ri ball te, eae proper ent, Due Tne etna sree eof and by waned persons mn smabld ‘fa praps ae eligi seri ater gy. Stet tes mc beter Crave and ei eens tn cnc nd enbles igh consucons ‘Naik sony wnt onrt sul en Be eel ele. ‘Wood Woo ips tal, aan wart at tea comet ack Du fo {iby wend bes nn boon ed fo Sous (op ie or) al ised ‘tc wate cos sch whe USA, te UX, Geany, Fes, ad Siguwhae de sclicte However he deveopect af wodennpostes— ‘Mic soe combi wih jon nds ns ached een. ‘Gucthminued wood has boon sed ine numberof agepan sacs Prin wom composes ets Iacana Dae adie rh Michigan University sata hte USA, nde Oe Jat Doo in Jp. A hese (timer taf amet ine ange o 16010, Sie wooden ott ‘td nt erate ny avonment es hugh te tab aed goed nnd woe may oui fleas. Hoeven al pe of wend ante ed fr cotcson day wool Sn sort ep nn, wo i ‘socal fr dc nt wows. (Nowadys eve ds and winfows ae made Stausita tel econ or as) So of the pial pope f erat dco and wood are nye in Tbe Stara els popes sin anges ‘rtm od (ea Secon 119, “le 1.1 Ps roptis of ae stacura mals Mila Gace — Wo 7soG0) TYSONS qu ae satay Bato) 3K aI8 vaio) 3h) aeaaaetiy atte, zat soto) ‘Sai aga aT ‘Dem win Reape ose atic ils heme and tose prope feral std wich eon n te slo he mat foro rl ttn, Ueto dacs evar peso sel, he walle het colo osha pen oltre acne bul ng sets, “Lt Historical Development tt hs esnnown sic 3000 CF tls sed ing 30-40 Cin ‘China ten Bop: The skp ie wiht eon i Part temple ne more en 309 yu lt. They donate at his owow war vse oie the ier oss clang, hich wat ‘kp in AD 1350 (Ope 1998). "Teter of on fo astral pure ae in aoe the ater tothe cco cenuy. Te fat jr apn fet Koo vas he Semen Conta Ach Bide by Diy in Engl, conte ix fh ve tere ever, Te i fet on (hich weak on ima emtton sil wa contr peso 10, ‘hel icc of ts ein cn cst ron was wally tbo fom ts ‘tying ce edb ches I 40, Abra Day Fa ‘Sy rcometng entice whch eo he rom aking proces. ZTLeESeeigmmee spacer a hs cob of Heston wt the ries Signe rodste ofr la, whch beret ifedey ‘feo The tno pie! wa er re nd ible crak wr at, Shes coves weet col ext overcome Wyte nenion of i 4 rag of Set ees seven frnenT8 by Hey Cot. Ti eid reel he aon ee dren pov been EN Soa tal hire ng on cast eo, Cat 88 see ea wag ie nt Dang 29 WOW aa te heen taupe eros enc ence nepal tal), Rete Shen Fane the tt ear ole foe wie rw ne nh als st miedo 74, a oo valine its al ‘ teny seme of Engin seid na pred he roses omking el See aa Sone ond Marin vente ope procs and is Stacey fre poduion of acta esl el he ton Tet 02st we he Te mur sac 1 we ew Sel SES wen rower and faker Ray Beige ae Fro For. & cee eth popes of at ron aug ond el previ in igen Sati Sat hae ramus tring, Bethe re foo Nato ret Nd ty go sored Sa saat we ‘Sgdtan tana, ow 001s ‘Seogniasio-wo a sae ee Matric nd ects § ot Pegs Siew Fann Toate mere an an ny. icy Ria a Beet hence Mae entry ie Feuer tet ia eaouopes (ee cr) ‘tt bat rt ‘itr na dee ‘Comps sch Dron Log visting ea Fess by 10, Dark Wyo Chi nd Tas node the "as Ining in he Beste ove anopar ev fnace Ung lining made ognseor ian, {fvurpesblto roman gosphor fom teal vale tig hosphoee iewove Riveting wero rating thd tsar 198 wen wo tnpeneid by welng, Bess sl podactna a Bn en 1974 wo {Bean ape on ne ee i 90 The sc xjen eel making BOS) recs ng the CD comes wet Even Aust in 199 In he a {fie ices cesta cnt tent cen newer oop ed ‘Sterand won pes of sel Toy wehee sero aries oes mae tithing clement ich ar cxrbon, argue zon, chron ka 0d Toyoda (re Seton and 7) Te cee ae fre sd ake ‘perilselspch ori tes Pare insson ont itary of te cn ‘Brean Poe 18 Deny nd Willams 19, so Bachan 1972 1.2 Processes Used for ron and Stee faking nhs sci ely cue in ila pees oma kon ed 1.21 on taking hetero fs hat oe cal ein be manag pees | 6 Den et Sct mcs, noite manent. ko pedson bacctnoue oso and soit of chon eng on oe oun es ead Jronihnoweblc eer cntn npr xh seo ge, "phosphors, sen, a uy faa ls ence wing ake an ered Timer "Teteiingmail clean coeins cao spa an pops “Tepes oe mang hoot changin pst 000 ye Hower ‘hol elngue ealoyd wel a tesa of poson have changed ‘nse. Nowe lt fences opera cottcay ora fee es podioing op #000 oes alten on ey 2 ho 12.2 Steal tating / “Tee sn procmes xt ere ration of se. The et of hae th ‘perth rose ice Ks low wl wecteniea, tn eee epic lt yt totems ating (DOS) ocr mn hac mtd. (te etic we free I wed manly tae spec ster uc ies ea) Ses prothtn sels teh pers as ing hee, ‘ups; apa eves wd ing when ncsary mga domi, eke roam : epost pars “ode atte snd in negated se pls ig he OS ree sown in Pi io or hms, arp se (yp 30%), pall cake (rode ot coating con) nd na ck a verte ad ote ad he ‘jr sow mis, The ain sl veld nh macro oe file, ‘1.1 Basi oxen tet pang BOS) process Ranga et a 187) Helin Rew mats ae hain free whete a uped tt te ninco 1G! The nn tl wo sled ad se ‘Sept. Anat iow be hers one stel Te excee ‘bona ehr utd ings Ded 5 ng (hs gi bended ih cle re lt fos comet ich aed is ih evfrmanoe Conc. fring Men ho the lat farce ken 1 te sel wing shop ‘beret impressed na aie eygen rae (LD ener) am ope ents fac ig 12} The wera he LD tuner rat ‘hw (rhe es ned in Ati 195 dE ope 0 ovine nd Dani ees he rane LD ose) ‘12 Openers Poo 1 te cance it ta ai ge it np oe Fo xo Insane diy omit om sone ae seme tow a oem ‘onda myeatc re) 2 OSC ach pti stn ed eo re nan Soa rvs pn ye meee nore otis tops ln bv, comin tb) 3. Redympmer tenement eae tacos emtapaen ch reatonsrnmnsns Sipser, ins Atie sea oe ae Siew now of here some ig sn The ‘Stet hen cmpoon wey mone on es STGinee nema aor tact mono yt se nt iene Bs oe och ese ‘Sat ff IIo te me tht he spl of any sade ely Condo dh tpn of ga ls nse epesily when he Sta east ina nga Thee gu pk ya elec he ast 5, The camer is the Sed the ache postion hs ac press ‘yey rots 50 SDmanect es, pendingon ted ce, fone ea eg compared «matin of Wo he eons hs ikon ado sumin n onl dled xvi ct Stel which har the igh dee of decd ening ‘ethan 3p pe nilion po fey) ne led oS els Inert ees of deren (ot 20-150 pm of oye). Sel coithing lowest ee of exon cle nme att ite testy cain seated oer ouput ste Sach tel sms fore ole fact Sct el elon tof reed ng eer “lester senile pening ep hened ond ener Dut comtinoos casing oly ill se! re. Ganlly sual sea ants carton (nthe ng of 010-0253) mange (040.129, (025-005), sn phosphors (0125-00) depending end ema ‘pscifetins Theor sl either) ion ef erally ce astng Ts gid tet utenot oft ton a contincs on ek ‘Wen sully cold et no stn prot who ile, ooms sd lb This tae etn ase (ao hows a ons ated ese: om eo td (al neh pl) ‘wher tei sled ing ceed not ing at 5-40 toa Gc ofits involving ies egy tnd wate incon Hot rong The senha bil, loa ol lb, we eat 200° ake mel mali te led no shed pods, ‘ech pkey sca ssn, an tg, Te pear he eto a sis th sete thwerk resin. whch pods ayn pees Masetan The vation i entng aes rte ion knee ede eu sors whiny be ele th bequeath po oe se ‘Seaton 19). Fut proce ose con lec eing pg reve ‘des an mil ele foe rae fh set amd coon “Thesshonate dam hori aro staf mangos sts sto om he foe rae own 13. igo eae opr fh sete pecs, sd frm itn Naso Sree om Ssfcaons 9 manutctring 0 og fie rite Mt! ens Mise plants i ni seks sm, es 20 feo allo SP Men aee abe wed abe sap by up 0 0, Te main wpe 8 ‘Raaring process an clef ae a ton. Meng Sp or page ito fe, al eo sys ae ea in ance cae in ra corti pe tog ve es rep lst eran btwn he sheer ad serap se The hea 0 proce! Sig espa Anan mao eles tee ofindcion ‘macnn vay al dar bing plas etrng Teron tl foe he le we forace ke a als fr Pern ho tlugy of st mon oF exo, pws cnt a nila hie, Manutice of inn et 00 ti ion of istl G47) an ani (1-389 ‘Casting Te iui! cnt ses fae product neh ails Boows alah, Hot relng Te esac lh, ons al abate ete a 200% 0 Mang ing he tiara ith roc with ine otal oho Since oes we sp etl end of my aa vking nd rocking opto etnies a alee om et ane Nobel Not Aen ase mesa eet pried nt sees aks he woe Tage yee tec). otroting process “Tere we drt oling ils fr feet yoda, Rating its fr on Tee lasts angle astute otscon te pt of ste mg rr potent omar bows Fnrttoing ris eco Feros gy rats Suing sree Fa dar pn si oes orl soe hes reese y end alla, lig in CR mil fo eng Cann een ie ing tot pines ot “chsh te cei composion of to cass pote mecha ti eter pepe ae song ate ye olin re op tenperre sas t ab te es went=t F “Tec ge i xl eta wos tin swale oh oy tite san scones nae "Fob commonofing pace ives sesing he ened eid pros tees rr moval ovlv a hese ee nopposte Sess Each 0%, $95 G35? a tg @ a. lewd orshapng ant Has bic hr ay be wp 1 5, ec the las he nota ih by 2 mh si fr 9f aon sed prod, haem nly penal reine ee Tt slag fans. Te bes cenog cat of oom a yaya if ence ene Uvgh one rela Lstlwseh opto aw cess eta ped re onhes angen cies mics Toe ling pe a eta, cong sd Snes wet eed ap ‘ang te pie mae ig nl an Sl Tt, hep ection fae ecm 129 to! he onempon was 00 4.8 Won and Stain tne “hoe we asa! evens fe ws fm Soda ding th i aa freezer ne eh pillar ner Kab Ma Tat Si era an nal epost Kec WA 8 Kena st asa 97, ness Nor Tala set pte fined ey canna (iia ont rey caesar spat er ion es teense faye Fa al ncn iy) Doig ato Nn, es Pone hr fini more te ties a set ints Ah, Rota, end Depp Kamat Si of ma lenny cali ie adsl el plant, Ae a pe nde pros 13 ian on of ste pry, aa eg Der aan Roch te proton of Ba cs 370 ms 213 onto in 195,96 a a oni often ttl las Ge Fi 1.6) ad bo The et c(i sel plese hn cn at ie fst pod pt wo abe ne te ne al ant) ting trisha event ace ef There ead se Hoh alee Tepe c ean ef seinem cnn. Tse een Cat yay nl ind age 8 oat ge 1 Doser Sel cr, 1200-05 the seu pads fe! washout 38 millon ome nit ‘aly onsen th tre AL se ni he enh gest pede of | feel ne mol However th pr exp common fel en ot, ‘out 33 Eppes compred o 220g Cans snd 300-00 gn Aeveaped connie he USA, Gora he Uk, nd apn, ni, rar ol conersons| "he cet cing ete ace fr ony 7% else prod The eoiting £9 Ig ssn a bythe ins roe wih es a igh ergy cst To peda of unt ewes ar So OF ence of werd Suda de othe ow gay of ndgens coking cals 2 ‘opin of ote elie. negated tel pls in cowie 13 ‘ers per tm of rod ss whee las ote developed cone Mri Ses Spot 18 ‘The Naot Mie Deepen Corporon (NMC, Keema Son (re Co. (RIOCL) el Sen Gi (Sa) the mae er poder of oe ste SATLand Tin ket hve the cape on ae ines Pio ean pode by KOE, Sos Gy and Ut ep Inadton rae my Bs fmce gon pode ven ep el pls th 8 SAIL PINE poder spun ison Gabel geen produced "yur S, eat den, od in apa vin of Csi). SA, INE Tat Stel dn Wang (VSL are he gest pry sel ice si ip nin re ey ‘Sepang, 2st 9S nib et Ida pore [483 ean expe 2911 tf sad el Asn Ober 208, the pie fer tonne af mld eal apglen, chanel aod HR sect, eget, were eae, Re 700, and R500 oa, 5 tonne nestor, td 0. fone fhe eras sorte "ngs ether mesa) ae The pay rey eee toric one ne of hd sel n UK 389 Gl ati 1979). Axon ‘eco ol oe ay ly matron ste plo sold bs est Sct do eat ce clove roy he ten em he cation of fonand stl gr iceemint nd onthecetona Beat a peri sz ro rnd he sed rat the el xe. pos ike he UK 14 Metalurgy of Steet They oft oe he sae of is bok However sine a le [vei oft wl ip th tata epee nd he utes ‘rein, crvio and fre pon npr of wh i cranen of ‘enue enpoxon of el eed nh secon. 14.1 Crstatine Structure of tals The so fel hens conf cnt mel ayn poe ‘Sa can sunt yumi of eentely Suge lee whch tcdto mine flyers ol Th tse ncompct wih cay wo ecoos ‘oti ere re me setoes prs, ogh ae rege 1 comply Est xsl Anche ih otal ning frm lcs ys ia ‘ata of wn tnae ait ie on of beurre ‘hal aon The stg tity, an gh of mls edi oe oer fecal oe Seldon cont ofon epee of yer pi in which ace. a nie cl pack to ssi, en face Senda (gia cpa sha The fe (Pig 1.79). Te henngunstrcelta ome th core the tet and to cx sn a ss win eet i | ‘Wipes gh ls de pact, we have bly tei as (Ge rte) whch har oso ata con ef sett ce [Pi 70) Thee th te base ts ose noma le. (cera af bogremtacis wile haga Cou pacha ae ° a o Pe to, when hare ts meling sin nips seve eying ‘semi ge oat ih ob od ate mee ope fern ih ate pt ete “Care pin The to ha exists Sawn TGR mal 10% a iin ee sie ee pa) Baees 91°C md HDI, est a pa wc se ere Prom 400 po ating ent ‘Mout 539°C neath bce and eal oe ang ‘hemes kontackto room tempat be worataratom reer sine sees inet ion asa 14.2 Stctce of See! ‘When cion ns quer adi sel ich Teeyiton| fsch loys cn ono is esl sro bt more cen than ‘tur of pure rn. The pe a ld arn i gave by track a the ‘hens o eta andthe ae er fats Dells entaing fein apeing ine ec fered 0m phaser abd peat be ‘regener yy otra ane pean Schl sete Itybedote dos ional when atonsre win ef ee daneee [rete neo trl sé soe Wher on cons form ‘ral os cer th tras epee e at he on lati Fit i sw gion gan alloy frm saentoe, containg poereextn g {joa } } Fa, 1. itviam age ar alos aon ae cirton entrain 0 910°C dover tbo it a etl sli slion so vanaf 029% pion is copa faring nono = mato su Canenit or om cari lt eal capo wf Yo and aon, ting cao ih i fom Fees ex ad Wit at (0.8% cnr) he ase od sli reco nt fe Inte eco fatto er. Thr etl mire 0} pers hd eno dy. (Dsl ee ayo ssn org ingest detrmatin) Tere etre! rm of ron ae 16 usr Se Ses ‘ter age as cig ton ie ‘ee set ‘einem Fee 3c) = Mhstoke ned att ves nt rie tte cha ey ino ona rvs neal san segth ome, he oof meron rhe dot andes ble ring welding proce ‘Stl aie rinsed inte porn ft pus gran shown ig 8th opin 22% ato Th potan can be ie nae pat oe ‘othe fie ntti pon (08% ca) ald hype ea ie ther oth sgt of is poi, cle ypereveid we on cating very ‘ow eto (po 025%) cle vey low eran seh nhs 10% fie ‘reac. very sof dele wl hos low toh seg Daring mute, when the sel cold ery hwy fm 3 hehet ‘ope tie sre! acl wie pete ee fae ‘Avmetned evi, ene als dat nd pte iar a ce, Ine pal gs eT i nen me Dl be pet coer ot eo gril oe he ecal. ‘The nat of ei in cn io eed ron ‘owing fom ‘Wome ton of ean = PB eb » ton ofp = PREIS an weve she pete castenrese, dy red Sel wit re ‘tan 85% carbon oo peatiacnce incl ening hgh ed lathe mnofcre atng ol we ih res eee Mae tal thot he ior of ety be ued slowed Ha (1958) a ‘Thing (84) 1.4.3 Hoot Teslmat of Stoo, ‘Shee age octrin de sold se, pose omy te ce of el ‘ingrowth popes by hat reser Het comet ile te eting ‘okay ose mtrcontoled sein chege esl on ys Pope dmsalinganinralingarthe proceed te es fel Aas at hasbeen cl wore ase ema Th son oat ‘be confued with meng med ronave eft a ol wa In he sete poe he sl eat Wo ong jt rst te Ay ‘epee 0°, se Fig. 18) sd Bld a emprae 0 Mee Moria Sen Speptine $9 niet sect ol epee py nig ay he search a ayn ‘Se tye Cnn tp pet ‘im eet ti a SENOS ty nie sae pete ener ee lt ‘erp eps em on os ‘ene pee nae) sede ta sf el negh eimai os ‘Gorm te ian be ake ms 5 MPa, dite gai sine nlite, an i ‘Sse len) ts So ak Seis fa ccna eying ‘tee ies a ttn sain be ten al ne an coe Spt ne gn eight store a rin ro Semmes ta atte tees po cae roca Nee Shasta et Scar i elie src wy ‘SUSIE dat san wept) Fa LoChangenmirostresure ars neta otcealhg 1 Dope f Se Sacer icles cantons sow teats whos accom cn ie wena ey ee at ‘ry pupsee bcp cerns ca bea vl ng ‘empath ling fe proriAiing temper {Srbrrling wach sony sigty sve he temper a1, {Ber ey fin mente ph se ado i ecg moc ey Sint utc by eaieg ty be wt ate nda Ce et {rotten anestrus $9 ft wl ode mgs 1997) 14.4 Quenching and Tenoating meetin dt Sree eereeeerened ‘Sinn pont pT snare Seca erences eeeeeeeec teem inc cyt conned per aston Wisse aioe oad cere teanietceatas ES caepoeennmeenet iene —————— Seapets SS eee eerie 1.5 Alloying Elements in Stee ‘The pal popee of a ach dc, ay, stg, npn, terete ths owing to. ehiondons (@) Cat cet {0 Hewes (© Aloying canes. ‘ete endy deste he fit tw fc in he previ sons Degending opr to er eel Sted owen el {Gb cantn 010.0259. stein se (oon etn 018-0.) ‘dhigcarone es (obon cme 10%) 3 hows acu ee ‘fcloferchemepny, Sara etna ve etn rt oath Sc keno ang conten deal regtoties Howbe deere acon et Gon aang sce on nls Mie we al ‘cl wrk dit Sued nea he ner seo hs Cap pote Goto Tha iva Then — Salon oaT ba a Mien Ups 025% Heise thon ttc Upieoum lnm ageing presi Iipsersnacice (pier Ska pe ie Peite SPoan Mince ero Uh tane Chic, mm tn wet weigh ‘Menge slicon a ports compet ands cronin, elas lomo lan avons ofthe otto at sy Sevan oral oct set Inco, lye see ihatregh oly (USLA) sel bve ben develop. Thy a basally ARSE ove ich eal no eflann, ion mobi, ce wate somal th pain sas Malena Sed (4p 6 0.5) © ‘Se nua yacing neni snd to mae evenly sted. Alley ‘Ne teed loa wes tl alo ene < 0.59) ethaaay tty con 10%) nd ihly ets era alloy cote 10%, ‘undon manger oir ares cid a con manginse ec ‘ies inj fenoselffa 9) hts esd a tess diac rangers ti det once nga tans non inte te cea by ging the nal on wo) sien ott 2 thas eal o phe opis fel so hn 501 040% his EE fel re emsioiy seed wit seronrfecton in ty. Mare thon ofaeon enue eters. “ans meter 002 010% chs mo appre it ne uci er senha el Th sup con, owes, Geese ‘Sues (eae sy meri, both incoad it sae 0 TERS cmot to te she mbt foeta) a well of Bt aa Enon coment tea 10% decease eng ond ty race Tail hep he phosphors cone fs ow 2% reo stn rime iin eel fee goin 15 an 100% manganee he to tprove ie eng nd es eae eaves sae way aon: ao nee the oun of Tea dove ioe in srt exe 130% it eres the Sration of sto nd be dare dt wn nes. 1.51 Weld of Ste! Inmostcns mentors of ete wel ig eon Hen el as aan ocigh srg tt mus ao be sual or welds For 0d oe anne 20 Dein fren ‘ety el shoul show hgh bad awed pss, bt hold ve "owt logins teh use even te fs fed neat tonveld.Snesnlabiiybafoedy thks and news af ayng lees evan th ring ett batho tee pose “Aor fr in wey ith ero eq, Cy of he chee cones ina The male tr th eli Theoon ifet ny eclcled yon eptn och wa shown bow in wich {ch symbol fest he proportion af weight of Ct pric element in een (1S 02159, CoM, (CreMo yy, ove co here Ise, Ma manne, Cris, Mo imbbdenun, Vi iste sels edo hve ih xan galt. Wen the bon pont seed an nt (y= 030-043), los eles ompese bythe eng er poten fh eld ae. Hove th fats contest 0.12% tm Cy cn be ed up 45% 1.6 Chemical Composiion of Stet Seven vais of stl we diced aa. The Brean of Idan Stans (Gis) css act stl inn fran eteprn ted o he ent Yield rengh ofthe bse tril ed tte eI 798). Ty oe Id eng ih he pie de of pie ed by I ae 1. Sil fr ibn np {ap 19305 10a 3 Sel feraticeoomne 386 2098 Weng 1395, 816819, 10941251, 158 ‘Toe chemical composts of ome ypc ses pied by the Brea of bearers 197 (rca rina ewe) ai 18450 ein {nd high songs ey) A espe 9 be chemin! competion: of al Heels of frat grades a ven i nteanionl sanders is shows in Mars Sacto Setentins 24 ‘ste 1.7 Chri eanpstos fn percentage eome el struct preheat Oops “GC me Pw st (se) (om) mc) fe) ome) Feds ra Fe gs "ie Semi el oni e123) Coextua ronan? = phan Soa: Ta ea (ent) a) ana) aan Table Th wip restos ele as deg astacre ‘sing fence of pce. 1.7 Types of Svuctual Stee! ‘The satu devgnar is ow in pont set sre pti ‘ppl on he olloving pe tao ‘carbon steel (S 2062) Caton and manger a the main aregterng ‘hms Tepid nium sel engl fr tan scl vat Homatou 306480 Mand elses nium ye eng om about 23010 30 MPa (ee Table of 1 00: 2007, oh srr carton ste As dase ey, nl ha igh ton ‘cotta ees hws ered duty gh, aed Welly This al ‘epcta rst xh anion ier sn iowa te, we ‘aie lteter ied bling Such eave peste imate ‘eet rngig om aoa 0-550 My, nd ino ld enh 22 Desig ft Src alu: n-th rset (1 6500) Shs a ao (Cor cn bt aioe tp stengh do oe non fs cho ‘bbs ord, ant oul mayne ewes resid 0 Tetra 25%) Sich elon vpecte natal sen ng Fo ‘i010 9 Mans moun yl segs 30-498 Me i-srngh aveched a teered stale (S 2003) Tho sds et Inutdtodosophighengh Hughey metp ei yee ‘esa wg eonges Ty hve sete inosine sags and 950 sands nn ye eng beta 0d 70 MP Wear sels These ae wale stage comosin rest ee, Ich sor sh epi (os Soon 85 deo es ee) iy ae oon re gh of tt 80 MPa ands elt rng sour 390 ‘Stiles sls These we cry orn es wih ini of 105 (rem 209 chron nd OSD el ee, Meal at stil late even Soo 3. Freesat tals Aso cle emometaalymetd they ean ethno or Me eta oaths et ae ie Scarier 1.8 Mechanical Properties of Steel, ‘Themes ropries of tel depend po he lowing (@) ebm emporio, (0) sling mated {© roll hikes, (@) bat wot {© session “Toe nar chil pret offs ae inate seat (i called ice sent yell ses called po Hr), ty, wal, tough, comin etc, machin. "Tce fn ropes tte wih te ton of el ettace aera fre dy fhe teri. 1.81 Utne Strength or Testo Stent Unite stent wiih inna pie inate eiestongh (UTS) sie ees wos fl otal roma alle eston tandem, {gly led coon, A ples specimen a pr 181E06 isbn ip 110. teirtes the props eh, andthe el reset ae ya nor preter The disenion the sine eal ‘tte occrswitin the despa eps ph ost opens ae ey erin Sec amt Spefeaions 38 Fra 140 Stand ete pine a pS 108 uct spell patio he aber which te ese tenth ‘eid The til age engi ake 565] 4) Inte coef spesian ‘nihavicnglac coe ction ve tnes the meter nto eu “Tnctoponlefiae¢tenengmeting with speifeddsenees betesn te pp and etl wer ein tein The ands we apie weg he tecded en Apes sti cre of ia asd hghstengh sel [etic nally ering ened ata in i L10) {the veee-sin cu ofl eoepeinen stow Pig (6, "Teun tne regi he highest ates which asl specie fue Eaton ive by ait ee od ‘Sigler fess esion wo “etme ese stg or scald he engin tina tnale tess i diferente co sul inate ess. Asa specie ‘sco fen the ae of rs sen of te Soci etc de sun's fect andthe estes sind Wy congerag the sn ac Chom ton ita iad of ginal en fs eto. Tas 8 ‘seedy the flowing foal shine nd ‘alr of ce ts Uti teste tert “estet= ay Int xsi sre he ses te meres in vie cordon oosntenneay apecilechangetecrossecion Meow ise {into dcr ttre ro ion at row sige oding Hence nal doien sslaions oly hori! rer fos sx Income. ‘ote es speid according ote gated uiat se tess tht in the dee the sharers mt ese ref [wich soe os the mint vac fees ow wich ot sre thn pci centage (sual $9) of onespndng sess saps ted we expel [Docu Stee eats frs daemon of bracers eng Howeve, Insome cou hehe USA, te! spoil ncrding the aracrsti) yell uengh arr, Sacre ond Spc 28 ‘ie 19 Meche popri tsr p arctastas Lb upeysiea | |__| @ i ” Fg ttt Typ sos tn cue mild sot ses stan cures of ‘rary anahghsrangh itl) Sres-atan cave ora est ‘Tou sgt inna a 310410 WA e 49 B Fo 580, wher etd tes ond th obo far Fe the atrit ie ‘ene en ines The ete A, B,erCllens gases The ‘eter W dents the se wee, (Cppar ering gut sige ‘rth sli C og, Fe s0 CWA) Tele 9 ida ni cle ‘Ene nd tr inporsenconle popes se pode indi ‘Gnd Aste pce by 1 200 nde fo ve ects at ‘aeons or oo ries (ox pats ot rote ite Tact) ine bined for ane nce sje! oe! oaing ‘aplonoay where vio terest ent al below °C Cree Bess ‘enrich ae rns oi ce ce cadepaentoom {nee nh yd ngage cnn Tae pctand Daignion UE Velwmn tty) Nimo ‘ cotmy’ “Stam” gece Voth ania 20" Sceguon lage ‘eon sua cond tua ah ea eB team Meoskerd Hon M0 HO 2» ‘Toi te pop NO cr — Se mati() a 0200093 Powe coed tee ajo opvee Stato of trae (name merce in rig ‘Nu sch! sole eid stra arte prone sh condi. {rade an urn oferta (0 -40°O nding roperien ‘rad Cet ued In eer se whe th kof ile ae ‘Shipris of tie men ppt of il sel a given iinet ‘eden pve ne 10. ‘Aterfnling he lina es sty, orate ution nae, eld ol pins nd longn swine whining nl epee ‘Nest Aner fe, acd utice eto ples is fondo frm acu hcbcos wrangement, Cpand cons face comida nieton oF ‘hee acre 26 Deg Src ‘ile 1.10 Coptsnat acon nr (ode anne 3 restr deans “Asshown in Fig 111), aly specine of eat a ina stes-sin cue woe peopl Youn mola fey, Tha, seedy = MAH Healt 9) ‘Thacan be apes as af an wow fhe win sess tel the propo tothe sf. “The vlc off vr nang 10900-210200 MPs ad on poo ‘alte of 200090 MPa asad een. The Sel cbs one wnt Incr ge, Tat sie endeavor ape rely ‘nung tf he sae betas coasted wt he ‘Ted aes he coercing yl nin = Boo ist, a tows tly tou ty ene nee ai renin Sia tec Te plete range oly eonsseble on 008 fe The duty of oe The ares cess hoe he eld ses when hein ‘toon’ si yr snen ual tele esse sree. Ax ese carer ths tap, pl reductions the ces eon oe and the lond cigs door ut eae ure espace "theyll sin nil sel oh cde of 000125 0 0.125% Depending th tel dynes Dvn 4d [3 The verge ale | {Ogi tken styl pit of rca sf The alu 8 en 0 Tose tet g 210.25 mm. Theil slp oft eben Pa tie ied hte harden modu Ey Ets step elo ar with dy/-bomatypely bewees 30 and 100 (Alston 1979) The ein ade tage bcos eis, a one ofthe ‘ching tintin cnscrotiry dvdt pretaebosting even tis se teyond one of sn barn "ing sot second by an arp dere a ad shown i gi whch ea nr ewer epi The pr pit Ga) iene by he shape te tet pine nl by te sing tine (eecantesmncine empl spprseThelowr yd ott ach it ad ele he a ras Smt ont Spoons 21 es seve a canis oe me eens, Te set-in came SOSRENE Tito yp oweaton (uh ste Now tat te uppers rates me yal gins else wih ese nape ofeding ta ToS ipa eet tte ie foenonnal stor el age fom ban Rae ens inm-eny wet bem ee Yl polter ‘eacginaes sete trate be dint Stein compressa Face wesc clnlyminensan. The lowe yl ses eno he care tteenlcomeesiontn tee beouthe sae eagheflea lng (eomacton- Parmer that uence ald sess ‘sie ne nn dmb te ie fp le ce ltr im be aor se race oon cotta Feast os mt Ape 197) Th incase in wos ed yd a anaes shoves M1 Telowe yl essa Nae ent! a ay be 10% 13% awe an he Sek acer ne tgp ot (lod tl 99D, ap ure Fo 112 at of rin on ep ed ont and yl srs of trac tal pon 79) oven snc als ced om he jority ei sat rian ct he at et en ee vv me a 28) Beene wee kes ple (a ee er Aerator yb seit apron mere etn epson Set eying Ni clad meee pn ted end ed pots eee ee etme nd wee yond yt ala 8 Scr me 0-0 tem de re Sane asus Hower nrc stn. I ote fete san dee inert aay abe invenwe by te pitino wich et mp8 irene nme te ton eo 8 Dig of Src ge adhe Yon hy Ge gin ce sa of ‘cing er lg ess he i ae a tw il Me ‘eta Bang Ae 973) hs ben hat oss ange of eco cot at iar ing cope si mst of {hen eee ne ge Hl espe ta Inset the peri as ovat sega or esos. none pte cin rn et rete sel ‘ny he along cer {a Te el pt hl end rate i nes sein et ed {8 ‘The ined sent mabe gr mn 125. To ep an inroads ‘a along tran he nb Te lrg te eo, Selmer they ep) (©) Temi cngtor eat 1% ona pgs go 65(, iahopeatc te acydrenghbe on eat oa cs eed te peed yl aregh ym th 130M ig 3 Show tens cre 0 et sl rie nfo on erm sine FeSO ge mail el re ot sme ed reaps F0pde te un is ep woke 10 td sete ly fr fr, deoe wo) (Pa... curves of rene fale a ia Highton ses ont way avs rooney pit Ider sage ota ts below whch ar ac put allel th propria limit tfc n ses beget il ele engi raced (eupperouneofFip 1) ‘Beant et (ati elngon) a 02% when thst nln he by ewig ine paral oe Ct parton 035 se wih stp te tesa eaves sho in Fig 13 Heer some sha 2, ASTHspeciton, AST eine tilde es cortepanding fost ede Tlie rnc ni ea Noa, Sued Spiftons 29 “held sts varie sialyl he enc anny of th sate, the tote of ona manganese et estan se aa hsm of woking wien oa drng th lig poses, Tos he Piss whic are mre waka ve igre vom er pen Te {eld tes i cea by ot weg 18.2 nase yee Response ‘he retin sponse of net tl dere ang irene "atu ele nota Page ap ices eon ‘he cpt mate blur fr seh a i elton ‘Whe eats stl to eytilotginthe ett ags he ye pico ‘asap an th aren cure ek Be awe es ich sonnets rn lt ted sino show Inf. As ee for is ge ae ample of reponse nese ‘level fra given tan do reser a sey neal eat indeed he monn tee sine i118 Stese- atin car oft ej cy tonng 19.3 Characteristic Strength > “Vinton ie material popes ut ens mason ‘hematin ‘emir ne dg process. The male ppea tt ae geet laorance inthe desi of starts cig wl weed eng mai ‘stestg cog aed Young's mods Or proper ht of et sorance ae anos, npc reins, sd eng po, "ent of snp ae eed fora ptr eer og lb eengh) ti amb ofspediners Wit te same tenth un) plot ‘Sesvengh ae resort anormal Dn carve Soh 30 Dag St rer os ‘hiscuvecente mainstay expesedbytheequton show nF. 115, ‘whch en ed aie ses den pros When dete, {ate lea ed eg cll heart svaph he tote og eda he mn tng thom Pp 118 50% of ad hasectarcric eg below sae dee tees Hens ccs ew a hese 5) of eed Thu te ccs ep clad ha he gain “isan Lb os where isthe anced eration rn apenas given by “9 Te carat gl ite ab ied a oe ng ml buy eine ee oan pra eft acre mg tavern eee yc ar cose ‘steundindoeataonr te ances et "play ta Ths pay te ee et tein os io. teres cn 1.64 Dvctty ety my decid ah ity of sia ome is sa wt fc nether wore, te diy of sso to mute te apy ‘0 unde ae inns doen witout ican loo eng oe sites The tesa carve fata eee diy We ‘ogre neg to pa the zerenageclangon (outing te fad he vga nh ove ‘Belen dt) The ced page nh cating eat elon = 565% a0) avin Scie nd Socatons 3 (Cong hgh beeen pine Percentage clongion ~ = 22488 enh — «ty ‘Themed clngton is nhcsery the ue eh, ino and ue wt oni th ps ee "Wu of 20 om bebe fr lool bt oe fo high eng ste By moe tse may at eens npn vas 30-60 en eee the tn Bowes shoal be ere wih te ting proces A hgh value “dap ese terion of ees nme oa ed ‘he fron of plas igs. sig posers en nel bshvoar aie ig ety prt fart went of essere ear ‘hangs it enter stape wells edo ents Theis ‘aque paceung elegans sf rel poe aia prt ede ae ean ate 19) os Tble BH 2807), Designer rye ‘pened proper oly ay eligi comm tl sn tee of equi. However elo sed wah spars or roy coal tel, 3 he moe etn sr seg Ie pens of ys (Dajte 1996). (a) tn eat of exces sen nding, tan, whe Sate fa criguke ora Has the stetve dees Lge ferro before alain ie see wang neo ceo bung, (Duet ery peop cpa when testa tose eas nd ben fond a ee heve pero wan santonm) (0) bag oi eae {© Ithelpe absorb local defrations nd avoids racking asress concentration (@ lhe stan dtornatins ding napa, hn ed ition (© lnc encingerseeniag omar nod cing darn son sti fest o 4 weed ng, which my be ese bye (©) Blongation at fire > 15% (0) q2 155 0eeFi 1) 1.05 Low Temperature and Toughness (Brite Fracture) os tbecapaclyang oet of eney frac inp re ' awed nn. wate toto 8 fA i et Sree Toone can on ingot inition ically fr sete bt {ola ode bide) alo one etter ah.The hes carve lsameae oops) The img sciahomin Fi. Listechatesrin eno iss bthetngthand diy coli nes. Thos, tons md flay nye he ato eh am aun statu mn ce aba te er cng forbes saa se meter ftw neon, pve! shes tee the propor! ini ‘Aout, omon tact vet very tough a is in dle nee Atemperss bbw 0 he lsh ose! aly peal feted, wile hei subtle In daily sd ome Fp 17a 1.19 the duty mal somes sees ‘Fb wt ener sted by he i othe ht emg) De ts a 1.17 act ot ton tomperatre a tel Bowes 60) Msi Scns on Sins 39 Fi 1.18 conguatn ett at anton LA 7 jf ca ent ‘leoomeaon a low tpt, sess someting il sanyo ‘hot weming, As we are sway wi te nal ngs, er fe ‘ton nthe er incsion owing Poon’ ace Ts | inweior ily: even paral estan, he wil al pa dt {sy deeoping hye poten Tsp fre ome briace pte 118 oan steno ele tn cera hath nh ‘maybe any abrupt ching ntss-ecenal aren) The hed ton seg ont unde tenn sho by th dee ie I the Re ‘esd by th shaded nc, wc esha wong el owe, ‘Attention tlw enpenresbept cngs ston sie (th fe) oa inpertcton, and he presence f tne ar can nine ele nc. Titi rc, Wh my prope se meer {WS Mos ttle faees sear nde sat odes ees hich at xe bth myo be deo he dye sgn oo se oreo Theft aed rte ac wos ett 186 (Mie 1968), ncot th best nwmbvise acter scandens nk Suoer273 mod egh 1 wich conte 7 37 millon es olan, [| a ev Sel Src ‘sa nn ei nmi Sn ir ‘ea nl iin ipa Hr tpt) No ee ed ins ead tae tn ce Wace een nen ae ot ee minnannaen ctr ert pt ie edt sae arte Yow ang 1a ice eect set ne Sn ima ea Sy 2 ed the eesti a ad wh 1 ami me eee ig cnet ei wetSoevaa eainagean tall tase pa at a Sta ac ee ry Face en rete ndets batjaly st een ke le ee ete aia ees ade pet ttm ge St i i cen ae ovo eek se ce reo one tt a SM icmaneuennateerespedag ono teeny iat esas ‘i wl nero eye ay ices pays ore a Vata iret eho i cmpmtayc on eon pe ata tv te eg untua u ¢ depmcightatty fow (NDI ei ere, (etic deveopee Dai of tery eo Berea) "Gime delay eninge Pgh ile ie grin sel wa sn ail apt o sei betewe sel ext one int 2D ots 157 onda iow fol ne ela {nwo tery absorption capacity atx predetermined temperature {yng at 2315 The best combination of rope, aye seg ef SGI90 Misa CVA any ae 0273 down “30°C speed ‘toity eg thon ya cet ais raat, sd tlRevnbeeaboconetn ot 1-0 16 wen ane CV pe WMT Ft 30 Inadtn ote cain ofall eel ee i ol ork ao fet oan Tc pl, ee real se, aver deena) om e's pol of view te mos sic way of ing with amt treie he linod of he cen asec of ‘Soa er wt, he ese eerste soul be above te seid Mri, Sates nd pcatons 38. Iota ft anda CVN npc aac mre tan he ns pied, ‘eprovet ie actrees be calle wing te lowing etiods owes 198). (@) Member and their conseatins should be dele 0 winize se (Stat at hve ton eps aye fr «low tsp eviensant shouldbe wed (6) pos pick sad nacido mouth ane (@) Tesiwieolnanfaseny sence abe ted crt mnie ‘esl onl ese (6) Awe teo se soe pid clove oral epee 0 ‘Gents oe cesta yet ees loncome (0 Thera of tase sin appliances level hu be eed (8 Ung ti pate wit nc pss wets ihe "ough ‘ioe’ destin sold be ee (0) The weldng ceo ro olin esumabie set sould Reve a ssid Charpy mga ae a of green tat seed et meal ‘The ri codereammende at he cess ofeach lees sas terete, tek ny) whi fstab ep one ype of ei he eer os evel he Tie concent sts an he sta eodions (Ears fom 0.3 t 3, ‘dpentng on witha weed comectn ousted apes oF pa Sa Fras grater = fr nent eg, eae ped Fries snr wea Tons Tew of my be eed om he mise ena nemur(af eo Ue Fgy> Tag 20, om Ne on a) 2 ts) Ta the bin service Me dees Calin eget to cat in to ‘in or end dein i Ty ln ttt cmp ings Cel, {hts main Chay Vt lu 27a it oi yi Tregin gina ae a 118.6 Lameler Tosrina el warng ow of bt Scie ht may ost erin wed joa, For xa arn or ge woo wel eb i) codons ik pases thestage sta om the eng open nl Ge lr an ested (ig. 120), Te esti oye develope oe oth eld on De firs Became hicks or det cation of ea et rontocoa, \y © a 1-20 nat tering at wold ote ‘Gcacrly Lact ae adil dle when faded iter pre myers he ling dein ae ig. 1.21).Howevt, when i ssn Iason the trong sto (te ic arg ofthe ston | ‘esi station eis Because ett en he Nang ‘rough te web ote epost Nags. The ing cand "cog ktet sin may eed the el tad end eta fet (Sakon a oe 2 etait, (Pa. 1.21 Detain of oh micas ctin Moses Sacre ad cetane 91 1550 hin titeoed aan i ao coe alr eng, since the ‘geste weld the clr Fags proce seta age ‘reach of desde ban et fllpeerton uw ie ed Inset posto tg “Th oe wel jl dng ht als wel sinks osn the ruling cton (ht hese pul on te gy in th ‘eget orion, and te eqn a welng min Sika ans te pated mtiod and fo wo andl (ASCE pp, 1982 ad ‘Thotson, 17) Amun of a sratves rip 122) ht te ed fo "cc ar ering ae gven AIS, Erlang oes (17). Fig 1.2 Jot stunted Lamslartesing 187 Hightempertce Etots ‘ket owt fmabl sea Howe, stent doses wits cin ‘epee, The ld wel arte gh a IOC ares ON at som bet 2°C) onpetoe. Te pt sug mc ihr at Ips remptatures (or example at SOC Hi ea 159% of ht room eager) enc, el ames nig tine ate inabrei fopotn, ‘wconalietanpeae of selene fest tn eStats se nee St » oye eg i tg eps may eae ah mens bea ee acacia etempeal A nite Bie ere erecta 11.0 Ratatance to Coroson oy odessa gate was, ie ae apes sere nts eins ads ane bes soe Pc lb lt vey ean ntl evan We wf me imi rent. Hes ht el ee sald be posed “hey inst coos, iam cmos tio of postgame nas he of ues se soaing rapa ata eon ote stig tb at ge conta 9f 02°45 hve iro ress amospbee a ected be pence! Pateyoorcnst of or Sean: ep ay soton wheres yea Tn or ae ele sw fenting vole eons nd rng (alo whch wee), sng aly apt eens) end ea ping ig er Sie sy aoc carols el wc o xp o went ema in Reva yer of on fuck wearing es con ee ee game ome ch nd copper nto sae Tey ‘Sate ma a el ety ety re ‘tice oben ed msinans Moe ost een welt diced Chap ‘9 Hadas ‘nea memo te ans of rina nating [aura svete iro of lab oder et RAN loft tensions mansedueng mice on ‘SVow notin be nds of be pec Soe, The ss SEAL demine doen wie ne 1.1 oc i 123) Patterning onctaomnly wed ctl el ee 1990). Yer ol ress amber BEN en by the fhe opi od alte ntl ace notte Shee Hp o-a) wo Aes Src Scone 24 {1.19 Vcu ngs a eine hares