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Math 1B - Chapter 6 - Moving

in

space

We parameterized a line (1-D) by moving a point (0-D) in space and also we add up all the lines
to find the area (2-D) under a curve. So, now lets put these two operations together in one
equation.

Imagine these sets of points below. To add them up one can think of 21 vertical lines and each
vertical lines has 3 dots or one can add up 3 horizontal lines and each horizontal lines has 21
dotes. The result is the same
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU


The integration for the area

and then in the other direction,

gives you adding up in one direction first

Example Find the area between


methods (ie, single integral and double integral)

in above two

Step1: Graph the functions Step2: Chose a segment perpendicular to the axis of movement
and find its end points. If x is the variable then the segment is vertical and its end points are
so the length of the segment is
Step3: Now, integrate from a to b.
|

Step1: Graph the functions

Step2: Pick a (0-D) point with area of

in the region of interest. If the area of the point is


then, move the point in vertical
direction to find the limit of first integral and then compress the area in the same direction to
find the limit of the second integration.
Step3: Integrate the first integral and evaluated with its limit. Then use the result as the
integrant of the second integral.

Practice: Find the following areas by double integrals by


the order of integrations. (Which one is easier?)

,
In general if

first and then switch

are continuous and

region bounded by

] then the area of the

where

To generate volume (3-D), we can move an area (2-D) through the space. We start with simple
shapes (shapes with axis of symmetry or some constraint)
There will be three different approaches to find the volume of simple shapes.
1-Disc or washer Method 2-Shell or cylindrical Method 3-Cross sectional Method
And also there are three different form of area we will work on.
Form type one: When the area is within possibly two functions of x and possibly two vertical
lines.
Form type Two: When the area is within possibly two functions of y and possibly two horizontal
lines.
Form type three: When the area is some random shape that must be break down into type one

and type two.


Disc/washer Method
1- Take a segment to the axis of rotation
2- Mark the end points of the segment and find larger radius
washer. If is zero then it is a disk. (Volume of a disk
Add them up to find the volume is

3- Find the limits of integrations and evaluate the integral.


Example: Find volume of a cone with height h and radius r.

smaller radius of
)

Find equation of a line that passes though point (0.h) and (r,0) and rotate it around y-axis.
Follow the above 4 steps.
1- Horizontal segment
and (

2- Its end points are

). When the segment is rotated around the y

axis, it generates a disk with thickness of dy and area of [

3-

*(

] where

+
(

4- The limits of integration is from zero to h.

Practice: Find volume of the following shapes with the above steps.
(
(

)Sphere with radius r,

Cylinder with radius r and height h,

)Frustum with a, b as the radii and h as its height (

Ellipsoid with dimension a,b, and b, Hyperboloid of one sheet and two sheets.
Example: Find the volume for,

around the following axis.

1-Around

*(

2- Around

) +

3-Around

) +

4-Around

*(

Practice: Set up an integral to find the volume for {

+
Around

(These are all washer Method)

),

Shell/Cylinder Method
1-Take a segment // to the axis of rotation
2-Mark the end points of the segment and find radius R and height of the shell in terms of the
variable. (Volume of a shell
)
3-Add them up to find the volume is

4-Find the limits of integrations and evaluate the integral.


Example: Find volume of a cone with height h and radius r.
Find equation of a line that passes though point (0.h) and (r,0) and rotate it around y-axis.
Follow the above 4 steps.
1-Vertical segment.2-Its end points are

and

. When the segment is rotated

around the y-axis, it generates a shell with thickness of dx and area of


distance to the axis of rotation and h is the length of the segment.
3-

* (

where r is the

)+
* (

4-The limits of integration is from zero to r.

)+

Practice: Find volume of the following shapes with the above steps.
Sphere with radius r,

,Cylinder with radius r and height h,

b as the radii and h as its height

, Frustum with a,

, Ellipsoid with dimension a,b, and b

, Hyperboloid one sheet and two sheets.


Example: Find the volume for

around the following axis.

1-Around

2- Around

3-Around

4-Around

Practice: Set up an integral to find the volume for{

around
(These are all shell Method)

Volume by cross section


A solid with a circular base of radius 2 on x-y plane and its cross section perpendicular to y-axis
is an equilateral. What is its volume?
Step1: Draw the picture

Step2: Take a segment and mark the end points

Step3: Find the area according to the shape and function

Step4: Evaluate

Example: Find volume of a solid with base between


square perpendicular to x-axis.