fal ehorbetes Sutter S90 nage ‘ane ens sone land toe lg) ‘ier Fp, 122hstntonotmeteds dominates ee Pithe dn Newton, Dee alate in ines, nd te {ase fe oda smilies. “Te ik tres ar by wan 1.010 Fatigue Resistance atu he te wed a cnsesien with eto a popeton of Inutrcpicent soants Te pated split of testing, ‘ens The dupe ed te fra nee ons ae fe “ie Fnigns mcd roid ois man igi actos (Gyan wo Oh Ten fen me ated As perth (Si my eels ho wes may ened Winns oil, Sfecicbeten cum inp one Pores ibs of 17 46 Despre Sncons secon cy reclining mast The cae tes tt he sine “fod shot he lowing mere fr ge (=) Mente mgporting ing rong ns, (0) Nene bce win nnd orl fags ranber oye, {© Members ejected roped as yes Viagem (@ Mentor tects cows niin. "hs unl more ely ceri ride nd cranes dhe ‘Sa reictoninstengh eo gan boas of te psec fal ccs, localsrsconaratinn, andar change of prey tbs ad Ihe dnc of fis nd igus ck ron ened of el ge stot my Be mh ae pt th tages of ig te ale fob degen ks in act ai load gna Cage, 1.9 Residual Stesses gr pecs in thang of 0-700 ae nae ing oing of Stason. Sel memes te slo mbjeed to gh tempts arin ‘Svsionty ming nds won nl reac ye ca tha cnn fouled aly ote prs of ro sees). Cosing| ‘fee mami or tere aye espe evenly (rem frst ‘nent pedonacotngbd ae ling sme pref saan emp "henge often coo tert te ge owe juntos say ‘he cea on of te weds ol tert ho ton), Dao hi ‘neering ting as ener aly socal arene Resi urn aya ret an th el sihcig ft ei (Galrttat 1992) Altnghis ple renovetee sy eb ‘eateg ands colin ths rosary epee nd eee tee ‘nmol octal egincring pcos (uch emer of rel esi iyo pesie yes). i ‘Asses eer, nan acto he lant en ob ini col ater than ter pr fhe cs etn, ling in eral ese in he ‘og af jets teh col mare soy sod compre sane in be ‘inde othecoet ton hh el a). he pe dra este Seu in stn ction shown fn Pi 1246) The eee so vy ‘tose kgs, andthe pater nw in Pi 2M) ees eo fear ase stds Res sein ese nme ‘wih nme nse fhe hme mapa etn of ar ‘oidalsronavintuncedta acoder apes by ie romeo hecrs ‘ston shown Fig 124) (Gayot 1992 The pie of ese ‘il seme may ach wp 10: a the compres el ses epi 005 arated aetna tl 201) £¢ F¢ Key « iw Fa 1.26 Ril ees ttn instant sections Ler Best of ie high noe of ele esl re tthe wad ‘voided mendes aly eg the ye strength af th ld me a Be sonpesatng lng conpeive seas a le ea igh Reta sess in eld shee ae dated by he ston eens te met sfirpaation oft component: Tha, weld Leconte tole Hs is ire esl see uo am ht of m Fase welded { Fam plate an ct wih, | ‘he gil tbaton of ea wee in wld vc nade of nes with lla gsi sow Fig 123 Lage rol onos Seog comes of wld box ig. 128. On her hn esa ssh ‘alld square bx ae very ow acl tors wich ar made of queda empeed ds sin ese mal This becuse ch sae pally etalon. These m4 Fa, 1.26 Red srs trun in weed onans 2 Dag f Scns ‘lg 1.26 Rasa srassas in & wood bax section ‘esi ses extend aot el ag fh meee Fg 127 shows (he Wate seston led elicd os seco PerBocde 3 THRE Pein pion uh eng nd sighing by ld eng solace rs Ta: ot esa ae opto ‘hwo ata rover drains, Thy weeps {ee bora etal seats mente sepnct by nino ‘Spey os(rsing eal ses attr ced in ‘ete te noses On oer e nigit cf 5 enn theme ose thr oer mt (Capa oa econ et es mre i oun et sacl iva sed fiona se pate eyelet tember ey So ue ppt se sinh ‘tit orn yetng he ox speent a sea ‘ate sau ao eee nb whe ft ine snowman Sarason oy an rs i Tha rt nga oe ‘ci of comrnin ren sm), sme see ‘rene ttcoan dal cepa Yc ale hyde acs an Sry is ng em) ed Stes Src Spccoins 3 xy nds edo et mare (Tal 1978. Residl sts re to be ‘emidsred inthe si of abs sujet acting ans (ngs they reduce the menbr's resistance to ie growth ef sable ls (oe Chaps 1) Such ese ao rele te a eine oe peo ‘cls nn esbio ante duo te sts aie Secon 18.9) 140 Stress Concentation ‘Streeter he comet elret which ay have srt hugs ssomety and may contin Holes for ol. Thee fetes pose see onenaion, wich oad stesso tha ic vege ste ember (ene stresses act oles one ne venga ‘te, Accrington of acy, edn of ates om i ne ‘econ ofa fi wide ate consi ae ct ine ven (Cimon sd Goode 1970, sed Rsk and Yoong 1979) “re afives(ef oll] a wher theta ou ei name wit atl sa of the hl aed the dtene fm he ete of lc le oy pst on he ‘She th tet il be hg foal above egtin conte aol wh god acuy wpa of Bie wilh Ne ha (19 ale ‘testes heer oe nes dos tee ropria ii Af stseachs troponin sees btn wl doen ace ie estan ere of th tel (Gayot ea 192). “Theses enero el aly plete in act den autism tat he sinister to tse one ‘ce, Sine srl ee sully dete eae ses oe the "eb stump jedi met ene However ifthe cage ts ember high the se ancora sft shad ot be nore. See ‘oncentto te ee nda be rite nthe we of er ‘Suess oneal std wih fig se Cha 1) a loaf it ace ee Scion 8.5, 11 Cold Work and Sirln Hardnening ‘Supe a ele pecs od eyo el pins point | shown sig 28 When t mind dost np dtp '-Ths eas tha ean se OF bs cere ht fe ase eet cn ede om OF t= Up beg ln he pein heaved Ifthe setae hs shied oi B. That the panne ps sean dng a bes ree etl, Sree nd ect 45 ere i Beton eects eee cee earereae riety ee ‘eee eee | ‘ieee eee eee ae ie eeaeseaal Fg. 1.20 ecto od workanetinhrdnng ia rte sain soe wpa pot Cin he sree te ong ‘Row 180) Sows thee ine CD. nh seth igi sited po bt he 1 Scone (1880) Yield passin Tinos nlp own sai hardening 1 Mol setons OSS, 7 ‘fet Noth salable tty ed os OF i be 2 pate S00) ‘Denly DP a shown nig 128 Ths nd of oda beyond the Slat geo * Stipe dss0) ‘ave dit duty wen nein neers peta eee | Fs) ‘colder ony bel tine asst esate wilt bea = tail signer gompreson ond esol ork fet sore crpex) Tala somatic he ans per ihen ya ode cold Soin cing por by which sew led rsa) re ei ied ton ety an omg ln corinne ‘nin se or bak) Cold wring othe aren ng | = a ‘bend lotions igreate the yield strength and thi incre sagt speed “sor “owtoey soso in desig by 18 S01 Upon tig nd er prio f tm, du sn ‘ec tho ian ene nt pit ey pnt Cn Fi 1.28 a he Spee ‘aia ships of he tess cgrm ested (i pie on nd Bow {tai ding os) wie aay aka & sen 1996) ‘The pos af nang [ong epee beyond te maton rang (30-s4°C and bring the mate es sea feel ‘ton sd eivaton fo eld wrk ar ape Onante Fa. 1.29 hoes ofhotiae sects praia ye produces ‘The snr old es ships nd he ome in elation oes ‘we nenone in be 112 Sich nome aol Be pope ondesood ‘ince wb flowed ah qu capes 112 Structural Steel Products ‘Sect rt neo dein cn be vi int the log (@) Fat eed postpone, fat to, see ad si, (©) Hotta setens—rale shapes allow sveral ton, Mtg of Set Srectes Mace Sra Specie $1 ole 1.1 Rolston tr saps exw) Tao Tied tome ale ine ‘aaa eae “sein “tiga Faas 12a tage T ‘eo ed sv Sam Sige na [tonnage od Negi of Oem rs emai ee Sn Aa ae a Retegatg 8 ert 48 gee corer tue we ees enh ict snc ela OTS ‘Sls nooo, ine et a re a whan ‘Sette desig ino fein basilica nd sight Rolsatel cr esr rote desma oe, tease ‘ler tse, RO immo I889 10 an) 18 andook No. sd 18 8 pli yb roa of enfin Sade, ordi ines weight and gentile ae enin cl ‘fame an an res es a Appent A Sne pubs de ‘nin te ples et sap ase eas ey a od ‘Anes ot 02007 1421 Cnoieo of Seton ‘The sin ofa sens i govemsdby thoes sci ern ma, rac fron Trg 1 408 and Hoo Nt pete ‘ost do oe tons frig ale ty ow sn ‘ei he mae. Therefore, Sighs povered by ony ecto sloth avai ft etn Anh apr ee "theese with hich sets can Be comm In ni SMB het te ‘et cml roe. So ems menter of SHB sect, A ony ‘esi camo are aie. Ont He nent ef eal ge ae ‘aia marker. Als nota oq anglserns are srey inte ma. Hen wil = gon fo ge ita be mabe seas oma poder ite SAIL anne deg nceoraly. ypc Aas ‘te nctonl pope of sone of te sean nace i a fem nes intr Sst am, cmsol cle amy nt be ospenty Be acs of cco ml tts whee ete Sih be ung) wl npn ep we ee he cme! sn eg ccm le cle or “hums Chace ny ed ci sop sal aig 0 eurEtmsunloes Ths icemeny un ronan ‘TRaner toga te ng we sbo me oe pen tht el telnet por te nel oper eae isnt ele ie ling cen ny shapes ‘em ni nen oa ce Ce wpe he Svan fw et emit ote etn ote itacy ese bad el att ela opal we Sone ses wich ny Se din! yal oo he deed ‘snes pinay enclose ‘loetatereoe! ty. “hw 110-207 colt nord is na ice ens \puoate oc eettonm cinaoe remanence Ismay menbus pedo trate peal na no section Stee gles 1122 Stoop Ie een fo ithe er i oven tt on tho ection ‘ary tee atnl ertmeat ert aly d wen no lend Ape cn stl ng few pea hip lle nl mara Siveg ane sand by epinzng na as td mong ot pe (ic 90 Sop es ebsites sere eel ne of ‘he crhnysesangle se chaning lesa ed sown in Fig 13018 Sesame naman Matra, racer ad Scfetons 8 ‘abet ht he anh ci ea 6 of eel weight More et ‘Sout is pf etn mayb fodin he per by He 1950, 112.3 Wotan Sections ‘As moe in Seton 1121, IMB sects the only tothe hed es swe a columns Such secon ne evel narow a $opng anges ik ob enarea wee eg sense Fig 131) TSMO bam ret zn eps fr emipeion manber Dose anges Also sine te ube secien wed went sen sigh Intent hie iad titer ot tle ton wh my be 25-43% hav i weigh) o ule sections ough welding, ing Which Fi 1.34 Wide ange sections Indl stn ea oe fli (© Wie ans be rove xsl secon ert, i igh ening {nd king restos df eH ahaped megane fangs a The (©, Thou orsecibame ede icon dessin een tp ine Hebenn fang, n taped water x nessry fr Bling, so the ‘une ct wlddiatnr ter e ba fange Ul eee poy (©) Sie Hams Ive higher tin mod fre se wi, ng sis ccamnea (A sing of dr of 10-264 Deceved) sings ow oticting cheney ow pou ove es with th sat th but with dif Deed we her, na Fangs with, ‘hin eas sings design an ingore eto cane. The pe of ‘amr econpred ith coer il we Marge bean 132 ich te manaelred shaped dps between fangs. This aod lio ‘scorn dco terse elmo lig pro 0 Dolce wee hiner ta he f convene! Hane Thee tne webs 52 Deng of Selene Ti+ TI o ° Fa. 12 Vide inge beams wth sete depth Btween fangs the Nitenper bam, ane) Someta ale wide ange bers anges Sarasa 1982) Thee wide pr Begs be and ans te ‘amos in nty Mi oS vad Powe Lied SPL)! aig ‘Cntr: Thesetonl opie emf teense n Append ‘AOther sete pope ty bs ete Rom ents) 112.4 Welded and Hybrid Sections sll peo -t paesa wee gaberf Fsonso to go sown in Figs 28 ad 126 (uc ute secon cn so be Pon wing ing ling) Wed ans with op ad bon pats Undelete ad le po. Wn makes par Shot ay sa shape ge te deed poping 133 swe ‘Siren poate tet deveop bp crest mens wing ‘rl Tope iden oe rte ter by wong ve Dang es Tyre wc pte hy cing ll -bea ongis slog we ab ‘Se tenng oan aren ante welling th wo ae bck ger ‘Stinson tho we shown Fig 130). Tapered pre aly wen the ring oro verge wheres eae nin he et | ‘fit columay rt late ie aap. ‘Sica beams brad eam by Panera un wer ig pte sng este ne F340) Oe to ‘wo anytime rc ele he oer. The es "eer etn, atone ler han heigl Cte ra be ce ‘exon dr nd ote of ie nd nr stn Fags 33 ‘Sow apekig tare wit cele bens hao iain sng Sonos est Proper of esl es wie of ISM ba a ‘hac oe en i Aen A. ‘Since web team ue conto it oth ending resins nd bce ng ar eps sede i ir economia ttve the wb of owes sea thn he ngs, Beas ih stronger sen he Mages she wet a ed ye ans. Suh ‘to ren ieee by wl pas diet sel seg ‘Witte dovapnent of high pertornce sels: Section 16 6 0% cose advange oops the at webs of amen ap beam ‘warped webs These eoapaed pl coldbe ded by cloning ling fc ue The szton ea ves tape shape sess ‘oss action. A apuese company bas developed Nelig euen tht Nerina St ig, 1.4 Tapered gio ard eavtaliat neams Des ofl Stes ey ses ase siren tio me ced sare ice Count esoaion deren teeta ee ca eat to me ms eee re etm woud wo on contol sp ao 1.8 Hato Ste Sections heeft npn. The adver is mete omen ‘Scttvatelmenten leg gasepinspsslemdrentein he wie Sets Need enn itn iat ge oe ‘e's Sct eto, ving ne ai of tion nal eos O05 Sud Rove eke oc athe mace hn) of ‘nian cl ep revent fs yk bing fhe ae Ueekemener Reenter shove ened irae al eve, fcuk cnr cme foie of Fak reine itgaceeremgstrhllow io entre spy ‘lsum toute sil md wed othe ger bs Fel ‘SSS atti low sons (RH) we spied ye eo Soke ‘Sipe (lage 1960. Tal on Allo ol provid x ceo ets o probe jn thblow mete ns oer be loin bei. {Thy pode aon fre epcty S ari Smee on Speetne $3 (©) Tayi gente con prob ing comet tale thro sted nh nro ny els aston by emaving he eto wel ples ote fing (9 Toying aceon ie RS afr cain not wo grade of RHS, ey, 210 MPa, 380 MP) ond = 10 na f= 450 MP) ar produce, oven tough seictons given 184923 ef = 10 MPa = 430 Ma he poate of lm actos ae ‘ven in hypo A. Rectangle oo seo (RS) a ale ae {025432 mm to 72 x92 540 ms ages blow sons (SHS) In fn 5325). mm 152152540 Billy hee re two mer cameos tol sel tne —weldod ndsemin ties io sled sl sess re ald i abe a ‘ele slong hy esting i aga ele ois Sine ty ae {ryt mettre hy ar made by een salle dis. Hence the ‘lea ad weg gully may ary ol te dsr bs areal ‘Soong the The sr my so belo (> foetinaed weed OU), (0) end emis (HF, (0) clan serie (CD5) (@ cesierntnge weed RW), (© cold came cli esitac welded (CE), and (0 oxyacaize wel (AW). ‘Aor el en sacl pape eae in the ges of stl oe Tle 113) gh mia, ad ey eer, Te yt es af "Yet 240 hewn ot id sends en the ade (re secon) avail nat. © Gade amin nn) Ya Cn) Tubes ae fen mace in gt ging om 407 stood Inve the oie tone. ‘ule deter: Up 0 ma, nina be #05 no -10 ‘One tle LD = 1.0e The sects proper ihe il ilow sense hen in Append A “tapers ote ny apna by te long eos = a0t 99) (4189) (1186) 80) ‘where ihe ameter ishicknes = (Dy ~ Dither dames {he ican, rs ern gyron Ze tbo wos an Fi be Tos be mtd hl bs having ha 328 mn hve to be cary ele Ith tube ndbollow ene plage a hen th ‘it the ste nie and corcson rs ot thse, wh wl a cdl te oly sags, 1.19 Cold-ormed Stel Sections, Cottfrmel et so ie om gage se is, 2 min ‘het 200.66 BG) andor sth S ny clfooned ele {ing ml oe reat, ed eo Kove ool ed pee tl ‘Corsica evelopment sta pla i the pedo of ow an ot sis mt i and a nthe Gl fst meer, Peso te ‘eens ely se fo oogonia an, a fo ‘et inch iting nde, ee of hin ried y the iain with a be preset. Ths pes coms of cod pe The ‘iesnd pun are sia pedo ele scons af eed shape. Te we) ‘sipped th ce an te punch en owe era ey ay om ‘he tl tip pred bute se dh ah ed he eon of adept witht evn sy sak it it rotenone Spismieg cats ins mtr pes ph ors member of gregh cold secon ae wed Tse scfm ino he uel hap by rsing mel sip eee ao ieee spogessvesc of oni pisces acpi wich ade seine) {ethene th fl pir rosin tei stan. eS, ‘otd-omed sel seo we ails of eae TaN I he {pad SID seo eld el ad he oly ra in was he ‘ir. Th al tons allow nn nls achat ped eed ‘Sui od ed(son ig 130) Outward Egedctanch ac ron eed Hat etn. The gh ind oly y canine ef tensor. Tht ‘iyo nt te shop en relate Sine can cote spe ‘st sed ty patie pupape Prpris of = and Cazes whch se en wed putin, gv Appa Mare Sens on Sfctins 5§ ‘hte 1.14 Sng ofa el fr efor se stone Re CU It LL Su Jl a e130 Vtoucal sel setne Cotto tons ae ost enw i rc of madre oad sd gon i which seams they ea be chp ton hte mabe "co the stucue fs nuch cue fon caper an oar Bem lp weigh and gy, Cele seine el oda fpr et wind trains ood ose Ieuan be USA thy ave bn ed ‘elms wth chants placedack otc), son a eyes orligt soe short pes nies br nd ss “Conetons are me byw psa wey sling wes bl ‘ol sve and ies nd te me ae ops noah ot "ha voi th of gust ps, Pr expe, ge sean ca be efor io wich te bang de 0 he a comton ‘Stctrl consirtons ae sur to hse in he don of atoy sae. The eign rate ou pion, te posi of ins sd a ano sete pth des "e provided ge need itt theses Ci 2000) Te wed tein fon cron simort, eas ofthe flowlg cr. (0 Ste snctrera nde po ey th las, oe tn 6m aes (aly20-40 rm tc) (@ Weitere ne ie ce ping (6) Ten comer yl dtd ii "The stu wl or tip el shel ctr 1S 109 anh sgn is ene por 4D shold be ted at ioe il working tee Into Hes he vison oh Gs wl notte daca bck, 1.46 High-performance Sts! ‘Anew rad ofc cll Ngh peta ste, HPSABSW was deol {y's sepertive progam between he Pde! Highvay Adnan, he ‘Nowra nade nite th Dart ft Nay Aug 134, ‘Te benef ltl fo HPS cde became weld, rogers, ros eit dil. goa estan forbid enh ‘Tht conterlledto cones slants oihrcoemeefeey, enol minted ogee Ahongh ine stele seein vel she curable AASIFTONZ7 Grae 45Wstel (een 85M), isang cena tnd plas pepertes alow he se of resonate pes ‘Then diftence toca M20 sel dP re tht hte eis slot ifs ch bons fore andoe eth asm ap Tens ales of ofr 200 uments a cpr 0 vale O30 62 [Dipl rthe comet ss Buse th wef ee nnn a epee which lowed pod of iano ese ost HS el Trae can so Be eye tte ene of vital 1h whoa ak age when ene te eoamet 443 Hydrogen induced Cracking ‘Aon heat of he HS Reseach Prog develop bg se wit ‘gieanty Ineoved bi. going went sds iho of ‘nico soit ih reat empresa pt eb fowls ‘ramen ner sine nl ed nate nde cnching inte "dopo nine cling, ao Ano eyed cacking ed aking, tas tne oof he st commen and aru rol een In sweats ride “he common soe of ydoge is iste. Gras, oxides, nd other confine a ptt seers yaogen Hy ge ho theese an bs ineoe io the wed gon droop he Weng cro, sag ‘ramets ad gee yirgeinicel cng cn or Bs wel hat afd son (AZ) andthe so (2, Wi he enn racking ee cog theca tht exe kg ene tere fr th HAZ an 2 Fort AZ, ‘auling cn in he modem snaking poeses thas, wih Inert means avid cep mcrae abd lite oes Iyaapr inthe he met ee and by sing poper welding oes ‘ncn peste on pt Far be, mao cpt hoger Inde emeking nace yang alloying clement costae ad ‘ing proper wel tig, icaig pert ea np Mest Senn Spins 57 ‘Tem crnnn and eee meted of tinting yogeineed racking lnsreiyingamnisum chest depp fr wling Ingen telstra hese clans oman obi ices eth get the ie fhe yop aise es he al Hower ening Is te conwmlg acy: One of te goal of develo Ng Fesfonanc tects toes or inne het 1.14.2 Weathering Charatorste of HPS 1 ws pt of tint rsouch jective ty devslop HPS wih ‘wentering “rt, meaning HPS sou ave he sty stor withering ‘nde sol esr oon PS te a gh be seers ‘ones isan hm ccnvensanal pe MSW 43 sel er ui ‘steed inceortne with AST GIO, este can ene index (Ch coven Gre 48 ih we tind fe PS AW 65: Dag shoul alow the sane pine al dang peice ho ‘eaves ering grade to ene wei ations of HPS ‘ec ups cance "Hes 485W is peodaced by quenching and tenpsing (QT) or tera ‘nec cn rsng (MCP) The chic onde piperie hse esto pete Amero Stas ae awn L1S on 16 ‘Rel 1.18 Chis euhemerte thigh romances ASTM E80 Seige CF 8 a GW Gm YAW ‘Rl 18 ec eet HPS te Iobmmarnied gat some area OT 3 co nar) as 700 Nini suare aia nee Fig 17 doh Cito canes fr FS 5 aso Weel Tae die etn camera Sinker ones hms ts ey laser np, whe ot WS ees ‘bite behaviour, “ ‘Asa YS 45 pny rein in rnb seo Spe py stent eel ele ‘mite ie kgf cn Test eo Seas 1a 137 Charpy Vth (OM sion coe hgh peomancy tes chested for defoon (init of LS, tang. spe and constration Jrocees,onequnct The AASHTO HPS gue enougerthe we of Trice combing he a of HPS ASW aol gd MW ses Aid lrbiton of HPS A85W7 fe ree moc epi and pa SOW and {IPS SSW in oer aes, uit he inn, o HPS and ania “Tn etka Degree Tampines the Git use HS 488 in he dgnanconain te San glen Syria a welded la {hier 37m) bc wish opened scl Oster 1997 The of HFS ‘ted in 242 sdutn wel costs 10% saving in alco it "Teco USA in 1996-1 cue produced by etch Lakes Pa, (Oregon St! Mls and US. Se Tn Api 202, thr note 21 HPS 7OW te! es in servo 13 moe wie ede vor nap of eonscon int USA aloe. “Tugs tPS wconsoed api oneal ies ingens ave oben eit (igh yt toenail evo wich nt eben tarhgnke on), (@) Costin bs eri ant {3 Cummty. i ASTRO Namal fo Deven of Stet ie ls 30 Tinto tt pen al won othe ihe ld eg of HPS (amas et a 37) ‘hein se Rene abr seedy he Nato! sie of Sind mi Teil USA is corey developing dex shossope “cdots the dain of PS rytems re eto HPS ny Fel na eo (1987), Ges Lin O02} 145 Stainless Stee! “Tog staal offs many arin ch igh seg weight ‘uy bone wad ert peste diy on ee esas See nt Spans $8 _nifrm proper die, en cna ae vy ied eo fer ‘reo Hence ile sel we evlpedt being iene ‘euyw rue ey se) Sace war expense wa sed as “Sat forties, rasa iia opi ain te cher Sir, burng ti 190, es psi o ms ric sins se tow ‘lt dt hadnt nefig poco Ts ol the greater we | “Sls oe nhc rot and tar eansnedambls espn Jopan Reco yes hve nee grows fine el apc at Sepa ‘Sons nde, fg rn tees feng en secu ‘online Ten sine lis rnin varios odes ($8 31,5838, 55308, 558108 $86 88 6, 86321, $5409, 85 944, $5 418, $8400, nd 230 dares at os ie i stata pois Hse ‘eo molt eens wwe setts aber tan scaler foc ste sole itn, However, ough ns sil pocon baa ‘terry 20000 msn 7, tinal buon alin fein 2003 “Sint el reais owen sel owe tors has est eds is eon of on so peer an 10.39 weigh, Tt ie tel ior il corel essa ores ‘lke tess serve gh tego waht ato, wesble ciently ad in actags over the oe sc a 8 excl es ape carn se, high nl seat ak {mugen nd ngctend beater. To ex part ee in te ‘Saztt angerspsa few oor asthe ‘Sar that of ghateote sts (F138). Ts a compact exten hr eae whch ere tea ler eater pyc wes iene, silos so bs a ‘Sande eon ihn welded yield res. Thrse he el gh [Tale seis gealy ited tens of» pot seg defined fora tel oft peroet saves he 02s) seinen ron fg. 8 Seesesinncrw cl tes ta aa erbon et Pp 38: thkinl mots gross he rst forse ec, ‘capcom! tts gan teow Foe eels tec, he ‘ba te orem my bs fent sn abd comps nd the es rye sitrnin ogc ands ions epecige vmod why ected Teeth ane ta sang Comer i eb aenppeso snleie! menber,Heoce ‘Sreal eis hve develop prt ule rhe dig of ales ‘ic cc ce em an 1994, ASCEANS 49 ENG.) Bat nan Cad prov fr he design 0 ies se! embers ot fale. Tasco of oer why Sis el mee we ot eh eet er bg mae tonto sain lint caton ssl sch uli a ogni re isc. Fg 199 show ow {etd ovagh sede cng pendence Wiebe rot eng {rene ss esos olan tos temper 300°C > 300°, htt ‘Sins spr esos sing poset eoacton of ‘Sigs gio sel wot repo inon a. .90 Stas tenperatre sation tai Sereinsnees es agi ss seem inaei ovr Smears se Speen ‘Ofte vos abe rade, $508 $8341 $8205, 40, nd 88450 we ‘uinblefor seus! spins, The ches, estan nd py Properties of hse ge mopvenin Tb 1.1, nC proper Ferd tel abo gen ronan) ‘le 1.17 Chan conGoton nace) fier sl Salam Sted a “ ‘ Gace) Bite) Sn) GW Pm Sm) S509 ase. 160 $40 8a0-1178 astm) Aes eaD S80 02” 10 Lao eerste) oan 003 ea — ‘1.18 Wachncl popertes rai condi of lod ten tee (en cn Se Sl a “ (os) cag Dems Anas) fai gripe ‘tet Pye pope of CRSS 0S 8a Salam Sh 18) ema) sas ss Ts a sy a) " Moet slo se noone of hen ctr marens ri, snd seni, the nan lakes fom ir mall se, Maes ‘apse ty din baling cl Wea igh eben aed. Fite ihre maa, conosco at uso i 62 Deion f Src exe of 12-30% Thy ae iid a he BSE 40 es 9S 409 and 8 90 FEES hoya to sense in es appeieonoamen, ‘thereat con fest impress 2000. "Tee ses poses god iano caraon ad Ive ood wedi (Gaomce comnts tha of 30 in) Toy a fiony commended for components which aed pint coin, sch nme rapes mop, ah od "heat stele many in ber and ail a compost. They conan geet nd hve ext cmon rte, Alou ob ‘td woking hy develop igh strenght on ach tae. They he nel ‘peley sd esi in th ISL 30 ee (uo no 199. Nor ‘egos cl aplcon re S308, SS S04, wo 83 316 Gade 304 Shon e sed for ener seen er aml, fae 316 isthe bs nef eeloieone (86316 taal 4304 rd wih ion e024 mayen) : ter ages i nso ae, snd tases sce fr Cerhgnts pons oil Litecyle ot sng hows hat ules ste Stace wb nama er 20 years. The caret design poy of oping arcs whch shu ve mn espn of 109 ys with ihc be eyed makes tas el of he oe 1451 Surace Fesh et aed(hin gongs pr) ie tetra wih eflowng fee hr 20) No iht oet ish No. ana th, pond ery ey, molely ete fish an Somon iach ne No. 20m dl very po torecve Aah aves Bee at sn) No.3-A estos wif, oe ish ing 100. 120 gabe NSEC top pale ih wth ible recon gin ome 12.0 Te pit abse. The vee il i Oars aus pod faite clesed BA fis rede otra snd dre so ‘Stuandeced ata ot Mn Serpe io, how ng 40 Sean 20. 116 Advantages of Stel as a Structural Material Ac metond ne ino, se sve amg vet ‘thr contin atria Tes advange or fows, ‘indo weal soon weigher thn we nae fe ntl One bai (the egw a et 3 es pret hm eon “ore oes of ata tab (th dis of 40 MPO), we ended ue on qual conse (M0 ee abr 200 ots. Canes 4 Degree Sc sami eat when ee emacs Tit 2. gut lnprmc rng bug al apy ed sect th poo fenton Hoh cy aw aves key hry fs wishes (oun exci dmnn non le ner high ese ‘hel dna, Amal dorothy OS Be {ite piel ok ame al ‘Tere seal tots eet se ating doe ‘oe pe ae othe diy oA fri args rcs Sis eee sto tesla wen hihi ned ar ample ie ‘hen sage dln pe ate vn of opening aie thsi prs oop Ina eB med gh stesso sy Savy orp ‘itm fe else oct a any ey oe ‘nt ovnig pons tony Te uy stereo oso yp, when mpd i toons vig rea T= eel ‘pur in tice uly nate a cess spo Geaingin foarpultnunce spencer wr cme nd erkpa ct coal poe ati) Msn popriss oho mt Sings pci when oof ome nora Sn tse stad eninnmat sien, Ort {00 lion once of sel arsed al woe, ich epee Soto prdaced Se owe vrai be ee Doct his srl canbe sein ne rt oersnter wile a. St ome ety yee sy spn ae ercuptao tnt een ieee fm Atte cc ‘tases hatin aly be dabei Bend of et ‘Tiss many envoumcl fl trom omg. Mette se ‘ing inh ving of ys sve CO nied er te el Freda poco Ian lo tone companmi cmt ele ‘Shyla eottendy depot maibed core yi Versi Using stl sel posit ten diffe meer og Uyrslngeconeon ecu sh wa, Bling an ein Stel Imonbrcan ln betas vio toner dope, desea Proltfeston Oe, tl consent re marl he tary (sich Ines hat tye pedsed ngs supeviaion and ge eon, truptd on reddened ing bing an sam sou of wl ‘Tsikot pretation hoo ony i oontoesuctes The petition et Src nt Spetons 68 st sts rns in he proper pasing of onion in tine id toey, seedy recon, ad beer uly ibd sacs. Ligh eel Pamanenc Sc es ae propria at indi, Sev strata ete alt of ste sacar e ge Ee “Tower and Rive Dig sr te ih of Fost in 990, ne ‘eviction, wethngtel Go ot ere ny ping 0 ttc Coe aoc dettrtan ye xs viral treat os ‘s(n cls couanoton, ascent encore ater, cs) owe, ele repibe talon ay gs of eoson. Ba onc | ‘nroonets ina conan ancae cod wha te do equi de onan Bein sod pun, sae bon fod tt sl bags oti enue fae of any reseed cence bes al ‘Addons to esting structures The epi ad eft of el mabey ‘heir sensing a fred (fe eta, te nono eae een) aspartam cnr ene Thus en er een ons no ‘vend Of eons, sei pseaon be wb ken whe welding on Least turbance othe communy tne contin assist ‘ensracion signs develop in cet yas hve dnote tat sel Stren the et po tia nie Gael ey Comm sine. Seaman ao sl es alone pala Facturetuahnass Stal tel gh we eds ly te ily af malo taba ey ing em ieaed pte) Dato ‘Stuoes and dry soe member on be eed org for hing heaton ed tc wits Eat, ta loving thon be ea hemmed seed nd uve is punted na wot ae age Esty Sie Selaves cls odelgnasunpians te most teri eae ion Hooke iw upto ay igh tee, The mort finn fo ste can be defy eat ile alts ned fora rice Conca rac stent and pendant fern MeCorae oy Hough stl a several advantage othe fwing ndratges Nabtnance costs Mot sa se supe conclon went exposed toa and wr nd thre be perl pies Howe; vexing Sel dost nnd ob pst Stel rb es eso of digs ot ‘posed in dnt ade ity. 6 Don Set Seis Froorootng cots Ati eral mendes itconbile i atags steno recede pera emo each ns whe ther utr ntl tem Fuhr since sted rex ean, ‘tpn el bes ey Cnt eon at ah aig en ‘hem nadoing eons oti lig Doe te ts th et ae ‘bulngay ave te rotted mater han ing rt ‘ios dicted Cage 16a in, big ray ave ode danger of cking hgh ste Baa igh tog prot ri steels hye ob ined ens king ling rs Temi widen ones Fatgu Another nds propeny fst atts Seng ay be eat Iesbjcd wa ge mune of tes reveras ese yin ea rom (The tg roto wey oon re ene wee Feet ete seis of sch member nc tan peer eyelets spt (ce Che 7k auc retans ‘ip. 117 Types of Stel Structures “Toe stcun eine wb conemed with ean ofa yey fatter, ‘alangs Tee may eae il seni, ripe once fin ‘eng wal cable stayed and eaters satin ny singe ‘antsy, with omy pn Formalstoveyetbulls, see ‘eraltacag stn veer deveapd, hats gee yi ‘eal crest, Bldgs ae soca ning tue ssh eo, ‘necro, i There bing ny ile a el me Shown ng to bvea sit of pry ot ering wal, The ae ‘Helton ible maybe iter planed, vo ot things | ‘tseorcouma stam The rs omy Be ied pi comete ny ‘Sse varios shapes hate novel bing yen Caper 1), “Then msactay atone leat on pte lst gd iol ne plane Smo bigs ign ts ‘wel a 72 lines, bt his pe of fame wl nt be coated fn i xt {te Subranian (959) fr he ent of renin fase), The a ae erating om considering oi the peal ane tens oe ‘heigl eon ss ft and may he oot sever si The cig ‘eween their neo cl th by ray wal Selo floor ba re edt apa he hye sista Sings st ides (sly hover emt ie ar ery) msming te ms Oe Mowat, races ot Sion 6 tae Bawerinet | [Stee Sroetaysar eegetset aap sngeorseaton bo 4 ‘acigetana tet (orettae seeps ymca po eg a At Type oto ects Fee 142 tsa oats of aber wed toes nds digs whee ol big ae os pol ely "a 1-4 fret struct eben instil gs ‘het estes eal bung consi fein, om Kind of decking. ‘tnd amnteptot coving The sn oo aming cna 0 he rf OF HS Ti ny of Set Src isin ay ot Sig ty wih pars ce shut 06-2 rae ttn the pe ook acing or beg we Sg ro ae Seis suport frie pt nen sloping ols, arin desis ether mpl spat so hye ening te Secon ToT Toe of dec ts omy en elds rent ane ‘hy, woe nig pes en, lakes, ptosis ‘SSCA atenon fc he Dent severe! coies de 0 heath ace, “Teg maybe made wp fel oat meal snc sts orn call cata wal) cog of vo metal Sets with ame lig lt, Keay nd pect poured one or bese, A The ing rey ns ond opm! beige baling by oes sa ad [Broa nda bang Fg.) Noe at panel 1 can ce a on es (te otek ow be) and ois settee oa rao carer apart oe nd ating on be sing tb ag shan es bi vst) ate soon Cig chant ‘rand deem onthe canbe edo spree. inser erESi norton ers ery tye th avn procs, ro at iodo ats nd so ret ear pet Hid tye rape (ing bls roa pti oudoying mere “To wna plat er ge ae commen) adopted fx wal ede {pasate peso tds forgone Many pero TP Waren, nore Kp Wiese wel in “Tela ype tas oth deck aon tops veagh ps eae ser btwn rls Th dk pes pried sh case ‘ow test ite tr, eon he pl cold be me oes any wtb th ype cabins of uses (longs) td per (rare rata pn) ao aged proce kp thy no be lsd aud gy, rood and pods dG, penn won | Towers Tome yb feet ype, sah ihing tower, owe ‘hinsea ten centre, one fr me TV inal, lepone ‘Moa ter ar ne of sel angle oben, which oblast. ‘Shorey tens They my be ean, cu, or spre. Thy can Be ed {Ration tate They may 6 te poder devel ona spine Other structures Sos, bushes, des, fled pst, offre parm ‘imsey colin ve, slant se sce te schlager may eee po es ipa pas of sane marie! so ee mec eget ‘toa ur oar boscas)ete Fie 1 show te psoge fridges Bridges may be clasifeds ipne gird, ac, cies, ctf i otras Scar od ceo 69 (Sh Ain Spon Sra: Mo. rg an a (Gen Gt te, Son Fac, my On Sane Pema an tte yneks ries) Morr, Snes nt Seeotins {eon leit aati he x of ent which a Seaman Mel iin ees ange eee inet which thy tan aes Tension members ores Teson meter me sacha seed deta fore br Ty ecu ‘ran drt wind nora The Spates (0411 mt pe Sat alr, eo JA a eye chiper csahasse Rowe icng eee 1.49 Pht lace ieet os te rakes Comoran nears nds onpesn amt te Se FD Stet caleba te pos a ris conprenive comnts fn int ‘titrate somes tne eed ws tnd scng seco nha ‘Stiverie members eon an sly load column oStpy 9 column, ren ily ode cls wt be lowe 100% of eat eo the penn otbecing Th deg of umresson mont dase in (Caps nit ofbean uma tisha boing manent in aon 9 ‘Sori ise x Cage (3. “soa membre Sch neste a fle enecuntered insta of machines Cf ese, tinal efit shoul be sos in spaniel Beas 0 (se Chap Pises Sone buy memes and seve gig el fone meno {Senne po str pn lane, whe ae table o bce nel Gre (hope, ‘Oe, coubinaon fan, bh a eang ad omen, bending salon one ltt a iin ees ‘Ent cber my be vvondy In th desig, ich seoondry ction weal a {ates count Hwee the snc actos conten he meer Inst edge fr te combined setae "Asean hve ents Ons coun enson be) sxcpinclopeternsemenork ty msasotwlg bling ceri These ‘ting ein en lg of omaciom rcv Chops and. 148 Alumioum Alors eau ft yess wit weigh compar ot of sh ‘isi sting ny sac pan Rr {hot peice cori an ae Ahonen spe for iu vey sng dn rash of nly 9 MP. Howe yc waa atte ely, renga be ed ato 30 ‘Testy min sens fel C700 2808p) meds chet bot oid ht of el (042-073 x10" BP) wie Sout feral xpos ttt el out 23% 104) es ‘Sites welded td po ich strech 02 or ecm ofthe ower mode of easy, seminan member re net serie bung nd ees th tap end weigh fen oe ‘ptsesttitrmenber Hove veo aan enlace Srocu dee alder! svsnge of ol mince The Got crc of Shia tres sit ohne of te! stars, Nee ‘Easton gn pe fama ty Be an i 8 8147 2d A sd Aan (989. Mano, Sree nk potions 13 148.1 Mothemates!Represeotation of Nontnear Stese-Stein Curves ‘The rose yield plata af rill stl nore ni sot ly, The nna aes ces ee ters an ‘Spresed males ag te Rambo Dips capeion li) on cn (20) gia eles toy bath proven ‘ula for te once cls ing higratngh lad eos sn ees lg pe oan Stara ef eran ane sgn fe ‘cs () he xia den, For i et ses ewe Ses ‘leony ts er, i: _eh foal £) aan a on nd ti pet» ng eotadyar ee nn ee 29 “oa } tn (2 ta he RO! psn mathe hea ata gt Sypris sacra hon efonal £) mersta ‘and, . ae seas() oxy 14 Deft Src “Te arene twenty fing -sin.cvewith Tene wat fondo Bence “Therein fertieal-ange tre ance (5942) aoe ce nn yf) fate aol tee 6S) Far any store as nytt be ea te ‘clowuble apr athe eng empress nes. To cat for hee sions, Rann (2001 devebped the falowing expression fo Ge ‘borin teen aa (24185 a So raaises 39 focal, wtf a7 aoe 2 where 00-ineeslonl equivalent yield ses ion by = fas of (128) 19 Fabrication and Erection -Accrng the eign of von meer of tts he ain od ‘tien sue nde ite tse Teens te beston af ‘ec! uses soul confers 7215 Tos vat sci n e eton ‘hop nl he lowing. {3 Eva ating eth y wings, coeig, hal cating, or tng, lon te exon ding te Sch, ) Sinise of members, {6 Cenbringof ean, {@ Drilbg or poeting oles, (6) Weng of pve place, {0 Machining o bat ins ap, nd ts, (Soc ropron, che ag. (3) Pang er easing tr lg i i, ‘Ming, Shp stony nection, (8 Inposion nd ein nd Peking "Tere pat eh tant testa esac i reed flowing te eer kano sil I 1S 1284. The poral lees serene piven Tle 120. “Tesh anes icprt ine eign def 15500: 2007 we rons le (21 Whee orate ced ee vhs het of onl ‘Srvc enh dence sale viewed Aeon mambo soak ‘rdf setpoint thems io wh scouted Meal, races od Scfoons 8 ‘hele 120 Nema rans ter nti isan a dae ter sa Fa tin ob ic ma-toeed Oh, gh tn nar eatin nen of ems ESE, th ite i ‘itary tan fmt tate Borne Ses aekeToae ime fost: Intent cobon a getry OES ei cl ‘ey wna seat ‘moutte poe Ie ft ln fl ane Mew O72, (otompree scones) Sit ia, ‘hol 121 Sule aan canta degra ‘Spas eiom tienen OTT pil NTA _ setrbomenonrtehelsellyhlo eo aae whe te Sisclecnp ate" py Seiintncenmrintiarstmn fe it i embe leosenciaeswepme ene oman wher fo aga SSicisaiy ronment ep eye ‘Afraid he seid renee be pl ‘nthe sur of the sel mee ado No pig Salama be fied en he nc srr nthe con emeton, Mate pon Itseton nd resto o el ste a given Soon FS 802007 ‘She commenaon fo see! work nal Conte lo given ‘ex 6 ofthc 1301 Erte that Leo wo Fares ‘Tort hana but te consequence ofan ori srt dic do Ibo Me a ange property Hace rset To ape we ‘som cane, Sailr an ono dt omc ffi bl tes [erly do not a fe Te majo seta ure (wet fhe clr of the ctr fen ue we det eet desian,| Crs ptt ns able 2) har bs oat BN tae freon cor (Brwn ae Yin, 5H Heep {icenpnsts nd cnc scons aot ene “Inscommon ent to ah pings design pane 0 he ‘owing arin a Ps 1982, od Seaman 98,1989. | 16 De ofc rae (© Iveco he yea bela of he ce nero ch ede (Woon bt naps thr aye o) En necting el xan easy he tion et {8 Norcent taconite peat ig (4 Latest reflash its et facts (6) Inificellowances fr tomperture rains oeemoes, ec (@ iuccer frmatn et ew nests wats Bion, ‘Nowa cpee ope ing wd sk ones i whet cong tints ee oars Such nga eoens ele Eom ttn en ning io sd sion Hs ans. {tang een peo lor wrong ope a lege ri {8 Usteite wong weg fssion eso Seto 121) {© ron ntorzatn srry, oe ko ope ‘eld wellbg Soo td (@ Eros dnicinpopr iy nit ett aan ezrin tee oft rst, wich et eet of {oct dso shane ee Sieg aed rng een tops fond a in oneal ence weft geo pve (© Bee teen oy pron tos 2) 80 (0 po mine sce at vas pesos en proviedby Lowy and Savas 4 (09nd, Rasy (BPI od Fea Carp 1997, Case sti fain {ares poi optnitesoe empovs nike nin 1959 ‘io: Stam angi 197 198; Kevin tl 200) 1.20 Aesthetics of Stet Structures ‘odor bog essen ity et ung ano Metal, esd pcos Th ‘pe operon Aetna be viewed capeste npesion ft ‘ul spose fda nana lng, ate ui ay be ode ‘hese it cal lyataniemones hewn hd om without, a the sppance of te blog wth eeenae Yo saunas Tater ste het golly be agedin ts oe roporon sodwelsofthe dive eens, the sina ofr ote bacia yet, iesin feos camped ohn oe nee, ahd he harmony ‘Sais f these wth ba er atl evn Of ets, tee ‘Sate faces shoul bo conidered in nion to funcloaiom, prt ‘mettre consonants. "Amo 300 yao th Roman ennai Vi oad ernst cong be seein ory ssi. Aczrding iad sym sagen etn, poet and ean ae te sc aces at nance teste qo src (Kavanagh 5, Hovee withers prin nde ss ons depnds pon whet lesbo tocvoke memotion laine he wich s seis extensy complex tute The apes contre oh gus aed vio brent {int be pest sce hy evoke dirt pane ies a fod ae tend te scope fer dcasion, Nowy, dese lave moved ‘ay fom on met and rr tare mare een ard yeni ‘rote et in Pl 1, which show he Gagne scm, Bit, Sam are dein bots dren tay be tnd Karasagh (1979, Sra (1957, 209), Billoo (18). 78 Desi Sel Src 4.21 Gomposte Construction a ry en a emgage i Sor ight ht Soman ott anette Gomer Se se ene iecive cra eaten eet teem Somat as sconce ioreaieasasactmnectcaicr a warn tamatasme eevee SSomecerommawmooe i ae Fo 1A8 Vso yes of compet conten (0 tampa corn dpe o oa (belt toric ed 710 $08) © Pope timon yoo meyers eoken — oe ets ping ten ye af wt oc ‘ eliminated (singe the coragated tctal deck serves the purpose of permacest SEES ees demon iret te a ttc aaa, ‘Seon tne 9m. (RET TPaowe con ca eso le inti eis) Ten gh lei ey esr ic do fan a cone ‘Soya due sal, rae ad Seton 1 In nih eign compsite conning 11384 = 985, ich tithe wing testo fat Hence, connection wil Tote corset inher det of pn yb ound Net (Go Marina Puke (1952, od Kuk and ron (2002) ‘netted woud The heme eamposion and menial properties ‘iran of lw alae, Qe tp sete sel or the projet ot In) Properties of sia el soc sess tec, he ‘hoc el and cl trme ote edict, The morte reper {sical sea sre ume ad yield sts, dott, opens and ‘ela. We sol een iat tye seas messed ye esos upon, alfa ty sve ary suc he a a ng nd pein ‘fom wich the toe ebapone re ke. mater popes can be incorporated inthe desig yh ost of cei eng Diy and toupee very porn when el ace je 1 at Tens orp ale nny Sng the nine tak it tink bt ri con Fs, ‘worse souk come be working enptaerige nd fo oft sce, ‘nd dss wher te cmon oie ick mtr staple edi (taattcory mance ins rl ace an expe ie Charpy {np ng exons Tt ne lw wong temper, Ocoee ty of dg, cealng, and Mbecaton me so equally pari In He Pron of ite acre One shoul aed ane se rao ahve ‘oath fen ow neil ces hiss as paint tra section ‘Story, one mat cone ge lnc Whee th ince of igh evel of ting ete at farce, nate it ast chk incre opening suceeded ces aparing Festinger Res wes noe oasnaton fe sul propery sccm rn te ig "Feo ny Fe 0 pnd mld! sen nda, # pra 0 ck hater pole tau hse se. Tou te cst of ih tng Ses my be 10-20% ihr ae ry rt eee nel lg ‘Miecnat fondson soe OF core seeing heh erength ety th {steton ci ay bene een! ew the rel ston Sex Other Spel peat el areao sve andinay bespecieg. pentng op ie ‘Sosa cn coidrdone ong fe Scns ‘Att inosine, fe etn, ad gn esse fel ‘ho ges wich ve Goss etal er hes, An eevee of te set ype swe peso etn (ese sg cael, allow ‘ene an pro eto (cpresin en, bending pre ‘die qate etl nncesmcing he concocted in aches Review Questions peared cnet tcl al and ood " Sot ctmi Mycst Garrandiceneteneietedetiedwa Wore ire btn profuse fli inetd sel pants tinsel pene? ‘Murr orc betwen tag aed aig? Dest poc dng aed Mateo acs tation he ety, ela, eng nd thoes 1a, Win reenact 1 Wha types otc ? 1 Ltt tc pti whine Tf Ghethows opiate ony ¥medion cette eqs edule ak eng eto per 80207 1, Behn tne 1S Whately gh? 2, Wicca Wy ingore” 2 et mac dl he oie eet (0 toner. 18 Reopen ee tarnne, (8 cons resins oso nd (6 igeresince 25 hoch stesso eum, eed nan dw Mere Soci on Spifsatons 8 26 Wha ects ented of compen emery 30. Wiese rt on lw sel sn nd co ome el a 31. Wharishyopesdiod enctng 530. Wis wether ohh pomece sec? 53, Waar nage fa Wt resis ince sa Sarena i ed a (@) Penton dein oe tae, (0) Nonna sce sein cen (@ Vato positrons wig {6 Aster ofa ase ed (© Advanta ofcomeste cnn The Basis of Structural Design 2.1 Desion Considerations Siu se. hough mm eons Then t's pein ge sce ns way a as inended pao ing nnd tte sib sue (es ef Seas, ant cl ine ae eat serve Ge ‘emof alien, diye) ean eit sd econ ‘ihe nun et af eosracon sl nnn) sip ‘nde ead Stay if parsnip nay sats, wd oie that he os felipe 2 cri et pw nny ‘ae moma expe sre by tt a tno fe as {Ghee eae wid) dao lca, 185) Cll ue to vari psi sch epee oad exceting theloaeningcqciy overning ng bling age ce oa ‘oer spe eee rte she shale suite neal cnsone (en pron of ced eels he ‘eit he easter ens) tr weapon Jitsu inte Scriven rele te wy fh ttre sac shad ecm sso aml sie bs ion ha oth wet doo ‘ee delet cei itn, Oe const fey ‘eect. tpemenby serbian nye ‘ha sigh ha neque he style ed nt aay he ‘ervey regener Fa exc, a eam eo eel my he Ste stfnen roid bry a nen Bc ier oft sb tenor whi ili so perce (Geaing) Sit, ego eevee creo ery weg Sint, Ince te sp rei of tency vib, butler ofthe orcs Faron conan an fed ick at Te Baef Sat Digs 8 ‘ay he ea ct at sk ee ct nde gs nice fos For eae sig a veyighatength alo ic wh an snes esa te nem nt ceo High sng ee he he design mie cox In tigen buldng Nps coor {isp sec ye dee wl ely sheen Wile sing te mata ae ten fr he rt the designer ho onsite e-em environmental fect, Such ees cmon ie "inoue ran evi eye, shoal enol snes, epi et ek estation enol ot ‘smanting of aca ae te 2.2 Steps Involved In Construction ‘ie conection fay rote hes hy eps Alasgh the sna one reoniefr enh tests eae ne of em tint renkng stan rs aetna sn, sonia vile peng adders ‘th cvkeant Tsay a maybe ited oe 1. Aniipsivecvee iif s et ed wp he tecory He {uci Hea cme he hes pet Mapes ‘uy ce he vss conan frags se) ‘Nil mejor sv end de tec ‘Aste rege emg ss pecan ad tera pn ote sntre chs a ena he oon, heh nd sy orem 44 The campo atop ps 5. The gral nner inept condos ee owt ata ofl Weta cipssveor nh cmd gre asl poe «Them, sean sa tbe tree denny hese wi theelf teseocoat engines anon tinny Join else ‘si cists noni avarice occ 1. Saabs nti ero es ceed et pe) ts ae fe consi the oid peter eo ray ‘vay aon des of apron oe: Wiese Stra conto sal be pv ss dong paces ‘onl peers rap xan etre Theta eer ints fe ond ne ino, thu, at ong on ete, + Theat ies anverete snc en secampting vcs ose ay nung, bang nr condting ent ‘ter final requ ay ett ace eae ‘ste ei fst my ei! oe ‘in the alain nah chesng aca eg ‘dal eng Sl become 4 Daigle “oe rush reo sui dos coon. 9 Tete Sot eter! ang ven we soe ane ‘joe cement by tina (ona Leute anpoting fc yale ‘lp ln, 10, Asse ancoal yey wih ead of compute Oe peel fer nnganria cleans fee 6, Seen vrs he cotinine 11 asa nt yc hn of ius ets ae se ing call ovo, Th ei shad ede nssh {Eee wiresnvt logne eli ste slo statin 0 es) nl whence epee ring coston nage oad hve et iy oer amano, ‘Mec old tbe sly damagdor coll erat (© testauhesanocy ipso crrgunc fener 12, Thule ancl et thon redo ain lowing cot rarer Pt mma dope dons wheal avings and va Retr arvesatte ques ied hfe cst con 15, dnt ms oder being ioe. Te Bbc cont qu by dirt nde, he eral contr rh. Ste chose 1, Teco td ont Teeceeuwiags an il of ly of mas (800). The oct ‘See aan approves ig 1s, AU Rar mn th dng bd on te speiciosgiven bf Tischer Dung onto, eon coma St emia nm ve ems tx be Se ag mt ncn eno Stonehenge meal pene neo of en (Gann for ent psu” sem of ero f does wing 4 eer cm nce some cl coin squeaker 9. to, Ise gine wth helo uly Son ington, ses 4 ae ashe ml cs ome te st set mds tsi ad sc aa ices pc conn pt Soe eh ber pts 20. anc adn eb wap oe pepe pemet (9 model Ope etnef Sra Det 8 ‘poling vital cones nd conta, tie bling ie Frente tp, be ear ht acute aetna my bot pode se seve eds rcs Statin guy ot deat ‘hang, god sper, menace se bo el mp The ako 21 see tly soma the maton ties valved nthe consrcinnofastire. When he susp seul ngincer ‘rw isteach te wetetpeet manger a suo Wie (etn ‘geo, chanical eghcen,cilexgso, geal npn svoju, ihn plane esr tard innpontethl esas he deg (eg. bedaso mecca adele tens) tas be ed ha tes 8 (STi etch ae led suny te Geignee tt sihtonred {penton bt iva wn Fg nd. Tisbok many ores seit 11h egy fc hme nly cry expec ods {denne ta tse od th ete pero soc, Se ‘Compo salu weall he sme ov), csign sacrenve ‘ue espn, jing mal nylon, Hee, te m0 (eign echo oc dng oon To dx srer ei, whe lat he Ga eostacton an sx Theee, he eae abo ‘Sehis ening lant vere eds th cosa rie tft = 2.3 Role and Responses ofthe Deslner “he sj of design sould be he stievemet fan ase psbniy| at etme wl pert usin fre encod pore ing Saga With th prot doen of ey, etre hold tank "etoods eldimeons dig entangle abo have ‘Meg sun cela iu Resets he ve asco sevenl acer whe ding ine ssc Thes tr la (2) mata be ed 1) sranconnt aft scar yaa (eg, bess nd Rowing ten, (0 type eising (king bolig ee rion and ton, (0 Ina of svc (wt scaling) per, elation, beng and bein ag f(a sey, como od ness, © reasiedcomsine proton, (0 ee fir pretin an 56 Dogo oases Fig, 2.1 Th eral tv og proce 10s th scr! vg’ ab ame at he es ste te sl withthe yop fe impose const, Toys stata engi is sve el che ompatr pop, Pandata et and Rese ‘Show pend oc tae on inking sou ln concts a sl he Be Stal ton rhe projet at hn Foret story he doer aboal pec grade of rac ses at isn ven kept! gout a wel etal (og cme ‘Spe psiloc tw aly vata, an se th Stl oui ett rn sectns nd comnocton dale ‘eneed ta alte son ied 8 ae notre aval ne moe. However some seal eel 0 ope ou nto iin weed gmt ode) en ae =< | ee ig, 22 eave strata eon oes Teds sou ln re ome kw south wel fet (Many tim dec elt et et ete ot uo ets, Sth bested ep fhe eet ice a codon tht wae “Retna eos th gies oases ae sinh SEuzeRie nel fr ect thst 200)) The der dhol abo be uote ears eng cig ht arable tet he “Meni uid ont nd welded jon Thou Heh grace! est SSE ary iy be pent tow res, epi ebataSrawes(eprn weld pen stlhly ses ia ier ema iuanbi te dsger ave «knows of cate hp mites (ep, nt of aaa i bs for aatain) nd resin ‘cohaaies. ert etl ete srl deseo sy th sri aa sj nen several agian Joa) ee aa a a aor and ee meng ize pefeioa Ca Skcoe tops end croton sie aed ili: and pei NOSRIRAT pawioe o aru socal etn (eereot 200), aera thre pec a ac spy pct te tel reusing STRESS Semtngecionons cae romal teh me arigorware 18 Dose Set Sree 2.4 Structural Systems “The art of srt desian it manifted ine leon of th most sine ‘roc ns gvnstasre To eee snare ot {Sowers cnr ep th veri (gag) Wns wd he lcton of ‘ible ing sen oe aluna an beams sangeet eit te evo ura ee ora grt lege oh sco nner, ice ‘ey wll erie ts ecoeny and ncn abit othe lig. Tn bige Ain te coe» cotouous sp sf sri, pt ir Box es rte, hes cable een sajed gis, ste rope {ck ion) or conse ek il eter oly eno beta he ‘euling senor ce sige Subatan 94) Ta selec fe sie Tcl on twa sts et ad ey mayb caidas flows ‘ranty masonry stetue Sch sts consi a-ecng wl, wick ‘lit ne eet by oor be Si dependent aoa of iy oa Suh tiers ol po re ors. Framed sucures Tey coms faster conc seeo tat re desis {Sree lade plo than om latte cnet eer ant eoery ‘ll and anand ere ro he datos Genera Types of Structures She sce They ve acurved sre enki ron nd eying hn “esin stu Teson schists, wich pan between nchr trite or ela) snd ember ee precot ano ‘Sewer ee. Poaurate structures Suh state consist ofa estan ele te gown, spp yeaa presse Trample of he sove ste te shown in Fg 23. Site i ho sornies casi ws soba ure (eg lg estan He towers, gijed mas, TY tver, an chines) aod Mla Stes (28, eign ce). eB Den # tapas Fig, 2.Geno pat ol structire arGy157) 2.4.2 Stel Sructures Stel srs ny bei cain flown es eee. 24 {Scape ay rye os, sega as of nl ore mantras ope job igen) pred teenager” SSetcton, Tove ype ef succes a isha bg Sinai king Sos nd one eset blag Pied ot orl umes reset ltt! lope encanto elon ‘tons ev fom wed sen orci wey, dro, (0 Maryn rma ncreoftct origi anecnsatin {tc me Scsdndtl n etcn (o Spc acct fm tng ai mayer ie {ae ld pty, bce are mated dome etude vary igen feria Towe (renin ences omen Sah ered w gucetonen Spr gd Sener epee ‘Somer ow) a nant sat whe tee ma satel ‘Een yee coure Ofer yeae ve nsoeal contr ‘Sayer They arog peel comicon oxomest ie is ees 1° re ges (Stunaron 99) Sc new nd cove nae Spo ch ares ocarng ng earn, inns oo tet parttagu emir bel pound leon i The Bois f Srvc Design 94 ile. gr ot ai cto tems Fg, 24 Faron etal ame tts acing 157 (Tein ses engin i aot ablepeotel re ye se ues Guarana >) sds wee sigs Signo oa (Sgn en stg esate sca romeo nero nodarstheshtngs py wih a aes hs ‘Saou una 199) pote wen oso ‘outing to eect (0 Mite cstaog Tbigy wih re an 2 ses tonibel mice vat indo yg tbe noch Steere na py sn te ten ig iis cy 199) Sev cen ons Ee a ee and 2 few are discussed in the next section. mt ‘ie 2 nic swe nce es an a dig conio ° ag Taek pn Urals ee a ens oon ‘tune Dr i te i wie St nag ‘wei cron Lawn tage con Se te Tessa nie ne keane” aie comecc ‘eon ‘Che mens trae nome, Pop etn ern iene ohn sl Was “lteig ig mein 29 Roa ta ‘nso be ot ht combina wi cone eth fm fr wal ce worst veal nett nse tings ome inecomnetion ‘eee cope stants eam pon ung nd igs {int fam osha comecton), esting tn, caleconperte con on sbat srry econo aban ace ipl ae, cs fous and suc eck tation re shown Fig. 24 fr compaion. Oly Tend ttre ae cnn det ne book. Space sate, ten ‘focur ested sin soc all ype, tks, wet corse ‘nig igh a contracts pos of ss Fas nares and ‘rosin ail Senso (1999), Desoto | ong consocons are ae a Ku std Groin (200), Salmon and Gime (1995 Jon (1954) Por famed svt, fein leet ea umn Dear- ners Weigh owe) == “Toe dimen ol ct te nd nant vrs, 50 ch nae cn eesti onstery Oveetag of nl od Wl a in tmovmnomicl snc (a ae fen one; ote ay oven esnecrte deg, pect whet he de oad ampere ‘tngin to oppor sn te eat wind For cap be wef sso be cond wh fl a opty, When Mind la eS ‘ety ks fee wrt oe "Gynt 199) spot tthe den lo of he Qube aeons ‘Lawn erat 20-30% he than seme he deg, hogh the aos a ota be he neo be ale (he ge ose dng ening mate 109 woe). ere ond Fgopel (202) “sth sie eet aes i xxiv eatin ft “he ccs (1 8: 007) se th etbweghconputed on te bass at ital detonate ax en 875 (Pat ey ean © ‘epee the chanced ad 3.3 Imposed Loads Ingest lone (evn refered 0 iv a a iy ode ter an Acad fu deve fon such acca By pool, mambi eget ‘nd tr nn big sed mers ach Boks, rahi, od ‘Now Hace ye fet fiom peo ngs -esa oen roses Tha hy vary often pte nine Ted ods ye eed te pup: (0) hse wie ee ppd ay whence stat geet an Be sed, an 6) ae hte Sento meray (fr example, roel asada leas). aay ‘pd apne nny vary lowers avis abibos 1978) ov te psd si ony the enree wl posi sped nth ls ln oberon ad een ‘ony ler tnt ne conver, soap ey antigo Lt Combine 19 ‘eine gna foces nae. As perth din oe S275 (Pa 2— Lie us posed leds a ied flowing ops (a) Resa cling. el Poel bering andes lb), (©) Edson (Saoone irre, {6) lost! (tex, beroaskihens, geen storage), (@) Asm hl wih and tbat ine sei.) {6) Oc el tain lings (ron with itu separate ray onsen ingee ome org om, dng a et), (Nara busing to, @ Indl oth gt mete ey ity wich epen),and (Storage aide (netscape) "Tho ve fn oa a rnd en ny Hon heya fen sumed 0 be iol rie othe oto es Te pos (ve os on or | porlS #5 am given in Tle 3, wah soa vt of he se For compa {lay eda lfc 18 75 (Pat), Tse ie oa re seed toe po onthe Mor an hve wb enemited woe oun troy oame (oes) a earn Theses or ds gon a Tale 38 Inches fr pt orden es that my oem ig nr ocupaey. Haver, hy oot nce re resing om he ‘eslnaton and bag of vets rte movement of cows: Wher he ‘nesta sucking of in ns oer snarl expt {ote pied onthe ay, ten acl ior fh nde ol be we ad ot ‘tose enn BT 3.5, ‘ete 28 np orbs eet occa ta La Caeca eens win aes poco ‘chaorstey » mn i “ (0 Cie toe a4 & {i Bowe 30s praemat te ‘ine re 4 anes Ser moe ben jo 5 © {@ Grog aisenio25 1 3s some tibmeren (8 Gogh n 01N) 35 Somers mmsgue 19 Limi ore | sperm soa ai eninge) nnn pp een 10 Degen Sces n 6) ome 3 ae (9 arp ts 3 6 Semin ie 5 (owner ge as a 8 Miaowspene ge : & (2 Wnts ‘ & (at om a tone : 2 (0 bondi 5 a (oS ioutmtay as as ‘ocean, s “ (i tenray " oo 8 (0 ate tn a ole stern 4 ‘9 Sapo demaoews 7 © cats Sete , 6 etc ang oe a (0 Nate org, grate (tien, 5 Banos Tk pan: ey 39 pr atc arin al ‘Suse etapa 2. Mownlber ncn toby beatae ena sree ood, ‘West dst of psd lds oe ge seis ig consid, ‘temsinam inpned lus fed these, cheapie | ‘van reducel Ti doe oir onaleeallawance the aos robb arth msi ened lan il at onal eee he ete. Fhe coe lows fra esi ie on nh dvgn ingle er roby 3 reach Sn of era oped ress ete a oan a Lod Conan 44 nto mini ein of 23 Hows eo sl ‘rie No of ag anny sary Sag frist es istry aa ee Inia pene nt teem ies atone ‘Sra Tn ete nga se aera Se im ald ane ott Saag eae ae Section 3.12.3) “ Toner) = ——— 2 & “he ipo leas on vain pest eI 875 (re pve a "le 3. The riot ods sng pate ope als bls spe 18475 Para) rege Table}, Tacos wil bs sate ot Ine oping lve ‘Wile ening or, i st eesay, in many ese caer te Secs lds nd ie ods ike parton wal), foe ep | sing te Ard or thsi of siping bens he ioe sd (6,1 1a paion wal etn wel Tote {i ta pnd sp potent F kop St pO tana csi! te sone me) Seip Ar eee retest te? 75-0502 wrth eae? Sateen 1 anf Sel caer ‘coe ea ga aT TE eer” Set eet ay ‘tay oot SST Te mh sl en a Hee wT a 2, Alstyne ae oan a toot Doonan recs 2. en tl sec a 2D {hte 3.8 Horio od on pants pap ian eae To ne (oo ‘i ag ba a ss ms) "ome ide os ©) suc nm ve ae ‘er scr, ings nn, pape a ‘enor cabo rcneac ons Sree a my tty ‘i no papa oa eels pan {Seeman ie ps evant ceed raat a ope ci aby ec ‘Scien Rao al Kensmurthy (98) cmt al sre on inp ‘ensign fic badings nd ee th aiuto od sy ft od 235 KN each ling ht seats von wee Foon Thi aes mc stale han ¢ EN apc in 475 Pat) Siar svey was conte by Suit Kamar (902), od Sl Kier Kamer (900 nesta baling Th degen ods ope fhe coe ae nh hgh ta hoe eal byte eee. Ree “Taio (997) and Ruz nd Sova (199) mld a Mane Croatoa shelve ld savy of fe balngs and classe fn hes ‘pele in Mev cles git mere, Simi lad rey ve ee contd Inti USA (yon el, 1992), {anda Hoel ese sieves inti eee ey sina ttine et hin fev Bao enone ey for las in spat setae vary dey wt tine nd sorta bow te gatas of tne nae However vr ie iaermaon os find saat othe ede fen sity en ete aes wtih oat ‘nely nd beeps fete xin os) The pes pose lon sie in 8 575 Par 2) may be erie eesti lotic be 95% proba a st big excedad ve 0-8 pin, een Web pe diibaion (ioas tal 20; Wate & er 1978) ng Load Combinat 43, xanples 321 3.4 it the mete of cles den ad imposed 8.4 Dynamic Imposed Loads rani inositol ep fonds as wal | ‘ng lb lade Raped lene pte coment ga Prokens (ce Char 17) which ce the Cg I oncered wih he Iga, ange, and unk of eet ade wach ne eqly ‘oped. Ax opel spate font, puto (eich mynd ale incr) wt ry pce by vale ene mage whl ceripend| ‘© ven, Whee sat lads domi, due peed lta en replied by teste fe cyte Hoover, won dame toni ae ‘iciont.a proper ysis iismatbomie an heey hears ‘tc te Symi fod sboul be bed (Coughs Pere 199), We ‘oalaobe tate chek whet hepa of Rananets de fv ‘ofthese dosnt ele with suey al fhe planing Toast rates wl cs i ‘Dynamic 1c (in, sack, seni, et, dip) ae of ncn te ein feed taeling crane, o which end {nda bigs onal lings hemp ods ty Cs ght Heh, ok be property kn cre of the Sig Inge oo etl ene les noe enrich at a aah spt oe whi orl» prcange of he ran ld able 39 hows th pat tors a get byt 85 eae fr eras its Ti ae 25 thie od map in th ae oe ce 125, sae ee mn ww” {twa tn 2 © our a 8 Caan) 3 (8 Ste ate i 6 fone ° tape an e coe nl ein ° ‘a desta edon bem ndchmstpaea e : ele Se ce ryan tte AIS ae pci tat te ne do ngs Mu ela ow encore sb eed by ort Teranrt ct tv yams ne a er oo wi Seedin Seti 2a rp Tn day oe uray ge Pl 3.2) an hi comes tora fre cael by gene eet Tent ‘bret deed aod hn fe wih odd esto yrs Pun) he ‘tod beens soo ew of hy an end Inte xy pet cm (207 wh lly bangs itl ‘ete mipanlon ibe ed wag Gy =H ore wget Oey at a a4 The shore foe sold beeps te ip of tel etn inci ton oral teow ised ated ang al the Wels on ee ee of til tk In adn doe cde nd dcelrton of the ee ane "ong acters tenet th im gir ough to i he end ck whee with cea S85 (at 2) seis hat Ho he ‘xin si wie! od af ene ob api a nga fsa Aetop of era, ‘Theinpact of moving tela isacampee hemor snd depends on he speed ofthe moving vse, mas atv eas ofthe be, a Inquisitor andi we of vlc. Tempco yee {eee deo moving eis a exe fncton of thew ood Sich be are ean it ct Acne A dels Far cs A or B eigen nd ken fe Te30 Long on Land Coons 148 + Gay fe 32be48mand Tose oxy ‘heres pet tert, ee ftps ported ‘catia relat Afni and 70 ting hp aa seid byte (ian Re Cog) code low, © ‘acd vice 038 etd Ce) penas_ 2506-8) as SE, 69) feet2den on "ee ees feta Cry T85 6.108) em sustsm Toast e105 eur és ene rte ei ofc AA, a A dh Bing ef 21 cade (Wen ol Yes) em ds ow he ia ae pang opting ge seas 2.3.2 Snow Loads mova eatocrraceieteenatatd sacaeasinaramenerneatsteonae mms Cop ea ae an oes meat pejecan on ftv! SEUASCE 16, Desf Stl Seca {isch at the wor ep, es sow wl ecu fn oe se, pata ling of ssid caer aon loin. suc Into css pial dig ay ea ise. Wind ny also scr eying sc ad hh so ow tiny Wd ned eet casera st stone Horeve, ts inparan cont dt fro de twink neacty fated of args dete ied nhs be repre nt aot | $210,600 1990US dati i are nage the USA se itt {som ing fr he ine perio 1977-1989 (Rowe and Ace 1997 Sar setl amg due sow lav sl bean reported ine UE (Wl 1350, ‘sper 15 (at an aon a asl ken Hy sae # te design no a elon prague mete, Str rsp cece am he god lon lene pe Then snow loa smudge dh tow on te om ‘iene [537 (Pa 1) doesnt pve say sei ae rhe red om Dayenn (19901 suggstetefllmang epson for determing pound ow ead 20-261 6 ser dist et 5 tes, ‘Whintoon so Gresoe 1936 pga th fling inl oon anton oy) These f sow ke cee ss gen by Dayenn (1996) en in ‘ie 310, ily ts Chine so ‘age ean so eon Ana) 250 wi ang on Ld Contin, 1) fom mar Gamay i ag am 20 ‘oe em io Nir a) 0 ats) ‘uo agony so arr aad so ‘nina Gea) 0 ie bth nde 75 (Pa) eves nomi! anes sig th he ‘baton of rw inthe dso prl caves nf) Shows i 'g.33,Thvalcefthe ship tr eee wo eel 08, comple eve ot ano wi epee nd ction ae given SHS (urd) » CT wl elimi» PLL ‘arena ActaaeoET ions ‘Sutter bins "8. Soom nn catient Inveioing he onlaned or iets odng nse able sing staan 2 ns tari, Roc nd Aten (197) unt hp, ‘esti igs tee sites nl round slender 18 Daf Sree tig iT dat ma i of os et tpmainnrbe net iw seed ptenot Gpelar 3) Pca ef wis gina se Ie nt inh egal Sinece pal eee tc tae cle ene pros si os to1ewin, Ltrs om 10, bee ig, 34 Wasim possible wnbanced som din For ii se ae hn 16 eer shatter omy Frac ooo ‘herve ety aren rong nn oC ‘cng win lone egetd Foran of mee Stone me enema = (a Se wr ts Spd ote Keen ta tang oa) ‘sen sunge wtp bee forse whoops ‘olsen ge tn bcd by Owed Downy 20 ‘Sow nang ao dcanedy © ost Wa 200 Sow a ae count gti ey sat eas fe Spent cone cos tic move snaho ot ee he Sumeetaa 3.9.3 ee Loads on Wes chads requ o be aes nace inte spf vend es ‘enamine enact lay often omnis orc to, ‘etsy sina aactres nso ete frmon The lee ‘oe depos loud maybe keane 3-10, depending ep te cto | "he oct, Toman doy fn ay be ted ee 900 ‘While consing the wind reac, te inne nmelre de ee ‘erm shoul anno sc god Lt Conbinaton 1 3.4 Temperature Eiects ‘Sel menberpedr coe depending on net deta of epee ‘Wien amet tung is abjce o varying temperate te length be tenets ge aces The elongation cancion oft semen ito ‘eee ian by as es) where a th coaice of ier eptson (12 1 per °C te the Ingenio dees intoperta and-t eg oh ember, T8875 Pats) resem nian rte cote os shwn in Fig. 33 and 3 Tol ge the exes tempus some etd Cie Noe sacs sth sown owen, amis ic wer, expronce more sess do th emptiness ten potted Stace hed xe. or te pane ct lo gro ee, ‘evan of tener genalyipen ned F * Sal 7 ae ig. 28 Minium tomgraines a per 5 Pat | Landing od Ll Conbntions 84 Rete, | te a “Tesch at ain ci (change fe a epee | | nee 96 Dagmar tact se i ‘See cps suo ANSYSog NASTIAN ete epi bane plane ant pce ames abet el Lo aoc ee ny nce whee he iferece inepitee ere cringe were ina iene ‘5157s nigh emp) Only tbe ct song, eth xc SUS cml longue of ements want he cso oF souls uraue tebe ems aloe wih stats on pled as Hees ‘SETI oinn een oie a bsnl mize epee sae Jn see entire a sch sitaclons. Moreomes SER, Stuns beatae reed fhe ca teeyprovdog Prete tpot econ ne tance doa ten rll esftl hie nich pet ve rnvocet te deel eo) ne eos testa, afin! acs fn pov whch ke ee of etenpente eles. “Ip a e epson js hu ach tat hens (e) meknotne te eneoelexasnlcourcton de sea varios ‘tena, nd (0) ending ascents eres These facet wees ts be mpd fers on srt columns bu ot Fig. 3.6 Wamu amperes per 218 Pa) ‘ot 9.112 slg nee cst ne ste nd Oe wind io Sai) slap eae ‘ott a 5 a tov ei fr be rvs of car i ‘ Pes we : = ng vi te ch of ewig ier o Ps ce eC donnipn in inencaoee igs Fen 4 ° ‘eyacene tops oe) cin a * Pee te ra tetanenbnceeting =. Z : ' CO timc os rene be oe cont so 2 SENET AS essa nts ceed mio = a ° a cman dum twen eve oo ca 3 re a cn aang ened = : > tc (no ne). Th he ny : é 2 at ol 0 mice = in : "ern men 12 Duupref Su Sct py L Fa: 8.7 oxime tenting wth on yo ao ;e ee Fa 2.8 Masini lent of sngacton with wo bays of Salas (© Temasonm i ofeover ings oldbremied SD beyead which xin expansion joints shouldbe vied ‘nace, bigs re fen provided the end ipsa ile bys of telling orn wind ln Pong acess edb il Ja 8 far artnperie efetae once nce ay ot rin ves ofthe tom oulingincomultveetic, which nse mre seo. ower Soc wn leds oly dominate be racing eign proven of acing 3.5 Hydrostatic and Sol Pressure Inthe davgnat emacs bow ont elo, bons! walls eining wl ft, te prenre xray slower rbd stb cmidred Penis "Neal hows 9 eae acta pretes Wheeling Icy uid be enideed We orion wn of thsi el he Be ‘tr able he rl rh pre ented by conser recedes (to nyt) ea the fl Sota pen. Al outon abs ‘dsr ngs bw th water tbl shld be dnp oat rm Se wt qa oo al yon pare. ‘Sincerrshoul be cele apni oertamig ed bsnt ding,Impoe lode bing Bou efct shul be drgatd fo h purone. 1.56, ‘his ae te an vere pyri baling nee neue when te nz nets othe bra fre esting a sy te 150% ota a cet sty Inptneaacontnuy In vets claments reiting ltl ce ‘Thin inguiy wi ate promanc npn oe fhe ht ‘oo essing lt reer let hee sans (as Pe. 329) re 1 oer be 2.29 npn dont invert laments stg ec whan Discontinuity incapacity (weak trey) ‘A eke fon which ho ryt gh an 70% of atin hese shove (ce Fg 330. These a ateagth my De eee at {tet ecg ofl seni foe essing elements sigh soy sen {considered heston This negli sear tha etre nes fan ay bec by mage sey scampi | | | | | goon Coins 183 yen "hen Fg. 220\eak corey whonf, amn 9 newiteae 0s 75010 tna mat Pistoocrsaiocerbgaran 5:].250,o0rs0ss 629 034, 720 (6) Porsoao sits, 250, 00217500 fr fede nodes) {Piste ag2P20i0 friphr mites) 25, 00575061 ax I gen srs400 042, 7>400 192 Design Se Srcres ‘omni ce cnn ihr pg et steele p ate dan gene att ‘eet epee pc pach dct ei hes fe ‘Survibty of tte dpe mo on pak epee eves bt ao {he don of soe rund sig ad tember of pls wht expe pote he peak esponselre (Thfetsenid ing he 1985 eto ‘Sra ‘hl 2.18 Muy ca tong oe omer ‘ia ee —___s Ug ean sacra Fo very nor stcta ornare ia ainda ant wae Simpl clasienton thes of ommended sth tam ci il a lla. tes cue stops tinea ntl cosa o detains ware pose th expel ney a shar Seine matin, More detail of deeoing sch spect we fund sath ceo Near sauce fcr inpeleype mtn, srt Bis an th dation of Be xn ey shar Te velar leis ery ih (sth Nets od Kotseatiaes leis erage 150200 eml wee esos cmparl ‘» 30-#oms for Bed non). Masone ee vt compan est fmt my gat tn aot op i he rt option of P waves See Sle (eg the UBC td) stom foutce amplification fctrr-on nskton bse favor act pr Long on ak Contatons 199 ‘races ann isi ted fcr or pid eng ox sua For nee fl utah «new metnlogy te placement pcs Se ‘er sl ta hl selena sgn ro ihe Se bared apna intersting rte ht many ect res ee imag facta ing te Norgand Kemeny thou llc, ging te oe Ke tnt hee face of ‘emnincon rate ch oral ight ceo acti wis og at. Moe des about sefeld erin ne pri! by Gla ‘Maza! 02) “line, we ae end he characters of ind merges nthe ‘na! wo secon we wld, este th determin of entigae Se wd er or 1895 Pat I) a 1 (Prt 3). 8,12 Determination of Earthquake Forces hk nd es hm ter ou has den, nay repet () As daca in the previous sectn etna ding i cen ilo deeise We arplinds, ato and guy of ene (© Insects somal ign fr ay lig, he te ong cmsed ‘ys ond mtn my casseee esgr ne pei arege, ent deo et (6) Tartine fds eet sad inde see sca. Hie ly Jandel members hive tres bath enc si compro, wis feavg veto be die fr pose wll ng tegen (© Ratt ts dynam nd pe ie eps of eps in octets Wiehe wom ueraiacebngs mec ‘mots te ino he mas ten fo oe he movement aw ig 3.8 ete fey calor, where a eae ft oft ewan aceon The miso ie ‘ee OM evil by he neteration doo pty, st co jo o * Fg 8.38 Frcedelopi by ethene 1M Den fe Src: ‘ag: eke ave mh mee suey ef cence tn sale ne ions tay be econo odes x ing (hie wi ae na (stn: 10 ye) stat reas damage dangle Skye pe sy on in SU yen Hose code S189, the Toloving oie ein pop ae SESS teqemt enter shold nt cause any rage sete, (@) Noseteconbnes sol tense pin seal gs ted ec ome nse! dae (he secure soul become eprsinal (ice ihe duped nent repaed on eghned (9 Major tol neat rages sb st cae ise (Be soe "ketone catatonic bt wl tan pope en rare ed propery oer. ccs th tres a desig or mach alle fort han ta sii tea aing seo oud han Noa i oppo eet ha it Teese coc wn, dn ve and eros, whee te ee (le forth nite es re pps of ecg sexi rc, he enya to ee tee smc soon nie 339 tty eof meres re at ‘opal 1967 sere a Sie sae (eh ge a eo ‘cea ition pit 910) Senet Lexan of 1 sae [Seam zoe edn te reason off scene on ip 202 ‘Soaing mesic wh he ert oes gen Tale 318. ‘Maybe ntl at he valu oe acme ane ft) given int de nce nt batten ove aton he bs of ngneing jot ae they os ay wn ana of epee pk rund acct POA) “he cle oes ht i deiner cir) we n dam tala of te srs, er sgt een eight bogs eg un) seeGhpica tural bse shen fore fee Table 320). The dma of ‘Ecsleaion onscreen te ope of hi oak, ad erent ‘yer Chops (200),Cluphand en ( 193), and Maza and Piso 8h ote ds of amen mus The 220 Renner striae ae pS Sete Te Teepe Teli Tao ao Wav Mpa ip ae tape RT igs a ae nN 2 bug tld tinea phe eV a8 "ia 9:8 Sonic one fn pe 1S 85 The coe col gas eave a in h k and ‘dic aa noir eae o corey mode he et he ee so ses ht he esl of compte Sales ees by ing aproximte methods ch Rays ‘need and Danka met (Chph no Pension FD ued Pe 1991) A erin of varios methods of dysnic ana of mls fame ie prove Ranlrstaanant Sean (1978) Sin one bec tetanic che ih ed a “he inert cio which iss ert deine (a) gepepial oat fhe soe, (@) stevia foundation conan, (6) lpn of ese nd 196 ose ces @ dyna cinco ests, sch as re iy, tty, ene diptin pty. se com coi ely orn almthn o ai vl ters bas sear re roceaure The eile tease sh fre prose i iin eon sd by ‘ening cy heir i om» ‘Rr brace ny) Au pot soe (3 1093) he igh hxzonal wei ‘etc oa ete ie Aras 25) Fone agen in Tle 3.21, fhe maxima considered etgute ‘ce The fcr 2 dominator of a (2.2 wed ee the MCG ‘dnb eats (85). "importance tr, depending one facto we ofthe tate, Fo nate er omni ch tos mee alin ag conan al and peste takes 1.3, 0d forall ‘therein lary bug) scons 1. ‘i "Epon eden fc epeing on ts pected sca damage bonne af sta Garay dat te dermatos, The ‘her rae binge even Tbe 3.2, "Only te ann OCB 4 (©) Sa ent bone SEP) bs (6) Rett ed tel) : ‘Sule epane certo cout a grenby Fig 337 o Fas 2910 Foil enpporins mn prada ihe. pete sien Tet vals of Zeta 0 36h Zone Van thata vl of {gave eped ie Ze But does sly ut ocean 9 Ye wl tector explain te 201 Bh eats © resteng Teas tt sont fhe ing fastest edi "ante dspn a a lowe (0) Pata ey store "A of sO. seared at Aj, km ayo te ponte (raf 8 1995, 3.121 Response Reduction Factor ‘Astrenty dius he od oro lw the ste nk dagen te ‘sof ever sang ec, sci dese! fee mich ‘sth dt gel ander toa exes th se wre ool "noe Tu th ade pronase fags rss an thn ives ht ce y 2 Fo xan if we oer ‘Zone ¥, = 036 givers rite inden of to gromnd selon, Pot 1203 5, 5jp=25 ope Fp 337, which est he lng cig that my expen arm hole elt 0 gh (03623 090) fwe ae cr of Sand nto tea rtm de ng treet sp {09023} hv cer fon is exams tah ei ong esi te Suir oly on thot manele seer eve ‘dequtdtiy n geiycontl ar ond pot eos not word, ‘het ge ition of he velo vets ad dati at ‘tre sexe bre Tiny th cca sind fr ich omer thn ili bythe song sharing cst allowing tbat wh il vet ihe colon ofthe sence: ovearenth, resides, tad uty. (Sat Fg. 40) Toe sts eG ty low jes es eo tance Fa. 240 Cancpto espon rutin fcr Kamae 200) (Pata xy fc for wai od, \ (Gari sy err gry ln nd (i) Paral ey fcr for ele 198 Des of Sel Sicnre (0) Mate poerie (@) vided men sis nen ries, (i) Stain dering nl ncn sigh eg, ad (9) Miter ner eng eye fd ee 1) {) Ste constant! ements ick a mor iil (G) Spoel utl dating whch ao cnt he bres eng Redundancy Isto Be ol hat ying oat a atc il 5 ‘outa rcolayo: Ar Glee reid ad ste ‘Sates te frm moc (Seton a deta Te pe ‘fact sna edule sce roves a asin sf un. uctty As dened in Chapter, city te apasty of matinee {oaboenay by dtooig into te inate (Dn pmo be ned othe no of he lise emt dy on and cage pi totbeyilscetoeatond, Seo. 340) Tiverpesy of sre tata org with acepble forties wie ly i ery dentable harry engi reisua dein Dy fen site by Ibebyatbetavor feria eonpenetssachas then Sem ae ‘feones eit ame The lyse alas peel te ‘elena fc dton va f he sembly, akon Fp 341 The loge fhe eve repens theses fe stead th ‘eclosion. Poe tity foe by ese asi ety peal else) carves, which ae diel sche Sel clas sla mtr oh vl tte nr he ney “spy tated dis hey ese wet he Altoona carvestown in ip 3.1, scala he era Unde ea “ates, tore ap fhe a sw a Fg 4) ea wh ‘ery abares i shot 70'S of tat a eu last ns np {inte rer patos re ew ni 3.4109 To dp | seg an ater nce repented sr peli eld Ine fine ‘Wh state es, the log gs happen (a) Tae ir maser Sion ate sche oysters (8) The srr bo strand snl prod nn neo ree lover kt ees Pg 27. ‘Ths, ther dol eats thc he arte can withtand soap ‘uns vito sample ele, Teves peed it the coe "os ta 8 80) far ap tn he ered eran big pt csrthoks epee dat fauga) overetengh pce nares, ‘sca th corded bore ia 195). “AS lend ince geared bythe fredefonon loop Indate are desipon ot hse emery One mayen igh ty ‘eden disiptn caps tame shy ticker sean hey wong Ia ckiag Gowers he well etn wil tint ek) Pat tnd compet to Ge Chapter 8) ae mre de tha sesompac at a 341 Hytrtebonvicur (a une renretng ae soaay spain ‘ele cone econ ted ersy ceo steer seston Sees oe ci ond io of te eer ya enol dl: Deity se wel mee dsiaton py ae ptr Tir nesitingevrurtquks tat thse to ered td age ded ane tet doweas he er, 3.122 Natural Froquncies A see wih epee offen Bat soa pce 1 ode Shapes Te lowest of hes fetes af he str alle fe Fondant ara qn, exe ee Theol prog ‘led he fen aaa pei, wich th esp eal feogarey ao i exes in sco Whee 4 tbe of mse toe ‘sled fr dyes al, he aoa ee Eg (28 fr ah ote ‘SouS! be deters sng the wat piod of ibn of hat mode Fr ndgraed sce anda ep of 0a lowe ds zl acelin pcos ken a al he eon ‘fom (3 2) Fer arte and sonst 30 ow grand el fd the pound evs te vl shoul be ne ela ee yd ‘sy Fr vet mais te rae shade en oti te design tl eet (8 183202). 