. The cross section is

Area and Volume


In pervious course, you have found the area under a function in certain interval (a positive
function) by a Single integral.

And you have found volume (given with some symmetry) by a Single integral
(Disk or Cylindrical method) or (given some constraint) by a Single integral (Cross sectional
Method)
Today we look at double integrals to find Area and Volume. We will see that Double integrals
with two variables free constrain of symmetry for 3-D volume. But it does not improve
calculation for 2-D area.
How to use double integral to evaluate an area
Three forms of areas
i)
When is bounded by constant function on the right and left
ii)
When is bounded by constant function on the top and bottom
iii)
When is bounded by variable functions all around
For Type one

(Note the limits of second integration are constant)

For Type two


(Note the limits of second integration are constant)

For Type three


We have to break the area in two partitions of the form case one and case two, and find the
area of each then add them up.
[

Example: Find the area of a region bounded by


a) graph the functions
b) decide the form of integral
c) Evaluate

Example: Find the area of a region bounded by

How to use double integral to evaluate valume


If the height of a solid is constant function then the Volume of a solid is area of the base times
its constant height. What about if the height isnt a constant function?
We can imagine the function that represents the height is a surface defined with two variables.
(Let say these variables are x and y)
At vicinity of any point on the surface (where
and
) we can consider the
function that represents height is constant function. If the area of the region on any surface is
small enough
then the region is consider flat.
So the volume under the area

is

. And the total volume is

Example: Find the volume of the solid under


on first octant

and inside

a) Draw the solid


b) decide for the height of the solid and then what is the area of the base
c) compress the height on to the base and draw the base
d) decide on order of integration

and from part c) find the limits of integrations

d) Evaluate

( this integral is much easier in polar form)
Practice
1- Find the volume of the solid bounded by
you solve this problem without calculus?)

and three coordinate planes. (Can

2- Find the volume of the solid bounded by


planes. (Can you solve this problem without calculus?)

and three coordinate

Mass of a Lamina
i) Double integral can be used to find mass of a lamina when the density is a function

ii) Torque (force of rotation) or Moment with variable density

iii) Center of mass is ratio of Moment to total mass ( x , y )

Pappus's Theorem state that the volume of a region rotated around any axes is
where is the area of the region and d is the distance of center of mass of the
area to the axes of rotation.

Assignment for Chapter 6(Area and volume)


Group Homework
A- Find the area enclosed
1) By

, x-axis and x 1 in two different methods


, x-axis and x 1 .

2) By
3) Above line
4) By
5) Between

and inside circle


and

Where

two different methods


.

6) Under the curve

(Graph the function)

7) Between

and y axis in the interval

8) Under the function


9) Between

in two methods.

within the interval


|

and

| where

in interval 0 x 3

10) Under the


11) By

, x-axis and

. By

and

B- Find volume
1- Of an equilateral tetrahedron with side S.
2- Of a solid generated by rotate

around x-axis from zero to

3- Of a donut with inner radius

and outer radius

4- Of a hollow cylinder radius

meter.

and outer radius

5- Of a solid that is bounded by plane z = 4 and


6- Generated by rotating

around

7- Generated by rotating the area between

;
and

Where
8- Of a sphere with radius R
9- Of a cone with base radius = r and height = h.
10- Of a hollow cylinder with inner radius = r and outer radius = R.
11- Of a sphere with radius = R that a hole with radius r is cut out from it.
12- Of a frustum with radius

and

unit.

around y axis.

C- Find the work done on an object by a force


1-

from

D- Find the momentum on a particle by a force


1-

from

from

2-

from

E- Find the position of a particle with


and with
2-

and

and
and with ( )

3-

and ( )

F- Find mass
1- Of a region bounded

and x, y coordinate axis with a mass density

G- A sphere
Find the center of mass of each hemisphere.

is cut in to two hemispheres by plan

H- A soccer player kicks the ball from ground level and 16 meter directly away from goal with
.If
initial velocity of
and the post is 2.5 meter long, Can
he score? Assume no air resistance.
I-Integrate
1-

and

where the region R is between

2-Integrate

where the region R is between

.
and

J-A hole is cut through the center of a sphere. The height of the remaining spherical ring is h.
show that the volume is independent of the radius of sphere.
K- Line L passes through points

1) At what time(s) the line L intersect circle

2) Find the area between L and circle C and first quadrant.