3.12. Eauleont Stale Matios ‘Theses wight of each Noo nee i al dead lad pa he sprprine sou of npc! oa (le 32), Whe compat i wight IBenwipt columns alan sry hob appre pated tote log tow aa low he ey hs Be ted hs alg den Ferre porte Helter porngs service pet ‘het of eigen, Oe propia ons such 6 ge pret niente cored 0 ef St res Tepe nen a ND ‘ohne sto seroma cage SS Oe Inserted noi ein cet. hich eas for he nic of bling ina sponte to Be {ot dain sear she detec by oA 2) wh the design arin aceon spect vale pe i (228, ‘nt proxi etl ota perio, a gna ge 319 ne ens deat of weston and the sae wept of Sle ‘Nott the design inte ee hl be omputd fhe baling hole, we consign contin of we dineesina ace ‘hema dg fore for each sch ume shoul te lena pny esd tb shared as 34) Th bsteoed,§ tc ay afta of he blag nt oe nu ssa oc 2 Sai The fwing anunpion ae ave inte site prsedre (0 the anno ts fe lng mesh ms iit cota ‘ete tae shew tn a bldg ma coe pins nods as at wold (> Gin gt pe Bo tere eens ot eo ‘nets bingy wih ae gs ot aon te Aer se see ce i dtr shoul be abt one eight ofthe ung ote vain ee), ng te allowing exes orf) “| [Eee hed be dinvon a edaling P dso toe oe meter enon Ld Coniatons 24 Mir Siite en mat ew 78 mi wih es te tigctt Bet imesnrd fom etree wnat Soe Sepia ofa wih mane ac nae sk hy logo gu 2 opted ia te dan Code a te ted hat recline ection of higher ots cn bsg ie raat a conte othe main nope a (VEER ce SEUASCE 72) asp, fateersoss fareerease ‘alatncly jing ve fi Tinthrmge of 05-256, Howeve he valoe (2 slp 181893 conserve (au ay Mowe ofsumt state mee nein name 3. {124 Approximate Fundamental Natural Period ‘ewe indent pad ay, insects seen [Sesame wi ick nl pes is ey he ede ht SOs T= noese he ithe ih of te ling a mee 1 ote bls, cing momenta ae blngs wih ick ay Forbin wit contend muy er wal, eosin e e319) Tra istitt ecve arate ws inte fat trey he bln ‘uae ate and ee Ae DAnl02 Hh)? oa ofthe wala tft lng La es, a lent of the sr wal eae pit etn total oes, nice The ls ogres ido balow a9, racemes of te areca wi he sets fading ding nantes is given mda 18180. ened on ts era ae einai pain gven by Eqn.) bused in season ee i 202 Drs Sel Snes sty foc ies ste (ich hogs uc may tn an ae a epi Nes Lo a rea) by sings onic ani cog ona a am ionbasbecn mae prove fe apson foe in Fa cl ngs ma pve ony Be OER Sa bang dare wien 8 oy ee utes fer ocesnzrdng bing bapa 2 Sy cents anit renin henge i ac ten 195) CAEN) i cat members on bein Oy wing my Hdd pat ao ean eine Si 1 a an bse overage ced EN ray aif ter fers sl moms oe oF es Fe 1853 pst Be trey i nay ey oo te “Scalise ipa eet es te aoe cl fe resign ring feo ternal eo tia heer bweos Decca fit zt of set top Ses 7) forte ei) 1 193 cons pee ut hao we ry sina ei ie cottons of apérag ext, dig of aan aA cee et rect sh be eg! ve an et acic cn nator pin tnd Feeney tar fete be ni vr ope 104) £3425 Dus Syston se 0 Sg bse ses es cea taal et 25% ofthe ese ones «| uth mere treo $12.6 Dynamic Analysis Methods ‘meal bigs, the contin of higher mas way be impart nog lings ode shape 2! bees ab iin ans wi age ‘pose big, ups oft rete efoto ‘Pteton te mnt one a an fis vey dite ty ot te vl tee, rte using, dmc oats eds a ttegey Beco Suchet grup repow pt meted lato beings ep bingy eerie water, an repos ‘fe Sige wg ml ene Ms espe ot Iota swe sch keto, gegen sco of vy all begs sighed wing tis mtd. The unending ote meade reer ope of sacl janis an i cep of these ‘ads gic bbw Te espace specu method ligt dig seins Fg 39 ara stespcdspnapcean. A TSstny stmt wn nig 38 eine 2 mle ae ‘ling yang tht has ped te Nora ot ape ‘extn bt lly exe. The dymamie respon ofthe tem roseoted ‘omic odor of ean) bong eae ube se. ‘Sister ng th prepa este stiThos he rca pen che ald (7) an mote hero def tan, Mode saps deen te Asibon of ns he ‘inn fe tng, The eon hut nd ts ke pros ae intone 31,0186 012.08 onothtel mede) BLICGY Whe the ru tn spit othe of he asin ye, he Shesuel oy capenetin af th onto gee mast al 206 Despre See meett yen 991, Chet Penn 991 nape 20) ee Sitar sgged yd int et ton ae nad rio fukin st be um pid of itn (tha Ushers comeing ete manson Fie) al my be opecne yrs tom leno ine peachy ne 34h coe ove conan! ‘reitgronoe sn nesses, Dulin we can swe rao taglogee st em te {reonping tied ops teaser, acer sl manent Eh rehearse we cre sly Noro sotn wales wnt 94) Md cece citer ots ma (S59) or ecole gate comtiwtn ‘tetind (690) ob sed wes nap et ols we wall ‘pum (rhe ey tte fom cach oer by mor hn 10% of ie ore ‘gry ne Sepia to retracts ema cnplg ef nd sess y 193 Nay ese ren nimple titcod Hoye when marl pede se so ‘Scouse dnc nce te se me eet ‘Scone wie you of he ena wa spre 153 ‘etna my obras ahh miners re nt nt 0 ttl come exe than ine ‘Sony fay th it esr wl wet te eon), Sol ambi bperoned oy mi mts me eho eriv nlusck s aeppmed by Reh fn, or eta et ‘itn 2005 eel te comma spt soa pocages 2s SIAAD PSAP 200, se ove stn opr poe met sea ato Fy 5 = icf an es wean he a tn gh te hp a, "lepine rook ag heen ke ‘oferta nein Wg Theesnensbl oe required for irregular structures Ee se Modal anasia metros Asdicimedi che sove eon, bali wih sea nollie poncongwaton cn te modledars sen of ms unpeeroneene faces wth eac ss aig on deco elo, teal a ‘net ine Seton ude cosa "The alu of ae is ghey " ge OL Sma “ ox) latin die wo gry, 9807 a yn thee shape “Thetands tng any Mor vel the th male of eaton given ‘eesti Or hem, oy fre 4 he rg vias acsetin etm al, wing he mat Fete of viaton ome k= 21285 ond "2, = them prio taro ace i ey Dei ‘he sory sar fae in each ned in rye a ode ony ror So. 39) ‘Srey shar os de all mes cused ae obtined by sng he CE "sto ven nese byte SSS mato “he desig: tal oes a ofa otro, espectvey oti as FeV 039 ot "ho working hibethde expand ia Een 3.12 en 206 Deen of Stet Stee Tino sory athod “The mspose pet or mode sopeston mtbod is wet fr he dai runs ono srl be Gey ed else else ace Frit epee tb te tate ange. Te istry ‘recente bl megs ps omputtnal fr. The etd ‘Shs oa epysep stn ih be tne ern i ean ‘oer ea none, sd fre ieee egatons on ae [Give wtthe dgcenens en ele of be previo ep ig sia Fmt, The, gnd selon ie iste re aed ot te time hisery metodo nye. or hi, rnd tos eared versa site conaons in pat erthgunks maybe wed. Ase, steal sored ground ton may ao be aed, Sch rove motion soul ‘pn hhc enn 655g 337) wit de hosp ‘esum, ichvr espa Ths tod pple sts well a [Moi nse nese sie, h fee race f he ste tre ned be cost igh he ato of te ete Whee [Melo ni frac tect to moet str snes te ul whch iy be rey te onan of lasing are detas th tie mayb Sd a (191), Cope 200), Tat 998), tndChgntPosa(93) ths tee lol espa tae th ae Foner sation Now fn nelsesmpese porns tcf bt rt wl sane dag pacers fhe long (0 Thee wo requis pel ck in atl ei, {8 Theos oboe ete ret nl op dition! sgn Deb (6) Tha oui oxen computer haar, wich epee rence edna ona ie ete ayia athe ssp pecten ei ‘9122 Davies to Reduce Earthquake Eets Inalitonohsbove en ude Framing he ta girth te opto of ng arty of vcs oes they ce ‘Stren of esse der sneaks Thenederzes aerate ‘Gruso and raonorae teeny oie y teeny tothe ing a oe shock abr provi nse vei, thik ‘arth ations end by he nde ed sce) Base tcaton ‘The Me ohio slatted ving pia nite psbeween then andthe fon ft sts 0 ha he ng at ome "he ud Th cnet ir he provision of mop begs the anteg dood Contentions 247 spor tele beige dech) Teepe ase lets, toe Aes inthe sce, ary een he ine pa Te nas induced round hk wil bem san wenn by cd ise bailing dey sting on he pond Duling eng on sch ae “Solag orlando detigedio bene tery and ins reste duping! th big Tes tse tts eyo here springs ar lnind rete barng psd aerate gear ‘es an ibde anbayeatow strife (ee He 3480) Fue 5) ‘owe base lua proved ins baling em = Fe sles ol fl shorty sree se wk ade tev wihsierciteirectnef wt Te cade 0 1093) prs "oe ny andar devin ih etalon dn performance, Inte tsb ola ve be ed ino single storey tk mse buns seal nd tpg cot) nl, Mare i ae tomy De oil rh 200 Hj (a ert Han ole a en ceil ip oven! nl ngs onme TRe Be USA, apn New Zain aay Epa aborting devices ‘Avot apps fo cating semi age hitngs and improving ‘Simi promenade) toured uta (ein apoB) cy i hehe ‘Sickeberoepovodsautincblee sag iran of cate ‘weiting oi 4p of he ia hv in a wees ‘ange weed be 1960s sh he ten trap yin fal Bug ad ony ice he 908 ty ene wl re blgs Sent teers of eric, When he tees sents he ey Skring vito witty ety tp mot i tered parse tee. On toe di se et yes en cd ‘ery ss scaled mathe deve Cooly dampen ne he iowa See 340) (6) Vinee apr ey oat of poder rong ie witha ‘how coe bond fad whch note cog Simi bse aes ao ont a na Comkntns 26 re inematin ose soon nd ney abating ee eon ‘acim anK(199, Song nd Deg (199 Sk alo 99 3.49 Determination of Wind Loads as per 1S 875 (Part 3) 18175 (Pa.): 198 gett win tnd esha intr of Daan hivings a pordet50 yeas er m boc genet ‘tt of toca Tete ney vied moet Stoo Fig 30h wn eee sone npn ctw osm coer ‘° Fe. 3.44 vous plang 4d (Fn mgs erty enews wey which eulot great «opm ape ey ely ding nelle pes) Br ie teminng vada in, mcce eeet eee TAA nde co drs, nag ne) oxen _ 0 twee ane een me sae hee pitta Sr mn flgs be to poe ih te! aoe icy te deipse re tn ben See Ee cata Hosting TMD ends may pore (Septem Try Thy wey wa ahs ed on (©) cel a dat ny ty th splat the wee. The maton oF SOWA nes coon rotor Sato. (o Myee beer Tay hae tn eat eis od hve SoS sans nd se mre cuter Th soe neal ones id we pee e247 Dundee ony ean ed eS HO hsp Se rer ‘ti 24 ne wn ued males Impra esons ‘atl 4 ase duet mel re porn cos a Pe es = of = : = fF Ss = i: = 3} = of & 3 So: m3 el i oie 3 So: Ss. = of & 3 = i: & 3 5 : EM 3 oom an = an = ae = : = 3 a = i Se. 4 ng and Combinations 21 Ashes he wind presse ofa sts de ‘ae lowing (te veya es oft a, (6 te eg toe grand ee, (6) te ape nape to ng, {@) shetopogaty of te wounding owed suc, (6) henge of wind atc and {0 eyo or openings nese. Dgedngon he shove ay tev es pose pot or ngave ese Gao theses he ug 3.48: Distgn Win Space “Te dsgn wit po cin om the wid md shown i Fi. 3.47, ermine velo egos, gd ae tie, dl poppy aoe ds S73) He Wolababsk ox where ¥ th sg wid sped ay igh x nes per sen, Vi ‘swiped pen nF 3.47 he pba aor ork oe, 1 erin eg ctr an fs, he pony fond ent) tr an steiner fof yeni. Noth the sin win sie p10 nei fan mean oun ee ood emt Probab fate o isk coat) ‘The bas win cd i tard yea ea pt fhe wa. The ik outset for difewt les of snc a er 87S te ena 925, Nott or npn stacey, hk coo igh nl trary tied tsk Ftencpts martes hora owe aay fatale commun tava, 1 575 res fang eatin fr tired on dite pds of crpnte an ten ably of eee ory ue Atv can ‘wh Wiseman pba ga ifthe tract in er Py he Ivetin ean yn sty ha te eign wind exceed It once nV sree yon) emia vl = O83 Ne ceed ‘pen ren aso Nand Py sd gus th exam wind fe = yeas and Py 08. ios of sects Aan fr dient ie wind ped psa given in paged Ses ‘Genctanntee eT aw DE Rips 5 ca aon = fae "R= ep naDy oTOHE ah ep apn Wi “ele 2.28 uf tint and a be i Ean 20) ong au Lot Coninatins 20 “eran and nih etry) ‘hs loving ein ae conser by te code (Shots explain | seine ae lo ven nthe da 8 #7 2nd Cok RS Category + Open tein wih fe a fo oittons, wish ve ay obj suroodig he sre wi eights ethan Sm espe a cost Tt tele ping Category 2 Open tein wih sete ation, which av Delhi th rang of 15-10 mabe grad eel (oper nd nar on coe tndevelosd spel ul ois o tna sult sails and gen pene {eter 3 Tein with lol spaced big ith eight up 0 10m who ota i bales, wel wool ar towns sie see Ey pti vl eter 4 Tn with Inge mune of Wh nd soey mcd igs (Cavey came wit sights shre 25 lyre aes ‘Willen ts esi cpr, he designer sald siete lowing, (9) stacy en tw dent pe fein of ict wil (© Their delet fe suroatng ae, which ny ee groand maps sd bec th nee 1475 (Pan 3) ete vaso (le 3.27 by which hobs wind ‘peed hs be mite oa wnd sed at if gh i oh ‘rine. thse nd at evn pot eran amen “snot deo tl pt ined i commen ft esas “prt chang rly nn en vr aft date Pett ian ‘hic te wind pe bis fra gears Th ion eee eh sd dela eight i ge in Tbe 3.8. A metodo cae vel leo srcte needing developed igh gre ne 3.28 es append of eee ‘Mle 327s tocbin en nntonedvarton th hn ioant Ss = a TT ove or merit ves Pei ae inerpltoe yD we ‘bl 328 ard dnoat eohsonsin Fa a Daeg ee a pe eee “Fopootniy factor) “The bs wind epee enn Fig. 347, de at he ino a0 oa ‘Coogi acres sca lvl, i espe ot es, wich eeepc ll pc! nary (ee Fag 313) Th eto TREE ance nd nee the sss ls cress of ci, me erg on det the vi nv Ft fot of Rit sca expe ig Tno ao of yo ee gor wiz ee seessiNpc tee tn nyt an 610, Pocslopes reer hn i ‘Shien ew 0-150 venty ‘yetsee 460 oniat fe esi oa) 036 for 9 17 Pith gh ofthc och 8 Dupin pe of vd (eave 3 in eget upward pe ans a fr nes ie 349 a5 ange ‘o ‘es a, 248 Togaple eiesons «EE! JAMZ ve ig. 40 Fair sfr clan excarpmon as por 8 (at) 26, Dap eS Tv aon Lol Cation 249 tir ternonmiempeneeree cco teat Zt mass isthe ig winged aay easy eee wi Scio ae rea svepig tan an ‘ecimblaoe oe . aie od drectenstty factor (x a. 220 acoso riper ands 6S Pu 9 The foto in in Figs 349 ad 3.0 depend on he tive rota te a steer tae ett ae cy Ga Scena ea Seat ‘sing nt ec ne (15, on win end 25, xt keene es sa pnd ang se ‘SatSermimnefea wscnosonraibeersatretieresanee sss py ith dsc aca ha aly oe a Scufsacee tsp SR HBM le tev ned ones ey "etmpua) tte se 8 re eeagngtctor() et coset won by engine pam ne Shae vena tt ec tee et eet sen anUes ene cw wich sen he mea Ses Ol32., Glens Suhecouagleageae Imootnce tata for eysonic elon now toon greater ty fe led wa egies On ideo he emt cast wlan he Gut cone wet wind ene ig 347 ae oft exceed 70m) daring een) he loin es, ‘are piven int de nde, () Ferswacae ofgosccin imprest eae sors opi, sl commun baling, coomanseton oes pe plat nce, ter toe 130 (Forint et 115, (0) Heel other site = and (@ Fer ow eye epe y= 10. 918.2 Desion Wind Pressure onthe eft of win jie the Gane any terol by gt an cons qin ein foc eo dete es i se tpn polu secon oer 97 enn cso nase? on) 218 ese Se Sree ie 2.0 Conn co own sane cote an woe tang wc —Sae Galiaion Camas ee Mio) Winn wad ioe Sy een — \ Ee 7 © Net rn ceoriece 6 (Aone mn = Iyengar secon ners tt tt 248. Wind Pressure on Bulkings/Structres “The wind land nig Be clad fr (tobi a a (8 ise str eect sch ofan wal od (©) ina casing st nldiog png nd hie is ‘tcl ives pee confit avd on he sis odes on wnt fore oF bungs Fro cote ne aio ie od ing ota soc nd ttl les. ‘Wind cones press inna eure of ruse. Tete ndmnpse ach pate or enn depend te gooey af he ts, ‘Senmereon dec ote windseanon These ct toms Long ad Lod Canis 20 ‘became ow ound buds stv, Asaety dcusain it 510 arin of fw thee nl ores eso vr, wh fe oto ole ge mga The pes eins oh 8 BE ‘Side we bse o uty seempin,werey te rears ee ‘uketohetensn peered verso dey he ai Tort a ape f nls win pn ut we. rrr ae ita ‘tesa wl a eo srt, ar Dig deed en opis ‘mesg te aces ty he wae (Ame eel a Tras balding bas bea roped candy by Chen Kaen 2008) 318.4 Wind Pressure on Roots ‘Win poser neting normal te inal elenet or cing it ive P(e) dee 36) erste et wince be ame tse wen los ‘nding, Cy i tn exter prost ee, Cy he nr 5 ‘Stet Sp the dog wind rere Pics ign pres var wh ph esa ofesrat ke yb beso the pei eres tke ov pO et The wind poms Seed {the taye of he blag te oh, 0) Bhlogeo tot, {9 te Gocton of te wind wih resect the bing, ad (@) theron of te ng 219.8 Wind Pressure on nds! Bugs ‘A tpl bing leon ie shows ig. 3-5, lng with wid pene ett Cys eT ung Bi no four oes ol ur We ‘Sen Tat ences are aver T= 3 ‘eto 23 errs conc (yl ce asf eae tates Wages Wong coe oo aioe on CT eee ee Ti: = rer " ae a3 u 482 Dig Se Sct ‘hole3.3 geste avrg tra re ofl ft wal flat seis oe plea Tse 31 and 39 ie lal reste ‘Rutile nll Toye Tope ebtients shuld ot Be wed fr ‘Sin eset ctl clnensmch rot alls ethsche (Baro They eal ewe oly far be sition of ores te sa cnaeing ets poe nina ling wn ‘ME erent co wind ote nisi ings my be od osc: 201), Sins and Seal (1990, Mab and Delay (O03), nd Sstrnasin (199) ‘pele 323 Exar case oro crea dadburae en Bi me Wo 4p co a oo Tore aps esas 1 ws FT © ern as For aoa or 4| ‘te nt wind dein ta hn 089° can ive wat Bike San besa ened However coe ier vas a0 olor simpy were aa aaeowea O, ~ ice Oy: wae oA p: sean Prange Te ede ges extn cote motor sol hipped fs ode pee anor ston a compre ithe ot of ilar (ericson hncethe coger seer Oat presse ois fpr wot); opy tote hse op mating amas ey, eer neti taeres tc) cred a, phe ml stato 0 of ling octhangs toms td et nabs rapes ctr sombnd of raw his ants hd ‘phere secu. £3486 Force Cofcents “Teta wind i fr aug wi isin yt col 1 875 (31 FGA cas) ware Five nating he tion sees ihe es ost of eesti athe nel ren a be desi wind es ers cre th il lon he al wn nd sho be xe nt on ef sgn resicevares wae sie ee tule unde oh see proses ken et aera ce ken ot in he aren oh Wd cle so Bein ection uyentintr to tise sears han ge fcc for etanguli a bugs ena rer dna baing of for econ Poe couiens ng wan oss old eases use on is SS Sey bln nd fever nisi? members of wf ea 224 asf el cree tng onto Combination 238 fase member, cw, wad alesse fa, mig: Montage a atone te aoa etic ra toner corateetounded mest 3107 Lattes Towers acai rato ones of no ua ag secon with {a sil mes fr win blowing a any fac re gen Tales A coperio ofthe win ns elated ar dren cost ogee st 3°sed by sage mumbo emetic ar sh an Sas anc ad renner led) ond Bubyom deco anl of tcl, Sota ae Reyes amor omic od). eS 75 (a3) nd ie nt! meee fit whe edb aee mpg Fee =? eb eg wn reseece. The interne to ‘Reker: sussven nig 3, wich orp te binge ness 2-5 teen (D0) nd the mie nr et hen ose seen hem 629 fh hte tems att ae oe 9.888. ° 98 oration blige ant 208) > 2 conplespsomenen finest eo be staid shops «=< Sse. Hawewe elit si eee trent | aca gee le «oH A hl ge Luling nan Conintions 227 ‘The imertoee ft ue bigs hight etn hel fhe gt Feber connie ey ene. The es en Te 5.7m be ie elated cites itr dao lings avg ened leg of oe ble vader tanple 3539 ism te ale of i win on binge | eno 1810 Dynami Eacts ‘oe ra code [S875 (Pat 3] apes le dyn flo of wins (ccions slong nd srs th eco te wit) su Be efor te flowing peo bigs Tei lene bugs) wd ele state: (©) thse wheel osama diemion ato nrhn S0> 50,4 (© toc whose enn aural gun (st as tan 1.0 "ores bung aca wind esresthighe stale rpg ty th yma spe Cp sted he it ter a8 suse | the 1987 veto ofthe co) or acta woos natal ete athe it ‘nod ore tt a eda expe tary my ele ok cata bean end th cotton fom Nhs wt arly “The code give te ow ome cae te asnena ine pid ine atane fatal metodo oss For oneness nes i racing oer lle, on eam wee mi tin uber Fry ining Basset hie oral ebersteces, r= Ob eam amt 7 sete wl ght fh mein mas, fhe i ae Sinton of he Rlng emt deen port he apn Wind Note ht he fa gen a, 1:47) ir fg 1S 1191 Seton 3 24 which mea n Pece may eae wind etpome ai. ong response Fath cleiton fan fat (ing meas isos a ember fees) on the racks, he wih pores onthe stuart © Hide mips tetymascrepanetea Cy Tifa deine ‘bothsandsyads-ce = (ig 3.5) Porclaion oboe nln moment, ‘tne nd scsrsin sett esata snl loro, hols (Sethe kenzo 228 Deng Setsncaes 4, a. 2.84 Nao ohooh ‘Tre slae-wind anon a suc ona sip ae 4 samy ght ve by Fe Gado wher jitter otiet rth tig, 4th feive tl ain) nected the sts heise wind pene at hh? ‘bined w 0.67, (Wn?) sod Cy te dm erp or = tl ad toes agen oy Cae BAL. Ug oan Tt er ttle neni, ie fm Tbe 38 stings "he pe tr forth pie vlc ctor, which hee 95; md Ist mckgroved fey whichis mos fh ow yng toad exponent of teat epoca by lowly wind nd spe ‘eto api cle 1 aa ow: cr ‘ot 3.98 Vit trent th ih rt ern ‘wignin) Tate Tsao Te a ann on Lon Combions 239 1, he ge ee for eon reponse + (he pak Retro ‘ant pene (1 hur atid) ghey se fo G79) 850) = 15 (timer pcm of abulene ate agpoihing wind ean, sven fame on a os) wey ‘iste ato ofr camping the ital damping of seats a ven Ine 33, by ste erage beach of ie sinter ig sand 1 eae metre a th integral tues leh sae at eipt k= 100 (top, jt Se mode ntl foency a on of sc athe agai eatin ns and hy, avenge bea othe ace etn igi and =e ey = ba os) er ithe design win pdt ‘i 3.30 Onin conical ster asn = ——_ ae — ‘sewn response of el enlaedbuldngs and twors of rectangle ‘rose aecton ‘Cs pons oft rte ofr kn niet tesco ‘indict onda sett nee tle per oop) nara nig oa, Cosi apace cer ely Sau wis doing ht ton of Ie ofthe el sping Wake {stato i tbe mst ommon pe of cose exon and seed BY ‘Sein ofthe vrs by astute expel Seton 3.105. the faving scan, metodo eterig eae wi ocean se ‘renga ne xa cton fra beings wae ‘Seton re pen ore ea S45 (Pat onde aul state wie oo The cialetcus-vi tac pe itis "afta ofa avin pret eight gies DY 1) 047 de os ‘hed ta dn of sec lle wind 48 Gg, MEME GED 55) - Cred? | 230 Dag of Sel rte i whe . | “k= ede shape common ft VRE ton = 076-4 ! pm ge me xp 20 ef ten Seri csi SUSE chanel nines eect sO aE Baling wtcomt serene ne LO re ig i pace oops rete apm tee _— pan pa esse e2 sees he ede pe (gs 355.338) 7 rr Pe Ld “atom way a.3.58 Crotind fre pet 6° (fora 0) rg, 3.58 Crosswind fre speci S277 Esa atin ‘lamer at 200" na lth Shave sey bos Reinga say of on ‘rose-vnd bees overt manent rec Tg a Invewamenetes een => e Ea 4 H ase] 0.367 Crewing force specu concent for @ 62: reetangul ‘echin aer t 2500 => 2.58 Croaenind force pectin coticlen fora 612 wetangular ‘cn ama ta 208 14-05] 2502 Wel ref psn anne eh ee oso whe (4h +2) iste mode shape soeton for fr cos-whnd base ‘atecig moma Caution of crs wind sponse need frat "ape 210 shows te cael of wid lod 0 tl ung ing he 8.4 Pattern Loading {Al posible fonds appropriate ct stole come i design Chlttone Theseus rons cosine ‘Gabinete metic rie eng nd ely fe tact, nent rte cn vol by hit eon we [SoS ersetntectntnbo et SUS ea arson somaya (Samo ag ae le oi fh eee (> Wt oi ing (ie ct ce eseitaenaTe tpl at Setitiestape crite mops a sate espe ny co Sinan won ovr gure tie ace ed Son wi ing al) ac pee 3 fatwa acest sano Fg 308 iy fhe din dn tnd pl timp do al ss 589. lond sts nd he nonce ise tor bnang owen toy eta ht he ae shove permit oly fre ‘tor enti tees a nea sa, Al shld bmi at ‘tte of mre cnt be ida hice (@ Sgn dada (onal ps with il sen ingot oat) oatg od ant Cmbttions 105 Thee aranemet (rau dhe mx fondo coe (9 aa) ae ese orn th nana moment cee ‘bes og mea shown in i 3.39) ‘Thelin pins duit noted wien pete ondlng at sed rte 138) (@) Dead od crs ed stb vid when oiing pate lading, a soe vred whe casing by sun oer. 3 1 ed 9, gen in Tale2 (© Why ial oe ng dnd +e d+ winx ert dcop ning neat be ps (© Sued ad wind income the win aa sad othe cel fo th age aa a ven 875 (Pt) Fo te ove sn, cv a te ie! ating endo fe seth fsinpy spp bx wheter he mn ang dss ltt impored ln teint at ane The ow of he bem oe ‘tern fom teen nomen nse ie loningoniton, ‘nth i ofthe eld chested dl tren iy it owe fa 8 singly sper oa wth silver (asin tht he [ams enim ect nthe dened iol spl overt ce eats nes i cmie arias pter of mpd os ssh Fp 3.0. Athough pial ning of he spn pel ocd pt nsec ee (6 ling ds ge) It ty fn at ‘wah edger cet dod on ie pn densa lots, Wile heckng oe oerning oats cain of se ‘ot on miniatura fir era) oy become et a SS ee Ft tometer tet ones tt nrmcornit mene f.7®- 2.00 Combiraenctinpaendiad anda fra been wthacateer 315 Load Combinations A et expesion forthe ambition fat Cand) tegen by Gace 193) Hondas Gy +99 Dyesveidy 57 whe Gi ate hei of he pram eins, Bo lori vale off he wars actions, cena vabes ftir ra tonsa taal ft ahs rte permet tint Gs tl salty fc ft ve sete 2 Py i dds ing ey of py. er etl ig sins titer SraurnenrEn is om” wee Ae the eg aes or men sen atin, ae ea ‘ky fits perme cons gw a sel Ss ten “hea cone hay lng he st ied Wyte apart one ssn rds lite dp ‘Whether tan oye te eg bacon meted ty fo, ca nh eboney ole he "ng ost ea tats pay fae eating ‘anal atthe te eyo Tes ede ge vas etsy fics vats nda owns be 2 cong Trad vite oh, 1s loser erst), ©) 1200E-1L)- 104CL oS 06g ort, ©) 1200+ WL oetty eos (cher SO) 1 IsoLettwnt © o9DLersimtoren, © 12@L- tk 08001268 ang © Dusoasn=clsesti~aL, whee DL— desi = empresa, Ww, SL = Hak CL an cia eel fan R= etn ‘aa cr=sech af edt osc nd, nnd scsi lo we sta cose ting 3 adn ne er big ‘ich oe aco ede yon oth ee ie stlogoal det Vand (erp 344) W)ts@reiL es ©) 1200-1 aL 6 one 9 1200-n EL ong Lod Cbs 28 de, Fg 361 Esthquto lang inbth decane (9 1201418) ( 1stoL tH) 0) 1s(0L-#) } @ tsocvEt) ©) 1so1-H) ao) ose rst, (an ospL-1set, (2) oopLe tse, 03) ooDL~rse4, ‘where L, sth desig eat ain the econ, nd, i dng “ana ed nye, Sis oso ods we reverie ition, in oe en de severed byte eet of oss ad tna ta git od sch Staion, er eC 10 fo viens wake ele corset: Hens ld Fre 9 pec forgo ede eed ‘binian 10-15 Many dois dng cos, beat he ane Framed srt gored than ad amin (ea S193: 2005) Fer mrowave noe wer eh ve ond a ory he Jeanette of 1.3 (DL. + WL vers the deg nna stu, ‘endanger nds oa arly mal ere ode conned wh ‘rind ol ae re im ot ese Tesch ne cane ad the ing {Gea te maliliodby 1, anh aie ads reat fccompenying ve ed. Frhe alti fee cooly ed Ina ofthe ce shoul econ ss te andl a wt ey expercc ner es deere ‘ise ea cone eid or preci) ha lad ser edt same snl ve of oft odelade (125 the Caan ose, Ariza tin oe) en ip alc of a at ie mead (oy She Caine and 1. AISC an shies). Towers nth nan od se tr a 13a for denon wee posed oa "ics code suns caninum eign an wn ld wt not oscar ‘ney ie sbove combat Ly cy ay epic by Wey ‘Wty incest he wd dred yb ed tat ay sca edig Snbontns 67.8 89 ny gover he esi 286 Dn Seaver When hr soa on tel epee imped ona he ont Int he led combina ce goo! ud sony 199) Wher ‘peed cand with enya lan, te eto te ern ad shukbecaened er il ed ed pte pcenag of be ings ed ‘iene 52, ‘3.151 Lotd Combinations for Non-odhogons Bulnas ste wha orga at esting sytem, he ond iting clients ty eve ins wer odes. ne gy, onsatag td Faeconol cing mpl. evn ‘Sonny bm conve rca not oreninte- rstionn ‘A tld ting tne nf xs or wl fe xian ssn nid dns eee ation cares maybe on apply Meal ots nach of he nts a child nginx Hace hing “owning 3421 9) mgr ate age deve a blowing {10s dn crt ln te ec mi 30 din echo 3 ‘nin th Fen, ang inane. a (©) Mon aig rtp edn Yeo snd 06 ds ch lead nthe deco, acing slant Fa, 262 100% + 0% reformer loud esting sts 1 19 egos dt te stv resold a be pled io baiing which, ‘tiny talc bot ott oriogonal aes. Siac th det of ‘acu oe oe ove loving igh eon! pons re (esos, ( astt, say ) H1,-boeey (8 ost, BL, (9-038) © (osti,+ EL ©) ~(6e,"038.,) @ (ost, 0) uso te tat 100+ 20% wl vet ein fo eta ig wh rb! lad ssn ts Homer ode pense wit el i eopm bugs anette vee ees aan on Led Coons 239 115.2 Combination of Tiree Earthauske Componenis Ion cle oh te). ie tic of veil crt slo Wher ae ee spss of ‘tga npn rene ns rea ec ‘omned wing the spc at who te mana opens ee i net inept neeraceeraseenetne sett ‘niagara oud ecm Tacs Theron aera outta tenor a Giants se cose went © set seperens ac Goons ag OQ sevatsetr cose Seana ‘Cec nt rae fet a ad Ze ‘Sits tan) slog bag ise ‘combina (aE X overeat 5RSS nt ied sgt of es ean (0 ‘iar face bog monosomy) ‘soos iat fore scien ign aon uate 318.3 Load Combinations for Paste Desion ne late dsign of tee, flowing al combo’ mie ‘“ @i7oLsn, © HeLtkeeewy, © WL tere ewe (@ o9bus yeah. ‘Acct tina ity ent ent "3.40 Canptiontipe inant dbl dns ict ia a ea BN pe Bee Use ANA IS ODOR a Oeatvihereameomn) 40 34a Sos) ee Sermon se gta Sethe oven eter ff depends won aang nd sin sila he ders iy ts ited kon 288 asp Sel racer Examples xara 3. dain alg har ee designed ort fol of 51M? fos pr 18 875 P12). However ae tel made nia ot ‘inl slat and te ober vo eon por apr moat ae we 13 3.2, 15:098 33 4 10342. ond 1044 F392 bd 19 ob ech sg lad of 2 Bie) ‘Detominethe character od hace roby ofoed shalt ‘exceed 3 sruig Romain Sonn ‘Teens ve fad ae ot by 1Qq=13%32,19*38,38%4 0542.8 44 | ‘al mer of ani, 9 315835108 10 a8 ‘Tees wale, Qe =3.1 ‘Stn eit 903512 Cocco vino, = 32 09 (estore eatin ca doe sing a eile) ‘Tecra ve oa Oy = Qa #180 = 38h 168 0352 4469 an? ‘Thuy, thechuaceric vale tht shld have ve od theses 448) Minor 4 ik han ted he in nani 2.2 fof ous 12 mapa ond 24m rac arspacaatdm Ter ‘sein contin a ACC shin. Compu the lint ening mone fo ‘hick he pris veo edged he acre i sna hind Sottion enh of theaters YVR 6462 Maximum pci fp ~ 1 (lovee renin ACC vin). No ora cngs~ S40 = rove pi, wi «ping of 462 ead ad on arin 29, Servant een (28) aie ‘Wop of heing (pe Tae 33) = 160 Ni? icon pa tm shel ,~g pain acing jor 29021 Nin ‘Assuming SMC 15, ‘Seep 0.161 EN eat nd Low Combination 229 Dead ba 0422 ‘elon pn opin cage aa Show na npr if i cise iment in ape 1), peers Natt en), eee ‘abe ae gone now edt Retna en Fong vt monso8 Tht 0841-334 0NE sic tw a ons mecnauent a9 aati ‘eal ow nton ping "2 602k ‘epsinay named absense eee a ess sedate tt em eno ed cam, aray ME oisegewpin0 th 78 60240-10653 ® ey ME 5.708 60m) x412 ANTE 7 Example 3.3.4 ef tne harap of 24 wich placed 143m Cake hen lad he of Santon Spon often = 12 och f t= 24 Spacg fran 3 sce cht, Ot (86) =21.° veld friction 0.151 ive od dition fr ps nore a 0P= (0.75002 11.) 2 034i 240 Dupre Scns Honea ape 5975 (Pat 2), Miao Lt be cone fr desig = 0.40 Nn? “Tac, Design Le = 5300 XNn? Zeleinin rane 3.4 4 comer dae ‘The oe ir accel and al theflors ] sre wc offs. Cae hd ‘ie ier oan Bn eee oorendABonhe fo ening the pacing of columns tn the Tin lad och i = 2500 0 = LYve ladon ot = S00 Ni? (a= i000 en “odd oad 4125 in? Helgtofech sony = 3 aa fom th vos Nor vel se compte lo: Thelin dba bes rele ar por 875 (Pa), qe of “Gas The Bai a Te dn ee EF ite naeascstm tae oo asin ad on oan BC (NSS F695 4625657562569) <4 (5-6) aso = esses 1 1SGQS +6159 125-585-494 95) 406549 = 1,348,875/1000 = 13489 8 ong on Lot Coiaons 244 No tl ee lei iti cn ead tne AB vite eG isondg gas tanstilow™ OLIN Than owt eI nc ee se on eer ose Era 4c bing sn at nla ito ‘done! nC ng hrs egos cee fee {ia fhe ml he bang eb pcg pe ee iin af mpd a a hae te dete pron deca on wach on bing. meer TB inf ela (ha ad spr 325 pens ‘ntti ing sede yw es cat Si ui pn be rt i ni ee Sridhar one skp ‘eno ois ae te ey ei re lege ea gon rid an wag bie Woden p06 062297 : ~ ea t tN Wo dst oe E> 1 nconape core eter wae 10<4S, Ky = 0873 bung us flog alt= 04S 1adme, Know ary caret A0% IO =a RESO yee \ NETTES ny r 1H Donn fet races Peru of heb ‘reat wll 45010 +280) = 450% ‘wat al i epniags 29% 1 1.2= 36m ‘ropeing es Be twec n 20% enc he bung i of mai yest es wind sire rsh wal, Soon o> Dx XOKTS™= 143M? Design wind pesto og wlan root Thea 1xGR L314? a ad cleat FG GAP ntl rs soci (ibe 332), Gyno iho ng witht eet fr ie ste allowing cote we ol. Design prerecoefeet fo wals. orircoaS t= sng Tbe 333, we pth vals of exe pee ‘utc formal ar bom Tae 3.48, Ta cy ‘Nott se pts caine ren ny fr bigs wih atop tof Fo ngr ingot thd ro > 40h ver en ste tle wp tow = 0 some wsed “Tor tsowe es ne ob conned wi he neal prec sf Gentes Ths, Gone wal Ace SO COS)= 412 prem) -05"¢05)2-10 eon) fewall Cor [ei 3.640), “207 -€05)= 412 Gree) 060s)" Geen atie - e eye ge eet asc ot ate eg tt ae a ‘4g, 8.840) Net oo presi costs orteret ones an combltns S768 4NInd (essed SHAN (con) orator sal (PoLdx 1483 L7196ANi? (pres) TLEBS~ LST AN (Ge) Forte ret TF13x1314 17021? reste) a“Os Stem bIsteRN? (eo) Cato of fc fn day Sine 404 = 88> 40 (een hough “1040 te onl dng dow a tobe conse TH let ‘ie longo dso ofthe bling along the wind Hee 100" 661 once slg 0f wen pemes PrP 188609 °K, = 707K, Fora memberand components eb mop he of Kas cslelied lbuve Asper te yoss unr enon 3th ta eos ie he eight of ‘eg han 1m th pres maybe oboe 20 fr anaes oth lds fe ang trl prereset, G33 ? stern pre cox sing ae 3, hw = 80 ~ 016 « 0 nd ceo Ts he prose sient mayb vied shawna Tbe ‘ite a4 nea penn costes The nto rene ose are shown ni. 50) eee endrs cae fonts Rlerng e333 for 01808 iti 2.0 65 visor walte as shown 345, ee 3. for “Thaw wl bare bo comne wtb Clo oF £05, Tah Gitta seh 07-05) 212" (ews) G0s}= 10 teen) 7 as}=912 (ree) efuse-tt (etn) etx obisin the al ress iets fr he even elaing a tances rome 331 fora ot sae o 1 Mi ny froth on 12-(03)=-17 Gar was 28 aig fe Stet ay - a eT F..0¢0) Neto pets oti one 2 combinain ‘Toobin el precoder icampatel king ovale oR, Tei 47 13966 09 = 1707 aN? ‘The zie ofl cetiiesie0.153.30~ 4 om wicbver ssa ‘hfe wows te vl af 5m, Th fr tse repens insted Se ‘le 33 fra tance of 45 he aig sdf shoul te ces fora press 17 991 =2.9 Nh Laat ant Combinations 209 ene, eon ag 10 opr Sect 2.138 sala be coidere inthe esi ‘same 3.84 micomare oer of high 50s ppc bel oer hill ‘ap oes Pig 367). The gh of els 450m ait asa rent of In ‘hetorconalapoeh date Stoned Tho speed ‘ob tao Chamba Kase Comput he deg id res Fa 367 Wied pratt ontowaron ai ‘Solution Bai wi spend a Chaba = 9 [ik ote commana ico 2 etie ight f8 =450 slope Lind = (U5 = 131 ih par alo = 15 an 1500 ete breath of hil. SL ost S00 m Ch izzit~ 12 cesuiso0=03 HaSom=0 ' x 0 Sno, m= 8; 000 Prom ig 350,2=1 There upon a, atro3=13. porn for retains ato The ein wind spi Fem hdFy= 108: 114 131539 ne es i 6002, jen = 16S , See Hones sesos88 2292» 1800 Nin? jo go Sei om som De " hon, s4,N . abse 4 9 A No ae of oe Re = 3.15 mtd a err caliosave ben ade ony fr pps of une, For nn es tera abe eto ea eel prt ‘iam Sretelodra eee pt Tete sas ies ame 5-5 eid ar ie rn if pons) se a ceo te wth fe ee. Satin Fn 304 ee frteteloeted t 0 ram Macs 2 Swain hssbth [Se 39 4095 wl wT 6x 9S*~ 1006 Nin? mene ve akin a oad Combintins 28 +09 (atc mew) ,~09 (sumed) Design wd reste = 1006309 X09~ 1S Nh? ‘Axper 63.12 of he 1S 75 (Pat 3) cox, oma ee, sre fe, F=Gpk ane the ge ie made wie eng Tasting Gz Land Cy sper Tbe te de [598 (a3. LeUb 10. Then om Ta 2 0f| 15495 (Pan 3), K-08 Taree, ‘Wind se aloes = 1.6815 0696x1000 Sse te tt ite ove ies ise ll sins te oie! Cy it 20S intend of {and en he wad xe wl einen by 2896 xamole $40 Cael id focer ig th iat factor epoch a seal a trying 6 al nf Im 320 ms shown Pig 8 tobe ced Mamba ot 50m fot ‘he sca shor Aanme he everage Ha Ig bei The ferret be rae: posed a ot ath deco, The ing hil inact Hei, H=0m a ew ar diners, ar" oa 9.2.60 p= anano>s ete, decanted porns 7.1 the oe. For Mamba, the asi wd psd Moats ‘nef oi ing onered tency wlan ito tecuincupry 3 ab tence 300m Howser er fas ae erin ctepay sc thy ae ned eloped es hving ie ‘wing Hence esto cele combed wn ols pr peat Dots (hats) nd ci 83.24, ‘rm Te 25, orc gOS devon iti aay 31535 neu fog 8 thelr lbs petri Ay ‘Stosstowe Sm willbe per tran ee "281 Bag Bet Src SSE am Fh aa marin iach mee Cyetonie region factor y= 10 ° rane 1 Scena casas rf Samo enti ea napa cot fr ne dame sp ctor ‘Desig wind spel ext 44 200} B= PX09X10"099, ‘Tales gives the al oy, an, ble 348 Dsgn nin sed nt ee 549.26 mh sche, Gu Jee BOTT = 3913 02612 ‘arte xeon $a igh = fem Te 3.38, Gnas 4 1 ma z Tony 0 TRI SMO me aie eee ores aah res =H + 40st «ca + 9.3 026129029 Seas a ae US 4aS06x2NG #33026 i a ae = Lill) 0586515650163 021 we atom ee een ae Pee «ston 5x02612 a ee a eS r tas” im Shoe Sis Ser de b= 8 ony @u__an im as ime mone "0" FRR epi ca Tie TE Tonspase a in interlace on he re Thee hve eee at vty ory ee fresh wind decton rhe ee recs in i oso, PCA PCa t spr i8 35 (eat Se, 63), Ly2x0261905%x0487 «(4913 sans — x 0315, ‘Plopsfor wind oo Thin any ioe by lying he pose a tray oe ol by Be eenoncing vl of des re st he Dot height om he toe le) andy he Gales long ng ie (12) nd loa he sts (139, pipe etn 256 Dee Sea rer god Lond Continous 57 ne aon le, igh nd pat has bee vee he ese ‘nh lingo al theo os Te designer may coos ovary ce 0 Frm Fi 201 1893, r= 0239, hei nt ooh te SEAS? code ve sept presere Sen 2s lute fr tag wih tg tan hn psd reds of Eo oe otros cant Thebans cain eet ed 4y~ MB) (cay 6.420f18 1850) Teo seven sone eh ler even her poe tes of he hy trent be sing tan eee ot width cing element en he 2 9UDAS 49g ‘Gan tthe wl jd omer press) 7S a ao to be td he le es tg any nies he sonal Dacor testo ¥p= obs 77 = desea oe ition wih ling bight Ts dig ae se tbe with hear ergs ere nate vere svn ne, reson fhe ling, Tn yb mcd by) part win ng, (3 be sony ae cl soe nh pect oe ont Wind fd ov sod (i the coe of telat cnre wih pesto the eae a ‘nue, Torsl fee re npr fo bling ne tae abo 8m SE ‘ASCE gies nr pelo ih repestot noalronseoflulegs ™ pda) Eronle 3. Col estory west pane, Sorting town i 10 = 7B igs oar as Tiana ereaetectn tet mem Yin > i So ee ae ‘cts it a at cee ese The ste! frames ore tftled Wah | sce | mam { im Tested britney Deere 00) 1898 Theat wih a sh he Pisce hae boo lated comring refine a efi | (nd ve od a on Sono Foe Seaman, henna rin 6 rao (Gable? of 1899, Being a oce ‘ung, he impsce ft 1.0 Cle 6 of 185), The bling has 8 ‘pes mane ling ane aese R= 5. "tl sonic weigh af tbe suture EY, = 1717 4251643095 72N “5 Asse the et fing ode 1S ‘undone period The road mtn provide by moet sig nt Hews fr hs bung. be digas fs the Fein i the se at that acon Example 2.2 For he retry ung sho Pi. 3.70 the name ‘opr (atl pd nd mode shaper tine den have ‘eer chained y ying ee ition ant show a he fore nh deg cre hn edo the a mada ‘tabi mth. an dre alate bing hgh Ase a he uti nanan Sms nane 1) end upp by so The ung hay aspect manent resting fan nde Rt 3 Seton fle tse tection fd tn ml partion ar Wise ate fst yo des exe 948% of eet mea wc per Pec00mNF (Cas 762.018 1988) eNO aaa oo | bt ete ‘99.270 ‘abi 48 atin tml mat a depron aor Regd Woe Mak te - oa na aaa sie 2SE—amautec nag, omar sas remmoeotiatesg 8130 uae Ene “The ld acing th oo inthe Hh ede Ped _asunng et work oth aes fr eo m0, Mase 250 esi ne 645. oF 18198, AUSY8) ~924ni x gids =006 a ay “0% ge HSUED « PMIZS 9g to TR as Oe 16-0511 x = 0.88056 60, “theres sre PEO elated a Tbe 3.0. amin wegen aie ‘ise two made are wl sept (oe clase 32 of 18 1893, ee conan a tet ore be coined y SRS med. y= (46 +520 P~ 181 (oye + 3.10f9 = 2884 AN and Fabre +66hP?=38220N ‘Teeny apa sia oats he ai by Qn HS Opa ty ye tts 1858= 19260 BR Wand anes hers, 39-3622 {5S Leach tc Go esl al period ee dunt ne on bsp geo, epee ‘mst ese Te hero is ame a pr he enti! fndapent peso cane Bemnge 31140 Nh tse ar apse nani ep nlomc neal exon quanonareo Be wele pn he arn aedc 1213) Tes hvac sf ope dig lade oe (p= 1558% 1213-189 Ope tsn6x 1213 10s Blowers is ‘neocon es foe and yan mtn ives ioe Ne taro be hee comps fre sai wees eT Mangoes irc hb wn bn Wh ‘Mo buiing tig wih asthe toy mew ‘bl 281 Ban sara ir oes Few iam Clie Saye, Saya Sym, Say spe Ber Ge eee yao tome Mm) lyme) ‘ae "any seas ‘aki "a 28 Doi fetes camp 919 of ie nd acd dol oad 61? ae oad iste oud vind pena 701Nin apart or donno. eenine the governing ong Sono Go tsb Lh) 15(06+115)~ 4125 Nt ( t2eoes eke wiye tages 113-070) 414 eM {© 12(obsUL- WH)= Labs Lts-070)=205 un? (8 apes sine oon iat 9scd90~ 249 er {© boDL-1sWL 09% 16-13%0.70= 039 Nat {0 tS (OL+ WL)= 150164 070)= 343i? (o) 1S tOL- We) 1515-090) 055 knit The seo on cotati gerne Hees th oot a ab eign fr ‘wel en 44 ofl ae od eae rhs te nnn nd When es copay snl wl reanive we forthe baton, whic wl eal forthe oven the evening lal sana Is «empl surly ya be Spi To ease te govern loading condion. Morven fading Sonia ny be sal fone st fem (ay cls), nd nai Smut may be ctl omer tt ters ay tracing) Hens ‘Beare copa pon lb ae nfl ale eta es inny mee dn tyson oa i Summary “The four oinpases ins design acer) dteining eset ‘re alegre ods acting yt, aang he ‘etl ter orp ) ering the ros meds ee ‘feed pine Of em 2c te vrs ads tet et Sc iporan ay sc tial design tse! oom. One of emit {enon forsee fires rb ck of eonsldeaion of the a et om ‘ot Hern a chap we ve ily doused al he a hat ‘Stony seuare Of he see ral aod n-ne nc, folowing re ‘Sst mpaat (0) et cs, () impoee oases 0 a), {Gyn lend tea oa Tho dead a be eed ‘Sey ening pci nd earbuds sit ie ‘eiruncean probaly of esauenos Tosh eosied se, Weare tet dernier lends nity sot However, whaling ceo tmin sone singing enmpos ron me In oro ascent ieee snp ow charac. Hens see ts ‘Bouts age ate ge, in edon th provi gre nk [51893 Pt codes Sone ht inc ns lon dg ce od wn ‘oats as ae une Hee ate Sy Seta ae Dynes ce pe Sire Wea inca as CComplied ste shal e woe pean cans onc sine ‘caps ntmerig ic okay ata nate See aed meagan ‘Snecaia tment ny by as these edge bth ste es pen scent cota ty cp elle ie ‘the end may be consulted for more details. Mo inte ts i recon ayo iS yc oS ‘resins eenates eset ‘ie ut od cts pei the code (which reac edo por ‘volume of data) and the stresses in vari ee ‘mayical mod adpe wo zely doen thm foe ‘ited onoear Sag ver manos fetes 1 Theneanrnetfoon ons fee ing given Seemaibtigag sesame rier in Arnstein eed ad {Ghent ont ying th et So, cable olny he 28 eis Set Stree 5 Aronian inof2 cedar ot4 andi plsa4 et Ca 6 Atri be fr del pone Cat elo ‘wir lnn te rnd oor tg ele ne pein {Bim Ceres 15 875 ah 7. Autieis pyran whew een singe ngs ‘etme wd pee ae flaw ae (@ tel pto, (©) si frst indo 50 ye, {6} Bn windy ta ( Sicofte ing = 1040 mand ight "Btn ei ny ran cof let dg wied qued "en he ign wil em Ge ti fh eee ota me fr 10D aoe ovr cn he cue of Alta Se’ ey roof 29 Deri te wines arid i 0a. 20m ‘aes 20 fm Chl Al te de wi a eee ‘ow fe, 10, Aon proprio bebten apne Bi. Tee ett ick ‘hor te runing 0 made dpe Thee a po Dai ieee ang hm me he 1. Camp he desig wn res eee one wade ‘wos bing hh 6 nigh hn er nn iA Sewer openings nec ose 212s altar snlwosnr pnts neko weigh lm Pete a ‘a orn spre ed eng al 12, Went llc rama, Spaorine= 18m (ink pea) acolo =ém es igh Tt GL ‘Sjochgofta= tn Shc arin ‘Tete sol ate intel ae Raga hia Drie tevin (a) tein wing, 1) eg in pes ont ng (© Bevwintoaonen sect hep win! thera sous eel "3 Gest wd stig the pu eer apache misony being faim a0 and melo comted Cos Ae le avenge ry high 3m. The a to atest ets Th belli ke east st Lar fa hao “somal dinson to cee 14, Gon tortor oes bsg shoal be Sing (iene 206 V) Thelen ney ie ene dog oop 80 ondton The RC as weit we nae Te oe aa ot Lod Combines 263 eho endo 128 ne ss ON the at: ‘et ny ive a of OP, azn Ba B te Ps058, 25) vst reed gs i, & he ection ter fe rome Tapeseton, ichny nen ar 085 trace an sand mes the tls ove amber anf the ied ures of el ipl ase uta (6.27 he rope nt a of he el oat Ot ra hat a rd ata oo (Dae 98). aoe a») tad 2° Uy LEG“ 430) ee jf ithe ied eof eh fy te el rest opr eit {eh yb kena 0 0424 eh ral ng es (= 13) Posen (980) sept fling rae ar xen et, wots. é B= AL Wf ,-f0¥ at whee seq o #4, sd de aires ave sendy ten dt Since tr ofthe ses in] we 0 epee on agi tepid ll veces ah net db Fer a ‘toni sate roe ve En (4.25). Compat pogo” tatable to ealelte the least ie! lone ot fraes(Goapahy & Sram 197; Haris 90; Seranian 19%), overs tsimparsat ‘oven at hough hinge naan precede ent ake Ino xen ss ntbesdo hepato eines rcs ‘lfc nd eng famsion of plate ng hese eel leeds eed wil a cine wih tela Linitpot 4 4.4 Sources of Non-linear , Bef desing hyo incr mh of ai mayb worl toidott te tet aa at cee ae desi, Iw ‘aps, eat sassdtobewmielgod be egos ia. 9 te fred on he goon ofthe weed cotton, abn eormtons ar sine o be ery sl sch tha hey wl ot aft ‘lta ote of repame of syten Hoi goolew asl 4 Mf Src! 29 Soces bende none resinous andy he ies ‘ation or eaments ws dscued in Socton 42. tet the chavo meridia 30 Sac 4:43 Matort eects ‘Re vos mal ees at ise sl ame dat tov, (© Gratton Ong ng nd ee ces ‘hrs nc il min el when beg al. Wied theta nee ecco easel pala the sein bse ily pisces Cupar Doe ec the ‘moet sai bcos i itn dl mi a Sti ly le) Tol yng so ar he reo tsichigo i eur enon lncion enalconpeice se {ote te he mma eons, ceca ‘Si tient nn rae ste se sy Bete ie on-street he gl igo ‘Ton in ei) Sms inn oa ae ets ‘Saini ss, (kg de td ae As ond ete, te sin ave fesina nents nw on st ion ao pty pe ‘eetothpeeeo enal sroes Arcuenedin Cpe ie ate {nthe ihre nals pa esta tsi tees el an morngcon ses ‘ton fp cnn cng ne a ely ‘tls Tite wil be sey te prosoes olce ‘encng moe cerning in yoga ah ad ‘ttl om te i offs wichita Te Staton etn te ey show nig. 43 cn in ‘ett cui fs bn where te cna Sa ese 20 pa ie forms (hb de! Sept is may Stl be iar om ying ego ms fe (9 Pate fain f eT sion sci i es ‘nein cent (8 lg incomorion cones nit pce (© Pret meme oncom ( Sonorhedong tli (© Gytopetty ees (© Lond fe keto, se iene age = o ‘eano pt ag. 4.19Para yang necator orn atosee “Te wate eff th ns te wl fame design ae a lo. (@) Geametie eles olde nit Impartetone sch ar member ot signs (camber wena pmbees, rating doo uevadsble ‘tom Sing reson ad eeton, Thre psionic abla ‘mens est dg ofthe eg ss dean (hen ‘db consrdin mtn anys ode the mgt ‘ns by eres hm te frm io ts) ‘ThePetelsdssiang manent ea pao mpi by te ‘it dtm tel ton 42.1, (o) ThePete which ise afc of al ors te el iso thd me Th Panes en sarin cto ‘Seon Sstan 42 andy be conieed testy tas) ‘enn omen, Stlty cts nny be we ocd he seo ce oft, (nko eooton noting scence {@) Lon taking sd eosecton dori (Ssbranain 195) (6 nto etn eet ice cimocnl sces) ° 44.4.3 Combined and Other foots cs ht tn combi and nein br ee at ine the ste fhe Sig ae sted ellos (4) Paste dro pls ander Petes 10) Comet donation Te deminer pi eam olan ‘oneson, wn sent by nls nent an aihip (Gina in eal n Seton 43) (6) ancl dlrs Seon 45) {Gono of ling a sod systems sep an ies {e) Leading telco 10 Fiemme joints ees (a) Oworpinebacing ene {Uh Fonts nd pyres (0 Sher comnetonorenoce nme slabs ‘Sone tee fae re consiondrounel in ais, wile some we inca in sgn pity how spesieaton poo anes rte Lt wdc he tod whe ole sme of he ingot | ‘ior tis pct cider he ete ductal ais Tce henner shugo the mst of se es eres stem), 45 Jot and Connsction Etects “Thetis pc fa cola otha aft te fame beurre ths fe avo ot, saring Jets af gnc, nd rotation {stoma athe Goon ansetons We wil cus tee ape 4.83 Fate Size of Joint The ting eet of eft isa em tt eit of join ps and comecon fot: Hen hve tet oe use ged {hd the fee Ie model wing the online ness wd mani gd Jats Maer fr ily welded eben cmecioes wh SG Osh ‘eg fictoe ip) bots the reve ron been bas nd cols [Shetigble ames witch cnestn, he combine ef Teja ered pmeldetomons ny be april consid ming one Trecconette niente gi sing membered streams, normaly seit ld sis of a he wo ie ft tamed shor in Peis Fp 41a()shows all wh aks on i it with thc Sewn ig 149) Fige 46) shot conventional Imo, wi he bens Sing exe up te colo cei, Note ‘te beef in od! esuting in srl domain), ‘pce 4) shows em widen deren ening 2c sts en bent oso on The met oion eshp for {he teu cin bees (ack 1950) esi Be as 29 noe ene Mad of Sel Artie 38 2 a 416 ato fit with clu ona etiose ‘The sore aun ao vl fre ie th fb in elon othe column te Toevaite ame one, it nd comets shnlbe motte ‘oiletrvgh the cmb age aks (mercado) anneal ‘ping comets, wish are hate by he eaeship oe aoe Pais fan inthe dreton of. Fie 4.16 shows ance fri glave coins (ap te anton pings ade tonal png conte aon yo sites pets my be tnd Bot sxe wo rly telat ation ‘et his ot a cnr cron Ted of fame so wis eb ‘ofbetsas given in tana Cana (180, Sah & Coa (1991. oi ‘it so ps eal Cz " " Thepeteigs ese in roa tis, when Sie with fen smut ey ape an) naa ‘Ets hpenga § ) 294 Denpeof Sect Sener 45.2 Panel Zone Fleity ‘A pane zane the rp ofa we lang int wc the Ber a famed Fig 417). alg coat! sss of few ae wy ‘oro on witout cosa te tot pene detain, hi Bs ‘Sow anally oferta egh sheaf in develo {coer unde tra fa) jet ps edhe pt son stad acs wil te pronutcolefat on fame tise (Kr ‘Mots 187 Fra hserabty smote ane eh ‘opunel ether etn ot deine snd ens proper meses bevaten fo ono hs del Senet, fom an lite sgh staan, menses ek aah oration 9 pate hinge in hse de ner along canton Thoma fut hinge sy es {este ods fh mead eds th prema ilo tie fame. a. 4.17 Free acting on plone ‘Asiple sonnel ma proposed Kerik (97) dese the er fees atom (7) Beato panel, Cr ‘elie panel zne repel by fou mers comes by aon ‘ings atthe comers (ee Fg 4.18). The te hl and wih te ot ote 5095 san 0.95 orate tes de aa depth el ‘he cola ep Far th pel he one senha pn th by Keewnr (197 and Ch (1990), R= Obl afi Py O28P, (4350) R= OGGdso\9-(C2°/PyNhe fa P0250, (438) wht sth Hinge eno te dtd Fel 3h Plead) (4356 a of Srna nai 295 ig 4:0 untae opus Kner te ids of ow dy fe he win Seat cher ace perma dt gh pt eto ae a tei aan es cen Ong wo ‘sees Set fn nbn eine oe cree siSdegonsi dejo pat eee temic Spat dint pote ere ek "ug wae ye mds il te et eda ssc (Chen 1 Kat al 1H, whe ey ne he Serum threats ped Ses Cac bp 3101) wee fw be cree ag leer anor he pe ESOS atau pep done ten a oe fecha iy in pen rn i em Se ere alae prsmeetomn Se inter of re a ae eel cheapness a he ‘Slovan hana “4p a 920, woo verte rr pap iho het Menger ava lasted oe Pray B= W944) el 4d) Hd aan sate et at men a ee et Sone ocean bo fe eee he ete fp! aa eae et i et The Shs oe pc debe or ee 296 apr Srsres og w ke in cen he pone fe wll cut ee ounce ain pela sata theses alton 4.5 Modeling of Som/-Riet Coenctons ven mpi doi ote er ny eit ete ‘SEopusrAatafeemclon tester co e SiS omnis Bl sp ony Shit between he joining member tht he etre ‘hee me tea clu Os th er bd on Ky ped ‘Sesrton pth Cee wile snp syd ma cole ST ot cary ay ey mnt rome eas Heweve, xperiest Ursin feet er of eanmeon save dwn es Fg 420) sn cure pct pss sits hat il bine he ‘ayia an aly pened extemes (Dane. 1987; Caan 198, 198, (Chen 6 Ka 198 Ar yee a 200. The ply ested conan a ey ages be amet dsb ep ctosin te fame emp ‘ Te angering pacts patito kw in whales the conse an astned rig msi rel The propa be lain ‘teonecto peel npn by Djs a (1980) nd arose S(982)aeshownin Fier 42 and 2, To caaetion atom by Babe ‘ial shed feet wach ose oft ner te at ‘ainsi dt claenton by Bmore edocs ot cooler ‘teovel chara fame Ont nrc (23) een iimton ire argh ames Tin PS sana However, dct dead snot eotsdete by the C3 clasifeasion Iti 0 Stor om i esse i eg Clean soa oe rhe bce re td be tee he nbc mate ie Ea Co e a aay ite 45 = unagigaycteanentton [se | Tuna mem opty forts ta Fg 422 Castleton stem or karen propose by Boe 190) jayden recomend by th code Ax shownin Fe 421 nile, he conntan conti ending late npc fetems of ial enon ied be norman oes ae = MM) 20d rome tn geet (9 ~ 2/0), Ir pli rien aon refs egth fe a fe tine ph tbe ean ‘te. Conse clatetn it rr Soigicomestin Cosa Taos sad Feticenmaoe a wear ‘Sule rept by Ge & Ald (1980 show tt fr ctl pupae, ones ext be eps is ml the fame cr be dean =| Smee at RL) <008 35 ed nh gna, th Ran ig of heen, ‘ofthe bam, a I the coecton ies Morar, cman the EC “Susan wile castne on toate ron rte fries ‘annsons Kishi a (1997) ve sow at sig web el singe ts comectos, double web og oametione snl end pe comets ‘oul be cnt fee comscons and op a ox np emesis ‘sk double web al, top ad Sat gle coon, ad fused pe onectns om be sie as semiipl emecions Hose (1997 hae ‘Sowa at exenadenpieconeto poses inal iess2 1° Int Shave rid comets. All weld comestons set nd las ‘tasclon cn ie alee ig esi purposes. Aa chondro et to hn 08611 iy 41 co) age at fe si it os i 0H 2 tn on i seed “spun dif an fn ey a a ef a ct emt Ne pre oeeome o sae Se tc Bis Guns aD imei Se nk pow cn Ce 5. Ne dh on 70 8 Cen Se _ $a je Mai sani al muerte - ya 40 ee eaten ret yen on te ca 9 wets cnetingrnn esate seb yy ee snot Ko {mi he pms Se ror Se aa ol mse eon! fee ofS 8 207, 4.2 comecin contr nFon-Wori ne Canoe So te an Tage cee ode athe sng de ween tte pt omeion euinaiotyiengrect cay gtd etamesotenstsiea tt get ‘Sieur ema iorgeyena? eft ita a 300 Dp Sel Sac od Powe cee Soke iM Td concn Coiteot Knasnssoneteensgt Go6s0? a SS {se Say pare eco ep dt ese iy on at ‘te in sn ies “ue coe recommends he shes ven be 43, oe petiiny ents ings ble moment ciate rennship. The abr me sed osx ‘hes tariston of 0.01 rain sd piel eso of eae ‘ther capone gen the we. ite 4. acne esmzaie ini Gn) Soto i Sain) rae in oe ae se ants ng nition st Settee mie dete ‘Thepsmmets gen nals 25nd 43 ee inal sig 423 soy of salen) ike fh tp al Gam) eng ft mg nm) 4 diene ofte bt Gem) 1, ante ocean af te elon of th ema coneton tony ‘ghee fend plat in) thins of cola ange snd sb iene Gn sm) ep bas Gam) 1, =e ofp angle (rem) an) Ma of Set Aa 3 € sth tne ates TE a. 4.23 Commin yen fam etna connie whe si ramets 4.84 Anais of Semboé Frames ‘Wh a manent spied a coaectin n Fi-620) cnet os sorting othe cues showing. 4200); home ithe son of he omen a verte conneon wil lod an flo sien uh ich lost ear wit slop egal oh nl aap of theese, The Opa ‘onsen eat ofbemisgtcommeto sn nig 43 Beene ‘heh, ental comectont bee ofa beammay nays ae rene doe 32 Desig Sl Stree a 4.24 Typical manliness emi conectons alo tt his ws orl ae ce ty ‘san ni 425 cath oon cd ne fone Nee Fg4246), tipo, rl a fas te ead en il ans Hh at “tc ionon 450)] Arenelt eipret ofthe omnes une heaton af i ta! nd wl be fees Fre Facan entre nee he ety oa me ea tliat ee “acy of the eomaton), he errd semecton wil ste ‘otc he mndo comecio Ine ecomedon Sie ingot a ites) Tas nd lacing omen ‘rt be pepsy meds ret hy Kim oop ee ye espns ofthe fame (Chen & Fa, 4.25 el of unloading carcino cnnactonn Fanes Mo Sea dns 308 ‘smc he et cnsstion Neyo th ember test abo te ameron dll oan sping withthe mosent= ‘oon elseshpdeebol bye Fre-Mon's node ge ix Ean (9), Caer s bn one sucess My and snd axl firs Siac oncton tact bh he sdsae ows ig 4.26. The pence negocio inode eae een onic and ya He Ah hlbenltts eon Denney ed yy eile ofcometions “Pein sive tn been te onto essed (at, oainal ‘oenaton te eraon may Be expe a= Miah 89 ~ MPa a0) ig. 28 Bacchi sent wh amg ennetions ‘Tei tes and M, ca bsnl Seibert the abe tne por (Tn & Cen 90. “Jno niet onset te Ak and Blend of ete, rege, the spe dfleon egos ote beam or hy the evens of Rete cones igo by My = UNL MABa)* 94 Md) (ste) ay Mead 2 Med at) wrt ur hyo bens, the eho en, and TEMS sy cn eben Secon 42. ate peeing suo ey and My, we y= (8m U0. 50) ane My BILL 0 48) 2) wre U4 ALR ~ BEAR a0) sy EUG) BEL ae) sesame ase) and RP =UH + Bb BERT CHE Rl 0) 6 greet Sree Meta f hn days 98 ‘emote pe con non ie ten ei em “7 400-40 a feetoo 4 sh eae ‘ eal RO og ass tlm 4 ow 4 he a 427Coonna tes Wot on ent emritg g- ay (229 None ai mei some oe as duty Chas ion rcp ee boca as wi ae ets no st nee eh ein ae rales nip atte capcsapan eee mm Thoma cs ot nate eso Joe ayy tei Chen 9) Dn, {ramus widen Kings eed-nd fe vee ms bee oe shes eto ee Chen Lat 191) Reade ayo Chen Lin (91) {ay tin ech os &O'ay (99 ge Imtix pps or mr da stow ho detitin of ese tng ns font, te flowing eae oh epsilon & Oa 1999) |. Dvd te so Iino er al iene, 2 Gaels be aa increment vo {8P) 2 Galo i meters fal eb 4 is aes 1 farm he sete is mic itl 44st @epacernt ts toms gen F420 Sate eats) ea a ‘sore toni B i = ‘s ‘ 3 asst ast Sots §: Fe) meter iti gutn 18D} = (4) a Fes er gas & Demin nt es it co te 1. Getkcnveemes ol comes ae cel op Fi es < “seo 8. Calealate consnetion secant stiffens (see Fig. 427). erst 9. Uke tia ne ee iin, wing te men 2b 45 ott mantra ta ese ‘tonstion ivn, mebe oc, an ture one. LTR ep te ame theming 10 Regatta onl omegee ore Sethe Ais Sew 8) ear) 1: Ate a lid pment nant ee Ba ge Hastie 12. Contin te lysis emp al bed cena ‘Sofat pactags a wale fr he say of anes wid sng sn 0 ‘esos (Chen a 195, Kim & Chen 199%, Fai e200 Arh eae no 2 saa 239 2102) Deis sa lge dnanen ssn wanking age ayia of ih fees ae proved Chan Eo (99) (G01, Desig for sen ii ane preety Ko. saa ‘oo 2» Pome eda Pg. 428 Wo story onebay seniigiame Wha ce ud at le comnsan in coping comets refs: barred mametandineeseapn omen diel ir mares i clus (Art nacho et a 200) Hees the ei ay es the beam scons andl these is may gover theta eng aes, ‘Thewengieometn slave tho eget ome mally sie evan msn. Dhilen and O'Malley (199) ful lhe weigh ‘elution nape vig ame 72% spine teil rae, The “vig vrei mel enricfemi he ena ‘ving nent cont, However Rte it he dienes inset fame compre te gd fame ys 18.59% Omg tai seme cass the comectin dg yb onl by it inne. Ge nd Acyl (530 rove elloving pets fol which ce bee {nh pinay ts for pad seat "wit = SIS + 25 9) a5) Forfa ts, ‘MH = 900 +295 wu, an) ee ht ta fetta sel an Ca tc owa ite ia (nay ut oad te ane to ‘tito yt fee Dian beter y arson sto which selene dig ut let oe ang anh mos ‘sn coon enon enn re 4.55 Modeling of Foundations Tro mong of te ase of cola in le fae mds be costa “he common snp fil flay a he eon bt yb vl ny = (iraeeean nts ie SY ‘oncaalY Cy ig 6.1 Tyee connects “he posible it sta or ule moet nay col he sent a etd cnestion ae shown nF 512 Ts, any itn fal eyo the Tatlowing mes Shae aie of ole 1 Shera pare 1 Denier ot SS -SSy- oo a Fg S12 Posse mses ao oto connection, Being ta of le 1 Telia Ma 1 eligi 1 el ae fe ate ype someon wing ick ts oie bot 0m at ‘teappedina oneness be a clon te tee hp ‘itt andi fresno! fomane deme othr ert opt ‘ening ot ks Ges 59) Notte ng ba ond lean ale, Sin my eis seaosin exten conan opt 0 ‘Thm depening on he bot (Ovens & Cs 989), Howes protic ‘he wi fe mip mambo la commen lth oven da To oh of he lb i. ‘nes thtolacln ering conection wl be ny ing ter poet one nr ha following tons (mee & Chea 199) "Alt ataston of pase cae conse Woe nd Sexe 1 One bottsenr pe) 1 intesing betwen he ld ese of ele ‘Thefores ming nt ke we S10. "Fe vss fhe caper cast-in he es, ay eats i rts fa orden od re at es ts ot tea setnaocaoes te shove Ge B52). The mse of eo te pita fying deen pane pps sd ‘lave mail eng oh compe neil sme, th bau sini eco ut theme hy ond tut il fis oh cot Wl ares AL S46 Dern Sette a: ~ ee -|Bl- nae fey oom CBE, ogg see on ape SP ag one = : Fig. 6:19 Forcetanemision ough bal Csr. 200) sop, oo eaten of foes, ch ois ede wits mani psy. ‘ower tis pny ted bat coos sb nner thecal esr dnon nig, ening server de However ‘gebuted comeing fe str fee ney dad ong hol nlcomepty eit Jon et het tow oe ics msdn ig) nach pins, Bt oes my be with Sari my feast locale bute et ‘hose ons nfs wif etd y en, an bese Sie re he sear fog fe Er macmost o ° ® |. .14 Shs tiation a ong bole comaton te Comection 38 ‘Ste nding const glee eae ot in ited oles belave ‘n'a ner to commcton et ere oles excep hat he a sip ns oe Fp 59}, Armentnad xe cee wwe bl ae nthe cv of SF bo, te ap inthe ot wil ts eel a at soa nie orcas ts sion verses povided by hr a ot ne bat Ge Fi 39 Aer sip os, he chao of he at ia he ‘eral a ice ast enasonly eme ha ealieBl shas th ots egal nesta th eter ae "Theft ofs conto rm om hsm fe enti of tu dierent ponent pls, and les a Ine conection. Nee tpi get pies) ne congealed th own pie Se conse ae igi However, when a vt Dh lane thy a ‘Seapine esl The velar a ey oanecton sha ocerfaly sal during rc rough the nnecton asin ‘te roomesat he clamor fn Taha oa, 300 {5.4 Design Strength of Ordinary Black Bots xpestons fr din sree of rnmy Wek bts seco shea, eas, “tte cer ae ina hi seton In ton, ntl eee ‘9 ein hey ult ces deity of conto wh ‘sve pings Methods cau ying einen egonon| {arbor ject ocembael hear ap son ees ae oor Tes ‘Suc of pes defies of ls el Sco 15.41 Booing Bos In Shear “nina aati se igs 5.14) 12) depen ‘he inf oe eng of he heer of ser poem r= > ‘2. sti wee il shake) a (ten sess ea UN "Stren th nine shape tenes cae > 1 Yon WIKIA MARE 6 ero nen of ea ploes with eninge besa. [ithe mateo ene with reads iecpig he sere ‘edt fr wl ats tr the oven fend tl at xc eng ‘onsuioe stereo ctr tt awe tet rep eh Inve feacon fro coat fr png plate in ances of Soa 1 Soules ttre ee Vy hl ey Vs Tuts 63 were tte pm oct othe mario the bl ken 25 the ve ‘Whe teat el tess tu though te teas nt pn, my be tak 180 ead pte ‘A= (ooh 0986? 6 Si Deine Sms sae di the ko oa Tete ea wil be eproximael 820% ofthe pos ae. ths _cufound ate shar ues colby ja eng ep enh dt ‘cts af the ping pce Hower he pc (stmos eee he ence "Phan tens hee of np te) oe ar aa {editor fron hts Wie et gh Jf ples a en “Srnec resi Ist eso de ‘runt ens name bse eo owe as ‘aurea Oso ean amo) be oan sar oy “Seay ean ee awn Felts fot09) e079 ys oo “isreton oer spl whe he ttn fev ohare inform nbc es eon oe gee ‘tn rr rt nt ik os Sensei samt ee, Semin aiid yin try owns San (5.2), This reduction fastor is given by “ Rewwotrip oo sped wing Ss bm “305) mc igh porn ty ‘Menatedeitmetensgoit ciphers, wientpet ps og tas nt eee a “etn fcr for pein ples Sila othe ip eg hikes of {ting sts alice twain she cape Vy Then he ‘dings ae aan tan 6 mth se ec ellie! by he ‘Shc ft fgg Ths elucion firs es Dy “= Bega 00125) on sae gl he cen the hiker packing pie iam. ot of bt i mad pte eh of £42 Bolts in Tension ‘eon nny fot ein Fes 140 a5 120 don ‘tu al ene of ean una a aon enti btn ah edo he tld igen Ro Sun alt) ow soc ie te th ty he yl es oft tg ‘rf rfl este governed ie ren 5 nd “pi the partial safety factor for material resistance governed | ing = ‘Roonpaineatbe iced emma fey wousaasy Tsao eg pi etter il esi of someon Batt Connections 7 tt any ofthe somcting pes ently ei hen onl ring ces may nnd Do Seton 544 for Ge del. 5.4.9 Bolts in Seana ‘Wen ay i jet oss Gi, eer i ott wth he ae as eng is asin etn as nae eg 3120 td exe ir ron Ter le ao ea eedbewng i) a ome Fe 5120) a tes worl ne ios tse Pp 3190) 8 ee owen hey Dol ac, ww Seelam eaten eng bl ain by Vann? ny ince lt ear oft ata srs of a he ia RAEN entra dirtiesomia! done ofthe el ny nd ‘Catenin tence eg oe rine mms dosent SSE Sota oe ete dn of msg) ert nh tap 925 fon 18 whe ei Ete en dent: pl ith of Besse ‘cer Raed ne ogee riled Sen hein et ee et sec 03st Hacer ee ptening ote bce ito a sc yahoos igs Fal wip ince ate n sy ie fe e ts fometio = %S ise, the ening sang xia ton of i ea ee SS oot peste eo en ca er Dent nhl of ree ye a ncn hk xin ee) fy Forbes oy anemone sil 3, Ot re ey abs fer fein Pal Sat yy ose beng eh. Sn, ESET A cam fete ser mene often ee Setar ee 3) cio ey sear 0 ne Rae ing ne tcnerpces enor saee se eta an gu 2 een rs, ugh ice eng ee cate tno he ee crete on wb ein cron on Dns frat fcoecons (hi Ma yarn ey hens, eC reps an pein te fe ofA sede ifs TakerS7, 5m late pe ‘easier ene ty bs 8 Deg Setsroetes Twiggs Bongae —Oiryiaa ‘in ‘St ‘in 5 sm x25) m 5161 2Sbun ‘nb 2. Same aera Te ayia “a 5 On icy of Oty Bets aso Aa eat Tenby, Sogou Mair amonel Tadeeest cms Ylto “yet a ae T= A Rh a> Vag SD a PNT 5.44 Pring Feros Moat rssing team-uma comctons fen otain exon in which he ‘nat be eae nsf aly eet eso, uc se ape alin the ed lit comeston bow nF. 5.15. Ine desig of Cnn, ‘esol constr en dena fc nic ihe tas ald yng acto’ Dnt Male 1965, Agr 1979, Holes & Main 183, ‘Sttamanan 198) The ion jing fos inca me ks re ily ‘ict ees ofcomected pase ee ig 5 16) Tha, Fa eneconssownia i316 ying oc wl velo ony hen edt ‘te ange secon ae se exter! aah in ir 0a {htm plcingne done svay fr tee ot fre Thanet pies oc a teem! dred om re main Tt ‘Seneton as shown nF 517. ‘Srl rnecherre cod i peblemandpepsed quits ‘he pig fr elope lath bol Astana 188 Kalk ea ST Owens ‘ite Comecons 39 aap Ped aa ig. 15 Pring fovea teamtocstmn conection ‘Fa. 8.17 Rltonshi tlre entra foe tt cfr ae 4 Che 185 Ton 15,19 1 800s apd enti rps Soto C96) let ett = Uh) Pred) oa re it om hel cn ae we oe wel {nite t ioral soon mn soe dsc eto, ‘eo mdb nen nn sping cs it tr eth a ben wy ‘e818 Faces acting nthe atc sage or py free hry wore 2 ornontensine lt an fr rennet, 7= 1.5, the Serie wih fang px pales mete pot seen etc sr st ck ote pa mn, The secon em ih 12) sly rei emal ence may be iid ie he emus o=rya) 10) “Tse oininesif placing asi the olin aed hee ‘ati ven nm ange ieee sue in dein, Ts inset observe tat be Bests cade BS 850 tlows py oe tes ns snp ay by moun tt bln sgh ie iat ‘dee rb by 30, Whee tre rom hal ie ot of te age clay ge, step fe wll some needa pis ter hana theo Mine Oven & Chel (86 ropaed ili rare yng Face an fr msi ng ces deen y=teBi, cas) here fish ld es of ol Other ties hve sn in ly. Poesia eign ing SPC re 88 eh amo eae th ‘etouingeeo Farr ld = St non eaolte ,=20° "hem itn cd pe ar leg fhe plate is cle ‘byonning ihe momenta the pet etl cen ine a tac mi [Gey 16) ote plac met pty fh pate, Ts nee Mya Ol andal = 1,2), S16) aia 7y2-—, si Taking y= f110) 78) 19 “Themis forth ed paca be obese x tan RAO TTR oy ‘Thecoresponing perce can be caine a = M/C ol ace tetas Ghent le cap of tol hehe iene ofthe ‘pls so be need. Earle 5:2 res tet pg fee Poted Connect 381 5.45 Bols with Shear ad Tension hee bolt sje then a shove 8 nthe congestion own InFig 518. ht cnn tlatany become sed oma interacton gra et om ol tse sh sad oon showed glee ‘orien uve nts ant fs (Cheson st, 165, ai Ho 1972) Te follwing sean oh col cto oe bas ean ops tc Wi +010 am) groin eae ° a ‘Fo. 8.18 pie canine shear and aan conto, sehr Vth pl sen Yi the design sea apa. 7, steely {ppl eso nl the dsp oon copy “This interaction” carve ea ni 820, 620. (raat 15.46 Etielony ofa Joint ler are dite he pats for he ‘onmeton its bala hence he ‘gin stg efi tions ‘edoced Tho jit whlch eases ieoniedetoetaategtinet py. gg0;eacton caret ots feteroreticin. Thus terbens. czy, secon vl ave the as nab os te ie eto. ‘Feeley, expen pace, he at of te atl ent of he ‘Soostnto tie po urengt te omeredmenters Keamabobeeesed ‘stivieny = (Stent join epith egtiSengo wipe ‘ich gt) 100 3) {5.47 Tension Capac of Pate ‘heat in jit my tension Hoag he weak con defo he totes Tels nay be age nb pial resin fe lt, 0 ak Che nob of ols he or fre aos he we Fg ‘Shun o sng eh ember oles ess the wth ied. Th ‘he inthe pawl ern he weakest sn, wheres a i (Sic re rao zg ptr, Pes esp yy the es spree ys 0% Ala x0) reef inthe ine estan MPa A, the wt ffetve af he athe pri sly torent 128 ne cde “Tune adcyingempecy a eps depen cath rete arent thc wc ot dopa he arangemen oe oes 1 hls onstage toe cn ely compu nde 62 herbie width the plein anne mur fs ng he withd, [rpm othe doomed she ett elem a ‘heh te pte nn. “Whence ero th one hl he oleae etn yp ever toshe nang decom more tno tea ue ne my ee Fi ‘S2tgy Tos contig fr ln one which ie thas sts en tee net enn cme he ical i path athe pt 8 Ite rina et sc, Bed om xperinetl eee,» snide ‘sont ns bun propond by Che (1922) oe ageed ows a [p-mseSeo} 2) he el 4 efi ec th saga ch nme hes doce ncn te bers nth le ah ms Fe mer of agp pies xpos ng al pth, isnceing obec ht any esis hve pope te oem) fa eta of las Wi sagged oes, none ig. 5.21 Toan capstan then wer found ive beter (Mess Chemo 195; Kale a 1987 ean ots eg et rs ny ‘Al posible ae pats a ela sg) ro eid shown "ig 5.21( al teconespontngetaas ae compe apex 8 3.220) and (25), fn she isn st ae of pla Fe ese aden he te ior tn eile ser plate nro eps 85.5 Design Strength of High Strength Fiction Gip Bolts As weave st aed, HPC us ae wed when es te ge, wee fare omens i iw eatin cs cb ele by wg ewer bats ore th stressed to yam ot. Ts, hey rode “ig ee ost joint Tay be wt ht HSPG bos my te sublet prt shan ad waited shank pes ps snl wh thet cosmony ed cused in he etn, sed ol slit servi Tost ie Ino rig stl ad. Ths nl whe he nay apa ects ‘tetcionaessins ben the isthe pli pal bol erage ‘he bathe A waisted sa tal ha igh engin eget ap tathaseveeanlimat an Hees, wasted sh ASF ae igh ‘ute dod wt Be hk fr hong en ont sty (8S 5950, in Paki 192) 15.5.1 Sip Resistance ‘Asmenined ca, etal ptensin i eves ain fst he inertice of clamens beg ined (Fig 130) The eto! ease si cen he pre mt cp i, ps “The desig lp retans rami sear apy fal ge pall shank od waited stank icon rip bl pen y te ade Ve Wah (523) hey the oti of ition (led slp et) specie in Te S10 gfe sSjn ste abr of tse rete ftom esse lospyk= 1. fortran 085 eer red ond ‘Shorted oer nd for fats og td bees ed perpen ‘ten frees nln nd lee ull te a ‘te minimum bl eso (po ta nsition sd yb ken m ‘Aas the nt wea fhe ot othe tens, he ro es, en Oe 5 fis te lia teal te ofa 1S 400 plats at fra ol ajo td sign en 1 eerie of coment hich pcan be la, wil satay the ‘sowing Ves Vode 29 sehr IOs i Sed at oie od e128 ip. ‘esi i designed uns ed “hal 10 Favre aes cain ton 9) (ana bom) = z= mn knes (0-80 um) settee re Syegmomee Soci 50 Try bene ht ic cle gp coment ee settee tte oe of 8 posted sds a tal fm ss esting ir for Th ora ‘rmbt ay ‘Spoon apo behest sesoeaqudssee orate ead ‘oe ip rns cay ni oh come we ewes le the Xs ed Sd oe wh ier oer he Rents Noe a 1600 20 ios slo fe ‘Soe spt lod on Bat an Aen cole ow ny 0 {Then of ml og ahs pea wl 9 0 fon Seeirordetac) 5.5.2 Long Jos Sih el mn op i in i ne ane son es bee et an vee Steno meme ie cin of eon reeds Tian Shen ads een v= tens fama bao 75< A510 29 he i sk ao ea rei! a con pp og sans edt eee ring Nt tte Sx nt used Shun in {et Ts ih Code 8 95 pr pees itr we Eh TE Maet gal aepoo! oat ooi0o resin ek tn amy bes, esp car (oie fin en 08-052 scene antec ead ts in = #bds. 386 Daignf aS 1153 fo nee eat we, Tene valet hve in iin hy ee ‘dare thereat tbe of eli ett psi Kata 1987; (Smet & Chea 198), shouldbe entoot that oveaming ap doe ot ply a te ode sas eo the. Here, when eaneton se ube sas ea te is peat cone regarg any ip at sve Reps oa ny Indice nigucanensssipitocerieg, opal whet reser sited holes are wed Gero pecan overt er fe nai ‘teal omen athe stein a tng See wee eee ‘sod uation or oi et ed eal ace wl ah nel ‘picings tn eo dances, 5.53 Bearing Resietnce ‘Asa pall hk ton rip sts into eight ste when ‘bo sia fr he ei stsies teen told he pt et enced Te bot my dete du high ea ening sets Petworth nan plan te ee being cepety a Heo Yay inal by sg Bn. 15 A spares ha he pe ea eV wi iy 5 Volta 62 hse th ri sey irre mri hol ken 125i be se Note whe cng ick bots mate est apc of ol oe Be ie, whichever ser wed Sco the ing sesgh of HSPC oe willbe gtr thn he ates no beckon Bring eg bas cy, ‘An ete node alr that eb sheng rh he a of pinta shown in Fg 5.126) The mayb sole by peli the ed Stns nd pices ea Table Sandy te fe Eg (210). Te bok sar ene of he ege dite dc Being fe tol le be eckd forthe incon se Seon 7.53 Fr det), {584 Tension Resistance ‘he design nile sens of pl sk nd wit hak ton gibt Issn tat kl Ses 2) ad ony T= 0% Aa =fyhaltalad say ere he einen ess he a te eel en of ie {uid te temas tegrated A tsk eo the ol th priate rr ance ont ste sess 135, the prt fay fier fr etl stance gence BY Dillinger yd ates ta, Aer 800, HSE ol object fae non oe wis ‘8 fooning eqn: Tsuna 629 whe he para fe fin to mein ote aan 1.28 ‘nv igor o ate shat se Bish code pecs he deg ie stents oF ISEG ate ne to a Tye ODF, OOM OT) kf = 1504/08, 05h 629) psig as 5.27), (2 (5.29 nt esi es stengh ‘alee er 1 00 2007 il be igh tan teu age eh “The eteof he prying fre @ has ee sh nF. 17, What external lois pied par a en eeonnusy 108 he nd wei ‘eines nb foe The alae ft ee ged ye eos ‘inconscobeween he pat Tis proce conics een piss sind vt te xc face de pe ening eo ro ty texte apd Roy dein deh ar etry ‘plied eon dvs ot nan thi nl. Ae th enlace eee ths lee tet oft oltre eat slo ata eng ‘np oc (5 12 (519) (5.15) ao (19) a edt cation HHSEG bate anced pn en {55.5 Combined Shear and Tension “he innon cre segs fected shes i tn fr SFO bo ecient ast t s eatd) eca thack beso Fp 5.20) ed i ives beso (Wl? +g? $1.0 620 ere Ys apie bat rvs yt dig tee seg "ecstemaly aped enon teva ate dente eng Sinopec aversion cosine meat eof) (430) ar svc lon Tad Venton ed shea prt ball ere ‘at ny evel son wl pce a compan dae anne facet hpi Un exer nd blend pcpion face betneee le, tension fecal willast Sage sane fn snl eso Gee Pe 5.17 “Toate He and Ameen casks sage ingle Ha anton Salas exe son, ew ieee nn ep ‘ft coamton, 18 800 og «car eon oma ange 3. Mates es fe (30)- ution (2) (520. an (528 ~ (528) ex he dsg she eg aztec HBF sane jen ees ‘ment conch oer meme of use a ho nS bo ™ ‘Win Coos oft Sher tn Gi Bat aCe tee Se Some Innate ihm senate ets og hake ‘Pg. 6.22 Exmploof ecomecton ing HSPSbots 5.5.6 Block Shee Faure ‘ea res of sone retech work ae it USA, sw da angle ‘Det pla nl epa bene cnneone yf nel of Mock sent ‘Gk ron 200) aire ons ister at row tl oes par ‘fewled lac companied yale gue longa prea face Ti ‘ope fire emi atk tri ing et y th ped see he malo of —" Tua“ * 09% A) (ay Tyg (096A) Aa 3) aa ong le Fg 2) yay te sr Secret pu tne 20 eat fe Sere ace et ne 10) pce by ‘fetes 3h es The wo Fan (51) atl a pe S12 360 ain Sr 5.6 Pin Connections ems fei pin, We wo ste meet ae eames comecton ced apn ens Pa mantras of ‘ate 9300 nm, i cont ae pve heh 20 ea ise oon i oul. Far sscay ering oh come, te ta ecw pind heats sb mined Heceincs Ich mat teat and tls. Pe en vd chan nk ‘ables nase rips digital lng cartons be dela, hinge ces drei Fp shows spin cones ‘he odo an ec of bl. “Tomales pincnmeios. on tbr forge ie ok a be is tle Te el ofthe es are ao ged and led forma je. The se nein th jews he fo aad en ein ered though te ‘nthe rant eof te herb