L- Base of a hollow solid is on

, and

. Every cross section perpendicular to x

axis is a rectangular with height of one.

M- A Curved wedge is cut from a cylinder R by two planes. One Perpendicular to the axis of the
cylinder, the 2nd plane crosses the first at a 45 degree angle at the center of the cylinder. Find
the volume of the wedge.
N- Use Pappus's Theorem to find the volume of region between

and

rotated around x axis.


O- Which one has more volume?
1) An equilateral tetrahedron with side 3S.
2) A frustum with top radius S and bottom 2S and height S
P- Use Pappus's Theorem
Given

, Find volume of rotation of f(x) around g(x).

Q- Find a general formula for volume of rotation of

from zero to c.

1) Rotated around x = b where

. Use Shell Method.

2) Rotated around y = b where

. Use washer Method.


Type I form

Rotate around
[

*(

) +

]
]

R- Write out the formulas for type II form area rotated around all six lines above.

Solution done by the students


A- Find the area enclosed
use integration by parts

A-1)
then

you get

then substitute

now

evaluated from 0 to 1 A=

A-2) By

A-3)
METHOD 1:

For the first part of the integral, use trig substitution

(Evaluate from 0 to 1)

A-4) Find the area enclosed when

[
]

A-5)
given. This yields
A-6)

| evaluate with the parameters

A-7)
PART 1:

PART 2:

=

A-8) Under the function

= (

+
]

A-9) First find the x-values to split the graph up(where the line changes direction or crosses the
other line, as this changes where/how you find the area). These values are

. The

area is a set of 3 integrals because there are three different segments you have to find area for.

All of these are basic integrals so they are simple. Evaluate for the determined intervals. This
yield
A-10) Under the

in interval

A-11)
PART 1:

PART 2:


B- Find volume

B-1)

B-2) Use disk method.


|

B-3)

) (

B-6) Use disk/washer method.

B-7)

B-8) Of a sphere with radius R

B-10) Simply take the volume formed by the outer radius(R) and subtract the volume formed by
the inner radius(r).
B-11)

C - Find the work done on an object by a force


1.

C-2)Integrate the force over the given interval:0 to /4.


( )

note:

D. Find the momentum on a particle by a force.


D-1) Find the momentum on a particle by a force

| |

| |+

|
[

| |

| |]

D-2)

E-2) a(t)=ln(t), and we know the double integral of acceleration gives us position, so simply
integrate twice.

(use u-sub to get here.) =

F- Find mass
F-1) Of a region bounded x y 1 and x, y coordinate axis with a mass density f ( x, y) xy 1

( )

( )

( )

I-Integrate
I-1)

and

where the region is between

I-2) Integrate

where the region R is between

and

[

]
(

J-A hole is cut through the center of a sphere. The height of the remaining spherical ring is h.
show that the volume is independent of the radius of sphere.

( )

K- Line L passes through points

K-1) At what time(s) the line intersects circle C {

( )

K-2) Find the area between L and circle C and first quadrant

L-Base of a hollow solid is on

(
,

)
, and

. Every cross section perpendicular to x

axis is a rectangle with height of one.

| |

| | = Undefined

Q- Find a general formula for volume of rotation of

from zero to c

Q-1) Rotated around x = b where b > c > 0. Use Shell Method.

Q-2) Rotated around y = b where b > c > 0. Use washer Method.

R-Write out the formulas for type II form area rotated around all six lines above.
[

R-1) Rotate around x-axis


[

]
[

R-2) Rotate around y=-c


[

R-4) Rotate around y-axis

R-6) Rotate around x=b

R-5) Rotate around x=-a

R-3) Rotate around y=d

Chapter 6 - Easy Practice Problem

Questions:
1. Find the area between

and

from

i) By single integral
ii) By double integral
2. Find the volume for y=x around x-axis from

by disc/washer method.

3. Find the volume for y=x around y-axis by shell/cylinder method from
4. Find the volume of the solid y=x, cross section x=2
5. Use Pappuss theorem to find the volume of region between
rotated around x-axis

given

Solutions for Easy Practice Problem


1.
(

2.

from

3.
(

4.

5.
(