Ul, atin er ewe ate pin wl et move cf he poston cn ni 328, {5.61 Dosim of Pine rosin fre sgt pital S80. The elawing provisos ssewvabie 39501) ‘Show capciy Tie er pac opin may be ke allows (@) toon net aged th pa at ede ob ond 6d ys X fo ee a ©) Htc aid i br ia ined eee 094 ‘er dite rsa cr pad, ede hohe Bonin ctw The ening py fe pn yb en tes 6) Hien mt aut acetals 8) itn ricer ibe getrmat ee es ‘edit acer ths enero er tpn mice pa on nar ee Sia nnn lie oe bt coed ian ca sgn encom, Fase someon ocala ee i tat sy eh ete ao fain anol saps nate ear ©) imine underfanpi eran eer ‘heeft dea sah fe pnt 8 con sete pin ‘etter get nt nee Myo Sz or aL Sipay ee ast om | ete unt besing manent in Naaman ia edi cya “Te desgn ofpinenmion shown in Ean 53. {5.7 Simple Connections nny ess acomecion eu anni ely an er ay ot ‘sy met ating on he pap comes, ewe hh he cometon ty be ape ef tnenteng some sont of tamer Sec «sera ‘fro a singles, pn fle conmaton ‘A acd shown in Fi 3:13, ope fond tf ser i these connects. te fs he foe sei fe canson pla Comey he Inertebetman tw cme pt) nthe fee bee slate act insea Pig 5.136) Intend ph ace co ote pan ot he anecton sad hs tee atin son shown nig 15) a poe ‘hr wilavayse some ese le mane daetiganlecey ‘signed. The diferent peso spe emesis fue se! since my ees a lus ‘apa it ois “oe cometns 1 comets tam cot actos Set np ometion, 2 tb sglecomectin Sie et me cmmecing end pe eomecson 1 Teason and Tage sles euro dss ess oes thy 5.74 Lap and But Sts “Lap and ut ots fen set comet plats or mens apostle ements Th joins te spe, hey el nee ae ead Ten Bons one far hand leat sey athe oeeton 7 La on When mo mone whch a ans spy vey an comet ester recs tne we ht ald ap oat oe age 26), (Gh A single ble tp jolt and double bolted ap oie hows Figs $260) and $280 mepesvely Th nbc of ech iy ott ‘tof savy of ol tens mabe a he cnt of gay of ad ‘cd mambo notcolnce an hons acecey mown i 60) ‘need Dost this a cout? es oped wich eos nating fh ono leg nsf tli em Tome ee ‘ening Ina np jit a et aia ln sul te pied Mone itt cece th tess te rd vv sesh came 'etvec ta alt and mans becomes en he we tly ae sin eonnende. The dst stated nese eS Fa 626 La ond buts 574.2 But Joints Intute he meni canst epee cach thr ne Tweet gst oh howe of doa pines ceed caver plates “The cove pls bs rove on tor onc orth i estan | Show Figs $246), the cover pte povided fan ie of he Jot ‘nities cordon Fs 5.26) ond when poi onside hf ical aa bbl conor ao ee Fin 52) tndy Ashe cnt tae fs cove ut ot ale 0 St Oat rte © ty ted ence eb en se se Whar to op Benhugh ioe el eg elgg pup ‘Slime co rw ssot ese hg enon went, Input ey nme sect wht ied ede ge i po shown i Fig 527, which tet ite ini ssotimoda ees Tew pt in ov ema we meno tb mew nt ren apr tna epg on ee Cri aged fr mene Non P3270, ca ise {Ses ett he meson oop wel pr os ee eg 8.27 pontine als. Assad ety te te nos of pet plate ae denied ily yt etn rettometoft eae Hower te ann ofthe ticket fhe pss plate pts plen. The fuse place nee ‘oaulss ene oftheir o hpe ante evant cee oona fists Meroe the een fobs’ mbes theny me oy forbom whos spn iste vis the pha os asin etc 1 concent eis than sat hal Sp, Ts ony’ pet fast ‘pian beam faa we gerne say te meng (Goede sion. Bad on he xperinetl sty on gs pas coment ou in Wren ‘yeti, Whiter (195) repent inde Seem nage om an intial member sd be xd dopa by cag hat the meme fase dtl weeny oe nett et hen p30" iopason fom he os rw of fits ow in ig 3280) lr ‘operon canbe seed fr wld comes oe shin as Sa) sa 5256), Watt po arses eps Pp a 628 ete witht gusset "Te betwvou of gusts conection ana rng as se by andi Bion (98), wha popone etic hes fe Be (9) "rts imate epaciy of gnc plat can nea, asd Ape eons ‘ements Tt (98 pps prin | Eikseamatesae ti ence ‘isin payne Thvnehcrseea | heteroatom gn eden ee ‘rly Chet 0, rose mee penhatond eeepc pipe thee newt Socio otic te ece tee ee Sa 9% Cue at) Tstathieg ete eh Sremeeleeetpre etna ‘lca Ctr a a ee Ine toon apt ease show seth tsa ae (99) ‘hte 612 Tees of pul una Neem dan pea ke a TBO settigetany OO ees a fore 009 ee erred Tithe ptaruemnmecroen Sco aeme ears ee iat wapamaemeerane ited at ec oan ee stat aa cc opti erSge isthe crac etna Eeeerarcestis te Rates Shite ne stares anette onda abla he “a "a, 8.2 Apc spp connttontin tse Bato! Camactions 361 57:3 Cp and Seating Angle Connections ly sewing ale common ake ange et comet tle ome (ge 520) and 30] ants ei te bea othe os ‘hough tng wt Te op hat (ed clip nl) ow aro tena ean ppp ng ofthe bean a is bot to ep fag. Tis pst rr ty The ale seat my Sele or ‘rele thcolsn nd harper are ol ob idem i ale Fg. 630 Aalst conectons “Thebans nd igo ora Inger ton sng te ew ge ae nb ita {sn ren cert inane aoa Tbe aged ‘sony enerc of i en pe carta fxn ‘Theccomes maven este tex ps of clu sban e ‘nin (tec eS) wt aca a gh a Dring ebro sn are yh perro om onl ovr tnt phat te Tarot ee th (Sow sg lm ey nota on, oa se ‘Hae Sing cen nr oe ome re sg ‘Sing cn ss ll eso! hangin have tag fra act inant eninge te ie of aa "ert i pee a Wo) cay ‘dogo eben ey eto eset eo se S11ESars to, iu 31 toe he Sa of grin og eng ‘catandte nue berm if sei ng wee Weg ‘Slant sigan loth nly (Owen & ee 93) “hecinda ge nang mr ssn ws ben fh Osten se igre thes tng acs pone ‘Rotentehmnertitetend reset sd bene Cape 10, Winget os anc ero ah teluvl cme te ea te Be crm (aly oa ois) nck ress bia ge ler ge vie. ‘etn ql ine fon angle ed tts in Das j i 631 Deals of espero trou ssting angio and angen nde inr angle Fig 532 Ingen anges Ith ssn eset et Nate ht he seng agit {Be br! og of he ange can oo anger eae be bts cova te ‘um dungetn te afnratirchullbe dered tot coment ‘nding een (ing doth ecetcy Sve he ces ft blg Tog sd te col he) os ell hve The xen soul be taken tinct oe hae ‘inp tae gira nl conrscton ‘Re clip aga htop of bun an oly si searby ea ft eps {he Pig. $300) This ch mare an he oto sting engl Innoestoldanteastmed conus ote ha eset commen {57.4 Design of Unstone and Stfened Seat Connection ‘Teva sepia dein uit nd ied comets ‘secspione min sstan nsiend seat connscton The dri fei sng ag comet, nsf he loving ap 1 Te lesion eat angle ving feng equ te wih of he hewn, 2 Thelegthot te oostading ea othe se ge acted oe as of mc ling he eam The elegance, ‘raring eng gen by P= Ut 639 the itn econ fn he a, he hick oth we th ‘ea jes they seg twee ebm he ta Sst etre 110 3. lesion 045 he om he Dig te cat he ot ee [Nee The ipenion aslo | n2 5 pte 80 case 8.7 ‘snot aplia rhisarpen (Ovens & Ci! 1989) Th, be leg Deng on th et baba) (39 er Zt aes of eam Ange ad he ot a of bn nage. he doe ofc being on ie fot ange ponereen 639 thr i th hicks age, tt i age ad te ‘eran a lero 4. Thocomestd po canes htt nt woh ows ots ce be secimmodse. Hees teased angle Stal have ent of 100 5 Tho enon le mumed bewildering ng ‘Thehces fet aml canna honing est a Intending oslo tte af he let To being none M=ROM) 6) 3 ‘Thi eed gist he monet apsity M122 35 tessa ihe fot ec when Mf Teeth wel th sa fel an int ign engin weld tr, thes tb equation fr he sao te wells ony Pf) 26 oa Avy dsp of Nei eot pn cosietnf Snwn in Example 3.17 5:77 Web Sige Pate Connection ‘Awebsite plate mecon cale plt comecton coasis off Pat ht tweed the sporting ember, on oe the es wed [hig 320) Te ange my be ocd e cope, won ee "Fe prbam wth dino isn fermen 5 at he “ding? Axl, mes vie popty poined ange lt 2 ent plat Comer ant sve Hene te move ei Secor neues ony appr tem hoe sway te ae ces nity heelongaonor holt ble enn iy ofemnsto, aren ‘enor, te flowing mabe omer (Ovens & Chet 18) (G) Onion ta stn te ed (8 Tet shod deste fly bing of enacted pia et tystear of bat (These ister mt oe tha tines the bolt me (@ Therssaneeftbe wes tocing the ie othe spade ear ‘han be omen hat san be apie ty te bl To see acy, + ‘nina sf el elated ches ee. Homo pe i a provoke Be ots sainbenng. ‘Sc lt coneeion be init ely, may be catia emi ‘Asda cn oe orn concn, rove ht the dog of neucton tween mer ca be eablie. The ex ‘ston tant bythe onghetolattbe pts yan eee Tester totaly et dena shee mpc amt (Mnietl 200th beam sad mppering mentored Forterecon nd meet “Flim th ft of telstra eameh Gath ae, Sawing stn ae ed (Ovews & Ce 185 G Depots 99sdeyh af eam (@ Taine ofeet> (encode of a pale) "the memen at cul esp by he bos sched wit ome caquly of ite Ss fil ead tnarely are ine at ee flowing bch: (o) Mitour wo ie iain aby ing awed in of 440) wh i {te bina he Ga pie (0) The welche fo the moment at old be deelopd byt bot “Themen dep ye os gen ‘M=capcyofbor x2 Trememet apy of la 220 hy “re htl shin all Moon ed op eral shar Rea To wel length (45) "Te design of fin pate et acon at ngpled moment sod by ‘a eal 01 and dg iene 18 6a) an) 5.8 Moment Resistant Connections seca oerens ‘Sct le ete the a ea een Hence ey are wed cay in nna martha cape atone ne ieee see cms tee ©) Taub conzsiong oie ‘5.8.1 cantly Leaded Connections 15.0.1 econ la ca ats sting mom Gacy when cen 06 connections) ‘oe he comeson fi an te ren ep Eset Wo appaches ae wns othe (ot and) rca cag 2 ©) a a a. 620 ilacarent feces wth arora oe ese eee (ito Anois Thi etd felines he lowing: (a) etoton ofthe comet prs may be gn 1B Prive maven fe nate yrs ae conse to eae ‘Tuba samion of ee pre abou some et of 100 hg iter an te dscns (oy Tw fon btwn (9 Test ets th tiation he itil ol, whic are ingen Bisco of to (ote itaton nde rentine bo ces, wae a angen ‘te ofreon ‘us nan td els he Don wed inh pt ever yer ise i Take rump ech tals concep nos es anda ih eerie enton wed yp by a emer Ma sawn nF 5:36, erat pt forint ome ss see eer Paola omnes sR oo ott ent anton tn Some ie ise on none 6m saan event Ant 88. Mane cent 49) wonton ond on Sinplijing he BAB) we ae Raped rota om “hn fr ict ane “63 ying es inte ae ie ao Ml at ex nine a os) ihe isthe aon ete ah ance fom he ete of etn Tos are woo ta sey ne may de Ry yd he demir Intgn( $3) wlleow ocone Af, wc to pl moment fine et ‘Se cn ftn fh concn re othe bls inh ep. ‘isa rere fo work worl nd verlengenets of ‘and spect which eel wi arnt eal ia “Fandom “a= yond sR 6s Seating nes of ay (54) into gn (Sanding =e wea Ry Mo +P) and =H +A) 55) ‘tether dy corinne ue poiie nnd nave vals the ot oon a prot Toei shea fe Phe when mero fasten inthe ou. The emt xe Ris given & GE 630 ‘tis rit fe (snd wel re (P) acting scaly to he ‘eta, (oth covets ey ane respecte) of he Dol gro, then 50 cn be xed Ayo Hn e+ yale +) os Kevin age Haute =A) 6s “Tismetiot ssi practi for ty bot ihe en rp als, twee ‘hii bl ihe ne wich bet ote imam ett re. lon cunt eet a ol hich ito fo te en of ay ‘tte bt giup sod ert othe opal lin theo re Tine np mbt expel mom ore hme of resid ‘wenn be fund ut by me (She 93, Stan & esa 1995) = (CORT 69 herp th il ee pid ret the eign is eg of Tiel bet and ithe aber fro os in vera ows ol repro, we 3) Sacehe comes eco shear nd ome, hemmed ottm Bae (559m eos fee, Bema ‘$101 52 sow th ds of roe comers. ‘Seen Ps) Anas Thi etd alo ale inate eng ana osedmosraonl nites, sessed at bert fence gp wes et mtn cone of ton sown Fi 537 nal mumedthathe deforma coc seers preprion| ‘tance fon th core of ttin "With etcce oi 37, forego. By=ts Din g-Psin =O oa) ER=0, WReosd—Peosd=0 Ga Bad=9; ER Mer agcos 5+ 98 9=0 68) whi ly a th etn of te ntti cnt fom fe cent of [Poy tthe tl grup Ps the gad of he oid oe “eset reamanc sprain othe mtn or when be gle age nwo he ne eis ea mele Sd En 3.) BM = 0:24)” 6a) wre the dit bet th etaeeas cea te cero of te tot tp an a. 8.37 rtnanaoor cote of ain ntact te cone of intact ia 1 the ea (sc) cthd wien he esance fs cnidrd proportions whe dates hy ‘th osc or teh tid, tomato proportion! we ens ‘hs inane ete fein For barge comes, ps nected ott he eto of ach eke is proportion the sentence Tiga, ty is to eqs he are Sfmt tenth, A ee a oped son einen re by Conf ela ot ‘The pods sts wth he sap of acon fr ancous ene of retin oft ene! grup. A isto te auton ncaa ove let whine oat be lon of tian ot ‘son he art oe I the eto eat se eee Eetneos care hat nthe rece sop ‘The unt stength ethod aya bee a lp-recodons.n itis ise te se fi a aera an ower toon i ‘sformations (Gap tl 1952). Samper of alent ned st xpernctlas cinined by Card & Kia (191) arene spade a (992) an Sn oben 1995). Cron eee ee develops fol flrs Wh oe ln el eine eno ed ‘ont nlite nmber ots Acomprisne te arabe "ela (vcr aan eng pe) arte shown at ag hain by hea ne te eatin, Insel contin eto sbeebs nt guy is luasyifoeat by tei fe comnsian, Uno te ener ee lange og proto thew wil sigs mon ee sae eles ls wil nots ema va cy ae baeng apse ae inp of thi postion ston te thew as ero, ther eget hesotenate da sth Sirk tere oe be wile sone oer oin of onan Tiny np ono at sion cncine not eo 2600 cy enn) a er, rindi nce ences of wm ty ‘Shrmnl iabtsorere cx) ne sah nea oan CEE: onus metod rte gpa stannous tert aiget tl re mnt te flowing pie ey Teton an dancer ofl re contac a ed do Eg) thle two wrnore vera asie a. Teeth es ne tal a vr ot tg E459. ‘Sigsmenghtta incompetent eat ssettt Oeste ceed nd ae Io 6.21.2 can locas barn moment (yp cannons) comes win te Wake pk in th nth colans we Ps Pits 3, atop esto ang sce a he sheet amino sin eit a ep eo onto ds pss ah he one of vy ie bel ‘Pests he bt ato ac sar sng wth no he ot pte angle sana prvi back thin whe te ‘ese tamed =, rr it pote mtn oe itn of he ely Set tae nme ny ere i ed tr hye wes op 380 Designed Srcrer meson and thse mast be cased de combed er aden. _teotg hi spac te arin i ey =P way whos pli and» he al ater of tls in the ot op ‘ould emt opin use at al nl as be wring te design Crome andr vying ats esi a sr On thse esd a ‘poco ofall he bare termine, aking acount of const ein | “Aden nari ten hse ering that yo hse esa see “siti gree thn pple shen However, Ovens & Cea (1989 sez "in witout matted ding he union fr eer Actin ee ‘omer path ofan eqn sone lt abe, sol beet Wht TSPG bot ae seo mcd ig eases th later metho Od fe spt enc, we il apt be conserve speach ny. “oecinao tie ene! often nel, th pose or a ae fiation bso belo. Te acktctn elm hin oan pees Sasi he age he clues nd estilo te oe vied oe ‘vn eb oposite be oer cet nga epi nennaton ving lpn ig 339). Isach cas, iso ose a te cartes etal thi pth of testo sown F539 (wih eter “nd spoon pa) ig 6:90 Bo nt compres ocean fr st corectin. Wit sch welded od path had pt scl 0 dt te ston fatal ni sae ako ction of tis ob ents ‘amps eon nth cae fe pt stone dformaton i ‘alum fags en plate Dear wou ave igen ote ‘vou ls gene acepaeo shea i ston ht a hth oe sve of the dps of he enn Te ba a he cet (Over & cea 198), The ep mesure mth tom fhe act "tpt nth conection ee i538). Theol abe th etal it ll nein ain tet sea Te scary enero it ‘enon is asmed oe povded by the ket bel th kel as Nt wert comet sraediodevetoparament wich nat cor mare "ha he ie momen of he bathe ae pte wll ange foes ‘ett restr hn thc sgn apc. In ch cme te “od pe ‘tod deste by Overs & Chea (9B), ho be de, ing te enaing spy of te web Sey, “The drat of oma ot oils os i erly sae © te = ‘ication of deste mara wee ended ce pes ae ‘oles Fig 330) I has ten urd ha hp pot he pe bh ‘sa Tt ha ssi bt th eon ng Isc ccs he fone a ‘ett ws fol bese obs int sd ae se mth tance om hap ge ceo oe metal si acon ot emproive oe, pri (Owene & Coa 98) Brat on te peeing somsiony, tsi eon nth bolt 7 renty ty (05) ‘wher sonst comand dtc fo te ene of ton For mement equiv, MB tBy2 00) whe th ver arm ha bok Satin in Ban 6) yds Tr bMeyfey? oo “has thea enh nee it eis Taaty/Eyh a5) Nott hiss ly deen mails nd eos peprits !lowins sould be def pying ean ion, “Teds oftstace epson sthon ig, note honing 1 Assn he amet pith ol eas dita oe 2 Conteh design seg ho seal erson 3 Compute he eqored umber abl ing Hn 59) 4 Compute serfs ine exe se lt. 5, Clete he tes es 7 exes ic Bl sing Pn (67) {Check th coat fr combed onan seu by leg E520), (443+ pra 10, “he vats step inva in the sgn ofa Brkt (ype cameos ate shown n Examples 2 sed 523. 18.0.2 Boted Moment End Pte Conecton ‘bold moment nl lite cometion [ig 510) wed tne moment ‘il fread shea fre em on bert ster heed lt ile eed othe wad Bago of eam abel oe ok geo, De ‘nts cancion freshen, Be eh ln ay eed rani he om of We sieoes, digo flees rw ate xe MB Peio of Se Sac ip $40), Taco pts ny te exo bend te of te Do mre met [ee ig 5 0(0) nth cme of repent seer ‘Sus, nce anetos va a Fig A) my be ad. At ‘icusted inthe roves etn, by wing th eel ed plate coment ‘spss sto 6% eden ccf ee were, ‘coment han weed mer come, ath er of ‘nla Howey pvt sno os ocala yb eed tothe beam in hop led too col Ty poe see slates comecton sing se Teco ich ep ge es ‘te (Nate: Th cot of bol expensive fie el ane) a = lf ‘tendo (cde ante Neon ‘Pa. 540 Rigi beartscolum cooectans peepee tte er _tiagapetericeesnceran air Sik i: ly ey tees toe pr ahem tremarman tect icuiseomeeeeenias Sone eioeans Tnereases in bol lod of up 1 30% have boon observed, “ne pre aeenecreean Adee ar tenses iatonarome tetas Seen eeemcceaentey over as gen HSPGol Si bls reas the ost of the rotled Beams, a = Pena taremaimon naomi Zeer of beam etry equal load, seteten ‘ertones eS ctane Som = ean eae il for clang the py oss Seana 34 te moment a the we of te eee ging th the momen cme of the pt, te ‘Bees vend pee ny be bn Us ithe, th pring fe ‘Neto nd ctw he sane yn face sme He Sera c te thks a toe bed REEL combi baron terion ele Feats ge ey he encton Jot Bo ress 0 eet Theta comecing th oan oc pla ae ote eke. Sree ofesane ncn ppe he ange eis sto be cece Feira te snot at to myp th eat, he we as 08 ete bae of wb lates, vob stile REIREST shows the etn involved in pce eps 1m T-sb Connertons 158.3 Flonge Anal Connetons end Sot tte wean ns pir angle th angle et constons (= Seston ee ara te babe Nef te cl, wow Fa Ui Gocomacion canbe spd tnt enalend omens inaea Fe a ee Ta kd efrmesin as elel orl coneton et Te mom comer "i. 6.41 Fangeanals connection besoin Fig 541 hs const ssf ar age (0), Ove ae fi focomes wh eth tn wh ca a (oe cate de ew) nde spoof me eed page) sr te ap ofthe rm ngs nl bow bn ng he Me WeDo ne cnt et a te lol ne mre 2 and te mB a elcawir mare pc eso nl} nd Si Site i esr ce nb eam i seme te ten 38 thew nl coametin The fr tinge te os (tea otnlp ‘ipa ete ret dey thee en fs ND 29), wee isthe gihaschown nig 5m tesbplbenm clara comecon ein Fors ony te comet est het ae top we exe a hat ‘hey cm dtr ain) and ene pet tration rest sige ‘ppt con a he ede fh be Un ih conin lid ed nomen wl bevel wh il overt th cone hol On ther ‘ode comecon scsi ple defomatn ofr censctag age ‘Sow bo ary sal Hea i mse onl th oes oe ‘Erbe ae od stn sgh clpangecnason, Te Rage lg a defor de fo een cer ment Te tke Sigs soul be adunte esst he il mowests peed onthe, ‘Cones ie by dng gs AB and Cig. 5424 a 642 Deaton resin cp ale Forleg BC, Mg Go orlep AB, j= R281 Masa 00) whew the este fren lt an ge eg i Young's Indo, nd ite mmc fect often ing gs (3.3) and (59, west My= 2a, 5) Pay yr Ma Pas 25, 6 BS ee canter ane ange. at Me 06 csr) My=oarg G20) onda he 6.) enc he msi nmin key ABCD weg ete yu leno ‘henge i nly oo be od he esting ect ‘ale Benlbe deg hai Scent teat th toon "hedonism Ana Ar (1989), ‘a=OnreEr on, xan $24 shows the elton esd forte Bip of ight mace ection ising lp abd ge antes Tea fan eh, Tht rm 1 sctn cas Be xed clip the op ‘ueget one Showsia ig he imo eT ih eet on sot Be angen 8 mins evil (ig. SAN) Thon InP tte foe tbe tne ne Til be MynMy= 0 sPe on) e549 T.nconnecien lng am Fonction calle Feb comet eprint ‘be conldredand th ols eating 9 Tw he nua gs Shoal be ‘Spile of essing the sia! ease eo pig ston ‘lpn smneon hse ong natin) Only wo bos can be provisdom mene in hsuttanding ep with clam ange Ino bots ae povided ne (pg tn) te bol wil be steed spear res face Fig 5) (mre enor gabe et hdd, he te as wie abjeed uate oe fe Fe 5 4) ‘De ots the name obas cottage col ages ‘ied two ely md Reb anon can tase hl nome BB Soe {5.8.4 Pate Subactod to Hrzotl Pu =. Noreons te enn $80 fr lume fangs bjt single otha sb nF 346 ASouning 5 peso ate eg oft at 38 Dug il Sneires how Teh le fe lth eh of est f clan tgs cin ce Cet shown nF Sah and the el eat ‘hecho ngs pla ‘Shy ar bt whee yh 2c shown S66) = fearon oa} (1 icra ond a dein amber fb inn ds ‘Firs uble tow endcomon own a S380) ‘= arma ETA 629 5.9 Beamto-Besm Connectnt ee eee ae eee renee Secs eee eet eee ae Bee errr ers See see eee ces Scere reece eee Sa errr erie tne eommecir Shiner ease ee eas re ieee rs Sen eee eee rer patina eee teenie See ba ree eetcateneome 2 eee een Seep bored een etn a ctoccccrameree et FF ereamintenmmn cca tats har, ad torsion he pinney eum trnely debi, hn tron tae wo tay be meplete, Fite $48 ows sme pnd foment sing bet meow To ‘ater pecking etd wi cometng set wide sod Dens (Ovens & Cir! 198), Noe twee anges eel to bet he ome lea combined pce pln pnt ceaneo heaped ed show Fi, 54 is Pr aon lal rtatn, IFC bt ny be lie in ‘tee conan. Mor talc bemoans ye fund in (ens Chel (1989). i 14 -— | =a ™ = ie neta i sot tiptoe nner A a a ‘390 510 Beam and Column Splces oll sin pie dy, nolan me ied ds aero ess ch Inte he owing (2 The fl engi my nt abl he i 1@ Onen tests of ston wih canbe nal cbse oe i oft ‘tok. Hench ana ent fle evicted tm. Tha he ‘Bor yf conical to plc es en length ld Be ined (e) The denignr ny ie 0 ei pis a caer han (@ The degner ney deze a argent ft he Win nse ‘euie slang pa of bam {510.1 Beam Spleos Many eld ples ream a plat ik me ping pe psa ih ‘ogi rar eames (lg 549)- Sloe we dese! forthe mons an bela ¥en stono they afe dsiged some ‘positon pected ihe ve On ea sl oh joe ma ov ‘soegh ttf she shad ed fo ep ite nr with ser web. These brie shoud design ‘Cree ota hr he mame. Also dbl ow fol shal te ed onc se ouch eb ses (ee leson eld stn (oe ater {rons ges) epredomist Inv mize be moment about ened heb oup om eter ee spiel be dig fr moment eb ‘Sect ca tiple at tao ae sa he seat ofthe pid rin be i tn Sot etlave eg othe sera spend in cornet he enols wed fr desing Yl reesons, be feces told be on nga he et of vy of bo grap {Guinn loko 199 Moon alae casper Spo spies shod ot ened cs sess Th, ya en Ibe wit eh ee he being moment ht ot eos ‘hr ena sgh ee. screws Qt 2081), ach od pla el when he Bde ‘men be rss ae mods Singer ely exon pas re re ‘ten esising gh womeat oe no al er pec. Whe td Fv tics ser thn 25. eyo lanl eng soa Eriol, Monsney end pte comets have no allowance fr lvgth veto Fo thc rungeme degn sero ht Sse the bento ed peyote Serpe ose he bet fc en anda pop of Dl ae een to ete tenon da te Sores a mt 7 aa Ke 3 tH Rewsonblecae stout ent theless oft ed pat which wild todo inthe prom fh wel enone fen hon n ange ie ‘wee to ton oft eon tn ed lei itean be ey {Sonoda by ion ofa ines th ger bso sows iniay 831 The ange cover pier nd bots eer deducing he ole) intig 33h) shoal sida the momen, wh he wed pes nd ‘ole digest see face pls the sony mat 0 sce: Porgy bn and ple ger age pe ae rv on bth ‘Seo snl btn) a te ba ange The ae of HEPC Dols wil ea a ‘esos mmf assent ple eng (oo rtes eam diesen eit oh omc of beams tht ae el jit, hat ne of smear he anton te gover ple muy te ome wie ating tisk oft conmetion, wg HSEG tls my iewct shear due to the external losis {ce tn bls | nd 3 re hy steed wed re ill asthe et R= feaar a6 SAF = LTT = 57.28 Pay ee if sts spe0s 12.300 =f Pe fa eeprom © sennamene oreeSee mens ag emit eee ye real rasa "e= 0270 BP+10 4707 00m 4 eee eee ee eee CJ} Che * Caercmeesone w ig. 54 End lt connections won beans rn ss, ves & Ces 1989) he dees in kes ie rately ae sin ‘hing plas ba The sg ble em pee were at Example 327 1510.2 Column Splees “he comets as ised fr ean my bape clu pls so. Dasgn af cote pcs der ot pte mc ey sae the Mh ole ‘ocetha cue poms eam apse oy set A ‘chops evo a ppc cng he sa of colts bs ope ‘oor ese ie contd ina oft ce dt nnn al peas ‘esos, With odes stealing pts ao psi fr ean te. onvnch oui dimes ove te fl sla bgt a ec al "hss Manges in he per Boo ‘When th cles ay ennai Freire dean srargenent ring ip ews yb ol ee i552) fe Feta than tated dongs conn sheen bcs ‘eh o a el) andthe spt re ced oly eit ‘ccc eso sone tt og or nel tpn ne bug. ‘Wher athe ssn Pig 5.52) the wl ad sani ye thon pte steer ttn wa HSPolsinecmeto. ‘Charen tie of cola cb ered ying psig Plates hws in Fl 52) and 352. eS Gt clu oe sane col) eal mins, ‘Sa anaes esos abot te Comite 390 ‘Sioa en pte ps on less cn be sed clan at sown in Fig 533, wih provid fr ot reveal cluana in vent ‘vy Sho opts ew fr modem momen nd exendeded paen ery momenta race o poston spss jo sbove foe lee o> ‘ih ees oF Neng of Be colunn maybe eo Howe neat ot ‘sins tice ies be pled nea gt cl hee eding nomen wil eminem Te dan fe pn comer nt ‘reeds sy ed pita pies Changin oan ss abe ‘nly ted wih he we of pop ere ae sbown ng 2330 18 ‘el splat tal soo a fh pes sh coe wah enol ns of members esd if endo pot tint dein ‘hole forth ering sts nsesing escent, Examples 9.2 al 529 ow te calendar eds a oun spss 8.53 Column spleen ngs (0) si enn (9 same se sh mse md es ct sh ‘541 Som-Rigid Connections ‘As dseauod in Seton 6, conto on be lant nil semi en ‘bl forthe prow of ass and eign Sipe (el) como we ‘Snes shew sme niente a yb ed a emer ap nao fete Mit wae seg fess ‘vrs the sg, nach fas pat el led essing ster, in he Fem ofbrcogs esr mall shoul bepovidedExameer of plex ‘eh cometonsue suing lp wd seting awl nd ener sin Rigicomectonstansrsisientinorsns thorns ate ase ‘unig mpl eformaibnsa ijn. These chen are essay tay fees ost anata ea ea sh pte aesend ‘ple cometh patos ly weed eons {Xv comet igi teu occa conection Tity te ed In Bgh tae ‘lender sce wie fs eee ona ae eign ‘Semicon fal tween he hove we cago at sgl connection do have oe degre fret rth comes ‘xperens nme dpe oft afrmaton ae som n Pi 4200) Olen ‘ae 1955. 24 sig 4 et mrss Inert no onthe est oie es comets sey tbe teed ne Mbt The alt ato ef a wits bear nc et nin gh a or nar moment ration hart, Te clsieatons proposed. ‘jon and Mai sl wegen te st a ee ‘Scoon 453 (ye & Mas 1973 nd Bonde 90) Horeve eo the diay of alnig wi ening te Sys fei on sage the anes wath ft evel pve pups emp pons are ‘movin ge tht eat te ob el 0 Seni encom it consisted Ia Pate: Th et sho st ‘nse in pe ip tind aso ser eit cnn aie pent mic ‘he snl cmocions (op nde snl, op nd ea gi wth eb ‘agi we plas cena moe om ee noe tor re fe ora mamn Ding omen can bee inne in some coke ered ig ames Fig 3.8) Hower emia ‘i. 6.54 Nomar dagams or bam th torte ondtons the soning of ests es in genre te bing it Exon desig ay booby tlanig posite ed Rep ene Feitebenns Hone dfn Sosa eel interac el aes ‘muy contol he deg cbneccos Here on canoe ang sym con ‘ny bashed aig thebeag iwi eis fh coos, ‘De totes poles tenons ome eI tie ae single onstonely anti mes whch ae baced ada Retro Caer ‘Ttemecminclnssothe tae ithe igi, Oe tnd ments Ashe a undo schon sl ce cco cal be designed tetris mr Se, £5.12 Fatigue Bohavour ‘wig pense lenny xs nina ‘Siperthefondsnshe cede ips ene Fz tabeen end ‘Ratetn Chapt? thwevstchadbe pedo eho ig cls ‘county tines om po ste coneaon hhc var at ister mune fro coment np ome TT tse sa kt nec lye joo {Ripc nd Oreos nig cect prop hare Stes tome anh tices) dling oto tiling sete cmon Te wo of SFG bao fe ‘Corinto sno sve ocr bk, when he tions he Ilva iain ang Hwee hs tla ay tig con tarts tous ds ihn penne tre eope ‘iw thems nn te tee snmclos ing HSE tla Yer xc nl ns go Shea saeco ng SEG oi oe Tein owl omen, viens oat ng a subject fg es Examples Exam 51 Dig ip joint bon no plates thow in Pi 8.88 za frm aca a of 24 wing VG Bol of ae 4B grade 10 lee Solution ‘Seng calltion Nats ancr oft bolt = 16 Po a Sg nl ec shar may fhe bt PUY cea neta = HOON ISTVL2S= 20H wing cy the hn te 296. Desig of Stet Srucnres Bole Comections 397 mu hicknes design, B= m1/2~ (002) x 6772 = 5025 kN, = (f(aascsnns <1 50x50) or prying Fores fon the eae Hine ofthe bot othe point where prying force ats bs 24.28 mm, say 25 mm, 1 = Ln Bfay 1125 (@XIVIASD, =35 wm of ado te 424 ot = 197 sept ja om Pring fe = A, = 502515 = 143.61 ok oed= 302+ 14346293 N Shy = 5 049 7918 Nm 3 ee ie join iste 4 rommecrnans sa foe a er (5.12) Bx 40{(150 2 15% 0.560 x 150 x 404y(27 40x 67) DESTSLS0 133] = 14.24 KN = 53.3 kN he oat i sate its observed that an endplate thickness of 0 mm sree ovoid the of significant prying frees nthe bos, Note ta th end em in Hiave calenlatiew ia act serait: Tt will he email entv when the thickeeas of the, Soluien Minato Toney [diner weld beoran Ate hoger ea) Ble Ook HS Col fh 2f He monn, HR. dish Cee ej de bt hte DRAB otha dilerveled Le (22/3) Hte-9-o eT me We eee BAF Seon secu0y amp ‘sopSue wa-g ony pur yHsn8 unU-g puree rq KOU, Pies eqoop uw syoq aa, 951g wr wage so Ko Jo tameaBumn 24 eyes. aN O18 seam fy 7 029 sf pagndas 09 Loupe apoi8 9 aouerp-tag fo naan sayy oye ony 49 won w PHN O4s eg EN? pao uo 4405 Jo p02} een mow wo Ese 1 8H 0 404 SM SLX $b YS eu a fo E09 em fo won Yr ee 1 (E9017 Sr) = KOuILO mH eer: unhiso= yt ad am oes : 237 8 ofa sue ENA 009 <1 SBE = 01 02% S01 x O52 51 = Ada Buon N009 = 2020) tao ‘eos UF a8 DF ep 200 NONE < NY Sel — ALON DGS “mont gy 01 Jo 4 a Beat SH 01% 9082 > 050 910 =a m0 oad ays N00 = xd gg 2g ys OK rd saounep nae gg # apc Soy) BSL WL = llOSZX2)401 x 00081 x EF 12] = uIP HEE =P aa 0008 SNOT 401 + 0%) x 0 = Wa (= tana) N96 -og p08 9 sunsso pun ogy ote 3 904 fo "fa, 9 fo koe up ao od 99 1 09 sera ae pong abu popoauay 22 une pnyr eg» fo Sm 24r, 6 Od atom Fupnog anaoyy NA OOeE = 009% =a R009 = 01 00x 021 052 = a ml ary yor dq pops de) omnes or Oe | a0 tho 66e. oroney one omens ns fo dua 96g 40. Design of tel Sraces ated Connections 404 ‘pacing of Mammen Ba atengih singe er 1 fa 4 Orginal og f he pate one = rhe, 7 iieney (97085) 00 ~ 409% Fo. 800 Tis, he oof ot with lage ameter sigh creases the ec Example 5.6 Calc the eficteny of isa double ole ap jon as in Fig. 539, Assume Fe 410 grode plate and grade 4.6 bol of daneter 3 ‘nd 8m hk plate. of 20-nm-iametr bot in double shes (om Table $9) 245.32 = 9061N os of the cover ple > SU 518 X6~ 3.75 mm jt Hefore, provide 4-mm thick cover plates. in 5 ices tobe considered in the eaeaaton the hsknes ofthe main 4-Ti! ¢ . tthe sum of the cover plates, whichever is less. Hence, tit 3 : 53 20%.6 x A012 1000) = 96 EN AKG s .qe0 2) 365 4100125 1000) 4 A = 673KN gas : By wet fh pate neigh ia, Hence, Fett = ESrstof joint = 6731 - - Bsecrath ofthe solid pate pr pitch length (0.9 60634 0\(1.25 x L000) " 2 . te = 106.3 KN Fo. 850 Pit tceny = (6131063) x 100= 633% ston Porat anon opin seer Pj doing oe pte if om ns tng ho {3 inwngens tam ae 2. 13 4190.25%100= 0 lll ming oer late of om un, dan 2-2.uho hs one bolt toe, but pate ers long 2-2, the bol lin -1 a ‘with it Hence, the reitnce of plate fearing long 2-2 ~ Strength of th section of pate 2-2 plus one bolt strength esx ol hoe in aro NA TRL = (LVS 14eL) Hoa 90 Yo AuedeD aHAL ‘vos 10 00 f poy» pe soy awww w 09 28 ats emu gg fo 28248 Sumo saya med W'S OE oa) at nv pond yo pou Koo yoy ae mpeg 30049 9 aT Hs 295-4 w wmogs se sysmpans-9 505409 201 ops ene r= 906 IRE =o Jo nq poxRbg O1>9$0= $c0-rS0C0= fO3HEEED + LESH a N1906 eq Jog 15 (UPD + AAA) . "DO . ‘(oc's) ib 308 4 091 = (0001 * SZ"T(OO» X OF x 07 x $°2) = Hg 9q JO MBUaHS HUET $21 9199 = (6's age wo) worsuan cans NAW06= ESP x2 = 109 9m J0 yuan aK 2G one sg) gs 9 IONS 001 x Se OIF x01 x (@e~2— SUD) 60 Sees (oa 9 09 om Sansui we ed ute 4 agg ayaa} oq, thu ge sg 8 3anny es 0 mp pean, $29 = 01x (8) = at 082 ORL Nawoee: Na ost «7 x52 =" monodi0o s My swoduos vo ‘ores: ‘neo umeycow ou 0 09 90 aubuy 04 OzpU Bs pec Ph Pa) mow oF $21 Se ons ouu0> o m0! amg waiaC BG ee o's Sig os oma Susp G0 moump ung yosyog om wursppe aproig ats, dapuon st uu gs =02 5% > ws yz LE = (ee dosoe = at x59 (0001 x Se Dots x01 x ze) x60 sO'9t Sugar ur an 130 | GoUBUANE a oY Rape NILSIEDT = 6 1837 = KD, GeugogsornsuDAS "0x Om) a 040} 05 1B pao 19 = pe 18900 ~8}0q 0 -9quME psa NU H8'18 = ERE YOR oo (000 x Se Door OF 02% $2)» Hoag wHAS oR NAPS 18 =6'0 9106 = se BS oq, x81 ‘ots gud eBay wp x98 0 op suon22s as) amano pH Ina Jos ys 04s Busy 25h 20 570} 97 PU sO fc myn 0. Sy an eouaitef fo oonbapo ar auucatc OVS 8 tooo =a mona ms a LOY 4 Design fet Srucaree old Comecions 408 ‘Note that ifthe connection is only requ fo fnction as noi wer Joads, the ineraton equation has to he checked at servic age a lowe ‘Tensile load per lsd (assuming lad factor of 15) = 4003 x 6) = 444 Shear load pe bolt = 3001.5 6)= 3833 2N Thus, at service oad, (03.33152.67 + (44481419 = 0402+ 0.100 = 0,502 1.00 Baa of 7p = 455.32 Ne mck higher tan he spi renton of350 kN Pence thre wil not be any block shear faire i his ase : Hsncl 518 Design a cmection afer jolt as shown i Fig, 5.65, sing Misbiack tof ropertyclas 4 Sand grade $10 see Assume hat themembers Dim are capable of ising he oad Hence the connection is safe, mH ape Esp 5 nS comet we dee \ £ row of bolts. Ifthe reaction is 350 RN and there are four 20-mm diameter ba 2 is through the web, asin Fig. 3.64, check f the secton i adoquate for Bock th D ° am ) = ‘ 12emir-sick web) Bass 56 aa a S S Ler innit Rr ae Daignstengh ete web = 250 Nan? . Me et ssegits, Net length of bear Tie = (3% 50+ 75) 3.822 148 mn Net length of tension face = 60 ~0.5 x22 = 49 my 2 (3% 50+ 78) = 2700 mm? 12 148 = 1796 mm? = (2700 2808 x 1.1) + 09x 410 x 588.25)1000 ~ 388.263 + 173.58 = 527.86 EN on eon the angles Ate mm thick gsc. The gun pt is aniched Damen Se ang time teow Fre tem tick propery clas 46 ot om Tele nox Feng in docs = 29.02" SRIN: hy = 403 +18) ~025= 089 eee enema $0.40 x 8 x SOIN(1.25 x 1000) = $0.1 KN Not a 4 2/3 St MoNSEUUED SHH Ni o0e < Nv zeuce (01 Se DIP «8% 95 HEI <= IEIO KORE ww 9st = 021 OCU = EA AARON EMNNTN, wu zt = o> gdb 00g Bae sagan oq a oF oq He ou Sir aon 1 92949 tu op = 905 = tH tam ss 7¢ = 91 x72 |mNNER ApS NADA] (eg wana ps0 990) $69 = 'SIOSE = NX OSE OR 0 somo pu 5 ano 30 ny uy wea Jo Soma pu au a $45 = (0) x LUT X00 = err ‘oa o2vt%0 pai 127 = Cstmn0t =syoqJ0 qu Famnbod a1 €5b = (6 aah, wos) says aa EN ur $1 = (002 9851) ey joo SPN ‘oa ocr Lay eso eH eum asf sc say 98 Davgn of el Sraces one, provide a seating angle of 150 75 x12 mm wit four M20 boa Provide atop lip angle of 6 60 6 with four MIG bolo rade 6a ay ‘nig 5.66, Examole 6.15 Design astifened sat angle fora reaction of 20K fom a of ISMB 400 wing M20 bolts of grade 46. The Beam hs tobe connected 200 column. Asie Fo 410 gro sel, Solution Length of bearing required a ot line of bean Rdg) = 80% 1000)(.9 2501.1) = 106 mm Assuming lence inlading tolerance of 10 mn, ‘Roque length of the outstanding lag ~ 106+ 10 = 116 Wid ofthe beam = {40 may 250 MPa) Provide ses angle of 130% 1308 mm of length 140-mmn connected to the be by twoM20 bos, Stier angle Select to anges IS (80> 808) = 1280 man? Length of eustanding log = 0 ~8~72 mm “Thickness ofthe angle = 8 mm Be Tah= 9 16 tae eso fie. 87121) Distance af end eaton tom colunn lange = 13072 = 65 na Provide 20-nim-damete rade 46 bots a pte o 5 sam, ‘Songth of olin single shea (rom Table $9) = 45,3 KN Swenath of bolt in beasing = 2.820583 400/28 x 1000) = 128 kN Hence Siength of bot = 45:3 ‘ ‘Lets provide ls in two rows wih pitch of $8 fae Fig. 5.67) = YieMT on [6x2 NSKIRBH ha ‘Provide five bots in each ow with an edge distance of 45 am. Depth of sifener angle= 4 $5" 2 x45 = 310 nm = 210-45 ~265 mm ‘The neutral ai es at 47 ~ 26877 = 3786 mn ‘Shear fre in each bolt= 250/10 =25 kN Beating wea required fr siffnar ange = (250 x 1000}(250V1.10) = Bota Comecons 40) Rornieom = “fea — ryt Ml =a0n) + enn eA) 250 « 108 x 65/2 26821) (171 14,136 10" Nn TINTS) = 14.136 10° x 227.14/197,717 8 = 16240 “ele tengh of -mm bolt (able $9) * 66.6N, paper lage 104.6 of 18 code, (Q5145.37 + (162416667 ~ 0.552 + 0.059 0.611 <10 Foe the connention is sae on Peco tp lip angi of 60606 ih fou MIG ol ada pking 8 shown in Fig 5.67 [plo sie 188% 160 8 mn a he : ection for a ISMB 400 beam, 0 [ae 8 Dino Dole web ana comecon fora SME 40 om (area reaction of HON due factored load. The conection tthe flange of een caso Don sage sh oa 1) = 526 a a eae a eas Giaeearar es STS a 3 NA TW'ST = (SL TSE * SHS (ZOD): fw 4 = fypuu2a3 yap yuo 0) 2110940 293} E46 MHOC om wg on 30 298) Pan moss nyc oon Non ton oa a ty Ss tu 9 30 gpa oquan vu 395 "HA HT UAOGS e098 fap, NA 9S = wins Hot co (o001 x setuar x02 8x S2= oq 2 2 ta § uo sous: SoG, (001 x se 1008 L0% Sr) 1x1 xB. oa bd aoaessas ds gpr9 = Rupaasy Bun wan op were.) “gps Huogaouuos a 9199, NA9CS> NA ELE = OE SLD = am gE WHS (0's a enon 9 po ep ‘ss unpaid 9S SNE ICI = (FLX gOS > HAN OL = (051 6901 OF. turn a0 got) uo seas gs pm eng um pc et = (951% $1 x 201% Opt) = rem a 3288 nae xyes 1 =92~ Ot = gai meg oF ad po BuneMND prom PA NFO] ‘as 0g} = 90> OST = 9apONR ua St = Spx 2+ 09 = 99 pu JO BT NAG = OPT = He 2n0p KS FANN NOC =[Gs01 +52 S01 08 > OF1 = ‘9 apes yo myoq oc oy aE 6'€ = ¢SHOP{ = 930 AquME pon Nate's = 1000 ANS e/g = N96 = (0001 52-000 9% 02% 52) = Spo oanp watt op 04 wo 99:0 2 EOL ‘ae po au wo oqo Gonde> Basa, sums 2 Ne = (6s age) ao ssw Hoa 9zAKIO Aono IHS J woporat 9 opm see 9 My np nyo Suto 530 et ass yom ye J 3 0 Stow eo =v 495 Mana goes oR de) W'F apeus fo snog OCH Pum (rapt OSC — {D 1o=Ke apoAB gry ay B5(y waumyCO SOP sero su re as 4 ppt ot soa oy egy as. uct gop es pao se er apo ° wan < IN OFOEE = p01 X 97,062 X 8 x OST TL = MZ = Kayan woMIO SN Snes fo¥e et = el pn Si ngs Jo 94 099 BapuNg PND Oe HBL J #06 % 96 VST HH Om 0 1 po eumnas 2a fw Bole Comectons 18 Example 6.18 Design a web se plate conection (eed to the column and 14 totod othe beam) for SMB 400 in Fe 410 grad ste and to carry a reaction a {140 AN, de factored loads. The connection is 1 the flange of an SSC 20 a a ‘olen . @ ] Eo tuo Solution ei. Connection to web of beam fo |=. ‘Anum M20 rade 88 bots and mm thick let pat a2 ‘Shear capacity of olin single shear = (245 x BoOy(1 25 x V3 x 1000) = 90.53 KN Bearing capacity of connected ply = (282049 > 4009.25 1000) = 142.40 &N "Note thats eS provisions, bearing capacity wil be greater than shear and ence is no possible to sgn the ol to fil by beating, Regie number of bots = 1490.53 = 1.55 f= \ Secon onxae fm aogem Provide tee M20 boli of ade 88, Web side plate tae fon Provide 100% 10mm pie, 300-1 ong, wih bolt tine 60 mm fom thee) alee the column, Mast a 6.70 Richard ta (1982) have found from expvimeats hat some eens x ped atthe conection ad should be recounted fo in the design ofthe pte nits pons. Tey suggested tht fr beans with wiry dssibated he ecentrety owl he called by using the formula B= nh) sk is the eccentricity as measured fom the bolt neo he pint ofinlction Check or econiety effcs due tothe oil of beam web Minimum hikes = (5 reaction) x dept of pat) = (8 140 100091250300) =9.33 < 10mm, ‘ence the chosen thickness ie ine. ‘Moment the face of cola die tothe event of load ~ 140360 = $400. Monten that coud be developed by bolts = (2x 90.5 x 10097100 ~ 18,100 im Design fora moment of 18,100 Nm a ‘Moment expat of plate 12% 2801.1) x (10% 3006) x 10 = 40,909 Nem > 18,100 Nn, ence safe festive length of 6mm filet weld ~ 300-236 = 288 mm orzo shear athe end of weld eto moment (18,100 6)(2 «2884 = 0655 kN ‘Vestal shea 14(2 288) ~ 0.263 Nim Reset shear= Y(OESH FOIA) ~ 0.699 Nim Approximate minimum weld sie fo det eam, ands the depth ofthe beam. The est esuls li rbot pitch upto 180 mm (fer eoncentted he eccentricity coticient ae svalabl in Richard tl (1980) or may be from te point of nection ofthe beading momeat (BM) digzam) F> Assuming a spun of bea ~ 6m, B= (3x 200 600/354 400) = 23.44 ram ce, te moment ating on the weld ine ‘M= 140234 +60) = 1,682 Nin < 18,100 Nin (assumed in th calslitons) oe {5.49 Given the Braker connection shown in Fig 5.71. Wh 2mm shay ininy ose MB ont grade 46 bots and plate of Fe 410 see's the bolt pater and plate ‘The trees sstng ont sae shown nF 571, om eis ey "iS weil svoe and chile ite a The sing fe on bo icmp os Ro [COT TRF YF = FHT = 57204N f= Sess inthe b= 5728 100095 ~ 1623 MPa < 185 Pa Cost fr pit ening Jo= 5124400242) 198.9 MPa 20 Mo Heck ‘Cs fr pose ein rp th pie lng the fr ei i Moment of erin = 12256 2% 9572-202» 23057 = 16483400 mnt Stn modus 216450 (770) = 2, 00? Bening amet tv n= 100% 150 15 0 nen Gy -Mz=150 012,500 123.2 Me 251 MP9 = 227 Cok pit ling b= (5072 = 125 29.3 (Tele 2 of 1 0) ‘Th the oi ident eel sho, pe eng tl Beng Example 6:20 Det th se of Blt ped 0 cannect he racket (pponing a eve ier th cl showy ni 572 eo108= 625mm BP-6xe2s= 245m! 82212478) =22500 mn? Be y)-45957 Sem e519+ 292-225 am 2, = [a somyass975 ~ 046%, y= 04626, ‘he foes tg onthe a alt sn he bilo Pan, Be = 1x = 000 i 420, Dusin of ee Sree Fsteasassay, "r= 20045 + 10651 +2311)-20 464 copay team Hangs = GA Conir pron f en pe sbove ap ange sun Os filet wel fang and an wie ot pe) Aopen tance = 5 Teen onthe nd ie pe = 1072 97 Tension cay of MO ox Cable S11) 241 Allows pig asd = U4 10851 (maar Ca SONS sxe PT AS] CxO 9) = 253 960 amd emp e e see eeaee Sie brcmioey daar ee Swot ea ie) «2668 Sie ert ae san ‘many obo 38 (eas ost 25H 0S 086-090 «10 "Testi thc ge oan “Soman tp tb deh a eal Sa ra obotetaceans ornebon Bea aapee ery i ase one ors epee cla «Bae 2 gcc ig MI eof rate SE Rl hr ee me Fe.s70 ich tt. (Se on fom expres ta some cece ie Aero t in oaecon ed ahold frat ssn the le elicit hey ath iy ‘po mnigeuy where i cee end um eo in the pi of aeon Tetiobeam fo ig 50] the rule ght ofthat fatto ish ep oft bay the eho he bea Theses [Eve shwnthat sma ro pap 1SDem foreoncenead ‘Goeth eerily cuir ar sabes Rut 1980) ey be ‘en fmt ono san of bending ment BM en "B= Gx 200 600 400) = 73.4. enc, mmet ing on he wel ie Me 4234 0) = 1682 < 18,00 (ann helm) nc sf rata 649 Ginn te Bact comets Pig $7. Mh 24a ‘Bamcer ode 46 olan plate of Fe 0c the fl pater and pte ‘so forth prea Ina Baring pe consonants he ‘She he ol ptr simi (inn pti rans) he iid ‘Proly lcd and acd 8 57 $16 Dorey Sutsncaves B= a +140) = 128000 Bey) 17000 ot 2.9250; 6° 380 mn “The mai ye fae in edie of as anal tho he oar of at pe Ry Vn (+ He) sf2t8 +9) = 200+ {2005 20 40> 3807017700) = 453 BN “Teenmini vectors nthe dann razon eae Blt Ryan hy Hep Bee +P) "at 00 250 4 S).0Y177.000=61.84N Rest vcr fe he bl te (BTVAF » 70600N Assuming in 2-4 bal, ses i alt o> 662% 100035327 Ma 15 BP oes, rove en Xen-merge 6 ol, aes sb, "fo M2 D6 = 1365 MPa 18 Pe Note Sons ede etic het ameter o 24m ‘peo he pte, ep buckling Te ef nee forthe role ‘Example 5:21 Pid he msn laa ned "other hi he ‘chet show n ig. 373 ean ranma 88 ol witha dws of 20m arse nd ple cnc oe Fs th Dee (0 Joe considrs hfe a fh jot same a no ot 28,8,% Fess Solaion ‘The re cm be reset it hana an vei open 24> Pogo" =0397 Pye Pino 086 ‘ol wit hare ems et hitb iy sing he faces ‘nario boli aul for shown Example 19) acento Sin dreson Bey) A+ SP) = 20000 mt y= OSSGHS «(D866 40) 0.57 109) 3020000] = 09142P 21, = 055 «(0845400 ~05 10) x 5420000] - 0841 Reset foc bot = POSTON = 2820 (eas cone ali jit Seog of 2b ean bo de fo Tae $7 eve = £3105 27010 = 16448 Bt seeegh 90.658 ‘gang alse th he mina face et Voters anes iN Pasnssn2n=n98iN (5 Siento rota of 2D mtb fn Tale 5.1 = 52.6 Teer ferent Ts, a a235iN oc tent pnp jot he ot eng apc of eB ‘ponp sree ty 425 (rom 72901 to 82.351 othe sae prac and ‘Siete of eo xara 622 Design rai cemeton one afore loa of HOLY shown nig. 338 418 Desig Sotuion Sot cmc te bck con fange me anja ig nome 130% 230 ~ 30000 tN ‘Proview rms ef le iw MID ride “Chrcty oon NAD ts sige sr Bl 5. ‘omy of aliens 86 ‘ta ich =2.55-20~50 my ep Sm Rogue unr of bt (CONFI = iG THERERAT] Aen ses a9 ows ee dts for x 20m Bol ie 38 Ade sosnm edge dsc. Hes, Depo ake pale =5.65 42340 408 ma btast0e 365mm Asus th st ati at 7 fa eto of omens hat 3697 = S214 “Tas, er ts ol he a ots we in eon, 39-268 40-5214 +1204 a 5218)4 (198-440-5214) Foto 0-2) + G25-+40~ 32.10) 2248286 # 1786 © RAG 24796431280) = iss wPnzinse's 1T8@ o1nse 2088-31280) Sais na? “ui eh itl at ~ 00 10" T2868 878 © 2407 Taal Stet fe hil alt= 12012 ~ 1048 Check (4597 (241666) = 0088+ 0130.61 <1 ine Nero tl nthe ie cane eed fe 605 ate lng 8-8 aero fe os 120x200 24.000 KN ‘hoe be wl be doble sea “Sep of M20 olin dnb bar 3062N Aig het fang on gus as 8m “Seep ofthe lt ewig 2520 8x 001.25 1000) Rie one, ‘Srenghof het = 50.68 ‘sone pie = 8m = Ni@RA iO TPH HIGGO) aioe ‘ove Gat pth of 5 ad edge stan of 4mm ‘Ste into = 1206 = 2058 td Comeons 19 “Tn nel = Sk 1ona028 +9738 1S) Tasin ewan fice inte t= (CSP SRIAD 4118-90688 eo he conmeton issn Bot aon C= - ‘Tore epi oan eens lo 1205 ‘estssing ive 2m dinmoes Dols witha ich 65 mm. = 200-2365 7010) i070 = 8400 en Shen bot = 1205» 2048 Fein b= MoD 0% 206+ 1804) Taxesin Renita se (GSAS HDA) = 382718 <9054N Hence omeston a. ‘amp 5:28 Dein te nd plate connection ec SB 300 ba Eas 200 canto anor wert foe sero 120 RV and Jr hoi ening momento 120 in, Use HSPG oof amet 20 ‘en The connestin a shown 5:75, Fa age a cn ea fn sero 20% (008 13.12) (P+ 2F) (00-11) taoxtoheaoxe 2k ohas or 122869 QFymB69) Bx 2A6-+68.44) Tne = 117560, {9 Dutt rae Pea hy= 04st psy of ea Han = 2280.) 140x107 4168301 ‘hii ely 626 oa ta F Hee he cometon i sf ‘Ba pat ad bots Const pro of ‘ig and 1m went ple) Data cot ine he he Fhe et weld Ado e tne = 50m ive hf ad pat or bl = 1892 50m “eas apna of 2D a (ables 11) = 1 AN ‘Alloway ba Q= 11 ~ 10531 = 36988 Monct thee be wil, 10451303649 50131038 ert capac of ops = (/L10KuT) ‘Tero, Te {fiSIOSID WLIO ASOITT = 16 man rt se» =0:7 x BOOED = 056 AN = Cy2y Pt AON] 190230) DNS 2515x056 90520407 5030) 1991)=2538 BN < 3649 EN assed) Foxes (os: p= fr ope oe aed =. for acted ad). (het for combined shea esi ‘Shetty of MB ot (oes ae 11) =52.6 488 ‘Shar peri = 12062 (2052657 + [0451 + 2536) = 0145 +846 «0995 = Im ion othe shove c,h wi connecting fg onl plat a team wet end pat ol Be cake The clin Range ml lo ‘ecied Ura flonan rove nthe wb clr eh ine sopra hown nig 575 These esse shown nth a ‘hapten eed one sole 6.24 Devin aang angle conection MIG bolo grade 4610 ‘ronferafacstored amentof Nm and he of 50 om ab of SNS $3010 econ of SHB 10, ove fing (sane sno kt we tn Comets 34 ‘Sottion Fees tots (Eom le $9: ‘Seog fa atin ingle shear = 292 Sengthin Geshe = 2902 = 584M ning tenon wb kee mn (SMB 80) 23% 1681x4025 x10) = 103.68 Teste sent of bt om Re 53) = 2.71 ‘ge clip nates Foleo fap aglesfsrlSA 135x952 withSsmm eg, conte ‘othe clans Haas ange danse 95. om. 5.10)= 55.) Les wm 80 +2558 4 ‘ering aso comet ange page wick Mange, ‘Momee epciy "24271046 39285 12m led men) Fc ols choectedo beam fag» Nowy ofa Tianas- kN Reyuiclmmber fb 32929 «18 ‘yee, pois br bln 0 Plage angle hess al Pin be bl someting clan ange with cp age 12x i0460= 2609 1N My = 0632609 (55-122) =767 Na Moret psy fhe am ick eof eagle = 1.2 : 1.2 Qs0r tad 126)x 10° 1st 77 kN Hee he tetas poe i neq. i Mb clip nae ‘The ot wl edie ser (cts o woh of eam) eu wate of = 5058258 Pride 3a of MIS at ph of 0 gon sd ge dace 40 mse ‘chars wags 8mm pth be < 40 m0) ‘Tengh of wb sgl 25.6040) = 160m Pride tim long eg oft 75% 758 Toe al comeing be wb teglto th cnt ge lb in ig hve Hens, prove x M6 als, (heck for pry fore "ely asc 40 mem naw) B=2 (oor ate) fon0y 2740 = 280 0 WARNE, A St 4) 60929 153028 «Ox IAT eAOKSIS) Biss i “Tot ond nth tos = 2609+ 1545-4 8 ' hpi of we LS ot in non 202.7 = BARNS 414A | 422 Dag oft Smctwes ews th connect (Chek or cas of ech ange ‘Asuming an etn om onthe clu ane nes gue ‘Gees Hangs = (imePepph = (Ri aT a1 HH ~ 622mm < 106 mm ch hoes rove i ada, ‘he designed des are sown nF 876 g esse 2oties > re876 Eran 25 Digna Tt bo contin toner ‘er 508 dace et a to he ed feb ‘ove sof 890 eg 8 ‘Sotto Tha ots Fo MUG as am te pein xa ‘ao pe ew 9 Sten mesh 8 tang sng kl) = 103651 ‘ota <7 seb ange oon ov ns epost sae Th rove angle lose aes erie aor neti bate comectng berm och ae Fan 3 Swot 3 ng wih of B40 =150 Png inn = 74s Web thitnes 94mm Rost rase= 15 Spt beta ap fle cnt lange cP 0107350 = 12264 : Read nr obo = M2 8629 498 Prove ia to Fs. “These of Tuc osopinga wih of 40 m9) Tbh) 14236 boa 25175) (80.10) 580mm <9 nn Hens he thlaess rove i aegot, Spt etc lng omen 7 “b= minim ede nce Tbe 101 of a) 25 Prove ne dtc o30 nce tr tio k= (0502) 42) ~15~30) 253. Moen Fst BSP Tos iantex2s9 Stee nome Mor icy of eh gs Foran fy 7496x107 “hspoet> 1872 Wa ‘ins ee pve ei The re 841 fs comeing pa E62 = 714084 esc ee dar =12.73.2= 48.482 71498 1 feo mdr in woah pc of Cm cep dno mm Se Mah bbs AX 6S6=26842N> HDAC siocrat force in ot df be pled monet ieee ss aN Check or pon fore ‘Lost roe) efasor) (8a) (182)~30)= 928 7=1S(hcord xd) B-2(@onpreloned) F-02207 400 = 200M (potattis 30) 0572-2315 x028 x 0% 174827930 528] = 1276. tt el ot =3572 412.76 48.4866 1 neat nogant The etl of conection se iene 77, zm, aeSrearoae reer (heck ike of on flange ‘Aseaning a ge dance of 40 eon he clan ag fo = rctar OTE = iss anc io0n a01@1 2 250 CNTE +O = GIB = 18.95 nm < 106 wz einen rove i aegis Example 5.28 Desi led wb cet common oan ISMB 0 an 2 ‘ap bn fe SMB 40 00 BV easton dao facto a) and SB 28051 nacton de factored wang rade & Shak af 2m camer (ive Pi 579. orBl ge i ote ‘Shar psy ning har ~ 248 UN 1.25 1000)=90.5 ‘Str apc nose shee 2005 181 EN {thd sd ram 10 00 "web itnen "9m Bening sty OFS pi he wed = 2520 894825100) = 14241 “vy fete contol etn ese 300 (60 #03 12) aODG0" +1205) 4 un spacing ad 0-H shear ace Priel Comes 8 af A : : q Fase ec sr ie por bol 304 = 603) Rens sete = {OVA ~ R07 aes Hoe be Gomes of appr ean ‘comings cao a 908908 Shh ey of905 gerne S100" AN shales ee teh eer net ft ian of40 mn in cat Assuring cent of resco 25 am eo poten, ora she fiom Boom ot oman do ext = 000% 0.5020~ 89) 255)1205 6! HS 4255) 3809 esa sere per bol = 30007 548 26 Design fe Sears Rent fe =F SBS) = 48.46 Nt cqcy Hewes the omesion ot. {se 0 90905 amps, og ig hd side beam TSMB250 ih, = 99mm Boning aac fw team 2.52069 400.25 10) ~ 1104 ‘rye blot 0a pach and mm ae dist, Hz ee Fire ntl do mena to etl) 19550-0525) 50) = 849 AN ‘ec shaper boll 25 a eee eo omen we of ape bs ‘Arson in Fig 57% th secant th wb feapporing ea by bol incwocsnnsatnbroantengeotADmmele ants, Aang ena rrr 25 ee pote hrs he fa on Dt a iotemament (eto eet) SS x0S120- 4 < BSUS! +65 57162 er share pec = 795 = 1254 Rowan ser facepe c= (TOP HEF) =20454N dear ice = ORS ‘Stew espacty dong hes Block hes pac Tyy = BAO LD 89554 460) (094125) 89 (50-722) 000 4584 “ual hort ef 6 1525 Tet veal sear ys (09 410609129 2894 04.5 122) 45089 "st. 1)/1000 39892 48 Ta 60218 Sarre = 300 BF = 479 WN < otc Conecton web of paring beam ‘Assn ini 5 his comes she we of speci ey ot, Inowocohen attr gnigeof 2Dmmeleandaptoh tS mm Assing eto meme (ne ese) 175320512069) DSHS? 68+ 1S = 162s esas eprint YORI) 20454 bakes ie ene he He contin hwo 90 90> 8 ang ca 160m ne ‘bf paring bs hes cate a ef ans hn be eng cpa on 2 we 2520 2 A10(125 108) “vs is do mst do nyo iow) =a 1190285) + 120-2791 Tal ve he ae 315 12.5" 044 Resin heat force = {50+ 21.798 ene, th eonaetn i sf Let hand bean ‘the en ofthe nach depth weton =400~ 26-374 an ‘Shar apa = (74389) AI) 100) [3676 EN hen fre = 20018 Siar caps tog ate ‘lek shew dpe Tay = S003 11) x89 (544260) +(09 C0129 x89, 2% (50-220)/1000= 445346 z 756.961 sae ce 75 EN Tay “DSO 11) x69 (54 +250) (09 4100.28) "69 (0-222))1000= 218861 Tyg =(09 x A049 125) 6.9 (546 2%50-25%29)+505¢69 ‘2501/1000 19483 8 Shei fe = 75 AN Sharpay Hage be ceesion 9a sample 5:27 Dein ls spe fran MBA sso rafere fected eg meme of 120 anf her of 04% ce se lanes pices fe momen an tha ewe po carn te share Me 379 [Bp emt 22Temes ‘Berman 2m ‘| | Read nee e820 ers = 160. edt, 895 Flnge sie Tc in the gen NAD ~1) = 120 12HG0 = 19312538 ‘Sipmtinc eto ia Te S.1) "52.61 a ‘ekg ests gga = 23.20% 69 400125 x 1000) = H2.4 RN Btwaie= Sabi SR Ns | wee ‘Use the rom of at a ich 6mm, ‘Netae of lange (4 = 2533 9 1636 Flange psy 301.1) 15341000~ 969 fags fee = 3125 Hence commen ste ‘ie nm og pe iat Rogue ick of pas = 325 12S140~ 223). 10 21403 am ago ppt 00 6 For D0 FSC Bote de 8 double hee ‘Slip reste ero om Table) 2 526 1052 Ty am ik we pe plato ah sof we Beaing rises pr tot ="25 20.58 4003S 10) = 128 Botta 105218 Try tes at yal pitch fm and Oe fw te ete ofthe it "oszoa bee Ene bo et stent (ote) = 90x40: 50(2% 0) = 208 ‘Vert tea fre per t= B= 2667 en sere = [567-3 = 3.3449 10524 ie web pets fae 0% 108 The deep Ss scaomatig 33 {amp 5.28 eign ere nei 22 ceed ‘an I 25 wr facta el ln of OI, eos se Fe Pete Teel enim ec P Sotten Fer ISB 25,4 550 4-9. man =n eat wo~ Qs Dro Das adda Dato spew Porton uy web = 801342899 11021 ‘retwo Mor snes ear Skene f a ng eB 3.1) 52.6 mn ewig rtance "255205068 01.2510) = 161 ‘Bolt value= 104 kN mt ae She te prtoh=1022 381441041 ce nT nt Ger oa be ge th 38 me Tt $8 Ha, via ee see 5 otal pis 30 STD ob se Flog splice % Potion ofa arid by cach lng = (5010232 ~ 1629 Forfar MOO HSFG tots of gace 88'a wo ome insglodian ol ip sts 4526 2104 ea eg ane 462542091 400.2510) a 2 oe 8 A Pa. 820 “Top boltsvengh =21048N> 18928 Hence hecmnctn ee Prove m ee dss of 8 mi end vere ish of mm. Provide 2 ‘mene pep ‘Thins of Bag ie pe ~ 1699 142501.) (25-2522) =m Howey pve un hick gp sks egal he ange "Aon vee pn of sine 270x251 mn The eds ts sesbownia Fg 5. a 528 Ch i he oe le re Fi ‘anfera embon of te fling: competion of 001, momen of 100 {mand sr of 2094, As Bt epi deed for dc beaingand (Ma Nba are ted The el Fe fon ts are grade 83. Teabenng moms sams be ay dh ans er la Th fs nth vega 00+ 1003010728 e Ty POMAg AN a RAE nba om a OH assess, cseeced anton wil ke place outa an set heat lg Hane of the pps coli ston (in & Puke 1998) These flare ple, lomthe mest af seabu h o wton atin ie wish ene ica 25:0) 7-02 PO2N (24) nO) [000% 1 +40 10 Gas) (2252 21.) (2801)229) Prove a sin tick plate Number N20 fol prince Ye a9 MO b= 52.6 KN por bles) nya RO ZDWNADD =[1005 10+ 40 10 as2452.6x 108225 a ‘ene, aol oro with vi pith of Oman i snr ‘of 4b mm. Use lange pe fn 285% omen Whe ten of os Colma are mchined encontrar terested yh tton ce, ato wha pit font eos” stration). ‘may Deseo ht emacs wl e018. Ths, Fel ets GD #12) 13 (100% 109205 + 4a) oes 9661 204 epi hs) afer, orl no ser eons oe, owore in pce a ‘pte wi asa! Sts general rove: video web pasa 4 0; whe bus of MoO on sibs ofthe ope Meth aio he le emesis) summary members w become by mes of rn thal hese ere Witt opes oe op es Rivet oo and weld commen Ire nomad tel ste Oat of hn, Bete eomestons te in doc aioe re emai reconnect ene Cape vif kh ets ve eh ‘Suwtcd The desis een fr ack and SFG preset slog ‘ih pn comet, che may we in sin members. The vison {pesofsipleand momen estan Gg conaetan bvebean cover alas he Sgn tod Dut te ae opie comectoncngaraton, Teuatiny eben ate pata ten nin ren, tedoign rings posted eben ron pert mpc artas, ting plan iv offer ano Cpe an proce Several ples Bae bon wl to ex he ene rset. Te ‘our per wld sos cae ie ex ope. Exercises 1 Des ath ii 9 Gan oe Shin Pe sa oe f= 0M). Ane Be he et 4, Belsipnor stb mn iti 557, Wess ote 610 Sof sed eae ima 0% rman eka 152m the het “Soe him nate Sanden spre en ‘iekpadinboween tered Deo te te of a ‘Tomea onde day oar fr eo, Ae ope os 810 5, Theos sto ick condi as oe i js ih 20 aioe alos sO pmparh Cin ties et Theo 6 Mga oe coe ut jt edo cnc wo as a ick Gee Se Seung tc aio 20m Guta pach alee ‘So cdtiny oft one Us str pla td ge ba 1, Trop mad amie be ae by bl cove toi ‘Azteca pac of on ies, dig ti ed ted ieclortioaN Am oslo pes lommdncer pode .bole 1 Devgan net to pas 2008 mF 0 pe ng MIS Bite hnags oo manne tb, | P a 9, Decne te ne ft re a i$, cay ter do "Wowie em onete gate ted sue hat teh {cc tg cea ST coo prc ah 1, Kr TSM eeeecedtoscoumny wet wih sg ow eb 12, Design a penacton ont sho vg sig MG ck os of anine/ | 3 é co P Pentntnain nti eee aman le ca fc scowegte elon shew en SSetetntdua Sanit raat ome 1+ Sea ann thom ayn ‘inet Reo a ss sc himretoa exh steieaeneni Soi etn wecwesetbtopat Bais Sorcha sinc lam ei ct ine Sie inanaitccgetdurny mere Shs atc enue a baie 1s Seta einen 4. eas Sur edt ‘teint OANins ang pect wun es i tae i 1s Dadi A a ne patil tle a elas aaa FSP why = oo RC ease 228i i Me andes ede Cane ‘ened 1k Den ad) omc Saran) fe aniseed oni 2 et gwen outdo ania $00 rig 36th argument ose 2+ Dai ast oan te 2, Dg aed we cet nc fran SMD Dd apt of i 21, Dalat cover pte efor aS 200 coe SH 20, eaptrs treu f3OEN bt sme waa FeO ‘eh The ene ot mine il wnt nbn Review Questions 2:-Whst edie pn estonia? 4 est ates il ade i a 5, Decrbethinslon ciate 43 486, Dasg fet Smces (@ tSmmttn ©) Semin () Osmmbdam Sm (ack and ae lone bennett) {5 ek bon bed bate? 17, Desc diet tihng meds Wipro {) 2ocdowerof tt 10 15 xdnmoe oto {0 Samet (3 VOxtamee oat 24, Themaimen nip lowe alent (200mm) 30m (200) am 25, Themen angi ph stwe nol oui member 020m ee 1am) am 24 Temescal na {9 laediter ott (3 Uexdomcer ot ‘re sttimen gn allwe! ot sia meni (@)lexticaanetpiae() thc ape (© taedimner afta {@ 16xhoneer oto 28, The mintmn dg dstce inane hale ge spony ( Lsxaledanetr (2b © lost (3 17 state 28. Sty re mnie pedi theo? 5t" Liste ees tht uy cnr he engin. 51 Wit stan ap, al nolo my epee? lot. 28, it the setae n bho ween i wih lk lod jee i SHC | ibaa 1. Wiebe ears relia esos ok bh - (ong sina (ize ipl hick pking ae 3h Myostatin mene si? 3) Wncopnmenty peat Mapes 6) sii team ae ete 1, Waconia tet 4 betnctning oo 12 Mibrenpial cron epee Cchne wae ht ao ‘rachis We i cf fon p t 1D sicher pve ated er (9 rated cs & tet ho pei caps ot «4 nc pele senoi seis este srt cme 3. NoScstca mc cnensninseoitce Oa amor tbe 3 ac os tmimach bm erent ape tet 5 Rectaeadeecrburecntactndandatec cel? (0 Unt a nemo 8 womgesemn 7, Shae teu ppstnenet-einac cmt? 5. Micacceaen ring te insted anon Ttlectstsaainedion One tton »9 Wulisesie ctotadsenmsrtemabayrap te ‘opt ster ma in tc lr ito lg tte iy mote 6 (o Sitestse ane cometon (@ Fiaicestpltecarmeton wwe tes lnofatecit nmin? (2) Boted mento coantin (©) Fnranglecommecion (©) Spittun Tcomion {© Bommine {9 Catomipaes cuarrer 6 Welded Connections Inteoduction “lng ics maid of insta wo pes of ety Rng tlic a That vir wnt prove vat an ese. Wing ioe he ‘sande chs iting Lit popes nwedgtesscloy i own os; asta tl 87, ah Weg poceses sha fle welding ting were io fo a 300 yet: Ah tte ad Ben il ‘ork on a wen nth 708 ing con cestode pow by bere Uevelopet ck ntti bwee IHD aed 190 wh he rai of tloare psa eae tres Potessc Ei Thon was th ist att ie irene ove welding icin 65, Cas Coin nee Ibe aero and pated USA In 12, hgh Zeer ode theca ar wang pts in 18. Th ney fea ml elesrode, ‘wish liimse th robin sion with he te of tte ceo ‘ade in 1889 by A Somer. Te metre procs was fst wed "9 i us ying cot bare lewosSulno & Jhon 19) Oxyacetylene welding ted eiting was employed afer 1903, du the serpent a lento by Foch Pra By hal 190 Lila ie ffl te fint a weling machine and by TOI coved leo ‘rp, Dig Wor We (914-1919) weighs Wee wed ‘erepng tag stipe: Dring period 1530-1950, seal inpvenes techie uch wef gma ix pee the wel nd ated ewig ere dereoped oye soe welling procens anime wou pe and Shirly, Tie poses, which wil ewe in Welpg eta tle Closed inte not scion. The pes of elie ene ot and he ‘hts fing wel orer oor iene. Tehellot tr design fai welded nections a tind A ite ot Incthods of ing tla comeon lve, Several Bang ae pen’ ‘se he Join pedro eld cabs Th ce ceosues wih he st develope in th sin oi tei ake 6.1 Welding Processes Sacer welling ney ll bl; toh sae gu weg may sho Be tetas dcues het fs (ol acenfonygen moe pose ‘vey how fs bet pr lh el ier rl Homer ps ‘eed pman oct pees shop, is bw pon a ete sng ‘esha called gs xing une in ration sep wih seas Srenasthcus sir tnmvecutTonph ane sin expos, Aap and boc tiger ed el a itomnce ar oy Inttemostnanonwedng peso wedges aos, deci Ahemting cen oy descr stand) rough on ltd comny thedacte aode dh perstin me eves oy Dy Ing the dots tyr ht tc fn th te el hic conned msde oe kan me fe se cea I ely bore” 2 i Wh hi shring’ oft cca ery sore ke ples, ‘ich el he cestode as) atte ta he eto te EEA tompontere of abut 300-500 proc in tb ae. ‘ow making te cites te molen core melt Us tase tal © {ni pthc jo. The pea cota th uly of ol rete elosrods Sant wnt tat rss tt ck he babe tal ed ‘nimi lode pate: sens Sepa 4 ion Fg 1 Shea et te lig oth “Te dere pce fas ellng tt edn srt el penn ‘wets ftlows Seddon are welling (SMAW) 1 Signed ar welding AW) 13 Oat cl we weting (AW) ee weg (CAM) 611 Shiied Meta re Weng (SHAN Shc td eiig SHAN abo cle ck" welng armani proces anni mt common cod of welang sedi ster comectons oF ‘Siew capt cet and ey. However or long ena wes toma ected deh coset ay Th SMAW proces equ Ue fton ig atap Gee Fe. 6: {0 Continent (CC) nl poser spy (8) Beco der ed edit terms {© Ground tp emis (@ Sng cores pst cir te ocr Mig tough he up Benen the code sade clos an fa fais the hf ne he lstote esr both ect nl sete Tay lle of me for a (pot te decade ad we eae 0 te olen wel oo onthe te Seal” Arte csv moves ny the mt pol, molen nite | ‘Set bt mel ibs en Se eld aso (oe Fg 62) eanton go Fa Side wet or pcss. Geer he let s songer athe pt ta Fer xanga lst, wuch wold be snl To wed ade 10s, ies 2 wed depen ‘ich e's nin ld seg of 390 MPa with url eng te Ree utaio stots Gre) or mona nae welding 4) te ‘Geode hu moby wi 182579181395, ad 18 Ba. The cto See es fw Hen te ee cient use the combustion ad ‘Romeo fhe lax Tie ree gaseous fo pret th elestoe tp melthe nla ol om asp conianintio dunes Eur covuins tt eat he ons opie ws te ans ‘he wel nl Beome eg er cooing. Tiss bing Tio a the cal Monson wht pes wfc hh an Be asl any ale Ge welt ie y ——————— sete = se of suis har ounce ey & alee NS ‘clans fxn ml itr eater eee ay ing hrc On tg ps cy wl ah steno epson sd ere noe tii tn pth cas Breaches Inept on tesa om 33s Ten ‘ot nd ted ep oro nee SAA com ete nd or gn se Oydogen cx et sty ng on ope eee oc ee ‘tarde cf ir emer a ‘Sie Ae mon Sy oe Secon Te sgh Sinan int age of a 1s Gata Stow ea Ski only sacle pean tng wee at Src infringe The rete en ceca le ‘eros as sey SM wl 3 to lined hike eps stn mn ed ee kp ie ‘hae nmol ry ern FeN Theat of SA ce ay Bn 2 6 tmeatenient (ls ay ile mx mel et me and Ln epoca eer ore (oat pn ein it Oinaiecd teers IR cs Ope | (0 Nowpertniton te ches of the tal oe welded ) Cente perfoned ver noses Cmte The dndange of SMAW proce a ll (a) Note fort shane San ens 18) Oper diy ld orl depstion te ely werk SMAW (©) Theesveclesvod cal te wed he rnaining ub cea handle Ibe cael wating 25mm 0 mm of ete (© Trees spe ant ar ding deste changes wld dete ‘elo 15 This hemos commonly se ld meted using DC welding 61.2 Submerged Ae Welln (SAW) ‘Ssimernb ar weling SAW seh eng of oe Slow indepen proce Suma re Wel wre fom ctrl “lewode wl te and Yr el te id nw paar The power ‘ry i ttc eg Te eld ‘leva Tae machi: automate se amare, al te dete fom ge ‘Sil dates the aed fe well ta, ol aio ns ovina ger ‘nde cede Gee 63) SAW peal Gamer ty be ut in se side era, ling nt aowing erica V-shape ‘ers then of wed aking he ross very st (ale & Nao 2001. a Fg 63 Suber arcwleg ites lets, Sheps neon baton upto. ae pmble Sen x plement we fngan easy eomable ‘Msheld he opera the we Thesg ood te wes enovel by ‘hing, SAW fe wuly done neat ling pion, Depostin ne ‘rroatieg Dkr ue pose wih moccrde anomalies ahery ‘Thtmlon footy is roses de fr sip ad bie bang wae ong ‘igt welder caren (0) High eoston ee (0) Mh iy wei od cy, igh npc rh hgh esi and ‘10d cmon etc (6) Bap penton han SMAW proces aking sip tual wed for fect wel) (@ Moshe proces a soe psp sd eld (©) Goodie welding ng joins Gn excess ef =) {0 Hig opomtor gpe s p praecton nerd (0) Farhan es only ©) Long sap tne {© Limi ona of espe {Ege mt be pstiones {© Mordiicltio manor these, wich iat of view (9 Slog reova ected Das othr ects SAW ily etd o hay weg 6:19 Gaeeheled Met! Ar Welding (GMAW) Garside metal a weig (OMAN) i teed mot ce gat ‘el (AC) orm nr gr IG) wag, GMAW ao alow bogs {may ope poss wha yest ange of loro ah In i ‘Sete ptowhereth wel tein sul taehing welding we te ‘cel Wen thew oer htrggron te welding elon thee eve happen taney lis 200). Tongs ec be welng pone spt td ib ceo wie strkes tae eth flat pation erent po 400A oy ste en bee 0 tive ih welding pede Inver! donee on, the Get Kept teow 1D A + Thee sd enn bee erase wie mth ol ough ‘he wl gma: Nott the welng pn cae ly a o f ‘se: ower bls, con ete eats wie ie ig ie, ‘today ice ology sed kc etncr ies Fi 6. =<“ 6.4 GHAW process ano a tg sentence eo docs oc oan hen tt rete re etcrepaereneesomrsea oe eee rosumecttevalateaanaqies De ic ea ovo ag oe ne rete a ag A eg ae cert sat apn Ss tthe rel a ea. bo ee eerie) berebetdome oe etgatet een catreta teers ecco est 2 sistas hast atl mer 8 in ecto n eerbnsonper a cae aiiiealinta (0 ey range cron arse (See cle bag pen reper ae nc el on SAT Dea ctnreinmmt ent ofr ce EE earn mp el a tee Noe ainioo, 5 ma ied Senn 33 peg mrt, Oe oc ee vey tito ito FD py 0 Thr ie ptm i th pts pe sd ‘The dadratge cf GMAW allows (Caley & Mow 201) (@) Welling equipment eed in his pacers cn be ore expensing, me sompicid a ihe pute on SUA (&) GMAW snore dieto we mg quar a he guns he gn (able eno sf diene. (6) Thelage sia of he GMAW gn contined withthe 12-4025 ‘mali we, (@ GR4a ctor si inet vy ca daar ellng ses ‘ne ed pret he slags fo ing own ay (6) OMAW cana be pert ude nes a En eee. (6:14 Fux Core Are Welding FAN Aietaing terme he GMAW sad FEAW pce Une OMA, FCAW ekarde wie snot an cons of hw etal te ied ‘Wie Thepomere x roves layog lin ea ‘fies nenrd feral iting pe Te ng peered th les oe wel pol orn tone yg gen ed ‘ea rarest acon Waring non he cig Sst alow FCAW wb ued cently Be conto (ee Fig #9), Nase time nop singin pet ewe om eink FAW isa ov hyo: roses ih rouge feos sents mn Mat FCAW sono hts he welder mara pstos heh sud wie de conus fds dood wn weld Howe "he rcs ar been ma ly noma vi cnr ven abot pig the ec along rset pt ery cae ur a made sy totes cE wie iy eon 30 (0) Owing tect ea, AW con poe gs mow 8 ‘4, svg ch 50% of ier stl sete fo SMAW eh ‘ees ler grove angles) anise een sv beveling a alot ie (Dire cess atria be wed wi ste sod by power iy een () AW scr ary cut tan SMA, {@ tharecctes wel eel (6) FAW etext vist oft wel pol iv OMAW bine te iin pt nd etme i fare (6 FAW onda xing st permit xcalet quay wel be made ‘neal ing sme ete nese mille, Oe et oe ame ‘Singcan weld wiht ker pepron,dhareliaginconene (a gh doesn eof mae han 11.3 ke ae ple soripiedb 4s {for SAW wi Sym dame cles, (i) Shled FCAW closodes wok Ren win ei nny tan GMAW cestotes, Tae aa i IY sg ote reo AFCA nt ache al 6 initio eal i mle, (8) Weil postin can be a” ate (0 Witter end welder mone Scented we FCW a Be ing ts (q) Sagranova regres sonal dita, SMAW. (8) FCAW gente age volume of fies ahd sok, reg ‘oto ics od eng wee vy dng rt 6:15 loco Siag Weng (ES) Bl a Wel (9st ey nm wing roc ns “ny edo stat ary & 2012080 Te pce gi ‘Sling an eben ne coos so bom oe owed Dox addi pon metathesis stm eri nag eso nthe pe ete wa ‘Sh eer’ bye flow ef cet are! og bene ag We ‘Sedcrodsncto te walle mxsene ean ret erodes {ro ou one ea rat oon Wicd cope ‘Sexo jn icon ig he me me! si 5. Thay ‘ovcp in fhe int arn wel ops. Thi recs ws evel {jin ie eons Pac wir chet an 3 450 to wed ‘nes (hos 180 Map Musto maybe we spec he es Eon econ coe witness a an ba ‘soot tems cee ate Koala) (Pa. 68 cloctosagweldng “The adaage of SSW te a low (Jeo ik ters (0) Has tgs pein te (©) Matte cede nay te mod (@ Mites jot pectin (@) Low dieton he dts of SW lowe: (a) ee ao vera nly (0) Nery complet 16) Cong tris ected led Coetony $67 ‘Blt dg wii eo shop weld compet ier pon ed ‘in bridge wark such as girder and oar plates. “ : 6.16 Std Wang (Sm) tet lng pei it recto media compte contin ani rece ie hee setae nel Th menny oedema cee, chr ony. Te SW pac epi yang sea eee ‘soln tl on bt thew md th suche then toes he sé es {lee resin noe the ances Wee ian shtg prising tO Whe tad weg [LE 7 ® Fe 67 Stubwolig The advatages of SW lows: ( Simple Ors (6) Cm be torte “The dick of SW ae flows: (Neots dean aes (© Bauman seat ata 6. Chole of he Proves eee hone oes ee fr pa apn, bo following parameters. aan (© Laon fh eigen sig de btn sap GMAW. FERN md SW ot Fer a apts tres wort awe (© fear SA ay MA Si wc = | (©) Penratin of ed Peteon of FAN an SAW bets SAW, (@ Foleo wit be dept CAN. OMAM, ed ESW hyip epetion (©) Fastin of wing SAW and ESW arena be ont psn CAWané GHA cine wd nal pation, SAW poy best er overhead wk, pecially (© Aceon coy le as SAW ng GMAW ae arn Jol SHAW ad (See conpsitn GMAW ad SAW ae et ay fo ad heated zane (HA) erg (0) Tletser feng os, © Comptes 6.2 Welding Electrodes : ‘As stl cae,» vay of lectoteae aaile th proper ach of| ‘ese ta eng metal prope hs wl mals econo, As cise rey fe men tl 0 sd opey wl toy ‘ogee ir ges fom te atmomr dee ent wl ot wel dics nach as psy, iceman atl conn, Hence, nly ciel eles te wel in ena welding. Weng dese tse th Amaia Weld Sul in copeion ith ANSI ge flowing sumbering sso fr ailed nel we eng GMAN. ‘imme 1 tinting yt snd lo, xsd fr. lok onber essing te sitesi te weld ea, hogy 18814 he owing vale ae rable 4, 44,4, $4 531,35 54 55 56 ‘ea. The vali of ints sushi of weligposions woe be teow ad oead tat i,b= wees era fsa esos, 2 ents saat rt pion of werk, ants aay fafa vant, ovata nd etc down,‘ ns eating en opetng ‘torres. The vale of xi 5 ine ow yee “he varios gates of ctor pri 814 lc ale prope sown i ible, Het clafntion fer the rane ocd ‘Tambo (19). Farr nematn 08 compotion sa cae of Sade ‘valle our (8) and Owens al Chel 198) 6.3 Advantages of Welding Welding of he lowing ndntge aver ling ort (@) Weide comcian climate ered mainline exept. ‘ora enna fr erection pupae, Sls tts eager tl Comectne 40 {i ign oft comecios (a it) welled ometon es ‘ne menbar vibe sale ot eso Tus t ge nonce ths ‘aso enelon ments, sce hale fet a eine, (Wilding singh sod wghjoingefplaestiecenenpooed inte eastonine of water tgs etm ce (9 Wet jats ae eee ice ey ene Be tan of are bezwees te menbon Moreover the sie pe aed tlt mate a mined Terie sage perro alr emer ofrotce nection eh Du the lian fot sch ling sad Pann welding leon cet naan do he gl ‘Ein dies eo red i eaing rc, td ell rea ‘Wn alo reqs ene eo fr essing he wer Te std hat hl eel sigs by employing weg oer boing sy be apt I3 (@ Weed traces a magi et ts det como of mide by veling 5 compared to bled ns I hl ote cover plate, Cmca meyer nn tnt Snlegs nace foe Rg anna lg ecw Ale sues darth eto mens or onsen nth (oli comectons ly ese mapped cee ‘conta ote comerine Taser fon Fp, which hens ale an waded he ‘Fa. 6.2 Apaaance oi rd wd se gos (0 Welding ten meas tothe digi cooing ton The diner ‘aoa hou by herald soos btny buoy cron, which ay be eeoomiel sd avtagess Wading hess in fo Inmovaioe of pn we jot, tld bar taper ea vce ‘re, comport costo, ul teen nose pans 450 Dosh ofan (@ Weling spe cea for ents saps of in. Fr cxmel, ‘Sonetons ih blr eos con en ea wel, Wee ‘ety impos tems lng Tul tiom reac ‘eae at cpresn mend tein ese do ‘elie (iy errs canbe mae wt exponen case welding ws compared 0 toting hi shocaytoconsctnistesin cscton ing action, whe ‘rath ef led erection eye ec. Alo ‘nombre shoe yeti se ‘ine way sone be nthe sping pes Fe eco ‘eal, (wy camo src i fred by th oes ing te meme Tet ie ges eappearnsof ene pec need este Usa, [teste fs weld ta tong arr sone thn te bv tl, Teeter ae no stcton in he ee of oe (Th fine of wel are an 2s jst. et 100% ‘fon ene ond sig weg. () Bist tsiniaon of sen ren concen eis comieby es inci cm ~ (The prota ef weling i el let nar iting Bing Uilng ean ee bes fey peeaos. noes welding has he owing aaa (9) Welding egies ight sled na sours. (0) Thefmpacton of ele joi aiitnd expensive, wheres ines of bot jon inl Nose, cstv ig eed porn bre (Mambo wong ay son, ness operant ee, ‘ed jos ve ge esi ae. (2) Coty eine ness ke welded neocons, (6) Walia coat se rons cing mir tp ig {Proper sng ny ate doe itd endo eel vr md ‘fen postions Ge Thepoliy fitter case weld in than in (0) The weling per i the eld i expesve tan pee inthe shop (9, Welling at site my oot eb d ko pone spy. svt acts nse welag et whch dete lw (ehnO0 Jno 1996 {Cota pring eee to eld caso oon wes) (0) Asan of wed ail eget (6) Ratio ts sul actin o veal welding ime (G) Thehundng eq mms sd pl espent ete ing ee) (©) Goma over bad nets (6, Gomot pening any ar die shut lng ons my fonda Blade (196 en Donny 9s) ee tel Comets 8 16.4 Types and Properties of Welds ‘he wee may proped in fr pe flows (Gene we © fee {© Sucve (@ Pre "he shown Fe 69-Pah eof wa om arta my ‘eta depetg onto nics iS und le wr od ‘en on) mere wel (3%) Sa pag wee ‘eden en tn 3) acl caging span i wel ‘Sin cit Sth) ol ly wen {eto nie joe ch ofr fe pet aaa cused fe inthe following seetons. vs a UG rs i \ tees — Uh een? Es ‘e —“ Fa. 89 pes ofa 16.4.4 Grove Maids ‘ove we re en cen at ee hae ig in Be ne canon Gore ely bed Fe tan “he pores ave a spe 30-07 ig pps em kanye lace smh einer soe lsum kro ‘eng Vs pt ofgore wre owen Toa es ent toe ad * ove wel wes Pil, la ect, ‘eis hldeatte unde itipeateae “Toca lettin sae wl aca spe vie at he exo fg Vote er goer Thus bay come ‘sede wig ne hm on ie or bene opag nee (ce Pig 12) Thespesia rove te en broek The ak sgn een ps © Veling posta (©) Voneot dpsed ell maa (conto oper (feces bro nh eee {0 Bian dt ersenéaratcar ena melt din, ve hess 23 an 2 spect, Since pres percent cae 6.4.2 Filet wes ie wel et ity wed de ir xan, say tate Tey ae spony wage 54 ere Se Ses nat aeration for man ate Bdge 808) fame SD Toms) Rm) easy Pe Scere” Se SOF Socvomentigee eid ee See to Dees boom PS bo 3 aid > tm be te 3 Dobie ota me 38 agin Fog Oa ae Feta aonb re (| IP So «L Seonbonrg pte Cannan Pe sn ‘a Ir cote) ‘ ig. 6.19 pen eo et weds Mol Comets 485 In omctns, members peel ie henge, bu tae ‘als uvec nd 120 an be woe rove th crs hat sis nee ‘ndovgnaclatons (se Stn 6.9.2) Fie wet ae seed flaca 8.4.3 Slot end Plo Welds ‘Stand pg wells went sel excavate cntcon. When bocomes ‘posit we fit welds ce when the ent oft it weld ni an pug els ae wcd to spleen! the ie wel Mg wes sea canal se il yp ets tenn ch Deans Se ‘gs whe tempor ro balan edo ain manos welling, Tey ae sho ase to ln ssa Ts te Sign ances ‘sil oa of lt wel, The eecan of hese els inn mf Sito ssa, Marve, he mopetion f eewes ienhek eye say ed to ean mene cern tee ls See Dg Wea hin petentiag overpay en bing 6.4.4 Stucture and Properties of Weld Metal ‘he wold eto a sie fpr mel a el mld ae cto, ‘he sified weld tl ae proper chara oe seal Heese heel lit ao batowar diy compart wctocee ea ey te we yo! is ot and sing he et ml ng ae oe jetting ad cooing oes dt megs oft et insane changes ig 19. Taser eet hohe eet oe (HAZ) The suc o AZ willbe goercby ese na Crate Fig, 0.14 Heat tected ons HAZ) wold ps owing oa 8) (3) the compotion of he el ton eile) and (8) te cooing or. The cooing ee oF HAZ sae by he owing tr (Doing roa At ery (tip ‘Tsk oft, Tempio te pies ing wed (neat) poeta “change n sci HAZ shu be coir in te dsgn ag by ‘skein sable Chap Vin ae fo te fe ection 185) wg esos (ts Charpy Inga sale oo et hana oped {othe paren et) cson ests, Peeing oi wll lp ‘ores Heck. However heing ice teen of wang, Preating oon ne th lonng esa (0) Todi yogen ny em he wel pel ad HAZ (@) Toren any ster mastein ihm coins (©) Toning th ew nbn omperte (C) naats (@) Tose snag ese i wel ad ace ae et gotta icy een sin) (6) Tolowe the tans pera of weld and aca hse ei (© Tones the teh ps he Weld se (Cots fer fag the quid pete temperate a prove by Blogg (1346, crn cae, eh emi fra consider tae atewelng Hike ely plow pn (eee ate “metrics om cure beng ard) 5.48 Weld Detects “he pasion of oan wel gover bythe oe it popaation ad Sita. th rotopesing. intone ce oe meng ‘tn he weg cred volags, thease we ee Ml the gui of weld (Oyen 1992) accu af he matng ‘reat ineaian sac qa of wali oamea tent bythe posing ofthe eed. Son ofthe common ct ‘ela flow (Inept fon (© Inova poston (©) Posy (@ Int of aag (© nets (© Undecatng (Lamar teig ‘oe defects sown ematical in Fi, 615 cued ei eto Comastions 451 Fos (eek, vig ‘tmnt me many ge ° Loman am Wp i oo me sigan pa etd rail tes conn oe Fl 81500) mpi ny oie tio ee i en ed tropa cout wit nn al eed hcg ars SUE epi ct hoss ‘nto ig pt) mame gw nn Saati cone pentane Fs 6250) cts fw ea ie cenit do ae sete paanten ns eng hates anh pave wads cs wml pore dng real wen peso, ot TESS allow wey omen nde ig Percale Fo 61503 | come wa pct erie ee igs enlng em Tiny deduce gcc or longs anh Sortns > kel ceca Ml wel of anton ben Pas ws, ndercutng see Fi. 6.154) ‘ele. Thien» ror nh tel ct he eth ld ‘lt nfl by welds ring the ing pve Use ein Io ofthe ee sntn a le 9 lor aes ie Th dc ay be ‘iu impetion and coed by deposting ada! weld atrial ‘Sig Intuson (Fa 6.56 ‘tp famed ding te wedges inthe fm fect ones safe ‘hese acon ofthe td lessening Noy he get ver "tesutes cee its ower dont abe in wel me a eo Merth wel cole Hove th cing pi the sg my eet eet Inthe weld beetle the sre Ale wae seven! ates of ele te made tach die wed tek, ang at ae eh ‘Seconive pas sold be rnved. Th to-emorl fsa afer eath pase tore roe fala incur and hece alent cae tol ake nach Crake te. 615001 ct erin th foo trek ith el et Theyre fo era sess in he wed and may te itr login or rasver he ine of ‘ld Crary end fo te weld el ry penetra ‘Sehe mel inthe HAZ oh wed Cake ens har we dels, ‘eginto sajna ennety be contents peo f parca silo, nd hype) Het cae cn be pease ty mora eg lover soning. Cll acs wich ner ner sn emp on pr ‘st der the wid in th ote ts ow og cece slong ih eee eg eg yr pay a ae Seton ta). Lemetar tearng Lame tearing s 2 ype of ening (bie act) tha cas in the tae ‘al bnew Gee Pi 120) Lmelrteing mtd y cme «eho kee sin he be tal olla tees siin © etn tig also eating poner thei lng erton yt a gw a ver es Gombe we psd on hic pis of ata nr tern. sat fe fou of loner acing Revie xt jas ae ot eae mele ng Fnge ste ele oti sun Mg pode ‘Samu creasing te psy of mer ering nhs anges. The Jen of ipdngn nner he arity of ele Greve wes Tey experince mel ang Lamar eng can berets y aig (2 ang pe motel withigroed nh ices prope (GUESS Si tenes tence sng Go Fe 12) (5 in ow sven sow droge weling cosas (GPreteang otc te Sony fel ering (9 ings od of sing ih il mh ice 6.4.8 Wong Qualty Conta Shuang, and ter weg (Bode 1960) (@ Propereued ne 1B) per rot cpg (Proper et ee (@) Prope aligmest (6) Chahine ote ont (o) Propertype en ie of lecrode (0) Prope welding eentd plaiy (@) Prope nk wel (@) Gros aso (©) Proper linc enpetre (0 Proper seein fates Proper tel pend {8 Aeon een {i Inverical weleg sh oferer {) Stahrsncemet on poe wok ( Flotomter 2, Coc er leg (Absence of excessive dere (0 Padres (G St enforcameten gore wal (@ Pulses et wa (© Ate of ck sens qa wel, who ows the wel quaifention pose, ei bcm exon ho, Vinal spec which dees 0 mite off obser) and nn devutve ets (y beeye fo ‘mor cna) shied deri he ype nl abn owed eet (Gyr tl 1982). Any pro ues eld Be ct ed ‘lal A welding gems te edt ily heck te hei wel Te me deroctie es uray empyela faawe (©) Lig enon pectin thi or pe ect espn, nde ‘wand or say on thes fe wele I ene te oe ‘tach ofthe wl Thenavelperie gaye, whichis eye "gid sob ed (steed bore preci) wih dtetarce craks pon eons ol it, (0) Meghetpartl econ ogc pacino (ma) a indng a song tupac elle hr scon of ee fearnge ‘ti Perl where reagent eld Te sks ‘ovid ase nr ab soa poter ohn oo ech ef he cca Te lb dct ton over pk ee et ae whch pte {ete al he ig ten Wo i eb sl (© Raphi nection Riri inpcton vers shave rn ssh araysor pm eye doa te suc martes the wel When «tear f so pat ays Beane he weld sie wings porble maine hy enone ees a ff ‘Thismetiodistpeivesnd ice nonin tse Ag ilo reblerea fr oor welsh een far lt weld ie cover, le in hs cd rope sho fe taken ope te worker om atone (©) tress peti Utne si ceca dette ‘svete delete hsm ing shone nd ‘woes ae seat inthe sac of the wel snd evel waver me ‘mote bya festive This dt slay evel pastes on on nnterreng te et of ny apt roca, car snl aes sce th every offs Se decay be vy winpatat, wie ‘hey be rien apes ero requencs, Example fate defo wing Dotnet (95) pth ia of ing ie a Metoune, Avia, whic fae, wile in sro 1p 1962 Olbue'swint tbr acts es as psn ert This pe pier rp costed ofr phe ae, ping 3 and ‘palit re ede dec a Fah ite gers Donan Nagy ar mi f Meee 019 mm in, lees oe gi of ph eed yn es en 200% 19 inf 4% 1 ne Te oe BZ rem rd a pelasome 3 i Fa 61 tas agn gp et Sooner ey ‘The longi wel comecng te ever pits me mde th ha 10 mm terse welt he eth, Ty ped colt ett sat ‘oaracton, she the tare wes wat ae ely ose rsa lating Tse tres we wee mein ace pss ose nce ‘he enced tea age pat yh etn were sorted apy 2 ‘vege is Ithr ene he enh cud by een wre covered op ‘ithpriming pin The pecan pon nto he crc showed te fa the cack ps tg th fl nsf he ag ren re he es Ieee Inthe pn aed rake xt in i ang pts seveoftheepttanvese lt weir The matte nes nes ‘rats were rept ad by testo who soweve pied ser es Sil oni rks Al he wren cna dened ino copie ange Sue, pay by rite oct nd uty by gs snes ld at at wel winded oft ge 6.5 Types of Joints ‘eye of eld i doped on eon fo (Team shpe oc ments come a ht {© Te ee oaie {9 Rewrawaitce mine in Tete peste home deaf ie weg fost sch fi rzon ver nl oval lon ot Fist (bane © Lapse © Teer (8 Comet jin (©) Bigepane "Taine isco iy a he towing sti. 48 Doe Secret luermt same Besse Ir IMA Oe DP TDY) Wan Q Fo se wld crs. may bomadein ft wel peons 6.5.1 But dents ‘et ec a jin of a pts tye ik, Th ype ce ecmy dp cago) ‘i tid fo sl pen pe a cy G5 seville srg wep) hometancen, {wie wlan wnt ate peo ne fr st eres peg oe SET eieieceenpeenl shin Sc si oon sd eal pes Sey ae ‘rene stig) dl erste nes teste meses pvt ene cet opt aera tect e nora Saleen ote Renirenat tmmaty pened “radar pictenchoapetna nt a ae a ow foc chy soot Hones, eee of aes ce Sets neat ete escola as ‘ee ua ho ems eae ety ing hr win isl iin 0769 ola Sees Sinan fn tr hoe et ee rj te wir rtp sels mst ahora wt mae ems ae {Rete Fee We areas ames tar ats ‘ymca heeded rantcoeats — an aS ain © "But weld of unequal tenes andr necual width tl sal be ul 65.2 tap nts iS oa We « ” o ae wf Seed 7 A weston ) Sem gcon a : 70. 6.20 Gio seve ve or ae “i eH xa tt mo tan ag 54 Comer Joints mt Sls oie A on wih ay ‘So ran i tl es pr (Melted Conmections 463 (6.85 Edge loots dg joint ot td In staging apts They ae ado ‘nce ome pnts inex e Fig 1). Slee hte eel vito alot ofthe five bet sin te desir may nse theta rconbrsons of eon ae ‘ilieldan etm nd efit if parang {8.6 Cont! of Shrinkage and Distortion ‘The motes wel bnd ht ns bece pes suo conan wi solifing stars conas bot slog ad tetris Tis ebdany foo iad nel esi stesso Fp 2), oscar cans esoaanbt tes sling we tse stg ere. When ent sro es tn fly (wehan he ce a pnt oes cron se Fie 623, St Neamt schol aneuwe ‘Seen ‘Rg. 825 Distortion ue oweiing owt et 18) TOT 466. Daigef Se rete ten esac ces paso be dee ‘eae anon ‘hep Te pil dren av ia pes ncn ‘son st sty pac we ten oem i a ign tog vito ny at Owes eel) “hen hee a slo a pine eo steven 624 Th essen war ene eet Se Honey Ha) Soca Bae emma © ‘a Fa 624Wldng dion as cana) neta ton ue fltwel: proatingocnmnttaroniearped are {2 rea an ome acai sang somes (0) Rez shia Give neti he flowing ; + Genie woke or goo elite ranean eter at sect atone we Use enya ew per to comp the wed ree lr eptono ng + DezsktieweAlmetin ihe deco pitta te progr well tej (©) Alo thik ts et iow, “Seva ce aati ‘Beeson he pone ica. Avon cep the pe own in Fie 6240 wes try pcrangrby sei me bl te dees harap nh end ate + Use eal of pecs in 40, Mele omens 67 (© ace sikage feb nope the flowing . ‘+ Use symmety is wctng (on shown i Fig 6240) fr gove wey, lt wos en acs fa ee cont fe omencng gs in 35, 9 ° pot eon a. 6.28 Syrnty f wlseatomnine teton + Uae svt nlite wel seen. As sown a Fig, 6.26, nly htt els yb cela age aon sd ‘heh ean ports ay be id. For many cs ha Pe rd, hi ind ce is ep at cot pea of ede pc sate inet th heen lt he ‘ope and thn he reining psoas ia aS a Fa. 6.20 Suenos for rtm wots, Use pening stringy ass fos gaara) «+ Unechinpsjias ce Yushe wel tl seh se npn neti may bed esate telat hinon 190) 6.7 Weld Symbols ‘The snc wold bose nda dirt ype of ws ae shown ‘Fig 627 Symbolsaw alco space dns ne cae tacos LVI x AE S| /e] of | Vix Ty fe Fe 627 Biome locaton and details ofthe weld are th hoz li ‘een che chp SG Coc atnenmanie tals ea om eR sh al el Sc cans sate detec pam ecey atl town tg 62) oot anon on hers bt {evel on teow ved Toe conn ssn race mega oa | jee sa A a. 8.8 Convention to show loco and det ofa wet the fon hrm ne. Tseng and ich fhe weld (inti Tee ttm welapetol See ona we shown win te Tea aig of te ein nig 628. The we of sue of thee yl ining, 628. ar @ ‘rg: 6.29 Murat of sao ta meng sys ‘6.8 Weld Speecations “Thicker esi a stot eligi el asl TH Dn tr ct st nyt Tn ek pate a aan cng eca quence eh of se, Po it oun tpi ism and mann welds oie tion ae bv et an th lcd ear rw een he ing ize of wel Foe ec poten ll wine th oh of pecan nye ot 24 Serie eld nko smo ei ples 24m, Fe ies a ornate oer wht he ph ef penetra ay Fe ey mens 24 he ie my se ssn nea tees tn i sbjet be aenen toon pach sd entice 0208) {6.81 Miner Wel Sze “awn fo, nize drink ei of meng 8 800 Fa ue fra mina sin wel ted on he ck of i 21st ned Toe offi we int be a hn 3 men so ore Fee elma ofthe her pains. he minima io be it an Jan shone or rT 3, Ul th wel coe cea ipo, Lrg se wel req ee ha oe a a pet fecha nd cening of ie wedi St yi wil ene cnt of weight ssid oer ibe ezaer tian «Inger oo foe Se sae tenth aoe Nome we Por mpl 30 ng om Wi 170 Def Sass {he 63 nina 8 an i nl 1.8 =e ene See rbtampime 2 Bovis) Sr 0 ‘theese a 2 Wie ert as Sm i cs eng vee ne engi (1983 4N) compara 8 SOc 1-0 ies wal weve ie vole of nat weld (300 ra) tie hi ofS ele Gro am), (6.8.2 Maximum Filet Weld Siz Along Edges ‘Toe maim sie let weld sed along th psig ote iio tent te ning fhe mati he ation ee lt would thecoms oft ph it area hl a eee “ho:mmini permite sea flons, (Alogi eg ft pl es sm hk he iia tote cn tthe pla oe Fi 620, Sa" "oitine Fl, 620i: of thos a lt wld api lrg th de tala (0) Wher the et wl apie ote square ee of lof hikes eter thn 6, iz fe eld hol be te 1S es tan ge ices [ne Fig. 6310) Ti nt apes ach nh serum be lp wiht werting th ec ee, Fa: 631 St fit lee (©) Woe te ie wei Leos 6310) End let wed orale. he dha ier oe wl Meet omc a4 Sele the rsa her sect, he ‘scott weld shouldnt xed uo etinns ofthe ction th tes ton of fe owl fe of weg ie with ae tn, whe tse ches Pe €32 End iat woidremalio deen ctoce 6.8. Minimum Efeeive Leng of Flt Wa ‘Who ing lt wl, nh he weirs bi pth wel it oes om te beggars se sc ud hee itende The sid ised oF 630} ete se petngl where weld asa inion eg of oe thes regen ie ‘weld shouldbe ne at ofthe eee ee the above rss, he ft gt akan ima wie th sof wld Ener howe es steeoettn 00m igo teinoluewhicheodto improv te ribaion of ses pe. Figwe 35. Ce ah tos fil wes ned sve the weld ‘awh ao son-nii ig. 38 typca are itn nao wth tans et ws. 6.84 Oven “he over of ps be lt wold a ool sol 0B ess hn 4 ime fishes of Be ner fF 6330) 1.0.5 Ect Length of Groove Welds “heeft eg of ove welts tke leigh of soins TRRSRE Surtees flour tines tes of te wed ‘8.06 Efectve Lent of termite Wels “Teint ie ele sald Rave an eve leh ot es tan foe cama wine miimas 40 ms ren eho i Fi 6330). recite acing nee ete ng of ierteat well shoul ot aan ev eckson pes fr compreson md ‘2S en Jolt rerestvty, a honk never be more han 200 mi The on ls nit joe onl tae tev gt fot Freee te wal sean he gin pce tween he tle [cane fete! wes stb oe tree no Th cod poss thes often wes inns bjt damm, epi, an aerate ste 6.7 Etootve Area of Plug Ws itive ae of eg wel soul eke a te wri of bol he arate 1 cae pnts ty he ot be ied sy any tee 9 Etestive Area of Wilds “Teele are of oo file welds te prod of he tev Sot Toe ee ity he eve eh fhe weld. T ei ho ae ee weld 8 ie wed pends on he nn oF Se reas explacd ne nex ton. {4 Daigle 6.91 Grove Wa ‘Teeter thst of compe pentain pre wee ken a the ets ofthe tier ut jo oe Fp 360) an (Th fine {toa het Of = Ln ae eno te hike he ting os. Renfro (Fig) eich provi oem leo seconel ne, ia csr spr ofthe este oat hk carp tne ‘v0 ig. 638 .etve heal neni for ror wale ‘The efecive io hice ofp pecan jit weld i kena he nia hee of he weld atl canon the pte ine, eng ‘entuceoent ie Fg 66) ancled single poe le oF and eve pra re wo sl om nscale knoll edt eat ee tne oft timet atone However epee eres cae te eect hot cts 8° it he ia ‘nee hy should eed (S816: 1969) The wee en nape Detain Wes, yl fm bth sks lot bef 035 et ‘hehehe fh hiner pe jie, nl sole ara the dp of te wid ig (0). arcs an dod five hon theo 5° fie she hime sb oy bse mb eleatone Grove ‘els sod bt ji, weet pene thn ene pid atone ‘hetoron stoi sold be costs nandead crying pons feign eats, 9.2 Flt wets ‘Tre eeive thot reson of let wld ite ore dts thet fetes of he wld an town n Fig 9.37, The ete rat sk 0 Meet Comestions 8 « Fa 637 Eee thot mentions or wo sericea Ecce aeeweemgnaic oat [Preiead it wels ued when th era ing of i ek ee ice ety gam stout contr over nee ered epson nge thickness a the ester ege of the chanoel. Addition ay shy eet he frie of eit Howmet iret aie sae ee ine te aaaatigae aco ss encom ‘SCingtena temas rors Poa ” ‘la 6.28 Etecive thant hichness for ius fit wol profes Melted Comwctions 477 6.8.3 Concave an Gomes lt wel xi (fora Bam ce nh claire deco 2 pes de ne lt wl sawn ed Peete teen ; seemed aye” [reticent en ee ss a oe a Hf in re ha fe eh odie hn econ one ei ee | ve hana i ‘stoma or ae insult rn eo tells seg et trove: He tae et Steps inmates ‘i cin nS a ewe ig ae : selene etn oe Enda = 511 Ht Coma wots ose Se tt cma 8 a. 640 Conese anscone wis cen ceil td cn fl wld ty hong et talcum esi Howere on pace a cote ih hae en eye a hand ts ter ig ee i Nat a athe mires etic a nt th pt ran ee at ca ie thn as tte (hte ea ene fish i he lg Peaaby i ced ps ds tween fon fice oe Fs 639) atpheonin noon * at t= bat porto sewn en aces cena 8 rage Sel Sete, rnp lt we he convex ea stage slaps ly 1 te ‘ial Hess whence rele dese or epsal deh conser, Fees toy shad ede moe perth ist igh 00 ‘Sine recon bl po orm coca i we ode 1960) Sere tes et wel ao deel oid mal exp teste nope tweed tha te plies nove sh [ie wsds,Tlsredces bene essa we These HY ‘vba flor Beet 196) (a) sing spree de fst cl wit ri ho ut he we in (oy Nuetneanrogh tae et ebgo—e xl psf ect te key pies jr yen gnc ou se wel sks eee he pire a we 6.04 Long Jots ttt mein nt fie wad cede 150 whe the dt of eae eens apr sae 10'7- of codc as tempo he ‘Sisined seg 6.10 Design of Wolds “he tlowing ssi evn made inthe maf welded ins. 1D) ewes contin eas ara boropets ope an ela, (8) They como the ware ripd en er defrmaton i those, sels (oy iy suc det exer et re come. Te et of esi Stowe, ress oer nth tape fhe el ae eee {6103 Groove Welds apes 00:20, gooe wens wi eee pu at See ience eal ton ss on he ees i ot xe ‘ev pil ie prt ment (5 Pate rete moma bec a an son ad com eos pale ao wed Tae" hletne we Th eg ego ewe nisin, te vali of le eel a tut men nh ee ‘Maus tu ede ecto 91) mt fie imate meat pt my orien 125 pwctng andar rae aig ( Forbearonctoive we Yop del) 2) er en go he wed in eer ier Yeon ae all Comestons 8 Aue cata ca of cnet pion gore ell in sn, chp ost ra tag fan epee, Scrat hth com tet og ‘eantaon gore mdb ane se et nie Sel ghee nhc wchr gs newlines erp one sgh a comottor be Siac rope nen onder (610.2 Filet Walls ‘est atin tena ey cong Ara Staci arnt uf ase ey ‘ls al aes ee ron tenses ee, Tite hs iy cee hips ae ‘Seon vel ni omer ache it a coms eons ie 2 tlh nd nt thn soe rn as ‘ranafra logit seat F nd tanec frees of shat, dV ‘pus Temenos td a ey ‘be expressed in terms of forces us (Trabair etal. 2001) m “ties Monae as es ‘la gone. Yona 1389 Fi 6.42 Fresnel wld it raha In ition tse a ni well ing om ine wl wig fo bing ec hl. ted eon one gtr wi lng oa Sos eeedy comet fos we ned ae We woes ‘gt nt cen ‘Ths, wal pat ane ht he ae ong weit crite by th ge hx steer an lone a hte vee ‘seg te weld eschew Ovens & Ca 198) hac ND whe fw he tte est of he Wel as been fu at he ner roves Beton Lf and 3.0 However itn dade oad tales 17-30, deseo conse sinsiy with en Mice lchenen tag ‘Ssion 2.10) eet aboe femur eine tte ae ‘not ont fling) The itor is fet of eae ntl well mt seth I he ses seg sated othe pr lenges lovee sme sent lowe coal be te vale of ft Tiss case arene Yel nil ug oe pron ta staph ins ists oe ‘neta sent Typical vle fre (Overs & Chel 190) B07 foc) os) R08 fa 20 [cal rece toc etons be proved vue ras van ‘Econee996 mkv 197), Acne Sig ting eoceben eties i pment (1959), (618 Aplcan of Aahosies Nonna tel mens once wih te sp ofa nthe pty ie) rm Ades ow sng wean ara Dts was, nt wenden ten nextel a tolack owl sot ‘enshnim deg elation ol longer este rth weng ‘fib skin srt weve te Gy sone ries re Bl ih ie oss wit em tos be owes Sect wat te kaiedge of enti of xen, be consttion ad design of ee ‘ridges wore aed on expect Ther edges ae sll peorming wel ‘Suing ging erie env (ohn He 200, ‘Theqaatyottee sie fas tenement ray of bess Swe teen eee “Tm athsveteiigeis poste unig of hn, Te alvecsie neces fees en aes rrp sae’. 68, ‘ons ott testes ar xa d tates, he thee eon {The ro fe oder eth herve casas of ode et sto he Intra feces ue exceeded), anv ack (ew epration of ‘nao ombraton of ota Thess a show ng Frere Some of hades of dessins ae tos (0) nadie conectns here nf ton foes ect ecg pet hwn in Fig. 648 (abn 1997, wha he tos iuitton dco welding petty of wel pray he [lan aie vel) sds ottolhte eeinets cnt led or ved comectone a Fig 689). Fo, 609s dstuton filer pestis (Te prs of ae conection wheres so Titncete ha ss tera nc eel wn abe aati vis danger lone he sv jos ve th aowing drawbacks. (© Aen ots rege ho peprtin 0 ing aes nd Nol ei tine rhe cing of hensive sie eaten sng. (Adie ae aff by high enpenres (200%), (© Theatenghand etn chasersis of efoning pad ext teh hth adhe sen " ‘Sie geome . os e Fa. 6.00 Sotto ue Sieg-V ove wed thie, Sap he neo entangle ote ie ese 15893851273 civ eat of me ‘e150 mm Se Lf 78 80x05 a0 Hence the jot is mot safe, SSSR cue ay In he te of donb V grove wl compli ection aes place” “Theat coat hiss of hepato 12 mon te ‘Sng of wad 12x 150% G30" 21000 SaaS 8018 ac, jolt ite Example 6.24 wabof plate in comin 1006s plate of rai Po dando be prove th ape aa sein wheter shared ‘ening ment bred te wre Y= 1001 and A= 9501 he fone plate cass = 2325 ~ 50mm ich Detgnaweh pce ‘Seton 7 Sree we ple 100% 16, 4=1000mm = 16m ‘Ovni deh e t "h= 100» 50+ 50= 110 an Fates es r= 100086 Ftd moment Me 30 ‘Siw tia web aa doable V grove wl cob ed ‘ei ster he weld nie Iona Shorea oft we fen tox 23045 1.29) ‘Leng of eld eu rest shar Y= 190% (01867 = $41.3. <= 1000 Design ending gh ofthe Woh = 1.22) 02h 1.216 1006) 25001108) 1713 Wm < 3088 ‘ote Towgh te eos lets 330 MP cy te i stein te stoned ion Stace tla prope ot he wed eta realvay sso bestorger th someting fr fllpeeraon ve ‘ear are adoatly song and bee no serine eq. ‘The Abe ‘Slots hve bes hen ato stow earn ft wed jon. rangle 6.3 Pe manta fers imaleoIS46SX6S ond abit {ae faced rosin lado 90 Ta nth of he angle nor nou = foment gone ned Sotatioe Provide single goove weld {2s fs Scar “The ctv ic ick = $= 8 6-35 mm Prince gt fag ber welding 55 #55 = ‘Sheng of i weld = 2.75 10> 0 2571000 =onsin san ‘rcrofe angle = 744s Design stent meme = 784 20.4 = 198m <0 The tht it naman dn {coved det tao fo hema eg eeseang Seni teeth eco se Exanle 64 Damier divas of He oy) hid mt ong SMA ond) mye a ang ‘a Seton {Ui SAW poses "ec oo ete sts 07% 10-7 ie SAW pce (Gag Sh pce swine uta t fterpon an SAW pose Ths, uioe24- 124m i ties, 1 e007 24-868 an i xa Deore deg sent of om fle wren, 1) SMA ond) SA aang B51 se, Pe tim ed aap ele Salon eho ti in sample 64 we et (ing SA pce R= Ung TAIOEYLAS © 125 Win (0) Ung SA pee y= Be1013)125~ 160 Nn , st sett he wel paced by igh SAW pos itn 1.25 scotia irae xan 6. Dass acmnton jit plat 23012 ‘Fela onli fl pa oe eg sg pe we FO oe ‘tra ado at ed Sonion {9 Comet ina jin Wiel Comctons 23 Perea =n 250250» 19,10 100) = 8.822 Sit ewe inom 62) Maino 313 103 we 05:8 of 90) ‘woh min it ete ec ei othe wel a meni cen te hgh te ccs Stent fthe wl = [V3 «1.2902 ae <4 129)x0708 Sipen78= 18 wien ete gh of wl 61.42% 10010586 ma 8 an ‘Adin whinge a sown iS, fells tens Some texas wad mom ie= (6130/2 =250 nn (@ Comecion a bet ERE ier ie 29021520 < 180078 es icingsam tice pat ds of cove plate = 2058 160 wa? Reged afc pe= 108 20% 1 «575 <0 mn? Sesh es d= 1890.5. = 66. Nn Regie leh oll 12 toa Seals, oom Leng ef he coma = (1090-2 230) SN © eta ptcecon ut ied Hence rv tw velo is 0D 220 mum ni. 876, rama 87 Det he san eh of he fet wl fr eet {nn ft at of 120 anon i a sa et ‘ioe nd coe Asse dh pa Sotto Mian si of weld fran ticket = pa Metin sie of wells 1365s howto wlan Bitve ot iho 07 26 42 mm Seng of weld 2425 413 15) 657 Nom ‘Assing ht here a aly gs eh, equi of weld = 20106627 Leno be rove an ach ie = 182 = 505 > 78am Hess provid 90.50 we mac sd ih en rca 6 1 ‘ocelot cal ng ofthe wed poe = SxS eee ae be Esai 6.8 Rework ioe? wig 3 ee ‘Sottion Bective that ck = 0.73221 ae Fa. 60 Sen of wed. 610. 15331 Nan epee wc tos iia Sian “Two pombe nba aon in i. 69. Faso (Sennen wei re poe, Lest of ach ae welt =3637 813 “To eigen eck ie eling ed ren ~ 16154233 = 1S (wets oid on hs ies. Length fac sid weld = (43-7572 = ten > 7. with ofthe pt) “Thesnon at shown nig. 6390) tere se ititore cna, edue ‘he oval engi fhe comet, prove baer aes dso rari 6.04 ena ofa cog fh angle sein [465.656 sf Fe gra sled on set late. Deig a wel aro a patel reg ofthe manor un ho welding, ee 688, SSE breve arm a-0a0 ‘roi hanibook no 8 308 propre of SA 65 6 a rere oe ‘Tene apc fhe ber = 744 201.1 = 160.188 “The fe este wed le wer sd of eangie Pio HA (65 DS = 32201 AN Pc sty te upside the pe Py 161 x IBIS = 47090 ‘Assuing eds of 30) ‘oie at ln fhe weld 0742.8 am ab 96 Dron Set races Seng th wold =28 stot 1.25) = 590 Ne y= 201175102301 Hence, ove 30. + (2x02 = 246 ay ey 247 manent hbo T=4009 1051 = 888 Provide 88 +2492 = 1045 st 108m ental ep. "The ec sear hos bon checked ae found ht he ike of st pte fst (ee Exp 610 fr the knoe noe te Blok ear cae) Example 610 Desgn ao ack the stun ge i zal {Poet ne ie side ofteegla shown Fi 691 a 1 aa Facot Solin Sangh fm we 24410405 1.29) 590.Nem ya Si 69000 = 3445 KN Py Tod P= 169.1 15534402 10479 ty, = 206 1000590 = 69 7565 ‘Toy 10793 1005201977 may 98 Toa hf wed = 0 654 198 3195 nm heck for oc sear ae Since th member rll the ast pio net ares vale Ine Aya Ain tation rT Seba A he ole) sod Ye y= S6Smevand Sm athena ede a 1809832}250605 1.) +09 4108 68 2)1000, 30240 Tag (09 410982 1.25) 4 2508 ES 17100 Ty" S82KN > 16.14N eas te hike of eet pl i goa ot ot ot tr latin ree a serra of pt slog te he ne us fap ofc ce 198 mine ool eng _ Examen asda fle wld cna lat tc an the as pla the on eee cap ag, ndcover plat ofthe dnnsions 00x Ion end 794 Poot ea "Te main aoe sheer forceV= 8001N hum hp eng Sotto Greco f wand ane pe Mima se of wld = 101.5 «8a Ape sl ad Scat Hh lB) 107x642 Mis x.s00 9) 756260061648) coaxglsteasenie faa $300 16 x SOR} + 10% 1000 12 “ slineibae oe 0310 12 1S 109 x 1x84) = 7694 Nie? < 10405 13) 199 Na? enc, wal it . Geto elope cover poe Adomagomfilsveld : neko = min é o Estxaaesanm “Ar 2 BPs xi2 (500+ 16 6)= 17226 8 ‘Se 0x 10 x I7226:c10HS 09 086) Nan! 189 Ni? penal cae oe ‘ rae 612 Demi te erie io peri othe comet ho by Pe 693, dsnme fl eng Fe tse Feoa Sean “heen eng porn apy a let wl Ren uih ne) "07 1041083 1$)= 106 iam Seeethprovie byte it wei 120 owono Seri ‘he design nest fgg wuld of dtr 30s 1 wx FM 410605183 1000)= 455588 sgn stat bse on the weil 15248» 11.38 244.03 N ‘Tense capi ofthe ple SpA 250 (12 {09 100) = 272.748 244.04 Seve lad xmyng copy zune sr Theos Ta 2Mouts= 162.6 Example 8.9 IS 250 1 wed rami faced oc of 700 BN, The lane! sence ta ure plate 0a hot Fl 94 Design filet a the vera inte 20 on. Ut wef es an ‘Ppa 1 2500 "ra me Citiee Cee eae ca segs 12-15-57 Seesaw Mamecares tse seep tenn 383 ct0C/5 13) = 552m i 2s as mn 0 aa toetatenteprvsilebechna ecgasoc em oe cunts nose ‘Rn eg tea mi Ince sm e350 6 ta nde tkisone oni en i et i ra egn set t coectnets o ar ofa IN mig pt Sissi cnt ncn . Santee a Ti a ange MB 300 TAI lms eee ee toe sims pamminiaa| See ete 140. 140+ 2% 10 = 160 mn, iit 80, aay Sa sree 2 Leng fang regu he on ie oft eam, B= Btu = 0 oan 7» 2807.1) ent oben ont by=b- 1) ~ =t8- (1-149) Assume cence ~ Si, ee =n ere Remind eof ong angle 57.15 #10 6215 Diss the of Beng lt he oi hag (ig glee 100% 75 wih = Tor be e-Ueend =3005 10 (10+ 1)~2905 ‘Asus stitmly dist ead overt eigen Maer ota ‘tl eto, ‘Mg 1tn.0890.5 «29052 ~ 6 ey Mme iy ft the ne 51.2% SUL.) 150% 16) 109727 Nm > 668 Nn Sse of a Mana Weld sin 12—15~108 on Song ofthe Sm weld = (507) 4106/7 18) $9 Nam ent afte well persis 100% 12 52 =. Tate gh ofthe wel prac ~905 #2 5~ 100.5 my Hmm. sea cipal fave 05606 witha 3 am nl. Tho coat deta ae stn Pg 635, lowell Ran Rae Ea EDT 7 Me 00210 foo as RATT =5506 Nm Seo 2 > 506 ‘earl 615 Pion he mai nd told beste yh bac dom Pe: 6% sig hep tna ea ‘Gam shop filet welds are wed. * . Seen Fal tal 17 30 rms cn ae Deere tran a “ihn sow Hota «38 Thareitmat eran Iba eax sat) 4b minaiobeet Thendopen Apne cana ectiing baat cei NRE Ub ire IGP 8s dyin a4 ay TGx180)s6ns0. say Sieecees Cot ec el pg wo a wey : STI T= 150-0ts- ohn ; of RFR atari me ; 308i Ste eth re ert eg ae es FUP satan, ! 1 piles armensin tay einse, omit ae Wan cess on, f Poms tbe wpa gate ‘Hoes Sm fem 7 on © fore b 4 ape Sot sree Paar moma of nis a0 i ePID HH08 rd) Saas 0320+ shy 12 2504800 sisaaxihat Cones of ert wad point too) 17 150 m2 = 25078251775 "AP = BB x28 25> 18090909 1 [BF ih (P2125 TAT} 1A) =2.28610 ai Fy [0.35910 422861057 985 OFF? For wld ops host For race Fe 0 sel A106 1.29) 137 Ne? te give te oc ad npc thoes. Raa oT ane Iho 26.2 na = DS Evanpia 818 Dermine the length of let wel repre o coy the loud ca by Pg 599, tsuneo Bm sop el A [20 .6.00 Factor oad = 155 17526252 Rogie gh oti wld 2, = MTRay Deen ang e wed ~jug= 04/5 125119? ue 189078 10884 Nn 8-262. 10» 2650 per nso wed Le OTERO 953.0 ‘Arde oy as bse el si te sh ft ao ty 1230s Neon te a tun, 8 uo dt see a sw0y 000748) Sse dein ng ‘A M225 190 10 142 00 2)¥078) ‘Resultant stress ~ f(78.125)* + 15625%) = PASS Nn < 189 Nn? ee wih go 20 me al ibe nye eed amo 618 Doe este of elf econ soe Pi & 0 ‘Aun te eng Tee cred one ond factored beading moment of 25 kN. “ae eeeef se aan Fe. 6100 5m Jen 2x tawny +9 le e228 2 fo the extreme fe = 18.7» 1 one: Dress" inao-sapragea 2 7258, eset resi alate Vesta suen = (0318? + 0.205%) $= 0.378 KNaum . Wilson a37 Osagd : - re echo a 8) 07) 3:8 a? gg ieee oc yy Mi hicks 5mm F faim thickens = 8.9 — 1.5 7. em ee ‘ec Snm twee fret titel tiga fu at an eccentricity of 80 mm from oles ange Dg ‘etl wat anton et eae ite Tso) ‘ 1 Paesor Seton ‘Astin ot grew ° ie tna wee es | Dip ite fon Eyes) } a ati, eet strstr 5 80 10150 x 10) " en “inating Wied Comins 87 aver +3335) = 1945 Nia aeons £29011 = 227 Nn? Hate ot sae Exo 6.21 Desig ifne et eng for eso of 202 rom Boa of [91100 Ths beh Be cored cle of 1S 00 aso [Pei grad sta hap weg. Sotition ‘roo rape 15 of Ctr 5, 1 Leatot tering eed 18 8 ov sles of 10mm (tag lone. Routed wh fag pate = 10610 116mm ‘With ange of ber 14 ‘rsa of en Mage = 16m - ‘Adopts eat ie ofa 20160 ms ish 16. Thicket of | ting pat tld sol or rt an ilnes of wba 89 Provides 12m ek sien late. its fede Bom he ur ig oft et le “Shia 1062 6m ene, "Bondng more’ = 250.67 = 16750 Nan ‘rueverin vam old et uke he peat 1 80, rrr ‘hee, Fi 718912 = 226i mm ‘Att sty 20 vom Taking moment or th oto of st te Corotae wed gop Fr @x20 10 +OM2H20¢ (160-129) 823.m0 Feet -23-1977 am Aang val ins, othe weld = (160-12) 82324 2322012)» 2220 (157.7 1103] Siete ‘etl abe = 250 10 220 +18) hiors= 192560 . “of = 835 Provide a Wi? 98 async Sess Aso ovis ois of pce ie 7575 X6me dsomesby ‘am et wall esbown ny 6108 fay cae) a. 6102 amo 6.22125 1758 wl hte gf shan Seton scotia na omn inh ios det con ti Pe tigre a qf Aare a. 0108 a SHB 50 Fg it 300-250 man Pre wing te ol ei ae ohh ac act ‘They weld tent eto wl tn compen aon Meo Cottons 59) ‘either. roide20 a eth af welt op ad ttn ‘and denting a elie fot hake Stang oft wald= 0.741065 15) IO ‘Sit xen Ie eth of weld = 75000025280 1508 Fein an igh of wal oo Denton ae 08.000%399028 250 "912 Renato ce 55 F9135) 11560 Ths, Moses 1956 19 ens, wel sie 0 sel eroded, mole 629 Dero «mle online connor «YB 400 rade Fe {helo cara ration of 1201 ofc eas Moar ‘ede made the age of 8H 36 ‘Soto Por 40 y= 160 4 6 es, = 4 or 300, y'=250 Bale connection cetunn Fee Ma0 gr 6 bls ands 6m ken pas, Ses cpus oft tli cng hte (to 853) =453 ky Boxing acy ofthe bl on men th nds = 2520x6x400125 “9640 Rested eo ts Peto Bd pte e840 6m pt, 250 am dep, 80. Desig fel Sous ‘Lent of fl wad onestig he ce to te eam we 250-Te~tezabamoneahde Seton weld = 120410023200 = 272 sea Gam ile we Seg fh weld = 60.7 4100015) 662 Nh 272i ‘ere he comets Example 6.24 Dis te core cone bte and a ba bok oving SHB 400 ae vith 0. Theat nomen en sarge ‘i couecton ae 70 on 01 ec Seaton Kee roy ISM 0 = 0m. ~ 10m A mh! ‘Thermgaied we Bikes ten tana 193200 1'(400%400%250)=9 iam > 89m ence, vite dng tines Aer UhiMGex0 M4) ~ 140.1 9, 1.20.0. 00» 400-259 9 iy) mst ae odio ihe a? hse 56mm pas, c= 30 mi (rea “1? Alombicits94aaul asia caty ase he chon ei allow at, rations AC an BD provide 1 Em pike ech i en (ie itso se wessh fea dgay A care and fr AC wo a im (i640 <94 ‘Hees he i chosen willow in, ete (0 Cat ng ttn Sangean al pest grove well deveop "fe fil eh fe cls anges (© Column wots grits ema tcl ager i al the orth web astm cary ne es ‘Stengh fold ofp ate I man 0.7 xl hat = 104 Nise Arable wed gt = 2400-2186 1} 0 equal sae =450 104680» 104) 309) Hane, ries mm wo (© Sif: The incre sae by en fil penton pve wold tC an ae town nig 18, a eee re ap NIN. Se 9-608 sin amannsivviren [Spain eens, seer ae nanceten aN an cease vm Taner ie oo zm igeegemarnee are acth n Sect rene ee Se these hor tee oar Seaman aoe tetera Saruunapaae Tanta tates Be crt tia ey marine ese vor etna Sorina _. oer nine ie 1 ‘ear cnn rt ‘does ee 160. Dvn Sree ‘Length ane er welig = 241 = £2) eget w= 25.75 11104) 2.84 ovis Sam weld ‘he25.75 EN ee fom it do iene AD no en yeas filet es Toe ponte nh abi wing Sc te ves eal se el. Roque ag of weld = 2575831104) ~S2 Use itesitet weld wit init wi eth 4 mo cane ‘et ping of 100m owe ni 305 ‘sarge 625 Desa wend moment comet been a IB 00 hich ‘moni on ed eto of 5001 fared) ado fae ond nant of 1504 on he flnge of ca f SHB 200 shown F106 famane sealers Fel Eh — te Fo ete Comets 53 Seton Baa S500 oe" 102 ody, fy" 760d fg" 106 Higgs to =215mm stew = 3088 gees T= y= 130> 101500» 3004 ie et wad fe 8, Rage of th pee =200% 102230 4) = 1920? Maina wif he pie 180-8 18 ea ‘hehe fhe pat 52048892, 10 Use tp anton pl of ss [0 0s ste te wag, ‘Shon ft weld 07% 4100/3188 nn Reged eg f ho et weil"300 1K = 340 ae Lenk othe wel alg te lie = (40 130)2=98 we roid ide eg he weld =95 #25 = 1mm ay 11 mm Reged eho te = 15013 + 113~ 40 ma {heat tf a 50 1mm nd 0m ng ‘Use fil seegh ight poo wl clan wih iki sp sine 8mm. For compres the etn Sub maybe ed aang ip ‘Ben rsa 3001 gh af weld 500 18 2)» 170 on Lng eal = 063500 09 Use tre aaler 753 7538-300 ‘Used gio 20 me Sie ohn agin mon ore = 04 RT) 04 USDXTOT = 167 mn> 106m ows ine chm se a npn on ng) (9 umeioe main Boras sats rayxto%n eases (© Cone kings a n3 1 6= 568m Pee Wee |T AD = sam10x(702868) x JET x10 = 276188 © Web ring per Americ Cos) Pu 80a +3 Gait Tpc Bad =G00%76 2911+ s0TanaoK7 0.6) JRO x 102-2658 SSRIS! corse ito tons fr we yng Sau ‘ae eos i= 2978819 oft sagt ean yy 8D) 600-2974 Fes0n.) <2 ‘Sea meatball otecsean pith fe pled tt cou wee Sues Eee etal pelted enue ie eee Satheting intr eo oa tte, SS 0am? oct) r= ‘Soe Seeing to i 23 betes nt py oe tenet, Howe pa Soe mae teense acn see ‘sate foe care yee 0 a3788 (a2 ‘Sreera wd siem Sebel 07 408 150.88 Nem Searle ofweld “621212 00) 373i ng aa ‘testi dnc cone F298 3B2AN) cy ifn gud Rogue Ae = 2, Pad) a= 13) 102501) = 119 os? Local aking Be 94 ‘ow (105 ee ite wit tosst Fe 68t Yass weidsich = Seon and 00 isonet aim ce cared by einer = 400-1982 ~261.25N —— aol igen weldogs 0-9 1 on ; =a = Sertews=2oaeiWrex it i229) "4stam ‘ mee Proves em i ati 7 (Shem ew z sons